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  • 1. Tips for Essay Writing: Structure, Tips, Evaluation ETRC Spring School 2010 By Daniela Munca, PhD I. Warm up: work in teams and answer the following questions:Team 1: How many types of essays do you know? Name severaltypes and give short examples.Team 2: How should a student plan writing an essay: what shouldhe / she start with, what steps should be taken before the essay islaid on the paper, etc?Team 3: What is a paragraph? How many sentences are there in aparagraph? How should the sentences be structured?Team 4: How do you define a “thesis statement”? How should a student formulatea thesis statement?Team 5: How does a good essay start? What would make a strong introduction?How long should the introductory paragraph be?Team 6: If you could draw a graph of an essay structure – what would it look like?Think of a metaphor or a symbol which would be easy for your students tounderstand and memorize. II. Look at the following cartoons: which issue related to essay writing are they exploring? Why are they funny? How could teachers deal with these issues? 1
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  • 4. Task 1: Read the following extracts and decide on the type of essay they belong to: 1. Argumentative Essay 2. Cause and Effect Essays Comparison and Contrast Essays 3. Descriptive Essays 4. Literary Analysis Essays 5. Narrative Essays_____________________: These two major themes in the poem are enhanced by thewriters use of symbolism. Byzantium, as mentioned before, is a sort of ideal land,comparable to the scriptural heaven. This is obviously one of the most predominantsymbols in the poem. Another symbol that carries throughout the work is that of a bird.There is a reference to a bird in each stanza, but perhaps the best indicator of its meaningis found in stanza 4. Yeats uses the image of a bird "set upon a golden bough to sing" (30)to refer to the timelessness and spirit he craves. The bird that is set in gold is there forever,singing for all time, and the poet longs to be able to sing similarly through his poetry andtherefore achieve immortality. Finally, the metaphor of singing is present in each stanzaand reinforces the poets desire to be able to create timeless music in poetry.________________ The web can be an aid to education in the way that a calculator is anaid to mathematics. With all of the speed and number crunching ability of a calculator, itwould be highly difficult to learn algebra directly from this device. In the same respect,the World Wide Web is not a means to an end. It is not the magnificent force that is thehuman intellect. The mind is humanity’s greatest asset and its refinement is humanity’sgreatest achievement. The evolution of such a device should not be left to anything lessthan its equal. The intangibles involved in the shaping and growth of humanconsciousness--the excitement of sharing knowledge, the drive to communicate in themost effective way, the value of having a person take a personal stake in the education ofan individual-- are without parallel. In the complex chemistry of education, the computeris just a tool. The true energy and force is in the experiment itself; the teacher is thecatalyst; and the student is the reaction._________________________ : Alice Walker and MayaAngelou are two contemporary African-American writers.Although almost a generation apart in age, both women display aremarkable similarity in their lives. Each has written about herexperiences growing up in the rural South, Ms. Walker through heressays and Ms. Angelou in her autobiographies. Though they sharesimilar backgrounds, each has a unique style which gives to us, thereaders, the gift of their exquisite humanity, with all of its frailtiesand strengths, joys and sorrows. 4
  • 5. ___________________ : Eating disorders are a serious health problem. PersonalCounseling & Resources says that eating disorders “are characterized by a focus on bodyshape, weight, fat, food, and perfectionism and by feelings of powerlessness and low self-esteem.” Three of the most common eating disorders are anorexia nervosa, bulimianervosa, and binge eating or compulsive eating disorder. According to Anorexia Nervosaand Related Eating Disorders, a person with anorexia “refuses to maintain normal bodyweight for age and height” and “weighs 85 percent or less than what is what is expectedfor age and height.” A person diagnosed with bulimia has several ways of getting rid ofthe calories such as binge eating, vomiting, laxative misuse, exercising, or fasting. Theperson might have a normal weight for their age and height unless anorexia is present.___________________: The incident that Im relating occurred on a hot, humid Maymorning in 1947. I was a first-grade student in Miss Butlers class at Fanning ElementarySchool in San Antonio, Texas. The disturbance was over in a matter of moments, but thememory of it is imprinted forever in my mind. Miss Butler was infamous for her sterndiscipline. Little hands and minds were kept busy, and anything that resembledfoolishness was quickly curtailed with a sharp rap on the head or knuckles with the longpointed stick she carried. You can imagine the horror I felt when, while drawing in a deepbreath of air, I accidentally whistled. Miss Butler spun around from the blackboard, andseeing my expression, demanded, "Joan, did you do that?"__________________________ : Miss Lou Dixon owns and runs that restaurant in themiddle of the town of Sunbright, Tennessee. Miss Lou has been in business at thatlocation since 1954. Even though the place looks a little squalid, it is not for lack of care;in fact, Lou is proud of how clean she keeps her place. She has often been heard to say,with the strongest East Tennessee accent, “It don’t matter how pore a body is. They canbe clean.” She is proud of her “A” rating and prominently displays it. Other Types of EssaysA SUMMARY explains what a text is about (not what the plot is, but what the argument is). The thesis of asummary answers a what question, and the body of a summary demonstrates or shows the thesis. Asummary is a kind of essay, but the essays listed below include summary in them. A CRITIQUE explains not only what a text is about (summary), but focuses on how the text works. The thesis of a critique answers both a what and how question, and the body of a critique first demonstrates the what, then analyzes the how. The critiques goal is to analyze the texts integrity: how does the text work? is the text logical? does its conclusion follow from its claims? does it add up? Like a summary, a critique is a kind of essay, but the essays listed below include critique in them. An INTERPRETIVE ESSAY gives a text or texts meaning. This essay explains not only what a text is about (summary) and how it works (critique), but asks why the analysis is compelling. The thesis of an interpretive essay answers a what and how question, and the body of the essay weaves together the demonstration of the what and the analysis of the how. Many interpretive essays ask students to "close read" or analyze specific language in a text; others, however, might ask students to apply a 5
  • 6. theoretical, historical or cultural theory to the text and to interpret it given the theory or theories. Theinterpretive essays goal, however, is to move beyond analysis (the how question) to interpretation (the whyquestion). An interpretive essay, also, highlights implications, more so than a summary and a critique do,and answers the "so what?" question. So what if the text works this way? Whats at stake? What idea can belost or gained because of the interpretation? Like a summary and critique, an interpretive essay is a kind ofessay, but the final two essays listed below include interpretation in them. An INVENTIVE ESSAY does not merely summarize, critique or interpret one or two texts; rather aninventive essay responds to an issue, and requires that the writer has already summarized numerous texts,critiqued and interpreted them. An inventive essay requires that the writer understands much of the researchon his/her topic -- has entered, in other words, the "discourse community", so that s/he can "invent" her/hisown thesis. Before introducing the thesis, the writer must situate the reader in the conversation: what are thevarious claims made on this topic and who makes them? Once introduced, the thesis of an inventiveargument positions itself within the conversation. The thesis of an inventive essay answers a what and eithera how or why question, and the body of the essay weaves together the answers to the three questions. Aninventive essay is, in other words, a combination of a summary, critique and interpretation essay, and addson top of all that an "inventive" thesis (a thesis which makes a new claim about a topic or answers apersistent problem). The classic college research essay fits under the category of an inventive essay;however, do not forget that a research essay needs a thesis and that you should weave, not list, its evidenceinto the essays argument. Without a thesis and woven argument, you merely write reports, or summaries ofnumerous pieces of evidence. This essay is rarely assigned at Muhlenberg College.A PERSONAL ESSAY combines an interpretive and inventive essay together. A personal essay interpretsthe writers experience, observations, and research (the essays primary evidence) and also positions thatexperience in a conversation. A personal essay is not a story; although it may use fiction writing techniques,a personal essay contains an argument. This argument, however, is often buried -- implied by the evidence.Writers must then earn the right to state ideas by "showing" evidence of the idea first. Ideas must also evokea tone, or emotion. To complicate matters, a personal essay does not need to state a thesis; rather a personalessay may imply one. Oftentimes, other kinds of research (library, interviews, etc.) are required. Thepersonal essay is a very difficult essay to write well because it is subtle and seems to be a story. Alwaysremember, however, that ideas control the organization of an essay -- not plot (what happened). There aremany kinds of personal essays, such as the memoir, the travel essay, and the profile. Task 2: Arrange the following steps in a logical sequence: • Looking at Language: Editing and Proofreading • Looking at Essay Structure • Writing and Developing a Thesis • Understanding the Assignment • Developing Ideas in paragraphs1. ___________________________________________2.___________________________________________3.___________________________________________4. __________________________________________5. __________________________________________ Task 3: Match each of the following group of tips to each step: 1) ___________________________________ 6
  • 7. Before you can successfully select a topic, you must understand exactly what theassignment requires. Types of writing assignments vary from department to department,from course to course, and from instructor to instructor, so it is important to understandthoroughly the requirements of a particular assignment. Highlight or underline keyassignment words such as argue describe and contrast (agree/disagree discuss reflect on ) evaluate summarize criticize explain define compare Such words tell you what kind of tasks your instructor expects you to perform. Consider which concepts or methods the assignment asks you to use. Are you being asked to argue a point, to compare similarities and differences, or to explore your own reactions to an event, text, or idea? Does the topic ask you to go into depth about some material already covered? Does it ask you to evaluate a theory or model by applying it to a real-world example? Does it ask you to use research? Essay assignments usually ask you to use the concepts, techniques, and ways of thinking that are featured in the course. Use these to ask yourself questions about the topics. Look also for controversies within the material studied. 2) __________________________________________ A thesis statement tells the reader how you will interpret the significance of the subject matter under discussion, it is a road map for the paper; in other words, it tells the reader what to expect from the rest of the paper. It directly answers the question asked of you. A thesis is an interpretation of a question or subject, not the subject itself. The subject, or topic, of an essay might be World War II or Moby Dick; a thesis must then offer a way to understand the war or the novel. 7
  • 8. It is usually a single sentence somewhere in your firstparagraph that presents your argument to the reader. The restof the paper, the body of the essay, gathers and organizesevidence that will persuade the reader of the logic of yourinterpretation.Formulating a thesis is not the first thing you do after readingan essay assignment. Before you develop an argument on anytopic, you have to collect and organize evidence, look forpossible relationships between known facts (such assurprising contrasts or similarities), and think about thesignificance of these relationships. Once you do this thinking,you will probably have a "working thesis," a basic or mainidea, an argument that you think you can support withevidence but that may need adjustment along the way. 3) _______________________________Paragraphs are the building blocks of papers. A paragraph isdefined as "a group of sentences or a single sentence thatforms a unit that support one main idea " (Lunsford andConnors 116). Length and appearance do not determinewhether a section in a paper is a paragraph.Step 1. Decide on a controlling idea and create a topicsentence Paragraph development begins with the formulationof the controlling idea. This idea directs the paragraphsdevelopment.Step 2. Explain the controlling idea Paragraph developmentcontinues with an expression of the rationale or theexplanation that the writer gives for how the reader shouldinterpret the information presented in the idea statement ortopic sentence of the paragraph. The writer explains his/herthinking about the main topic, idea, or focus of the paragraph.Step 3. Give an example (or multiple examples) Paragraphdevelopment progresses with the expression of some type ofsupport or evidence for the idea and the explanation that camebefore it. The example serves as a sign or representation ofthe relationship established in the idea and explanationportions of the paragraph. 8
  • 9. Step 4. Explain the example(s) The next movement inparagraph development is an explanation of each example andits relevance to the topic sentence and rationale that werestated at the beginning of the paragraph. This explanationshows readers why you chose to use this/or these particularexamples as evidence to support the major claim, or focus, inyour paragraph.Step 5. Complete the paragraphs idea or transition intothe next paragraph The final movement in paragraphdevelopment involves tying up the loose ends of theparagraph and reminding the reader of the relevance of theinformation in this paragraph to the main or controlling ideaof the paper. At this point, you can remind your reader aboutthe relevance of the information that you just discussed in theparagraph. 4) ________________________________________Below are several different ways to start that essay. a) Begin with a quotation Although this approach can be overused, it can be very effective when you have an appropriate quotation. That quotation may relate directly to the subject or it may be only indirectly related (and thus require further explanation). Do not force a quotation into this spot; if an appropriate quotation is not available, select another method. b) Begin with a concession Start with a statement recognizing an opinion or approach different from the one you plan to take in your essay: “ Many critics have pointed to ... Although these subjects certainly prove their point, a close examination of …. reveals that …” c) Begin with a paradox A paradox is a seeming self contradiction: “ By 1959 Vladimir Nabokovs novel Lolita had been banned in several cities as pornographic. Today it is required reading not only in literature courses but also in philosophy courses that explore the nature of love.” d) Begin with a short anecdote or narrative 9
  • 10. As a child, Einstein seldom spoke. When he did, he spoke very slowly – indeed, he tried out entire sentences in his head (or muttered them under his breath) until he got them right before he spoke aloud. According to accounts, Einstein did this until he was nine years old. Einstein’s parents were fearful that he was retarded – of course, their fear was completely unfounded! e) Begin with an interesting fact or statistic Middle school and high school students who participated in instrumental music scored significantly higher than their non-band peers in standardized tests. University studies conducted in Georgia and Texas found significant correlations between the number of years of instrumental music instruction and academic achievement in math, science and language arts. f) Begin with a question or several questions that will be answered in the paper How could a book now acknowledged as a masterpiece not only of fiction but also of English prose have been banned when it was published? How could a novel that dealt with love and art be thought of as pornographic? Why would a society so mindful of free speech as America ban any book in the first place? 5) ______________________________________Task 4: Arrange the following sentences in one logicorder: a) Students are taught by well-trained teachers and are encouraged to continue studying at university. b) As a result, Canada is a desirable place to live. c) First, Canada has an excellent health care system. d) There are three reasons why Canada is one of the best countries in the world. e) Finally, Canadas cities are clean and efficiently managed. Canadian cities have many parks and lots of space for people to live. f) All Canadians have access to medical services at a reasonable price. g) Second, Canada has a high standard of education. 10
  • 11. Which of these is: 1. The topic sentence? (The topic sentence is the first sentence in a paragraph. ) 2. What are the supporting sentences? (They come after the topic sentence, making up the body of a paragraph. They give details to develop and support the main idea of the paragraph. 3. What is the closing sentence in the paragraph? ( The closing sentence is the last sentence in a paragraph. It restates the main idea of your paragraph. How do I write one? Restate the main idea of the paragraph using different words. ) Example:There are three reasons why Canada is one of the bestcountries in the world. First, Canada has an excellent healthcare system. All Canadians have access to medical services ata reasonable price. Second, Canada has a high standard ofeducation. Students are taught by well-trained teachers andare encouraged to continue studying at university. Finally,Canadas cities are clean and efficiently managed. Canadiancities have many parks and lots of space for people to live. Asa result, Canada is a desirable place to live. How to teach your students write a cohesive pargraph? 1. Write the numbers 1-5 on a piece of paper. 2. Next to #1, write your answer to the question, or your opinion on the topic, in a complete sentence. For example, if asked to write a paragraph about your favorite person, you might write, "My favorite person is my mother." 3. Next to #2, write one reason in support of your answer. For example, on the favorite person paragraph, you might write, "She knows how to help with homework." 4. Next to #3, write another reason in support of your answer. You might write, "She takes me wherever I need to go." 11
  • 12. 5. Next to #4, write a third reason in support of your answer. You might write, "She is very good at reading stories." 6. Next to #5, rephrase your answer or opinion from #1. You might write, "My mother is a wonderful person to me." 7. Copy your sentences #1-#5, one after the other, on your final sheet of paper. And there you have it -- a coherent five-sentence paragraph: "My favorite person is my mother. She knows how to help with homework. She takes me wherever I need to go. She is very good at reading stories. My mother is a wonderful person to me."Task 5: Check the following scoring system. Adapt it toyour own level / subject / curricula: For example:Grade / 10-9 9-8 8-7 7-6 5SubjectOrganizationIntroductionConclusionArgumentsVocabularyGrammarand SpellingTask 6: Watch the Visual Essay and fill in one of thefollowing formats: 12
  • 13. 13
  • 14. 14
  • 15. 15
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  • 17. ANSWERSTask 1: Read the following extracts and decide on thetype of essay they belong to: 6. Argumentative Essay 7. Cause and Effect Essays 8. Comparison and Contrast Essays 9. Descriptive Essays 10. Literary Analysis Essays 11. Narrative Essays Argumentative: The web can be an aid to education in the way that a calculator is an aid to mathematics. With all of the speed and number crunching ability of a calculator, it would be highly difficult to learn algebra directly from this device. In the same respect, the World Wide Web is not a means to an end. It is not the magnificent force that is the human intellect. The mind is humanity’s greatest asset and its refinement is humanity’s greatest achievement. The evolution of such a device should not be left to anything less than its equal. The intangibles involved in the shaping and growth of human consciousness--the excitement of sharing knowledge, the drive to communicate in the most effective way, the value of having a person take a personal stake in the education of an individual-- are without parallel. In the complex chemistry of education, the computer is just a tool. The true energy and force is in the experiment itself; the teacher is the catalyst; and the student is the reaction. Cause and Effect: Eating disorders are a serious health problem. Personal Counseling & Resources says that eating disorders “are characterized by a focus on body shape, weight, fat, food, and perfectionism and by feelings of powerlessness and low self-esteem.” Three of the most common eating disorders are anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge eating or compulsive eating disorder. According to Anorexia Nervosa and Related Eating Disorders, a person with anorexia “refuses to maintain normal body weight for age and height” and “weighs 85 percent or less than what is what is expected for age and height.” A person diagnosed with bulimia has several ways of getting rid of the calories such as binge eating, vomiting, laxative misuse, exercising, or fasting. The person might have a normal weight for their age and height unless anorexia is present. 17
  • 18. Comparison and Contrast: Alice Walker and MayaAngelou are two contemporary African-American writers.Although almost a generation apart in age, both womendisplay a remarkable similarity in their lives. Each haswritten about her experiences growing up in the rural South,Ms. Walker through her essays and Ms. Angelou in herautobiographies. Though they share similar backgrounds,each has a unique style which gives to us, the readers, the giftof their exquisite humanity, with all of its frailties andstrengths, joys and sorrows.Descriptive Essay: Miss Lou Dixon owns and runs thatrestaurant in the middle of the town of Sunbright, Tennessee.Miss Lou has been in business at that location since 1954.Even though the place looks a little squalid, it is not for lackof care; in fact, Lou is proud of how clean she keeps herplace. She has often been heard to say, with the strongestEast Tennessee accent, “It don’t matter how pore a body is.They can be clean.” She is proud of her “A” rating andprominently displays it.Literary Analysis Essays: These two major themes in thepoem are enhanced by the writers use of symbolism.Byzantium, as mentioned before, is a sort of ideal land,comparable to the scriptural heaven. This is obviously one ofthe most predominant symbols in the poem. Another symbolthat carries throughout the work is that of a bird. There is areference to a bird in each stanza, but perhaps the bestindicator of its meaning is found in stanza 4. Yeats uses theimage of a bird "set upon a golden bough to sing" (30) to referto the timelessness and spirit he craves. The bird that is set ingold is there forever, singing for all time, and the poet longsto be able to sing similarly through his poetry and thereforeachieve immortality. Finally, the metaphor of singing ispresent in each stanza and reinforces the poets desire to beable to create timeless music in poetry.Narrative Essays: The incident that Im relating occurredon a hot, humid May morning in 1947. I was a first-gradestudent in Miss Butlers class at Fanning Elementary Schoolin San Antonio, Texas. The disturbance was over in a matterof moments, but the memory of it is imprinted forever in mymind. Miss Butler was infamous for her stern discipline. Littlehands and minds were kept busy, and anything that resembledfoolishness was quickly curtailed with a sharp rap on the heador knuckles with the long pointed stick she carried. You can 18
  • 19. imagine the horror I felt when, while drawing in a deep breathof air, I accidentally whistled. Miss Butler spun around fromthe blackboard, and seeing my expression, demanded, "Joan,did you do that?"Task 2: Arrange the following steps in a logical sequence: 1) Understanding the Assignment 2) Writing and Developing a Thesis 3) Developing Ideas in paragraphs 4) Looking at Essay Structure 5) Looking at Language: Editing and ProofreadingTask 3: match each of the following group of tips to eachstep: 6) Understanding the AssignmentBefore you can successfully select a topic, you mustunderstand exactly what the assignment requires. Types ofwriting assignments vary from department to department,from course to course, and from instructor to instructor, so itis important to understand thoroughly the requirements of aparticular assignment. Highlight or underline key assignmentwords such as argue describe and contrast(agree/disagree discuss reflect on) evaluate summarize criticize explain define compareSuch words tell you what kind of tasks your instructor expectsyou to perform.Consider which concepts or methods the assignment asks youto use. Are you being asked to argue a point, to comparesimilarities and differences, or to explore your own reactionsto an event, text, or idea? Does the topic ask you to go intodepth about some material already covered? Does it ask youto evaluate a theory or model by applying it to a real-worldexample? Does it ask you to use research? Essay assignments 19
  • 20. usually ask you to use the concepts, techniques, and ways ofthinking that are featured in the course. Use these to askyourself questions about the topics. Look also forcontroversies within the material studied. 7) Writing and Developing a ThesisA thesis statement tells the reader how you will interpret thesignificance of the subject matter under discussion, it is a roadmap for the paper; in other words, it tells the reader what toexpect from the rest of the paper. It directly answers thequestion asked of you. A thesis is an interpretation of aquestion or subject, not the subject itself. The subject, ortopic, of an essay might be World War II or Moby Dick; athesis must then offer a way to understand the war or thenovel.It is usually a single sentence somewhere in your firstparagraph that presents your argument to the reader. The restof the paper, the body of the essay, gathers and organizesevidence that will persuade the reader of the logic of yourinterpretation.Formulating a thesis is not the first thing you do after readingan essay assignment. Before you develop an argument on anytopic, you have to collect and organize evidence, look forpossible relationships between known facts (such assurprising contrasts or similarities), and think about thesignificance of these relationships. Once you do this thinking,you will probably have a "working thesis," a basic or mainidea, an argument that you think you can support withevidence but that may need adjustment along the way. 8) Developing Ideas in paragraphsParagraphs are the building blocks of papers. A paragraph isdefined as "a group of sentences or a single sentence thatforms a unit that support one main idea " (Lunsford andConnors 116). Length and appearance do not determinewhether a section in a paper is a paragraph. 20
  • 21. Step 1. Decide on a controlling idea and create a topicsentence Paragraph development begins with the formulationof the controlling idea. This idea directs the paragraphsdevelopment.Step 2. Explain the controlling idea Paragraph developmentcontinues with an expression of the rationale or theexplanation that the writer gives for how the reader shouldinterpret the information presented in the idea statement ortopic sentence of the paragraph. The writer explains his/herthinking about the main topic, idea, or focus of the paragraph.Step 3. Give an example (or multiple examples) Paragraphdevelopment progresses with the expression of some type ofsupport or evidence for the idea and the explanation that camebefore it. The example serves as a sign or representation ofthe relationship established in the idea and explanationportions of the paragraph.Step 4. Explain the example(s) The next movement inparagraph development is an explanation of each example andits relevance to the topic sentence and rationale that werestated at the beginning of the paragraph. This explanationshows readers why you chose to use this/or these particularexamples as evidence to support the major claim, or focus, inyour paragraph.Step 5. Complete the paragraphs idea or transition intothe next paragraph The final movement in paragraphdevelopment involves tying up the loose ends of theparagraph and reminding the reader of the relevance of theinformation in this paragraph to the main or controlling ideaof the paper. At this point, you can remind your reader aboutthe relevance of the information that you just discussed in theparagraph. 9) Write the Introduction StatementBelow are several different ways to start that essay. g) Begin with a quotation Although this approach can be overused, it can be very effective when you have an appropriate quotation. That quotation may relate directly to the subject or it may be only indirectly related (and thus require further explanation). Do not force a quotation 21
  • 22. into this spot; if an appropriate quotation is not available, select another method.h) Begin with a concession Start with a statement recognizing an opinion or approach different from the one you plan to take in your essay: “ Many critics have pointed to ... Although these subjects certainly prove their point, a close examination of …. reveals that …”i) Begin with a paradox A paradox is a seeming self contradiction: “ By 1959 Vladimir Nabokovs novel Lolita had been banned in several cities as pornographic. Today it is required reading not only in literature courses but also in philosophy courses that explore the nature of love.”j) Begin with a short anecdote or narrative As a child, Einstein seldom spoke. When he did, he spoke very slowly – indeed, he tried out entire sentences in his head (or muttered them under his breath) until he got them right before he spoke aloud. According to accounts, Einstein did this until he was nine years old. Einstein’s parents were fearful that he was retarded – of course, their fear was completely unfounded!k) Begin with an interesting fact or statistic Middle school and high school students who participated in instrumental music scored significantly higher than their non-band peers in standardized tests. University studies conducted in Georgia and Texas found significant correlations between the number of years of instrumental music instruction and academic achievement in math, science and language arts.l) Begin with a question or several questions that will be answered in the paperHow could a book now acknowledged as a masterpiecenot only of fiction but also of English prose have beenbanned when it was published? How could a novel thatdealt with love and art be thought of as pornographic? 22
  • 23. Why would a society so mindful of free speech asAmerica ban any book in the first place?10) Looking at Language: Editing and Proofreading 23