Public Speaking with Confidence Presenter: Irina Cuzminih, Moldova, Chisinau
To be an effective speaker – understand how people listen (distracted by ownPrepare Your Speech thought, what you say, how you behave and look) Study of student communication behavior by Verderber, Elder and Weiler: average college student 8% of their time writing; 20% reading; Topic 22% speaking; 50% listening SELECT (concerns you, you know sth. About it, is interesting for you) DETERMINE your PURPOSE (entertain, inform, persuade the audience)Know Your Audience (age, sex, occupation, income, religion, nationality, etc.) How much do they know, think they know, want to know, need to know? How to relate the topic to their interests? Outline your speech 2 1 3Introduction = Opening Body = Points Conclusion• Win attention • Ask a question (do you know how • State + Demonstrate + Recapitulate: 1. Summarize many …?; can you remember …?) 1. Appeal to reason (weak if used alone);• Indicate your • Quotation subject 2. Cite examples (strong); 2. Ask a question for • Narrative/description/ anecdote 3. Quote statistics (strong, but use sparingly);• State the • Shock opening listeners to ponder 4. Quote an authority (strong); purpose of the • Compliment the audience 5. Draw a comparison (strong); 3. Ask for action speech • Historical background 6. Appeal to emotions (strongest) [love; hatered;• Arouse interest • Personal reference mirth; grief; pride; shame; hope; fear; desire; 4. Quote • Suspence (it …., it …., it …. – that is contentment]• Create a bond of NOT _______, but _________) • Mark off a new point by pause and vocal change 5. Anecdote goodwill • Current news • Ask questions between 2 points 6. No new material between the • Mention own experience related • Change (your) physical position speaker and the audience to your audience / farmers how you picked cherries … - provocative; 4 - Simple and short; Title of the Speech - Indicates purpose and content of your speech
Before delivering your Speech – REHEARSE!• At least 1 listener,• Tape-record,• Use the mirror “It usually takes more than 3 weeks to prepare a good impromptu speech” Mark Twain
It’s easier to talk with people you know – get to know each other! (informal talk)• Autobiographical sketch – 2-4 min long: Don’t Sell Yourself Short!NameHometownBorn, raised, school attended, …HobbiesFavorite food, …Fascinating people you have met
Information is more readily received when it is• Relevant to the audience• New (but presented in small, well-organized amounts)• Startling• Presented humorously• Associated (repeat main points a few times or restate them in different words)• Related visually (involve as many of their senses as possible)• Well-organized (In my speech I will cover 3 goals. The 1st is …; the 2nd is …; the 3rd is … Now we come to the second key point …)
Organizing speech material so that it develops and heightens the purpose of your speech:• Select and state main points as a complete sentences (max 5!): write down each main point and under it state the info that you believe develops that point provide each subpoint with example, illustration, anecdote, etc.• Present ideas in chronological sequence• General to specific, least important to most important• Problem-solution order (persuasive speech)
Using visual aids:- Show visual aids only when you are talking about them;- Talk about visual aid while you are showing it;- Show so that everyone can see them- Talk to your audience and NOT to your visual aid- Think of all the possible hazards before you decide to pass objects around the class- Do not overdo the use of visual aids (visual aid is a form of emphasis, but when everything is emphasized – nothing receives emphasis!)
It’s not What you say, it’s HOW you say it that counts!Standards of Delivery:• Enthusiasm;• Eye contact;• Spontaneity – impression that the idea is being formed at the time it is spoken• Voice (pitch, volume, speed)• Articulation and pronunciation• Body actions (nods, pointing with hands to show the size; stamping the foot; facial expressions, gestures; movement – ideally movement should occur to help focus on the transition, to emphasize an idea, to call attention to an aspect of the speech.)
Outline for a speech (4-6 min)• Specific purpose: to …• Introduction1) Which of these …?2) Today we are going to …• Body I. Main point A. …… 1. …… 2. …… II. Main point B. ….. 1. …… 2. ……• Conclusion I. …… II. ……• Bibliography
Exercises:1. Let each student introduce himself/herself. Tell something about you and briefly explain why you want to learn public speaking – the speech should be personal. (OPENING: state your name and any other info you care to give; BODY: reasons for wanting to learn public speaking; CONCLUSION: summary and a strong constructive idea.)2. Read a short item from a newspaper and comment briefly on it. (OPENING: indicate what you are going to read; BODY: read the clipping, if possible, offer some further facts concerning the subject from your own knowledge; CONCLUSION: sum up and make some pointed comment on the subject. What does it mean? What will it lead to? What should be done about it?)
1. Why is eye contact important?2. Why should you outline your talk?3. What are the 3 ingredients of a good title?4. What are the chief purposes of an introduction?5. What elements should be present in the conclusion?6. List several visual aids and tell something about each.7. If you show objects, where should you stand in relation to the audience?8. Name at least 3 principles that speed up the learning – make the new info be received more readily.9. What are some elements that should be included in the introduction of your informal talk?
References:• Successful public speaking, Raymond Hull, ARCO, NY, 1971 – 231p.• Effective public speaking. Cristina Stuart, Nichols publishing company, NY, 1988, 242p.• The challenge of effective speaking. R.F. Verderber, Wardsworth publishing company, 1979 – 320p.• Speak with confidence. A practical guide. Albert J. Vasile, Harold K. Mintz. Winthrop Publishers, INC. Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1977, 302p.