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howarD garDnerS muLtipLe inteLLigence theorieS moDeLintelligence type capability and perception Linguistic words and languageLogical-Mathematical logic and numbers Musical music, sound, rhythm Bodily-Kinesthetic body movement control Spatial-Visual images and space Interpersonal other peoples feelings Intrapersonal self-awareness
the FeLDer-SiLverman Learning anD teaching StyLe moDeL 1. The Four Learning Style Dimensions – Sensing/Intuitive – Visual/Verbal – Active/Reflective – Sequential/Global 2. The Five Questions that Define Learning Style 3. The Five Questions that Define Teaching Style 4. The Felder-Solomon Index of Learning Styles
the Five QueStionS that DeFine Learning StyLe and teaching StyLe1. sensory (external) – sights, 1. concrete – factual, or abstract – sounds, physical sensations, or theoretical? intuitively (internal) – possibilities, insights, hunches? 2. visual – pictures, diagrams,2. visual – pictures, diagrams, films, demonstrations, or verbal graphs, demonstrations, or – lectures, readings, and auditory – through words or discussions? sounds? 3. inductively – phenomena3. inductive – where facts and leading to principles, or observations are given, and deductively – principles leading underlying principles are to phenomena? inferred, or deductive – where principles are given, and 4. active – students talk, move, consequences and applications reflect, or passive – students are deduced? watch and listen?4. physical activity or discussion, 5. sequential – step-by-step or reflectively – through progression (the trees), or, introspection? global – context and relevance5. understanding: sequentially – in (the forest)? continual steps, or globally – in large jumps, holistically?
the FeLDer-SoLomoninDex oF Learning StyLeS determines an individual’s preferred dimensions of the learning style model by asking 11 forced-choice items for each of the four dimensions (for a total of 44 questions). Ex:32. When writing a paper, I am more likely to (a) work on (think about or write) the beginning of the http://www.engr.ncsu.edu/learningsty paper and progress forward. les/ilsweb.html (b) work on (think about or write) different parts of the paper and then order them.
Some unexpecteD reSuLtS oF aLearning StyLeS intervention? after Pat Bricheno and Mike Younger University of Cambridge “It has been estimated that up to 37% of the population are kinesthetic learners .... and learn from, the moving world better than the written one.” (QCA)
Pupils reasons for dislike of lessons (figures as percentage of total pupils in the control groups) January 2004 June 2004 Control group Control grouppoor class control 21 39teaching methods 18 18no varietyteaching methods general 21 18teaching methods 11 7too much writing/copyingall comments about lack of variety and 50 43critical of teaching methods
what SortS oFthe interview thingS happen in reveaLS… a LeSSon when you reaLLy LearnJune: She just talks and weLL by group ? talks and sometimes • Kinaesthetic activities 32% when we want to get on with the work she just • Visual activities 46% keeps on talking and talking. • Auditory activities 25%Hannah: …and you sit there • fun 14% and listen for ages.Asha: Copy from the book, • individual help 0% all the time…Rajiv: When you do the experiment you get to do a little bit of work and you also get to have a
Conclusions…• “Thus for girls pedagogy may play an important role in their attitude to learning, whereas for boys teacher personality may be more important - they like laid- back cool teachers who they can have a laugh with.”• “As a result of the project, they had adapted their teaching to include more kinesthetic activities into their lessons.”• “Many classroom-based activities involve different modalities.”