Teaching reading etrc, 08,03.14
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Teaching reading etrc, 08,03.14 Teaching reading etrc, 08,03.14 Document Transcript

  • Aim: Awareness raising about different reading styles Activity: Discussion and identification of reading styles with follow-up identification activity Level: Intermediate - upper intermediate Outline: Ask students about what types of reading they do in their own mother tongue(s). Write different categories of written material on board. i.e. magazines, novels, train schedules, newspapers, advertising, etc. Have students describe how they go about reading each kind of material. You may want to prompt them by asking the following questions: Do you read every word in the tv schedule? Do you understand every word you read when reading a novel? What kind of clues can the presentation of the material give? How much time do you spend reading the newspaper? Do you read every single word? What kind of assumptions do you make when you read the first few lines, or a headline? (i.e. Once upon a time....) How much time do you spend reading the various types of materials? Based on students' answers to such questions, ask them to identify the type of skills they are using in the various reading situations. Divide students into small groups and give them the skills summary and short worksheet. Have students discuss their opinions about the various skills required for the listed materials. Present various "real world" materials (i.e. magazines, books, scientific materials, computer manuals etc.) and ask students to identify the necessary skills required. Note: There is often not a single correct answer, several choices may be possible according to your reading purpose. If you find that there are different possibilities, state the situation in which you would use the various skills. The TV guide for Friday evening An English grammar book An article in National Geographic magazine about the Roman Empire A good friend's homepage on the Internet The opinion page in your local newspaper The weather report in your local newspaper A novel A poem A bus timetable A fax at the office An advertising email - so called "spam" An email or letter from your best friend A recipe A short story by your favourite author
  • Aim: Reading practice focusing on scanning Activity: Comprehension questions used as cues for scanning a TV schedule Level:Intermediate Outline: Do a short awareness raising session by asking students how they go about making decisions based on schedules, short articles etc. Focus on whether they read every word and if the read in strict order when making such a decision in their own mother tongue. Remind them that this process is the same in English and does not require that they understand every word perfectly. Distribute comprehension questions and TV schedule to students. Make a special point of asking students to complete the exercise by first reading the question and then scanning for the appropriate answer. Ask students to use the TV schedule to answer the questions. To increase difficulty add a timing element (this should help students who insist on understanding every word to not do so). Correct activity as a class. Extend activity by bringing in a number of magazines concerning travel, entertainment or a similar activity and asking students to complete a given task - for example finding a destination they would like to visit or choosing a film they would like to see. Once again, ask students to do the exercise by scanning and not reading each word. What's On? First read the following questions and then use the TV Schedule to find the answers. 1. Jack has a video - can he watch both documentaries without having to make a video? 2. Is there a show about making good investments? 3. You are thinking about traveling to the USA for a vacation. Which show should you watch? 4. Your friend doesn't have a TV, but would like to watch a film starring Tom Cruise. Which film should you record on your video? 5. Peter is interested in wild animals which show should he watch? 6. Which sport can you watch that takes place outside? 7. Which sport can you watch that takes place inside? 8. You like modern art. Which documentary should you watch? 9. How often can you watch the news? 10. Is there a horror film on this evening? TV Schedule CBC 6.00 p.m.:National News - join Jack Parsons for your daily news roundup. 6.30: The Tiddles- Peter joins Mary for a wild adventure in the park. 7.00: Golf Review- Watch highlights from today's final round of the Grand Master's. 8.30: Shock from the Past- This entertaining film by Arthur Schmidt takes a poke at the wild side of gambling. 10.30: Nightly News- A review of the day's most important events. 11.00: MOMA: Art for Everyone- A fascinating documentary that helps you enjoy the difference between pointilism and video installations. 12:00: Hard Day's Night- Reflections after a long, hard day. FNB 6.00 p.m.: In-Depth News - In-depth coverage of the most important national and international news stories. 7.00: Nature Revealed- Interesting documentary taking a look at the microscopic universe in your average speck of dust. 7.30: Ping - Pong Masters- Live coverage from Peking. 9.30: It's Your Money- That's right and this favorite game show could make or break you depending on how you place your bets. 10.30: Green Park- Stephen King's latest monster madness. 0.30: Late Night News- Get the news you need to get a hard start on the upcoming day. ABN 6.00 p.m.:Travel Abroad- This week we travel to sunny California! 6.30: The Flintstones- Fred and Barney are at it again. 7.00: Pretty Boy- Tom Cruise, the prettiest boy of them all, in an action packed thriller about Internet espionage. 9.00: Tracking the Beast- The little understood wildebeest filmed in its natural surroundings with commentary by Dick Signit. 10.00: Pump Those Weights- A guide to successfully using weights to develop your physique while getting fit. 11.30: The Three Idiots- A fun farce based on those three tenors who don't know when to call it quits. 1.00: National Anthem- Close the day with this salute to our country.
  • Extensive reading in English with the help of a good English dictionary on a variety of real life topics is one of the ways to learn English vocabulary. Since there is an enormous amount of reading material in English, a learner of English has to prioritise reading in subjects according to learner's needs for using English to encompass first the most necessary, relevant and frequently used vocabulary. Day-to-day topics ought to come first in reading. Reading materials can be arranged by level of difficulty of vocabulary - for learners at beginning, intermediate and advanced levels. Learners can master the most important English vocabulary by reading thematic texts (materials), first of all on everyday topics with important content, for example: Practical Tips and Advice to Make Everyday Life Easier and Better (practical solutions for everyday problems). Such self-help books on settling everyday matters are available at book stores. In addition to thematic informative texts (materials), learners can read thematic dialogues (samples of real life conversations between people), narrative realistic stories, fine literature, newspapers, magazines, Internet materials, books in various subjects, general thematic English dictionaries, etc. Good general thematic English dictionaries arrange vocabulary by subject matter (topics) and provide clear word usage explanations and also a few usage sentences for each word meaning, which is especially important. English synonym dictionaries provide usage explanations and usage examples for words with similar meaning. Thematic general English dictionaries combined with English synonym dictionaries are a valuable tool for mastering English vocabulary logically, comprehensively and intensively for real life needs of learners. Good public libraries have a wide selection of English reading materials. It is better for learners to write down unknown vocabulary in whole sentences to remember word meanings easier. It would be a good speaking practice for learners telling the content of the texts that they have read. Learners can write key words and phrases, or main ideas as a plan, or questions on the text that require long answers to make easier for learners to tell the content of the text. I believe it is a good idea to read each logical chunk or paragraph of a text and to narrate each paragraph separately, and then the whole text. As people say, practice makes perfect. View slide
  • Aim: Developing intensive reading skills, vocabulary improvements concerning fine differences between related vocabulary terms Activity: Intensive reading exercise in which each sentence must be read very carefully to discover mistakes and inconsistencies of syntax Level: Upper-intermediate Outline: Discuss different types of reading skills with students: Extensive reading: reading for pleasure with emphasis on general understanding Intensive reading: reading carefully for an exact understanding of text. Necessary for contracts, legal documentation, application forms, etc. Skimming: quickly looking through text to get an idea of what the text concerns. Used when reading magazines, newspaper articles etc. Scanning: locating specific information in a text. Usually used in timetables, charts, etc. Ask students to give examples of when they employ the various reading skills. This part of the discussion can serve to raise awareness concerning the fact that it is not always necessary to understand every word. Pass out handout and have students get into groups of 3-4. Ask students to read one sentence of the stories at a time and decide what is wrong with the sentences in terms of vocabulary (contradictions). Follow-up with a class discussion about the various problems with the text. Have students get back into their groups and try to substitute appropriate vocabulary for the incongruencies. As homework, ask students to write their own "What's Wrong?" story which will then be exchanged with other students as a follow-up activity to the lesson in the next class period. What's Wrong? This exercise focuses on intensive reading. Read one sentence at a time and find the inappropriate vocabulary mistake or contradiction. All errors are in the choice of vocabulary NOT in grammar. 1. Jack Forest is a baker who always provides his customers with tough meat. Last Tuesday, Mrs Brown came into the shop and asked for three fillets of brown bread. Unfortunately, Jack only had two fillets remaining. He excused Mrs Brown and promised her that he would have too much bread the next time she came. Mrs Brown, being a reliable customer, assured Jack that she would return. Later that day, Jack was sealing the shop when he the phone sang. It was Mrs Brown requiring if Jack had baked another slice of brown bread. Jack said, "As a matter of truth, I burnt some extra loaves a few hours ago. Would you like me to bring one buy?". Mrs Brown said she would and so Jack got into his bike and road to Mrs Brown's to deliver the third pound of brown toast. 2. My favorite reptile is the Cheetah. It is truly an amazing creature which can trot at a top speed of 60 m.p.h.! I've always wanted to go to the cool planes of Africa to see the Cheetah in action. I imagine it would be a disappointing experience looking at those Cheetah run. A few weeks ago, I was watching a National Geographic special on the radio and my wife said, "Why don't we go to Africa next summer?". I hopped for joy! "That's a lousy idea!", I stated. Well, next week our plain leaves for Africa and I can hardly imagine that we are going to Africa at first. 3. Frank Sinatra was an infamous singer, known throughout the world. He was a novice at singing in the "crooning" style. During the 50s and 60s grunge music was very popular throughout clubs in the US. Las Vegas was one of Frank Sinatra's favorite squares to sing. He often traveled into Las Vegas from his hut in the woods to perform in the evening. Audiences inevitably booed as he sang encore after encore to the delight of international fans from around the county. View slide
  • Pre-Reading • Activating students’ background knowledge on the topic Discussion about schooling, vocabulary learning, some idioms and word combinations work. This activity is mainly done before any text reading for students acknowledgement of the vocabulary used. Before reading the text students already know the vocabulary and the teacher just revise it with the students. • Establishing a very clear purpose for reading the text Students are asked to pay attention to the point that the teacher has planned for the lesson. For example, the lesson is based on a grammar task, the students are asked to pay attention to the tenses used in the text. • Making predictions about the text The students are asked to make up the whole of the text by predicting the actions of the text. The students are made clear about the fact that all predictions are good. The students are informed of the situation in the sequence and are asked to predict the dialogue and behavior of the characters: What are some words and phrases they expect to read? What are some things they expect to read? The teacher may write some key – words on the blackboard and the students try to make up the idea of the text with the help of the words. • Student-generated Questions Students are informed of the situation in the text and they are asked to make up questions of their own about the possible content of the text. • Scanning Reading is an important part of learning English. This guide to how to improve your reading skills will help you improve reading by using skills you use in your own language. In other words, one of the best tips on improving reading is to think about how you read in your own language. Start by thinking about how you read different documents. How do you read the newspaper? How do you read novels? How do you read train schedules? and so on. Taking time to think about this will help give you clues on how to read in English - even if you don't understand every single word. Scanning is used to find a particular piece of information. Run your eyes over the text looking for the specific piece of information you need. Use scanning on schedules, meeting plans, etc. in order to find the specific details you require. If you see words or phrases that you don't understand, don't worry when scanning. • Examples of Scanning • The "What's on TV" section of your newspaper. • A train / airplane schedule A conference guide
  • Ask yourself this question: Do I read every word in your own language when I am reading a schedule, summary, or other outlining document? The answer is most definitely: No! Reading in English is like reading in your native language. This means that it is not always necessary to read and understand each and every word in English. Remember that reading skills in your native language and English are basically the same. • Skimming is used to quickly gather the most important information, or 'gist'. Run your eyes over the text, noting important information. Use skimming to quickly get up to speed on a current business situation. It's not essential to understand each word when skimming. Examples of Skimming: The Newspaper (quickly to get the general news of the day) Magazines (quickly to discover which articles you would like to read in more detail) Business and Travel Brochures (quickly to get informed) Extensive reading is used to obtain a general understanding of a subject and includes reading longer texts for pleasure, as well as business books. Use extensive reading skills to improve your general knowledge of business procedures. Do not worry if you understand each word. Examples of Extensive Reading The latest marketing strategy book A novel you read before going to bed Magazine articles that interest you • Intensive reading is used on shorter texts in order to extract specific information. It includes very close accurate reading for detail. Use intensive reading skills to grasp the details of a specific situation. In this case, it is important that you understand each word, number or fact. Examples of Intensive Reading A bookkeeping report An insurance claim A contract Reading Activities Students are introduced the text. This activity may be executed in five different ways; it all depends on the teacher’s purpose for the activity or on the level of the students.  silent reading  loud reading  group reading  teacher’s reading  cassette – recorder listening • Chorale Reading The teacher and student/small group/class read a story together and aloud. This builds reading comprehension and fluency. • Cued Reading A teacher utilizes introductory discussion about a story before reading. This builds student comprehension and interest in reading. • Echo Reading A teacher reads a text, one sentence at a time, as the student follows along. The student then attempts to imitate or "echo" the teacher. This technique builds fluency and confidence in oral reading skills. • Group Dynamic Reading In a small group, the teacher and students take turns in reading the text. At first, the children follow what the teacher reads with their fingers. After this, the students read while the teacher listens. This builds oral reading skills and fluency. • Repeated Reading
  • A student chooses a challenging text and listens to the instructor read it. The student then reads the text by him/herself. This process continues until the student can fluently read the text. This method can be woven into many different literacy approaches and adapted to different circumstances. It builds decoding, reading fluency and student confidence. • Shared Reading The teacher reads a text while the student observes and follows along silently. This method helps build reading fluency and comprehension. • Silent Reading Students read silently for a specified period of time. This method builds confidence in reading skills, but should only be used when students are ready. • Tape-Assisted Reading A student reads along with a tape-recorded passage. Students continue at their own pace while building decoding skills, sight word vocabulary and fluency. It is important to use taped readings that are short in duration (3-4 minutes at the most) and read in phrases to ensure that students do are not lost or confused. • Theatrical Reading In a small group, students take turns reading a story while an assigned student acts out what is read. This builds interest in reading and may break up the monotony in a lesson. • Whisper Reading While a student reads a text aloud, the teacher whispers assistance in the student’s ear as needed. This builds reading fluency and oral reading confidence. Post - Reading Activities Fill in the gaps/ vocabulary work Students are given the same text with some words missing that they are asked to fill in either on their own, basing on memory skills, or under the teacher’s or another student reading. Students may be given the same task as the previous one, only that instead of the missing words, are given the Romanian or Russian equivalent, and the students have to translate them. Setting questions: Students are parted in three groups. Each of the subgroups is given a part of the text – the beginning, the content, and the ending of the text. Students are asked to make up as many questions as possible, asking for as many details as they can remember to find out the other parts of the text, basing on their information acquired from the part they received. Afterwards students are grouped to form subgroups containing students who worked with the beginning, the content and the ending of the text. The students answer the questions and then read the text again. The students may also be given the text in sequences which they have to rearrange according to the memory. Afterwards they are asked to read the text, and determine if any mistakes occurred. • Checking predictions. Students read the text and check to see if the predictions they made in the predicting activity were correct. • Focusing on a character. The following questions are written on the blackboard: What was the most important thing the character does in the text? Do you like or dislike the character? What are the character’s good points and bad points? Would you act the same way in the same situation? Students may focus on any of the characters in the scene they are about to read. After reading the text, they write their answers to the questions. 5 W’s and H. students read the text and answer the main points in the text: Who? What? When? Where? Why? and How? There are four different types of questions: • "Right There"
  • Questions found right in the text that ask students to find the one right answer located in one place as a word or a sentence in the passage. Example: Who is Frog's friend? Answer: Toad • "Think and Search" Questions based on the recall of facts that can be found directly in the text. Answers are typically found in more than one place, thus requiring students to "think" and "search" through the passage to find the answer. Example: Why was Frog sad? Answer: His friend was leaving. • "Author and You" Questions require students to use what they already know, with what they have learned from reading the text. Student's must understand the text and relate it to their prior knowledge before answering the question. Example: How do think Frog felt when he found Toad? Answer: I think that Frog felt happy because he had not seen Toad in a long time. I feel happy when I get to see my friend who lives far away. • "On Your Own" Questions are answered based on a students prior knowledge and experiences. Reading the text may not be helpful to them when answering this type of question. Example: How would you feel if your best friend moved away? Answer: I would feel very sad if my best friend moved away because I would miss her. • Matching. Students match the names of characters, places or things with related information. For example the students are asked to match names of the characters with lines of dialogue or match names of places with descriptions • Students are asked to determine the ending of the text and provide another one different from the style of the text. • Students are asked to find the key words in the text and use them in sentences of their own. • Students are asked to analyze the text for story grammar, or story structure, elements including narrative story parts, such as character or events, as well as the ways that content- area texts are organized. • Automatic decoding. Students are asked to recognize a word at a glance, taken out of a context. • Guessing the meaning of unknown words from the context. Using such clues as knowledge of word parts, syntax, and relationship patterns. • Paraphrasing. Re-stating texts in the students’ own words in order to monitor one’s own comprehension. • Stating the main idea of a sentence, a paragraph or passage. Knowing what the author is expressing about the topic. • Summarizing. Students are asked to shorten the material by retaining and re-stating main ideas and leaving out details. • Drawing conclusions. Students are asked to put together information from several parts of the text and including new or additional ideas. • Visualizing. Students are asked to picture, or actually draw a picture or a diagram, of what is described in the text. • Drawing inferences and using evidence. Reading between the lines; using evidence in the text to know things that are unstated. • Follow – up discussion. Students relate the situation in the text to their own lives or their home- country or culture. • News – Articles. Students write a newspaper article reporting the events in the text sequence. ▫ Letter Writing. Students pretend they are a character in the text sequence and write a letter to another character.
  • ▫ Gender-bender ,Rewrite a scene and change the gender of the characters to show how they might act differently (e.g., Lord of Flies). You can also have a roundtable on gender differences. ▫ Oprah book club Host a talk show: students play the host, author, and cast of characters. Allow questions from the audience. ▫ Fictional friends Who of all the characters would you want for a friend? Why? What would you do or talk about together? ▫ What if Write about or discuss how the story would differ if the characters were something other than they are: a priest, another gender or race, a different age, or social class. ▫ Write into Find a "hole" in the story where the character disappears (off camera) for a time and describe what they do when we can't see them. ▫ P.S. After you read the story, write an epilogue in which you explain – using whatever tense and tone the author does – what happened to the character(s) next. ▫ Second chance Talk or write about how it would change the story if a certain character had made a different decision earlier in the story (e.g., what if Huck of Huckleberry Finn had not run away?) ▫ Day in court Use the story as the basis for a court trial; students can be witnesses, expert witnesses called to testify, judge, jury, bailiff, reporter; great fun for a couple days. ▫ Censorship defense Imagine that the book you are reading has been challenged by a special interest group. Students must write a letter defending the book, using specific evidence from the book to support their ideas. ▫ Call for censorship In order to better understand all sides to an argument, imagine you are someone who feels this particular book should not be read and write a letter in which you argue it should be removed. ▫ Open HEART Draw an empty HEART and inside of it draw any symbols or words or images that are bouncing around in the HEART of the character of a story. Follow it up with writing or discussion to explain and explore responses. ▫ Magnetic poetry If working with a poem, enlarge it on copier or computer and cut all words up into pieces; place in an envelope and have groups create poems from these words. Later on discuss using the same words for different texts. Heavier stock paper is ideal for this activity. ▫ Daily edition Using the novel as the basis for your stories, columns and editorials, create a newspaper or magazine based on or inspired by the book you are reading. ▫ Recasting the text Students rewrite a poem as a story, a short story as a poem or play. All rewrites should then be read and discussed so as to understand how the different genre works