the ESCAP Workshop on knowledge transfer and
capacity building for water and sanitation services in
Asia and the Pacific Bangkok, 17-19 February 2009
by Urban and Regional Development Institute and Serang District Authority
Integrated Pro-poor Water and Wastewater Management in Small Towns Project Implementation in Serang District, Banten Province, Indonesia Presented at the ESCAP Workshop on knowledge transfer and capacity building for water and sanitation services in Asia and the Pacific Bangkok, 17-19 February 2009Urban and Regional Development Institute Serang District Authority 1
Background• ESCAP is implementing the project “Integrated Pro-Poor Water and Wastewater Management in Small Towns”.• The overall objective of the project is to assist local governments in small towns in developing and implementing integrated water and wastewater management systems.• The project is being implemented on closely interlinked regional and country-level tracks.• Under the country-level track, ESCAP is assisting local government offices in Serang District and City in Indonesia to introduce pro-poor and integrated water and wastewater systems in partnership with the Urban and Regional Development Institute (URDI). 2
Country level track: Indonesia• The intervention in Indonesia is built on the existing District Working Group on Water Supply and Environmental Sanitation (WSES) or Pokja AMPL led by the State Ministry of National Development Planning (BAPPENAS) under the Indonesia Water Supply And Sanitation Policy Formulation and Action Planning (WASPOLA) initiative.• In June 2003, six national ministries signed the Community-Based Water Supply and Environmental Sanitation National Policy No. 23/2003. This policy was prepared in stages by a Water Supply and Environmental Sanitation (WSES) Working Group led by the National Development Planning Agency (Bappenas) and involving the Ministries of Home Affairs, Settlement and Regional Infrastructure, Health and Finance.• In line with the spirit of decentralization and regional autonomy policies, the WSES Working Group accommodated inputs from local governments to finalize a policy document and to determine how a national policy could be implemented at the regional level. 3
Community Based WSES National PolicyLogical Framework 11 Principles of Community Sustainability Based WSES PolicySustainability Policy for the 11 Principles of 1. Water as an Economic Good Development Community and Social Good of Community Based Based WSES WSES Policy 2. Informed Choice as a Basis for Demand Responsive Approach Efficiency 3. Environmentally Based Efficiency Development 4. Hygiene Education 5. Poverty Focus• Learning from experiences in the past indicates that 6. Active Role of Women in WS&S system constructed are not functioning Decision Making properly, because community was not involved in 7. Accountability in the planning, construction operation and maintenance Development Process activity; 8. Government as Facilitator 9. Community Participation• Effective use and sustainability of service is better 10. Optimum Service and Right when the community is involved during the Target development phases; 11. Application of Cost Recovery Principles 4 4
Working Group on WSES (Pokja AMPL) in Serang District• ESCAP and BAPPENAS have selected the District of Serang, Province of Banten, to implement the pilot project in Indonesia• The working group on WSES is composed of all the agencies at the district level that have a role in this field. Members of working group are including: (1) Local Development Planning Board, (2) Health Service, (3) Education Service, (4) Social Welfare, (5) Environmental Agency, (6) Public Works, (7) Water Supply Company (PDAM), (8) Religious Agency , (9) NGO (Rekonvasi Bhumi) and (10) Local University (UNTIRTA).• This working group has finalised a strategic plan (Renstra AMPL) for water and sanitation in the district. 5
Strategic Plan on WSES (Renstra AMPL)• Strategic Plan of WSES in Serang District is composed as guide in implementing the construction of community-based water and environment sanitation• The formulation of Strategic Plan of WSES in Serang District has two parts: • In year 2006, formulating the draft and • In year 2007, finishing Final Strategic Plan of WSES• It contains vision, mission, objective, target and strategy to achieve the overall goal of water and sanitation improvement.• The project intervention is build upon the existence of this plan to develop it further, prepare a detailed strategy in a selected village and implement one pilot project. 6
WSES Development Target in Serang District• Preparing local regulation in supporting community based water supply and sanitation activities• Improving community awareness on the importance of community based water supply and sanitation• Improving the performance of behavior change on clean and healthy life style• Improving active community participation through community and government institutions• Provision and Betterment Community Based Water Supply and Sanitation facilities• Improving the sustainability in managing Community Based Water Supply and Sanitation• Improving community awareness on the importance of clean and healthy life style. 7
Project Intervention Working Group Members of WG Policy Formulation • National Dev’t Planning Board • National Policies on WSES • Ministry of Public Works • Policy for Institutionally National • Ministry of Health Based WSES • Ministry of Home Affairs • Policy for Community • Ministry of Finance Based WSES • Regional Dev’t Planning Board • Strategic Plan at Provincial Province • Sectoral Agencies Level on WSES • Univesity • NGO’s • Local Dev’t Planning Board • Strategic Plan at District District • Sectoral Agencies Level on WSES • Univesity • NGO’s Detail Strategy for WSES at Village Level 8
Objective and ResultsThe main objective is to provide technical assistance to the SerangDistrict Authorities by developing together a participatory, consensusoriented and integrated strategic plan for water and sanitation at thevillage level, and to test its implementation through a pilot project. Expected Results:• Result A: Serang authorities and in particular the members of the Working Group (Pokja AMPL) enhance their knowledge of key concepts in pro-poor water and wastewater management and strategic planning.• Result B: A detailed strategy on water and sanitation for one selected subdistrict of Serang is prepared by URDI in collaboration with Serang Authorities and submitted for approval to the Working Group.• Result C: A pilot project where water and/or sanitation services are delivered to the urban poor is implemented.• Result D: The formulation of the village strategic plan is documented and disseminated.
Case Study: Serang District and Serang City • Situated about 70 km from Jakarta as Capital City of Indonesia• Serang City is new local government authorities separated from Serang District in year 2007• The pilot projects are located in two villages: Kampung Dermayon and Sukawana Dermayon Sukawana 10
Overall Process of the ProjectCoordination with Developing Series of Construction of Pokja AMPL Baseline Data and Community wastewater National Community profile Meeting treatment plant Preliminary ConductingDiscussions with Piped water First Community Feasibility Study Pokja AMPL connection Consultation Serang District Conducting Meeting with Pokja National Second Establishing Refill AMPL Serang Workshop Community water business District Consultation
Project Preparation Activity Description of Activity Actors Involved Outcome ChallengesCoordination City selection • Pokja AMPL • Selected city • To find out howwith Working Discussion on project Pusat • National the RenstraGroup at approach and • Waspola Project Working Group AMPL isNational Level methodology support the implemented at Define the scope of project village level works of the project implementationPreliminary The discussion was • Pokja AMPL • Support from • How the projectDiscussion with undertaken almost 4 Serang District Pokja AMPL results could beSerang District months in order to • Head of District Serang District integrated toAuthority introduce the project as (bupati) • LG budget local annual well as get commitment allocation in FY development from the Authority 2008 planning processNational The workshop is aimed • Pokja AMPL • Agreed strategy • CoordinationWorkshop to enhance the Pusat for project mechanism in knowledge of the team • Pokja AMPL implementation project on the key concepts in Banten Province plan implementation, pro-poor waster and • Pokja AMPL • Two proposed especially with wastewater management Serang District project locations Serang City and strategic planning • Universities Authority which • NGO’s is newly 14 established
Community Mapping and Consultation Activity Description of Activity Actors Involved Outcome ChallengesDeveloping Identifying issues and • Community • Community • Increasing theBaseline Data problems on water and • Local profile on water awareness ofand Community sanitation through government and sanitation community onProfile on Water community participation officer WSES throughand Sanitation (transect walk, • Village officer participatory interviews, discussion) assessmentFirst Community The first consultation • Pokja AMPL • Common issues • To find outConsultation was discussed water Serang District and problems on possible and sanitation issues and • Water Company water and solutions to problems, ideal condition • Waspola sanitation address watsan in the future, alternative Facilitator • Community issues and to solutions and informed • Head of Sub- expectation and fulfill community choices (alternative District potential on the needs and technology). • Head of Village future conditions expectation • Community of WSESSecond The second consultation • Pokja AMPL • Proposed action • FurtherCommunity was discussed about Serang District plans to address elaboration ofConsultation strategic action plans to • Water Company water and each proposed address water and • Waspola sanitation issues action plans and sanitation problems with Facilitator • Community implementation considering local • Head of Village working group strategy potential and resources. • Community 15 15
Pilot Project Planning and Design Activity Description of Activity Actors Outcome Challenges InvolvedCommunity A series of meeting with • Community • Agreed priority • How to determineMeetings community was conducted to • Village officer location priority location prepare pilot project • Identification of and target group implementation strategy target group for each action including priority location, • Availability of land plans target group, financing scheme • Target customer • Mobilizing and institutional arrangement for piped water community connection contribution to the project implementationFeasibility The feasibility study was • Bali Fokus • Technical • Limited space forStudy on undertaken to further analyze (Technical consideration and wastewaterproposed technical and financial aspects Expertise on option choice for treatment planaction plans of each action plans and to Watsan) sanitation facility determine suitable project sites • Community • DED model for • Village officer each option • Financial analysis for constructionMeeting with The meeting was conducted • Pokja AMPL • Pokja approval on • Possibility toPokja AMPL before pilot project Serang pilot project apply StrategicSerang District implementation to get approval District proposals Plan of Watsan from Pokja on the pilot project • Water to other related proposals and to discuss Company projects in the possible expansion and future 16 16 replications across the district
Pilot Project Implementation Activity Description of Activity Actors Outcome Challenges InvolvedConstruction of • Community • Bali Fokus • 6 (six) shared • Land availabilityshared septic participation in • Community septic tanks were • Physicaltanks and construction work • Workers constructed condition of soilindividual septic (digging the project • 30 individual • Communitytank site) septic tanks are should provide • Hiring construction under family toilet workers construction • Construction of shared septic tanks and individual septic tanksPiped Water Facilitating communication • Pokja AMPL • Confirmation • Accelerating theConnection with Local Water • Water letter from PDAM connection Enterprise to make sure company on the plan process and there is plan for piped • Survey on piped makes sure water connection to connection community Dermayon area and system affordability and providing subsidy for • Application form willingness to down-payment submitted payEstablishing Identifying available land • Community • Building • Setting upRefill Water to construct the building, • Head of • Installed Refill communityBusiness preparing institutional Village water machine based business arrangement and business • Business plan unit on refill 17 plan water 17
Pilot Project #1: Piped Water Connection to PDAM in DermayonProblem:• Kampung Dermayon has poor and lack of water resources.• Ground water quality is very poor and contaminated.• Public hydrant provided by water company (PDAM) is only main source of drinking water in the area.• The cost of drinking water is US$ 0.2 per m3.• Average water consumption per household is 2m3.• The cost of water per month ranges from US$ 15-20. 18
Pilot Project #1: Piped Water Connection to PDAM in DermayonProposed intervention:• Through consultative process with PDAM and also Pokja meeting, there is a plan to piped water connection from PDAM in year 2009.• Connection Fee is about US$ 150 per customer which can be installed in 12 months.• The project will provide subsidy for connection fee with the amount is ranged from US$ 50-100 depending how many people applied. Total fund allocated is about US$ 10,000• Water Tariff: The minimum payment per 19 month is about US$ 5 for 10m3 water usage
Pilot Project #1: Piped Water Connection to PDAM in DermayonProgress to Date: Actors Involves:• There is 114 household which • PDAM provide initial investment already submit the registration for water connection to community form as well as operation and maintenance• PDAM has conducted • Community are customers of preliminary survey to calculate piped water connection. They pay investment cost for connection fee and monthly• The household survey will be payment conducted in the last week of • Pokja AMPL facilitates the February 2009. consultative process between• After the survey, the project community, PDAM and the Project and provides support and subsidy will be transferred to commitment to connect water PDAM. supply• The construction is expected to • ESCAP provide fund which use as be implemented in April 2009. subsidy for connection fee
Pilot Project #2: Establishing Community-Based Refill-Water BusinessProblem:• The quality of ground water in Sukawana is deteriorated. Community use the ground water for daily use only.• There is only one public hydrant to serve 1,013 HHs• The cost of drinking water is US$ 0.2 per m3• No plan for piped water connection from PDAM• Refill water is an alternative to meet community need of drinking water• The current refill water provider is located almost 4 km from project location, while demand for drinking water is increased. 22
Pilot Project #2: Establishing Community-Based Refill-Water BusinessProposed Intervention:• As result of community consultation, there is an idea to establish water refill business to serve drinking water• The business will be managed by community- based business unit under the supervision of village authority• The initial investment is about US$ 5,000 including building construction, machine, equipments and start-up cost• Some portion of business profit will be allocated for infrastructure improvement and 23 community activity
Community Based Business UnitBoard of Supervision- Representatives from Village Authority and Transparency and Community Leaders Accountability - Organization rule -Monthly Financial ReportBoard of Management- Chairman, Secretary and Treasury Operator 24
Pilot Project #2: Establishing Community-Based Refill-Water Business in SukawanaProgress to Date: Actor Involved:•Community provided land • Community is provided land as part of•Building has been constructed the initial investment, At the same•Purchase refill water machine time they also are employed as•Business plan has been workers in the construction processprepared and will be the customers of the bussiness provided.•Set-up community basedbusiness unit and its mechanism • Community Based Business Unit is the community group who will manage the bussiness • Local Government is facilitate the construction process through monitoring and together with community organisation as well as local leader monitor the bussiness operation.
Project Investment Cost Unit Cost Total Cost Cost Item Unit (US$) (US$) Source Community 16m2 5 80 contributionLand ESCAP ProjectMachine Purchasing 2,200 1 2,200 ESCAP ProjectConstruction of building 1,600 1,600 and Community 1 ESCAPTechnical Assistance 200 200 1 ESCAP ProjectEquipments 137.5 137.5 1 Business start-up cost 782.5 ESCAP Project 4 978.2(4 months) Total Investment 5,000 26
Pilot Project #3: Improved Sanitation Facility in Dermayon and SukawanaProblem:– Most of houses do not have individual toilet– Open defecation (public space and river)– Less awareness on environmental health– The quality of ground water is deteriorated– Poor drainage system– Densely populated area and poor settlement 27
Pilot Project #3: Improved Sanitation Facility in Dermayon and SukawanaProposed Intervention:• Training on Community Total Led Sanitation (CLTS) to increase community awareness on the importance of healthy life and reduce number of open defecation in the area. This training was organized by Pokja AMPL Serang District.• Provision of adequate and appropriate sanitation facilities: shared septic tank and individual septic tank• Technical assistance for community to construct and to improve low cost and appropriate individual toilet 28
Pilot Project #3: Improved Sanitation Facility in Dermayon and SukawanaProgress to Date: Actors Involves:• Communities in both areas have • Bali Fokus provide technical agreeed that shared septic tank as assistance for designing low cost the first priority for the project. but appropriate and healthy toilet and supervising the construction.• In Dermayon, 4 (four) shared septic tanks and 5 (five) individual • The skilled-community involved in septic tanks have been built. the construction works• In Sukawana, 2 (two) shared septic tanks have been built. • Community involve din providing land, digging and build their own• Around 55 individual septic tanks individual toilets are now under the construction (17 in Dermayon and 38 in Sukawana)
Training on CLTS• Organized by Pokja AMPL Serang District• The training was aimed: ‒ To improve understanding towards the importance of basic sanitation ‒ To increase their awareness on water and sanitation issues particularly on basic sanitation (toilet provision) ‒ To share their experience with other community in their area and to stimulate the awareness of community on the importance of healthy life• There are 5 (five) people from Dermayon and 5 (five) peeople from Sukawana participated in the training program.
Technical Considerations and Recommendation Sukawana Village Kampung DermayonMain issues : Main issues :•Densely populated area •Densely populated area•Bathing and washing using water from shallow •Bathing and washing using water from shallowwell, river and rain water well, river and rain water.•For defecation, most of the communities go to •For defecation, most of the communities use thethe river or open space river or open space •Limited space for wastewater treatment plant •Poor drainage for discharging the effluent and grey waterTechnical Condition and Feasibility Result : Technical Condition and Feasibility Result :•Source of wastewater: Domestic wastewater •Source of wastewater: Domestic wastewater(toilet, bathing and washing) (toilet, bathing and washing/ black and grey•Land ownerships: Private own water)•Water resources: Public hydrant and shallow •Land ownerships: Own by private/individualwell •Water resources: Public hydrant and shallow•Water table: 50 cm below the ground surface well•Drainage condition: Flowing, no stagnant water •Water table: 30- 50 cm below the ground surface•Elevation : Slope approximately 0,5 - 1 % •Drainage condition: Poor condition and Stagnant•Access for logistic and desludging: Accessible waterfor medium size truck until the main road. From •Elevation : Relatively flatmain road to the site, require logistic transfer •Access for logistic and desludging: Accessible for medium size truck until the main road. And from main road to the site, require logistic transfer 31
Technical Considerations and Recommendation Sukawana Village Kampung DermayonTechnical options for sanitation: Technology option for sanitation:•Individual septic tank using common shape of •Individual septic tank using common shape ofseptic tank (rectangular) septic tank (rectangular)•Individual septic tank using round shape •Individual septic tank using round shapeconcrete concrete•Individual septic tank using BioFil (pre-fab) •Individual septic tank using BioFil (pre-fab)•Shared septic tank •Shared septic tank•Public toilet •Public toilet•Simplified sewerage system •Simplified sewerage systemRecommendation: Recommendation:•Individual septic tank using common shape of •Shared septic tank for 3-5 HHseptic tank (rectangular) •Individual Septic Tank•Individual septic tank using BioFil (pre-fab)•Shared Septic TankOption Choiced Option Choiced• Individual septic tank using BioFil (pre-fab) • Individual septic tank using BioFil (pre-fab)• Shared Septic Tank • Shared Septic Tank 32
Shared Septic Tank for 3‐5 HHs (18 M3) Source: BALI FOKUS
Individual Septic‐tank using round concrete (80cm) Source: BALI FOKUS
Construction Works: Individual Septic Tanks 36
Project Intervention to Basic Sanitation Improvement Number of House House with % Target UNESCAP Toilet BeneficiariesVillage Sukawana*RT 01B 109 8 7.3 16RT 01A 89 4 4.5 13RT 04 200 5 2.5 16Kp. DermayonRT 04 194 88 45 15RT 05 121 62 51 13RT 06 124 48 39 16Note:•The intervention consist of Share septic tank (serve for 3-5 Houses) and individual Septic tank(serve for 1 house)•Currently 6 share septic tanks (4 in Dermayon and 2 in Sukawana) and 5 individual septic tanks(in Dermayon) have been constructed.
Some Lesson Learned (1)• The involvement of Pokja AMPL Serang District since the project formulation has been increasing the understanding on the project process. – Pokja AMPL has been involved in project activities such as community consultation, coordination meeting, pilot project approval and monitoring project implementation. – In other similar project, the Pokja involvement is quite limited, sometime they just approved the project without knowing detail project implementation• Increasing communication between community and local government regarding the improvement of water and sanitation facilities in the poor area. – The project has been facilitated communication between community in Dermayon and PDAM (Local Water Enterprise) to get piped water connection. They have tried to apply for piped water connection since 2002. – Communication between Village Authority and community in Sukawana in preparing pilot project proposal for refill-water business and also 38 priority locations for shared septic tanks.
Some Lesson Learned (2)• Community participation has came into an essential meaning when there is balance combination between process and implemented action in the project – The project approach has been combined the importance of project process and stakeholder capacity building as well as the pilot implementation which provide direct benefit to the community. – Increasing community contribution to the project implementation such as: voluntarily work for digging the land and provision of individual toilets• The project result in preparing strategic action plan on WSES at village level could be adapted to other similar projects in the future – Pokja AMPL will propose the strategic action plan on WSES in Dermayon and Sukawana as instrumen tto integrate other similar project interventions in the area – There is an effort from Pokja AMPL to integrate other project with the pilot project intervention (i.e: in case of piped water connection, the LG has allocated budget in FY 2009 to expand the PDAM service in surrounding Dermayon area) 39
Replicability to other municipalities• The existence of Active Working Group on Water Supply and Environmental Sanitation (WSES) at City/District Level• Local government commitment to support policy framework (i.e Renstra AMPL) and budget allocation for coordination and supervision.• The assistance from Local NGO and/or research institutions working on policy making process and water and sanitation aspect• Support from external agencies to finance the process as well as the pilot implementation 40
Thank YouContact Detail:Urban and Regional Development Institute (URDI) Rukan Royal Palace Block C‐3Jl. Prof. dr. Soepomo, SH Kav. 178AMenteng Dalam, Jakarta 12870‐IndonesiaTelp: +62‐21 8312087, 83785532Fax: +62‐21 8312196THANK YOUHomepage: www.urdi.orgE‐mail : firstname.lastname@example.org 41