Effective WritingWhat does it look like?By Dr. Bernice Parrott
There is no step-by-stepinstructional approach for effective writing!
The Writing ProcessAlthough we cannot provide step-by-stepdirections that will always result in aneffective piece of writing, we can providesome guidance in the general aspects ofthe process. Today we are going to workthrough the writing process. What arethe steps of the Writing Process?
Word SplashTell me some words that you think of when you think of the writing process.
The Writing Process Editing Revising Writing a rough draft Outlining a structure of ideas Prewriting1-5
Prewriting• Prewriting techniques used when initially deciding on a topic: – Using experience and observations – Reading – Freewriting – Asking questions• A good topic not only covers what an assignment will be about but also fits the assignment’s purpose and its audience – Purpose: The reason(s) why a writer creates a document – Audience: The individual(s) or group(s) whom the writer intends to address
Choosing a Topic• When selecting a topic, consider something that interests you or something based on your own life and personal experiences• Different kinds of documents can help you choose a topic and also develop that topic• After you choose a topic, critical reading is essential to the development of a topic
The following prewriting techniques can help narrow the focus of the topic:– Brainstorming: A prewriting strategy similar to list making • Writers start with a general category and list specific items that fall into the category– Idea mapping: A prewriting strategy in which writers cluster ideas on paper using circles, lines, and arrows– Searching the Internet • Writers use search engines not only to understand more about the topic’s specific issues but also to get better acquainted with their audience
Other Ideas for Generating IdeasChoose from a list of pre-selected topics.Provide a list of story starters.Choose a photo or picture from a magazine tostimulate writing.Let the students choose the surface on which theywish to write.Research a topic and write a report or researchreport on the topic. Note: Choice is important.
Planning• Decide on one main point• State a thesis -- a sentence that presents the controlling idea of an essay• Make sure each paragraph has a topic sentence that relates to the thesis or main idea of the paper
Outlining• When you write, you need to organize your ideas in an order that makes sense• Order refers to your choice of what to present first, second, third, and so on in your writing – The order you pick closely relates to your purpose for writing that particular assignment
Methods of Organizing • A method of organization that arranges ideasChronological according to time Order • A method of organization that arranges ideasSpatial Order according to physical characteristics or appearance • A method of organization that arranges ideas Order of according to their significanceImportance
Order versus PurposeChronological Order• To explain the history of an event or a topic• To tell a story or relate an experience• To explain how to do or make something• To explain the steps in a processSpatial Order• To help readers visualize something as you want them to see it• To create a main impression using the senses (sight, touch, taste, smell, and sound)Order of Importance• To persuade or convince• To rank items by their importance, benefit, or significance
Drafting• The stage of the writing process in which the writer develops a complete first version of a piece of writing• The following approaches, done alone or in combination with others, may improve your writing and help you move forward in the writing process: – Begin writing with the part you know the most about – Write one paragraph at a time and then stop – Take short breaks to refresh your mind – Be reasonable with your goals – Keep your audience and purpose in mind as you write - Most important
Drafting• Start and restart• Build paragraphs• Open and conclude• Create coherence
Paragraph Building• Topic sentences make the structure of a text and the writer’s basic arguments easy to locate and comprehend• The paragraph is the main structural component of an essay as well as other forms of writing• The paragraph should be long enough for you to address your points and explain your main idea
Developing• Explain and support• Add definitions, details, and examples• Supply evidence such as facts, statistics, expert testimony, and observations
Revising• When you revise, you take a second look at your ideas – Revise: To examine a piece of writing for clarity of ideas• When you edit, you take a second look at how you expressed your ideas – Edit: To examine a piece of writing for how the writer expressed his or her ideas• Unity: A quality in which all the ideas in a paragraph and in the entire essay clearly belong and are arranged in an order that makes logical sense• Coherence: A quality in which the wording of an work clearly indicates how one idea leads to another within a paragraph and from paragraph to paragraph
Revising and Editing• Careful writers use transitions to clarify how the ideas in their sentences and paragraphs are related – Transitions: Words and phrases that show how the ideas in sentences and paragraphs are related• Eliminating wordiness helps all readers because it makes your ideas clear, direct, and straightforward
Revising• Did you achieve your purpose?• Is your paper appropriate for the audience?• Does your paper have structure?
EditingContent and Organization• All key elements of the assignment are covered in a substantive way.• The content is comprehensive, accurate, and /or persuasive.• The paper develops a central theme or idea, directed toward the appropriate audience.• The paper links theory to relevant examples of current experience and industry practice and uses the vocabulary of the theory correctly.• Major points are stated clearly; are supported by specific details, examples, or analysis; and are organized logically.• The introduction provides sufficient background on the topic and previews major points.• The conclusion is logical, flows from the body of the paper, and reviews the major points.
Readability and Style• The tone is appropriate to the content and assignment.• Sentences are complete, clear, and concise.• Sentences are well-constructed, with consistently strong, varied sentences.
Mechanics• The paper, including the title page, reference page, tables, and appendices, follow APA guidelines for format.• Citations of original works within the body of the paper follow APA guidelines or other designated guidelines.• The paper is laid out with effective use of headings, font styles, and white space.• Rules of grammar, usage, and punctuation are followed.• Spelling is correct.
Now, let’s practice!Generating Ideas• Brainstorm some topics for a paragraph.• Choose the topic about which you wish to write.Planning• Think about what your topic sentence will be.• Plan your supporting details.
Drafting and Developing• Draft your paragraph.• Now, read your paragraph and see if you can add any more details.• Add a conclusion.
Revising• Share your paragraphs.• Give each other ideas for improving your paragraphs. Editing• Use the Proofreading and Editing Checklist to Correct Your Paragraph.
Publish and Celebrate• When your paragraph is finished, you may want to illustrate it, publish it in an email, on Facebook, or in some other way.• Celebrate your success!
Summarize Your Learning• What are the steps of the writing process?• Which one do you think is most important?• Why do you think as you do?• Could you add to your paragraph to develop an essay on the topic?• How is an essay like a paragraph?
Assessment• How do you access writing?• How arerubricsHelpful?
Lesson PlanningWhat are the elements of an effective lesson?• Essential Question(s) (What are the key questions to be answered in the lesson?)• Activating Thinking Strategies (Word Maps, Word Splashes, Vocabulary, Quick Internet Search)• Acceleration Strategies (Focus on Content)
Lesson Planning• Teaching Strategies (graphic organizers, group discussions, collaborative teams, etc.)• Prompts (Distributed guided practice and summarizing)• Summarizing Strategies (Ticket out the door Answer the essential questions.)
Final Steps in the Process• Extending/Refining Activity (Thinking skills and writing prompts)• Assignment and/or Assessment• Re-Teaching Focus and Strategy
Unit Planning• Topic• Essential Questions• Major Concepts and Skills (Create a content map.)• Steps• Performance/Product or Project that is the Culminating Activity• Student Assignments for Culminating Activity
• Paragraph Description of the Culminating Activity• Steps or Task Analysis of the Culminating Activity• Culminating Activity Rubric
• Launch Activity 1. How will you create interest? (motivational activity) 2. How will you link knowledge? (cognitive activity) 3. How will you preview the content map? 4. How will you preview major vocabulary?
Acquisition Lessons and ActivitiesYou must have at least one lesson oractivity for each essential question.
Extending/Refining Lessons and ActivitiesHint: Most important essential questions should have thinking skills activities.Cause/Effect Compare/ContrastConstructing Support Classifying Error AnalysisJustification Induction Example to IdeaDeduction Evaluation Idea to ExampleAbstracting Analyzing PerspectivesWriting Prompts
What Resources or Materials will be needed for this unit?