The 3rd International Seminar on Tropical Settlements. Urban Deprivation: A Challenge to Sustainable Urban Settlements. Proceeding


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Seminar diselenggarakan oleh Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Perumahan dan Permukiman, Kementerian Pekerjaan Umum. Jakarta 31 Oktober-2 Nopember 2012

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The 3rd International Seminar on Tropical Settlements. Urban Deprivation: A Challenge to Sustainable Urban Settlements. Proceeding

  1. 1. Proceeding3rd International Seminar on Tropical Eco-SettlementsUrban Deprivation: A Challenge to Sustainable Urban SettlementsOctober 31 – November 2, 2012, Grand Sahid Jaya Hotel, Jakarta – IndonesiaResearch Institute for Human SettlementsAgency for Research and DevelopmentMinistry of Public Works IndonesiaISBN 978-602-8330-63-3
  2. 2. DisclaimerAll the papers published in this proceeding have been reviewed by the scientific committee. TheResearch Institute of Human Settlements has endeavored to the maximum possible extent to ensure theformat of all the technical papers to conform to the manuscript template requirement applied in thisproceeding. The Research Institute has made necessary formatting and minor editorial changeswithout altering the substance of the respective papers. Any views and opinions expressed in thepapers are solely those of the corresponding authors and do not necessarily represent the views andopinions of the Research Institute.
  3. 3. PREFACEIn developing countries which are mostly located in the tropical zones, population is concentrated inurban areas. The proliferation of urban migrants has caused many people lack of access to many kindsof infrastructure facilities, such as sanitation, transportation, or durable houses. The reduction ofinequalities within cities has been constantly mentioned to the importance of sustainable development.Urban services should not discriminate against poorer urban inhabitants. Urban deprivation hasbecome a characteristic of large cities in all parts of the world, which mostly occurs due to the limitedcapacity of the cities to meet peoples needs. Therefore, to ensure future progress in the improvementof economic, social, and environmental conditions in urban settlements, we must begin withrecognizing and dealing with urban deprivation.Poor management and planning and the absence of coherent urban policies create urban problemsespecially environments rather than urbanization. Deteriorating environmental conditions can causeserious impact on human health and welfare, particularly the urban poor. Harmonized environmentscan only result from urban settlements that are planned, developed and improved by considering allsustainable development principles and their components. This concept has been adopted in mostcountries to address the issue of todays increasing world temperature, whilst the climaticcharacteristics relate to the form of cities, urban designs, and buildings.Since 2006 the Research Institute for Human Settlements has organized Bi-annual InternationalSeminars on Ecosettlements and this year’s Seminar is the third. It is a settlement concept thatharmonizes social, economic, and ecological aspects in the quest of developing a sustainable tropicalecosystem. Given the serious issues associated with urban deprivation, the 2012 Seminar’s theme isUrban Deprivation: a Challenge to Sustainable Urban Settlements.A total of 35 papers from different countries were accepted and categorized into three major issues:new approach in sustainable urban planning and design, ecological concern in green building andurban infrastructure accessibility. They have been orally presented in the parallel sessions on DayOne and Day Two. Optional field-trips were held on Day Three to Tapak Bumi Eco-village.On this occasion, I would like to express my sincere gratitude towards all the parties for theirremarkable contribution that made this Seminar possible. I do hope this Seminar can provide theopportunity for academics and industry practitioners to share their views and experiences from bothtropical and non-tropical countries on how to deal with urban deprivation problems.Jakarta, 2 November 2012Dr. Anita Firmanti E. S.Director of Research Institute for Human Settlements i
  4. 4. STEERING COMMITTEE1. Mr. Djoko Kirmanto2. Mr. Graita Sutadi3. Dr. Anita Firmanti EDITOR1. Ms. Siti Zubaidah Kurdi2. Ms. Rian Wulan Desriani3. Mr. Puthut Samyahardja4. Prof. R. Suprapto5. Mr. Rahim Siahaan6. Ms. Nurhasanah Azhar7. Dr. Ing. Andreas Wibowo8. Ms. Fitrijani Anggraini9. Ms. Elis Hastuti SCIENTIFIC COMMITTEE1. Prof. Dr. R. Suprapto2. Ratna Inge Komardjaja, Ph.D3. Dr. Priyana Sudjono4. Mr. Imam Santoso Ernawi5. Dr. Dedy Supriadi Priatna6. Dr. Hideyuki Kobayashi7. Mr. George Soraya8. Ms. Natlja Weihmer9. Mr. Pasi Lehmusluoto ORGANISING COMMITTEE1. Ms. Siti Zubaidah Kurdi2. Mr. Puthut Samyahardja3. Prof. Dr. R. Suprapto4. Mr. Rahim Siahaan5. Ms. Nurhasanah Azhar6. Dr. Ing. Andreas Wibowo7. Ms. Fitrijani Anggraini8. Ms. Elis Hastuti9. Ms. Rian Wulan Desriani10. Mr. Iwan Suprijanto11. Mr. Tibin Ruby Prayudi12. Ms. Rydha Riyana Agustien13. Ms. Sri Maria Senjaya14. Ms. Adhi Yudha Mulia15. Ms. Nitnit Anitya16. Ms. Siti Sadiah17. Ms. Lucky Adhyati P18. Ms. Siska Purniati19. Ms. Roosdharmawati20. Mr. Yana Suryana ii
  5. 5. 21. Mr. Sujarwanto22. Mr. Waridjo23. Mr. Reza Hari K24. Ms. Dhea P25. Ms. Siti Rachmawati26. Mr. Budiono27. Mr. Jajang Mulyana28. Mr. Sobar iii
  6. 6. TABLE OF CONTENT PagePREFACE ..................................................................................................................................................iSTEERING COMMITTEE........................................................................................................................iiTABLE OF CONTENT .............................................................................................................................iv Issue: New approach in sustainable urban planning and designA-01 DEVELOPING GREEN OPEN SPACE IN URBAN RESIDENTIAL AREAS THROUGH COMMUNITY PARTICIPATION APPROACH By Agung Wahyudi .........................................1A-02 RESIDENTIAL MOBILITY AND SPATIAL EXTERNALITIES AS A CHALLENGE TO SUSTAINABLE URBAN SETTLEMENTS IN SURABAYA CITY By Alen Miftahul And Dian Rahmawati ..........................................................................................................................11A-03 DEFINING URBAN ACUPUNCTURE AS AN ALTERNATIVE STRATEGY TO CURE THE CITY PROBLEMS OF INDONESIA By Astri Anindya Sari And Shirleyana ..................21A-04 THE ACHIEVEMENT OF SUSTAINABILITY ON VERTICAL HOUSING DEVELOPMENT THROUGH WHOLE SYSTEM DESIGN By Christiono Utomo And Yani Rahmawati ...................................................................................................................................31A-05 RIVERINE ECOLOGY DEGRADATION AND HUMAN SETTLEMENT VULNERABILITY IN CITARUM RIVER BANK AND ADJACENT AREA By Harri A. Setiadi ..........................................................................................................................................41A-06 THE INFLUENCE OF VEGETATION TO THE INDOOR TEMPERATURE IN TROPICAL AREA By Khalid A.Mannan , Elisa Anggraeni , Aisyah N. Hayati Aulia F. Muchlis................55A-07 A STUDY ON THE EXTERNALITY OF GAS-STATIONIN URBAN AREA, A CASE STUDY OF BANDUNG, INDONESIA By Mahatma Sindu Suryo And Arip Pauzi Rachman ..65A-08 DEVELOPMENT OF A RAPID SYSTEM FOR URBAN AIR QUALITY INDEX MEASUREMENT BASED ON PHOTONIC CRYSTAL SENSOR By Mamat Rahmat, Muhamad Azis ,Erus Rustami, Wenny Maulina, Isnaeni, Husin Alatas, Arief S. Yuwono, Yong- Hoon Cho And Kudang B. Seminar ............................................................................................73A-09 THE SYSTEMIC DEPRIVATION OF URBAN GREEN OPEN SPACE: A CHALLENGE OF MAKING AN URBAN ENVIRONMENTAL-FRIENDLY By Martinus B. Susetyarto............85A-10 ECOTOURISM DEVELOPMENT IN THE ENVIRONMENTAL OF TRADITIONAL OF HUMAN SETTLEMENTS IN THE UNDISAN VILLAGE - BALI PROVINCE By Muhajirin And Iwan Suprijanto ....................................................................................................................95A-11 LANDSCAPE CHANGES IN DENPASAR CITY By Ni Made Yudantini ..............................109 iv
  7. 7. A-12 MODEL OF GREENSPACE RANGE EFFECT TOWARDS SURFACE TEMPERATURE IN URBAN AREA By Putri Yasmin Nurul Fajri ...........................................................................119A-13 THE STUDY OF SO2 POLLUTANT EMISSION FROM BOILER STACK OF BIODIESEL PLANT USING ATMOSPHERIC DISPERSION MODELLING By Rosmeika, Arief S. Yuwono And Armansyah H. Tambunan ...................................................................................................129A-14 THE EMERGENCE OF INFORMAL RIVERSIDE SETTLEMENTS AND CHALLENGES FOR PLANNING: THE CASE OF KALI MAS IN SURABAYA, INDONESIA By Shirleyana And Astri Anindya Sari ..............................................................................................................137A-15 THE CONTRIBUTION OF HOUSING SECTOR TO ANTICIPATE THE INCREASED DEGRADATION OF URBAN AREAS: A CASE STUDY OF BANDUNG CITY By Siti Zubaidah Kurdi ..........................................................................................................................149A-16 HIGH-DENSITY HOUSING IN KAMPUNG BRAGA IN BANDUNG By Sri Suryani And Ismet B. Harun ...........................................................................................................................157A-17 THE CAPACITY OF URBAN ENVIRONMENT, A CASE STUDY OF URBAN KAMPONG AT BANDUNG By Surjamanto W And Sahid...........................................................................167A-18 LANDSCAPE O N LIMITED YARD AS A MICROCLIMATE CONTROL: A CASE STUDY OF MAKASSAR SUBURBAN HOUSING By Veronica N And S.Wunas ...............................173 Issue: Ecological concern in green buildingB-01 THE COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THE INFLUENCE OF BUILDING FORM TOWARDS THE THERMAL COMFORT IN FLATS BUILDINGS By Arief Sabaruddin And Rumiati R. Tobing ........................................................................................................................................181B-02 INTEGRATED DESIGN AND PLANNING PROCESS TOWARDS GREEN BUILDING DEVELOPMENT CASE STUDIES IN DAHANA OFFICE BUILDING AND MINISTRY OF PUBLIC WORKS OFFICE BUILDING By Dian Fitria...........................................................187B-03 PRELIMINARY STUDY OF GREEN BUILDING IN MALANG CITY; CASE STUDY OF COMMERCIAL PUBLIC BUILDINGS By Fitria A. Feliciani, Andika Citraningrum, Agung Murti Nugroho, Damayanti Asikin.............................................................................................199B-04 FLEXURAL BEHAVIOR OF REINFORCED LIGHTWEIGHT CONCRETE SLAB WITH WASTE PUMICE AGGREGATE By Hazairin, Bernardinus Herbudiman And Syarief Abdurrachman ...........................................................................................................................211B-05 THE EFFECTIVENESS OF VEGETATION AS A NOISE REDUCTION IN A BUILDING By Imam Baihaqi , Irwan Suminto Adi , Nur Lailatul Fitria Sulianto , Ernaning Setiyowati.........219B-06 THE INDEPENDENT HOUSE ENERGY FROM RESOURCES THE ENERGY OF POTENTIAL FROM ATMOSPHERE By Lilik Slamet S ........................................................227B-07 ENERGY-EFFICIENT STRATEGY IN JAVANESE TRADITIONAL HOUSE By Mohammad Pranoto Soedjarwo ....................................................................................................................235 v
  8. 8. B-08 RESOURCES CONSUMPTION ASSESSMENT TO ACHIEVE FUTURE GREEN OF PRINCE OF SONGKLA UNIVERSITY, SURAT THANI CAMPUS By Piyamas Samsuwan And Somtip Danteravanich ........................................................................................................243B-09 PEOPLE’S BEHAVIOUR IN THE MARKET WASTE MANAGEMENT: RAU MARKET, SERANG BANTEN By Retta Siagian....................................................................253B-10 ROLE OF PASSIVE AND ACTIVE STRATEGY IN GREEN BUILDING CONTEXT By Sahid, Surjamanto W And Sugeng Triyadi.................................................................................261B-11 NEW APPROACH POSSIBILITIES OF USING A SIMPLE LIGHT REFLECTION FOR SAVING ENERGY IN URBAN BUILDINGS By Suriansyah. Y And Gunawan. R ................269B-12 PROBLEMATIC OF HIGH-RISE BUILDING FLATS IN INDONESIA BASED ON THERMAL COMFORT AND FIRE SAFETY PERSPECTIVES By Wahyu Sujatmiko , Hermawan K. Dipojono, Soegijanto, And F.X. Nugroho Soelami.............................................275 Issue: Urban infrastructure accessibilityC-01 BASIN MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS APPROACH TO OFF-SET INFRASTRUCTURE INACCESSIBILITY UNDER RAPID URBANIZATION AND DUE WEAK GOVERNANCE By J Matsushita And Suharyanto ...............................................................................................285C-02 STRATEGIC STUDY OF SPAM DEVELOPMENT IN PONTIANAK CITY FOR MDGS TARGET ACHIEVEMENT 2015 By Laili F. Mahdi And Prof. Arwin A. Sabar .....................297C-03 DOMESTIC WASTE MANAGEMENT FOR REDUCING RIVER POLLUTION: A CASE STUDY CIBEUREUM VILLAGE AND MELONG VILLAGE, DISTRICT OF SOUTH CIMAHI By Puti Renosori, Chusharini Chamid And Yuliadi .............................................309C-04 WASTE REDUCTION THROUGH 3 R (REDUCE, REUSE AND RECYCLING) PROGRAM: A CASE STUDY OF SURABAYA CITY, INDONESIA By Sri Darwati .........319C-05 OPTIMAL SCALE OF WATER SUPPLY PROVISION IN INDONESIA By Sri Maryati ....329 vi
  9. 9. [ A-01] DEVELOPING GREEN OPEN SPACE IN URBAN RESIDENTIAL AREAS THROUGH COMMUNITY PARTICIPATION APPROACH Agung WAHYUDI1ABSTRACT: The increase of urban population is closely interconnected to the demand for livingspaces that accommodate various urban activities. When the balance between the need for, and theavailability of such spaces is disturbed, unlivable spaces are generated which would eventuallydowngrade the quality of urban environment. Bearing in mind the increasing clamor over globalwarming during the last two decades, urban planners should carefully anticipate the issue and put theirfocus on, and even provoke the creation of sustainable green space development, including the creationof open green urban spaces. Accommodating the aspirations and participation of citizens, through theapplication of the development principle based on “from, by and for them”, becomes a most important part of the strategy to achieve sustainable development patterns. The worsening environmentaldeterioration due to the stakeholders becoming unheedful about the issue should be taken into seriousconsideration. In the study, observations have been conducted in a descriptive manner by using a nonrandomized experimental design using control at three neighborhoods in West Jakarta, with one of thembeing the controller. It showed that after the first 6 months, the application of green environmentapproach in the neighborhoods was maintained through self-help and communal actions. Communityorganizations that have been established on the spirit of mutual cooperation becomes determinative forthe success of such sustainable pattern; the sustainability would in phases also improve the people’seconomy and their social interaction. The involvement of local governments, the private sector and thecommunity would also greatly influence the creation of sustainable green development pattern, andshould continuously be evaluated and improved for replications in other locations in an ever perfectprocess.KEYWORDS: Sustainability, green open space, participation, partnership.1 INTRODUCTIONUrban areas develop in line with the fast growing number of incoming people who are tempted tosettle because of the seemingly great attractions offered by cities which become destinations ofurbanization. As such, urban birth rate accelerates, increasing the demand for new housing areas.Urban spatial and land use planning develop horizontally and vertically, complemented by aproportional planning of the necessary infrastructure. Residential areas expand with the developmentof new settlements as well as through the renewal or improvement of several old housing areas locatedin the city centers, causing increased densities.Ideal spatial planning is applied to the new settlement areas through the creation of proper balancebetween closed and open, green areas to foster quality, healthy and humane life for the people.Bearing in mind the increase of global temperature during the last decade, which has triggered a greatnumber of natural disasters world wide, it has now become of utmost importance to apply the green-life principle for the benefit of the whole world. Essentially, green-life principle is saving andmaintaining natural resources in all activities which should be understood and applied by mankind.1 Lecturer, Departement of Architecture, Gunadarma University, Indonesia 1
  10. 10. [A-01]Initially, this principle should be generated and applied within every household, and further extendedto the respective settlement up to the entire district and urban levels with the ultimate goals of creatinga green development. Several literature and practices around the world reveal that green developmentcan be conducted through consistent green life style which should eventually result in a sustainablegreen development. It is therefore exigent to disseminate the principle properly, comprehensively andin a fast as well as in a target-oriented manner. Points to be publically communicated are for examplethe need to save and conserve potable water, decrease pollution by proper waste management, takingup healthy life style through the creation of clean, tranquil and verdurous environments which couldwell be done by increasing the number of shady and leafy trees in the dwelling environments.Furthermore, energy saving measures through making use of natural resources such as sun rays, wind,and waterfalls if available. The ultimate goal is to foster public awareness that would stimulate realactions.In the context of urban settlements, the importance and meaning of this principle is integrated into thespatial planning process through the planning of green open spaces in proper balance with the closedenvironments. The creation of green open spaces in settlements should be followed by the necessaryproper maintenance. This is a critical point as without maintenance all that have been initiated andplanted would eventually disappear which would curtail the expected impact against all theexpenditure and make the whole effort uneconomical. This would especially happen if the greenenvironment campaign is left to the local administration without being complemented by anycommunal action or role; the whole campaign would be totally ineffective.New residential areas that are planned and built by private developers, and which are generally cateredfor the middle and upper classes, have a well planned spatial planning with a properly balanceddivision between the closed occupied areas and green open areas. The maintenance of each green areain the front, side or back gardens is carried out by the respective occupant. The maintenance of greenopen areas outside the housing plots is initially carried out by the local administration, to be later takenover by the respective housing management and financed by the residents who are not directlyinvolved in the proper activities. In densely urban housing areas of the middle and low income groups,besides the limited open space within the settlement areas, the management depends on theparticipative and mutual self help actions of the community. In settlements without the communalspirit and self help actions, the principle of green living is naturally absent. This study puts the focuson such settlements.The clean city and green development campaign through the implementation of sustainabledevelopment has been conducted for one-and half decade. Quite a number of communityorganizations, communal self-help institutions, community oriented institutions within universities aswell as programs of local authorities have been actively involved in the efforts to anticipate andaddress the problems of this issue. Some have succeeded to achieve positive results and persevered,some have booked initial success but then meandered off due to inconsistent actions, though somehave even managed to achieve much more than planned. Those different cases in three settlements inWest Jakarta are elaborated discussed in the present study.The non-physical aspect, community participation, is further referred to as soft technology whichshould be properly planned; then there is hard technology which refers to complying with technicalcomputations. The two technologies should be integrated in a balanced manner in order tosuccessfully generate sustainable development programs. By conducting a study using a non-randomized experimental design through the application of control (Abramson, 1990), it has becomeclear that the program’s success is equally determined by the availability of partnership from thestakeholders which comprise the respective community, the local authorities and private developers.To obtain programs of sustainability, it is exigent to have the commitments of those stake holders inthe implementation of all the activities by also taking into consideration the aspect of process, besides2
  11. 11. [ A-01]the technical aspect, through the integration of the respective social, economic and environmentalaspects.2 SUSTAINABLE GREEN DEVELOPMENT THROUGH COMMUNITY PARTICIPATION APPROACHCurrently, the term sustainability has already become an everyday term that is so often used andwidely spoken; however, we do sometimes wonder if its true meaning is equally comprehended. Inaddition, it is also important to distinguish between “sustainability‟ and “sustainabledevelopment”. From several discussion on a number of references, it is concluded that“sustainability” in general means the capacity of natural systems to endure, to remain diverse andproductive over time. Sustainable development, on the other hand is the practice of humans arriving ata level of economic and social development that does not inevitably alter ecological balance (Slavin,2011).Sustainability in development programs is achieved through a multi-sector planning pertaining to theaspects of economy, food production, built environment, transportation system, utilization of waterand energy and waste management, all of which should be environment friendly. Hence, sustainabledevelopment is invariably connoted to green development or green life style. The ultimate result ofsustainable development is an improved social life. It is therefore necessary to observe the followingthree main aspects pertaining to the implementation of sustainable development: the environment,social and economic aspects all of which should be integrated intertwined. This comprehensivemeaning should be disseminated and socialized among all development stakeholders. The method ofdissemination and socialization should be effective and should not follow the pattern of moderndevelopment theory which tends to be ‘‘top down ‟; but rather, it should be conducted with theactive participation of all actors involved in the collective planning, formulation and implementationaccording to their different respective roles and abilities. It should be conducted in a participativeapproach by putting the interests of local communities as the focus of development programs whichcan be achieved by transforming ‘’experts‟ into ‘’facilitators‟ who collect local knowledge thatenable all actors according to their respective capacities (Hickey & Mohan, 2004) The activeparticipative role of stakeholders in development activities is determinative for the success of programsustainability in a holistic manner.The implementation of sustainable green open space development should be conducted in all lines ofdevelopment, including in the development of urban settlements through the integration of therespective environmental, social and economic aspects of the community. From several literature itcan be summarized that the aspects of environment, sense of openness and space for reflection havebecome the main focus of interest in planning green open spaces in the urban areas; this should first becommonly agreed by the community. The provision of green open space has the objective of creatinga balance in the rapid physical urban development; it is like providing treatment to the psychologicalmental balance of the urban inhabitants (Carmona,2003). Green life style will move the people toprioritize adopting natural sustainable system within urban growth that is currently solely motivatedby economic development interests. Psychologically, the creation of green open space would improvecommunity creativity due to the verdurous natural surroundings which would act as a mentalrefreshing agent for urban inhabitants, making them become more innovative and creative.Viewed from the communal social aspect, there are three points that need to be taken intoconsideration in planning sustainable development; they are the principle of democracy, the principleof justice and the principle of sustainability. Pertaining to the principle of democracy, the interests ofthe community should be prioritized and all the information obtained should be accountable to thepublic. Participatory planning that involves active participation of the public right from the planningprocess provides the solution to underline the democratic nuance (Servaes,1996). The principle of 3
  12. 12. [A-01]justice is implemented in a transparent planning system as it provides the opportunity of proportionaldistribution of the benefit and cost. The principle of justice dictates equal treatment to everybody,underlining the importance to manage natural resources for the benefit of future generations. Theprinciple of sustainability emphasizes the awareness of long-term planning. It is necessary toformulate development actions that put the focus on innovate breakthroughs in energy saving andconduct research in alternative proper utilization of resources so they can benefit the life of futuregenerations. The economic aspect entails economical fund management in the implementation of all developmentactivities. Solution to limited funding can be achieved by implementing development in stages.Problems may arise when development in stages do not run consistently, and in some cases it mayeven be impossible to continue the implementation, resulting in uncompleted development due toabsence of funds. For the implementation of successful and economically resilient sustainabledevelopment, it is most exigent to have a planning that would effectively take advantage of theavailable potentials; this could be achieved by building a sense of ownership among members of thecommunity so as to encourage them to fund the maintenance independently. As such, environmentalquality would be gradually established by the community themselves.The three above mentioned aspects need to be scrutinized and adjusted particularly to the respectivefield conditions, issues and potentials. Community participation starting from the planning stage up tothe implementation and evaluation of the program should be consistently maintained. Throughdiscussions with the community, an analysis could be made as to which aspect should be decided as anentry point for all the activities, in order to avoid possible impeding constraints.3 GREEN OPEN SPACE DEVELOPMENT IN URBAN RESIDENTIAL AREASThe terminology of ‘’green development’’ refers generally speaking to all environment friendlydevelopment actions, that emphasize maintenance and non-pollution of the natural environment, theinnovative usage of renewed energy, water conservation, limiting air pollution globally. In short, alldevelopment activities that do not destroy the ecosystem.Following are several results obtained from field studies at a number of housing areas in West Jakarta,using the non-randomized experimental design using control. The study observes the creation andmaintenance of green open space and green life style in three study locations. Before the developmentswere observed in the three locations, exposures and trainings were first provided on the importance ofsustainable management of green open areas by the community. The study locations were: RukunWarga (RW) 04 (citizens association) Housing Settlement, North Kedoya Subdistrict, RW 01 HousingSettlement, South Sukabumi Subdistrict and RW 05 Housing Settlement, Palmerah Subdistrict. In thelast two settlements, implementation of the development activities had been continuously monitoredthrough participative approach, and observations made in the first settlement, RW 4, North KedoyaSubdistrict, was discontinued after successfully conducting the initial training; the location was thendetermined as a point of control.Physical data of the three study locations show the same general characteristics: densely populatedsettlements located in the center of West Jakarta, people have easy access to enter and leave thesettlement although the road access in front of the houses are pedestrian paths, have public electricity,accessible to potable water with each occupant having his or her own ground water well, and theaverage earning of the family head belongs to the middle low income group working as labors, privateentrepreneurs with a few being civil servants. Due to the population density, the housing plots arealmost entirely covered by houses and the public space comprises the pedestrian paths in front of thehouses and very narrow front gardens.4
  13. 13. [ A-01]The study started in the beginning of 2005. The physical appearances of the green open public space inthe three locations were the same: they all depended on the government maintenance initiative whichin fact was very limited indeed. Community understanding about green life style was also non-existent, and as such the outside space tended to appear arid, hot and dirty. The action for clean livingand creating verdurous and cool settlement environments by the municipality was conducted followingthe relevant programs of the central government which comprised increasing awareness of urbancommunities on environmental cleanliness and greening of urban areas.Several locations in the city had been made as monitoring points for the “Adipura” award (forgreen and clean environments) which is a central government program . (Adipura is a tribute to citiesin Indonesia are managed in hygiene and urban environmental management) In the middle of 2005,the three study locations were part of more than a hundred monitoring points for the Award in WestJakarta. Consequently, the local authorities had intensified maintenance activities. The actions takenby the respective sub-districts were assisted by the West Jakarta Community Forum of EnvironmentConscious Community (an NGO in the field of the environment) and the Community Service Instituteof Gunadarma University which encouraged the inhabitants to actively maintain the parks and gardensby conducting information campaigns and periodic field actions using participative technology. Sincethe evaluation was done every four months and the findings were then disseminated nationally, thelocal communities were motivated to act in the third month after the first evaluation. Informationmaterial was drawn up with the participation of the community, and agreed upon before disseminationin the field. Members of the community were selected in a non randomized manner since the peopleliving in the study locations were given priority.In the first location, RW 4 Housing Settlement of North Kedoya Subdistrict (see Figure 1), drawing upthe program started by giving initial information and conducting the Planning, Agreement andImplementation Program which was discussed during three participative meetings led by a facilitatorfrom the Support Program who played the role of External Motivator. Initial Drawing up and Planningwas done three times at the beginning of the first three months through the formulating and to downthe problems that need to be solved, and formulating the follow-up steps and action stages which wereadjusted to the local available potentials. This was followed by monthly counselings and consultationsin the fourth to the sixth months. As the head chief of RW 4 was very enthusiastic and thecommunity‟s high awareness and eagerness to achieve result s in a s hort time, the creation ofgreen clean and healthy environments could be completed in the 6th month.(a) RW 4 North Kedoya (b) Stage 1 (c) Stage 2 (d) Stage 3 Figure 1. RW 4 North KedoyaAfter community participation had already been established, in the second month of theimplementation of program 6, the chief Housing Settlement received funding assistance from the sub-district head based on the results that had been achieved which was creating a clean, green and healthyhousing environment. One year after the program was under way, the location won the price in theJakarta competition of green and clean environments. As a present, the location received green supportprogram phase two from private sponsors. In addition, a number of green and clean cadres wereappointed to follow training on Green Development; they were among others trained in appropriaterecycling of waste water in order to maximize water usage, besides making simple absorbing wells.The community’s initiative to participatively build a multi-purpose shelter as a meeting venue for the 5
  14. 14. [A-01]people had given a unique characteristic to the location. Since community participation had alreadybeen firmly established, the maintenance and utilization of green open space becomes one of thediscussion topics during community meetings.The sense of ownership of green open space has become an established part of the community’s dailylife. In 2007 , the location was chosen as a model location for the surrounding area that has theintention to establish green and clean environments of their own. This year, RW 4 has become self-sustainable and independent as far as green and clean environment is concerned, and no more requiresthe assistance of outside motivators. That was the argument why in this study, RW 4 was made aspoint of control, since the other two locations are still working together with the supervisor who isacting as a partner consultant. In the second case study, RW 1 Housing Settlement, South Sukabumi Subdistrict (see Figure 2), thegreen and clean program was also implemented in stages using the participative approach. Theimplementation method did not differ much from that in the first location. The movement to create agreen environment through potted plants started in the first or third month. General environmentcleaning activities were also conducted periodically, every first Sunday of the month as agreed by thecommunity during a participative community meeting. At every community meeting, the location ofthe green spatial planning work program was discussed with inputs from invited outside resourcepersons. The new information transmitted to the community included management of householdwaste; waste is turned into compost for the benefit of the inhabitants and when there is a surplus ofcompost, it would be sold and the proceeds transferred to the community chest. As such, it was hopedthat all activities organized by the Housing Settlement would be self financing.(a) RW 1 South Sukabumi (b) Stage 1 (c) Stage 2 (d) Stage 3 Figure 2. RW 1 South SukabumiSince all decisions were communally agreed upon, including the time table of community meetings,and although mass actions pertaining to green and clean programs were not too often conducted dueto the citizens limited free time, it was still possible to establish and maintain greenenvironments albeit at a slow pace. The people’s sense of belonging to the programs was graduallyestablished. Green and clean activities were replicated in stages throughout the whole housingsettlement during three years. As of today, there are 5 field cadres (internal activity) in the RW 1community organization and consultations with supervisors who act as external motivators, are stillbeing conducted. The third location comprises RW 5 Housing Settlement, Palmerah Subdistrict wheremaintenance of the clean environment, greening of the environment and generating green culturestarted in the middle of 2005.Similar to the two previous locations, the RW 05 Housing Settlement at Palmerah Subdistrict (seeFigure 3) was inhabited by the low income group. Due to limited surface areas of the housing plots,the families in general, especially those with the status of extended families, had virtually no openspace since the houses were gradually and informally extended, eventually covering almost the wholesurface plot. The building density is very high and the open space has an average ratio of 10% of thehouse ground plan, while those whose entire plot are covered by the building. The pedestrian pathsrunning outside the houses are utilized as part of the outside open space. The atmosphere in this6
  15. 15. [ A-01]housing location is most suffocating and it is the typical housing settlement of the low income groupthat was gradually and informally built and expanded. This location was also included in the green andclean program with participatory approach. It turned out that within the first month, the inhabitantsalready started putting potted plants in the narrow outer space and even hanging potted plants abovethe pedestrian paths, and the pergolas along the pedestrian paths were hung with several decorativepotted plants. There were even rare traditional medicinal herbs. Community participation wasextremely high and every new program pertaining to clean and green environment was enthusiasticallyanticipated, among other things, by making compost from household waste and digging waterabsorption holes along the pedestrian paths in the housing environment. Mass cleaning programs wereconducted every Sunday. The sense of program ownership had already been generated and hadbecome a tangible part of the people’s everyday life. (a) RW 5 Palmerah (b) Stage 1 (c) Stage 2 (d) Stage 3 Figure 3. RW 5 PalmerahAlthough planning of green areas in stages had not yet been evenly conducted throughout the wholeRW housing settlement, the initial supervised location already yielded more than expected as waspartially evident in the activities of the environment cadres who participated in developing housingenvironments in other RW areas. Until today, the people in this location still work together with theinitial supervisor playing the role of a consultant for the implementation of their program through theparticipative approach. Observations of the three locations were conducted during the last two years of2009 – 2010 and the findings were quite astounding, The first case location which had progressedvery rapidly has now fallen into a critical time. The quality of greening activities and the planning ofgreen life style have declined. The program sustainability, that had been expected to be long term andsustainable, has become more uncertain; the situation is decidedly different compared to the last twolocations where the participative approach in program development is still conducted consistently.4 DISCUSSIONSThe initial important step taken in the three case study locations was to transmit the comprehensivesubstance of sustainable green development to the respective communities, and to foster theirawareness and appreciation towards it. Implementation of the program through participatory approachwas carried out by treating members of the community as the main actors, and by transmittinginformation on an equal footing. Considerable time was required to convey the explanation and alsosince in the participatory process consensus by all participants was constantly sought, includingtraining them to make self-assessments during the evaluation of activities.From the experiments conducted in the initial period in two locations, RW 4 North Kedoya and RW 5Palmerah, in 2005 and in RW 1 South Sukabumi in 2006, it became evident that the participation ratetended to increase when the community’s way of deliberations and needs were taken intoconsideration when formulating information materials as well as when implementing the program inthe field. The same applied to the community’s awareness on the essence of sustainabledevelopment. They showed strong willingness to implement all development programs in theirrespective areas, including maintaining and developing open public spaces and green housing 7
  16. 16. [A-01]environments in the following years (2006 and 2007 for the second location). A number of externalmotivators were required in the process of developing community’s participation. This was done bythe local authorities with the support of NGOs. In other cases, the community was able to make directcontacts with the NGO, without intervention of the authorities. In the first case of RW 4, NorthKedoya and the third case of RW 5 Palmerah, facilitators as external motivators came in the initialperiod from the West Jakarta Forum of Environment Caring Community who worked together withseveral academics of the Community Service Institute, Gunadarma University who provided thenecessary technical assistance.In the process of providing material pertaining to environment sustainability, social sustainability andeconomical sustainability, the local authorities had also been involved in their capacity as officialsresponsible for the area’s general well being. During the discussions, it was gradually realized whohave the potentials as leaders among the community members; they would then be geared to becomeinternal motivators and leaders at the same time. Such also happened in the second location, RW 1South Sukabumi where the NGO person was also a local inhabitant. By adopting the existingcommunity structure, comprising rukun tetangga (neighborhood association) and rukun warga(citizens association), the process of identifying people with leadership potentials in the three locationscould be achieved in the third month during meetings conducted every three weeks. In the fourthmonth, the community organization for each location was appointed with the duty to draw up theorganization rules that should be accountable to the community. In the end they were named‘’accountable organizations‟. The process of establishing such organizations required some timeand also the active participation of the community to develop social solidarity; this was necessary toensure that the established organizations would function properly. Solidarity function is a socialcapital and is the wealth generated by participation. The higher the community participation, thehigher the social solidarity of its member’s. For example, maintaining the open space is conductedtogether in the spirit of partnership to minimize the expenditures. The saved money could then beallocated to acquire additional facilities and plants for the public open spaces.Technical support provided by the academics in the spirit of partnership raised the community’smobility. For example, members of the organizations in the three locations were instructed by thetechnical support agents (NGO) in the technique of plant management and making compost fromhousehold waste. After implementing the acquired knowledge in their respective areas and havinggained experienced, they represented their organization and became resource persons in otherlocations that require their expertise. As such, the spirit of solidarity to the community’sorganizations was further enhanced and the solidarity among the members was strengthened.The improved solidarity was complemented by the growing commitment among community membersto keep their environments, located in such densely populated areas, clean and green; this took placethrough a process of several months. Working organizations among the inhabitants were alsodeveloped and through such organizations the inhabitants improved the cleanliness and greenness intheir respective areas. It was first necessary to convince the inhabitants of the benefits of the severalactivities before the spirit of solidarity among them could be strengthened. Their eagerness to keeptheir environment clean and green by placing as many planted pots as possible was promoted to othersub districts. In 2006, the green and clean movements had been widespread among other denselypopulated neighborhoods in other sub-districts. The Palmerah Housing Community for example hadtaught the technique of maintaining rare plants and they themselves were also taught by thecommunity of RW 4, North Kedoya on how to turn discarded packages into saleable handicraft items.The second location, RW 2 South Sukabumi also experienced the same process as the two alreadymentioned locations. However, it took a longer time. It was not possible for the external motivators toforce the program implementation through the participatory approach, and the role of the respectivestakeholders had to be called in. Green Development activities in the three locations were alsomonitored in 2009 and 2010. In RW 4, North Kedoya, which at the beginning of the live time span had8
  17. 17. [ A-01]fastly progressed, showed a decline in activities during the last two years. This was due to the fact thatat the end of 2009, no community meetings were conducted pertaining to participatory environmentmaintenance. It is not yet possible to establish the reasons why this had happened. What is alreadyclear, however, is that the External Activist should be immediately called infuse fresh breath in thecommunity organization in order for it to accomplish again its past excellent achievements.The experience gained from the above cases indicates that external and internal motivators areindispensable in order to generate and improve the communities’s awareness in maintaining anddeveloping the potentials of their environments. Prior to this, it is necessary to establish the sameperceptions and motivations among the inhabitants pertaining to what should be done. For furtherdevelopment, it is necessary to involve other stakeholders in partnership relation, such as privateentrepreneurs.5 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONSSustainable Green Open Space Development has an important role in supporting the social life ofurban communities, as well as in balancing urban ecological conditions. Both points are important forthe implementation of the sustainability principle into urban planning. Hence, it is necessary that allurban citizens should be informed of the importance of Green Concept in developing urban housingsettlements. This is especially true for communities living in areas with limited open public space. Therespective knowledge and new information should be continuously disseminated with the ultimateobjective of creating a common perception that is to be used in the implementation of futuredevelopment programs, particularly sustainable development.The Principle of Sustainable Development through Community Participation Approach should bemade known to all stakeholders and dissemination of this information should be conductedtransparently in order to strengthen the sense of ownership among the community, which isindispensable for sustainable development. It is also necessary to conduct law enforcement of alreadyexisting local rules and regulations pertaining to the conditions for green open space in urban areas.An agenda need to be drawn up pertaining to the formulation of participative role divisions among thestakeholders, with the focus on sustainable development. Data base of open public space owned bylocal authorities should be made and kept up to date.It is necessary to establish a partnership between the government, communities and the private sectorto arrive at a division of roles among the stakeholders, particularly pertaining to the creation of greenopen space in urban areas and to eventually maintain them and prevent them from deterioration. Suchpartnership would stimulate participative planning which would ensure that what have been mutuallyagreed would become the commitments of all parties concerned in conducting sustainabledevelopment activities.6 REFERENCESAbramson JH, 1990, Survey Methods in Community, 4th ed, Churchil Livingstone., New York, USA.Carley, M. et al., 2001, Urban Development and Civil Society, the Role of Communities in Sustainable Cities, Earthscan Publications Ltd, London UK.Carmona M., 2003, Public Places – Urban Spaces, The Dimension of Urban Design, Elsevier, Oxford.Craig, C and Mayo, M, 1995, Community Empowerment, a Readed in Participation and Development, Zed Books Ltd., London, UK. 9
  18. 18. [A-01]Hickey, S. and Mohan, G., 2004, Participation, from Tyranny to Transformations?, Zed Books Ltd., London, UK.Kersten, G.E. et al., 2000, Decision Support Systems for Sustainable Development, International Development Research Centre, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.Lineberry W.P., 1989, Assessing Participatory Development, Westview Press Inc., Boulder, Colorado. USA.Mattessich, P.W. et Al. (1997), Community Building: What Makes It Work, Amherst Wilder Foundation, Saint Paul, MN, USA.Nas, P.J.M. et al (1999). Modernization, Leadership, and Participation, Leiden University Press, Leiden, The Netherlands.Rizalsyah, Ady Thahir (2012) Generating Sustainable Green Open Space Development in Urban Residential, Proceding IsLivas, Trisakti University, JakartaServaes, J. et al. (1996). Participatory Communication for Social Change, Sage Publications,New Delhi, India.Slavin. L.M., (2011), Sustainability in Americas Cities, Island Press, Washington, Covelo, London.Steele, J. (1997). Sustainable Architecture, Principles, Paradigms and Case Studies, McGraw- Hill, New York. Spencer L. J. (1989). Winning through Participation, Kendall/ Hunt Publishing Co. USA.Williams D.E., (2007). Sustainable Design, Ecology, Architecture, and Planning, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, New Jersey, USA.10
  19. 19. [A-02] RESIDENTIAL MOBILITY AND SPATIAL EXTERNALITIES AS A CHALLENGE TO SUSTAINABLE URBAN SETTLEMENTS IN SURABAYA CITY Alen MIFTAHUL1 and Dian RAHMAWATI2ABSTRACT: Population movement more done along with the increasing development needs of urbancommunities that vary. The population movement in terms of meeting housing needs in the city, bothinside and on the edge of town, is called residential mobility. This movement became one of the maindrivers of change in land use in the short term, and changes in the structure of urban space in the longterm. Residential mobility has led to new patterns of living and a lot going on in the big cities indeveloped countries and in developing countries. The occurrence of the residential mobility isunavoidable, especially for the variables of human life-cycle and limited land in urban areas. Residentialmobility raises many externalities, both positive and negative externalities, especially the change of thestructure of space in big cities in Indonesia, including Surabaya. As the second largest city in Indonesia,Surabaya has a high attraction as a migration destination. This has an impact on the growing housingneeds where demand is then affects the occurrence of changes in land use and socio-economiccharacteristics in the suburbs city of Surabaya and surrounding areas immediately adjacent to Surabaya.Physically, this change appears to be an urban sprawl. Externalities posed a challenge in creating asustainable settlement area. The purpose of this study is to achieve the decisions about the effect ofresidential mobility on sustainable housing in the city of Surabaya. This goal is achieved through twoobjectives, namely (1) identify the general characteristics of residential mobility obtained through theliterature studies related to the phenomenon of residential mobility in major cities around the world; (2)analyse the characteristics of residential mobility and housing externalities generated in Surabayaobtained through quantitative-qualitative descriptive analysis techniques.KEYWORDS: Settlements, Residential Mobility, Housing Externalities.1 PREFACEAs the second largest city, Surabaya became the center of the development and growth with the veryhigh population number. The population doing movements, both in the city or outside the city in orderto get a better life. Population movements within the city known as residential mobility. There is astrong connection between residential mobility and the structure of urban space where the connectiongives the cyclical effects and cumulative impacts on the demand for housing and urban structure. Thecause of residential mobility is an internal factor, i.e. life-cycle, and external factors, i.e. housingsupply. Life-cycle is a variable associated with life events experienced by the households, includingthe age head of the family, status (married or divorced), the number of family members, occupationand dwelling duration. While housing supply include the amount of housing supply variable each yearand the growth of the house each year. Residential mobility can be seen as a demand for theavailability of housing. Increasing demand on housing has lead the externalities to the occurrence ofother housing developments. According to Brown and Holmes changes in the housing location inurban areas play an important role in changing the urban system and urban spatial structure. Moreover,the construction of housing also consume energy and require materials that can cause environmentaldegradation (Holden, 2004).1 Student, Sepuluh Nopember Institute of Technology, Indonesia2 Lecturer, Sepuluh Nopember Institute of Technology, Indonesia 11
  20. 20. [A-02]The research was conducted at Kenjeran District, Muloyerjo District, Sukolilo District and RungkutDistrict which are a suburb of Surabaya. The district has a development function which is mutuallyexclusive because it is directed as the enclaves of settlements, but on the other hand also have areferral to a conservation area. Sustainable development requires a combination and balance ofeconomic, social and environment, therefore, important to understand the forms of residential mobilityand housing externalities as external and internal factors to approach the sustainable urban settlementsin the context of the urban economy.2 LITERATURE REVIEW2.1 RESIDENTIAL MOBILITY; POPULATION MOVEMENT PHENOMENON AS AN ACCESS TO THE HOUSEResearch on residential mobility has been done in many cities. In various studies, some variables thatlead to residential mobility has been known. The decision to move has proved closely related to theevents in someones life, such as the establishment of family, dissolution and in particular changes inthe employment (Dieleman, the Caldera, 2011).Residential mobility in line with the way of life or lifecourse (Módenes; Puga, in Fullaondo; Cladera,2006), the major life events that led to the movement are marriage, child birth and divorce (Pujadas etal in Fullaondo; Cladera., 2006). Rossi (Feijten; van Ham, 2007) describes the connection between thehouseholds career and housing career, have an effect on the households decision to move. Life eventssuch as leaving the parents’ house, getting married, and having children often coincides with thedecision to move.Age of the household head is likely to affect household decisions to move. Younger households have ahigher tendency to move as compared to the older households. The existing evidence confirms that inmany countries, households between the ages of 20 and 35 years old have a higher tendency to move(Dieleman, the Caldera, 2011). Previous studies have shown that changes in the job over longdistances naturally require the house movement (Clark; Withers, the Caldera, 2011) and that thedecision to change jobs is closely related to the decision to move (Bartel, the Caldera, 2011). Thenumber of family members who have worked inversely proportional to the residential mobility. Thismeans that the more members of working families, the lower the level of residential mobility.Dwelling duration is also one significant determinant of residential mobility decisions. The longerduration of stay at a site, the lower the tendency to move. This proves the hypothesis of inertia thatinhibits the possibility to move because of the connections between the dwelling duration with thecurrent environmental conditions (Habib; Miller, 2007). Household characteristics such as number offamily members, marital status and age of head of household also influenced the decision to move(Caldera, 2011). Residential mobility is seen as a form of housing opportunities, demand andavailability of houses, urban renewal, and as a result of income, family size.2.2 HOUSING EXTERNALITIES AS THE EXTERNAL FACTORS OF RESIDENTIAL MOBILITYBrown and Moore (in Dieleman, 2001) divides the residential mobility process into two phases. In thefirst stage, the perpetrators are not comfortable with his current condition due to changes in certainparts of neighborhood. Along with the increasing sense of discomfort, bring the perpetrators to thesecond stage: the searching process of the house availability and the decision to stay or move. Fischer(2000) says that housing-related aspects dominate the movement, mainly because households wanted ahouse with better quality. At this stage, external factors have a significant role because of the decisionto migrate is influenced by the availability of appropriate housing to suit the needs of the offender.12
  21. 21. [A-02]Generally, the availability of housing the city involving various stakeholders, including thegovernment as the main provider of housing for low-income people in particular; private sector as aprovider of housing for people who are generally middle and upper because the main goal is profitoriented, and other providers are by themselves as has been widely described by Turner (in Rahmawatiet al, 2012). Availability of house or housing supply is closely related to the housing market, one ofwhich affected the externality of the housing is a development of the concept of economicexternalities, i.e. the impact of a citys economic activity is non-market (can not be traded) because ofmarket failure. Housing construction activity is one of the citys economic activity that is suspected tohave a strong impact on the surrounding, either positive or negative; impact on producers (in thiscontext, housing developers) and consumers (the general public, and the inhabitants of a particularhousing).The concept of housing externalities have been studied previously in the developed and developingcountries. It was found that in developed countries, the development and revitalization of an urbanhousing area has an impact on the increase in land values in the surrounding areas up to a few milesfrom the housing (Rossi-Hansberg et al, 2010). Meanwhile in developing countries it was found thatthe construction of a housing having an impact on the rapid growth of housing development in thesurrounding area resulting from the agglomeration economies (Rahmawati et al, 2012). Housingexternalities become a driver of increasing housing supply, where the higher housing supply isexpected to increase the residential mobility in Surabaya, especially in the countryside. The morevigorous the developers build houses, the more the land for housing and settlements and the possibilityto move from one center to the other areas will also be greater. In other words, the government policyin the context of housing and settlement development and the ability to adapt to the needs of real estatedevelopers become one the factors triggering the residential mobility. It is feared that it will be adecrease and the region has experienced setbacks dispersion. Indicator of the house availability will beillustrated through the supply of houses every year, while the indicator housing externalities will beillustrated by the growth rates concentrated in certain areas as a depiction of the agglomerationeconomies.2.3 THE REALIZATION OF SUSTAINABLE SETTLEMENT REGARDING TO RESIDENTIAL MOBILITY AND HOUSING EXTERNALITIES PHENOMENONSustainable city associated with the condition of housing and settlements within it. Housing is oneform of the specific aspects of sustainable development called consumption. The needs of housing andof course the needs of the household is a form of energy consumption in large quantities. Housingdevelopment in recent decades has led to the environmental degradation. Housing requires sufficientenergy for daily operational needs. However, Housing is not only consume energy. A large number ofmaterial required to operate and maintain the housing units. Including furniture and furnishings,technical purposes and electronic equipment, and other equipment in order to maintain and operate thehouse inside or outside. Individually, these products do not represent a massive consumption, but atthe same time these products consume enormous energy (Holden, 2004). Perhaps, the most prominentfeature on the pattern of energy consumption in the last decade is the increasing consumption thatoccurred in the transport sector. The house is often becomes the center of transportation consumption,where the house becomes the starting point of departure to the office, care centers, schools, shops andother activities (Holden, 2004).3 STUDY3.1 RESIDENTIAL MOBILITY IN VARIOUS CITIESIn many countries, research on residential mobility has been done and there are wide range ofresidential mobility characteristics were found. In the study, variables are known to influence the 13
  22. 22. [A-02]residential mobility. Rossi (Feijten and van Ham, 2007) explains that there is a close associationbetween the life of the household (household careers) and housing programs (housing careers) in thehouseholds decision to move on a journey of life. The study presented by Muhammad Ahsanul Habiband Eric J. Miller in 2007, suggested that in the Greater Toronto Area, the variables associated withresidential mobility are:  Age of the head of the family and the life cycle, such as the birth of children (number of children) have a significant effect on residential mobility. Young households have more tendency to move as compared to older households.  The number of working family members have inverse ratio to the level of residential mobility. The more family members working, the lower the level of residential mobility.  Dwelling duration also become one of the significant determinants of residential mobility decisions nowadays. The higher the duration in the current location, the lower the possibility of moving.  In various studies, the ownership of (property) is considered to be an important variable in explaining residential mobility.  The model shows that if the Decision Making Unit (DMU) is in a stable community, (no change over the past five years), then it affects the low level of residential mobility.  Changes in interest rates also affect the decision to move.  Distance houses, workplaces and CBD have a significant impact on the decision to move.While the research conducted by Aida Caldera Sanchez and Dan Andrews took place in all membercountries of the OECD (Economic Co-operation and Development), which includes 26 countriesaround the world and performed in 2011. In these studies can be drawn, namely:  Generally, the owner of the house, has a low tendency to move than renters.  In many countries, residential mobility among households living in social housing or subsidized housing are lower because they have to waive his right when doing movement.  Higher transaction costs in buying and selling property affects the low level of residential mobility, especially for a young group of households.  The availability of Housing (housing supply) is associated with high residential mobility.  Residential mobility tends to be higher proportional to the ease of access to credit (loan to buy the property). Further evidence suggests that younger households get more benefits from the greater access to credit in terms of mobility.From the research that has been conducted in various countries, it can be seen that residential mobilityis influenced by several variables that can be grouped into internal and external factors. Where thepaper is limited to internal factors related variables associated with the life-cycle, while externalfactors related to housing supply variables.3.2 RESIDENTIAL MOBILITY CHARACTERISTICS IN THE SUBURB OF SURABAYASpatial scope in this study took the suburb area of Surabaya, so the population in this study is theresidents of suburb of Surabaya. Where are specified districts selection studies over again on thesuburb of Surabaya which only has planned to be as conservation areas. Then to determine the sampledistricts, conducted by the delineation of districts based on the highest population comes. And thesedistricts are appertain of administration area of East Surabaya. The study took sample of 18214
  23. 23. [A-02]households spread over four districts to investigate the characteristics of the residential mobility.Internal factors (life-cycle) further translated into five variables, age head of household, marital status,occupation, family size and dwelling duration. While the external factors (housing supply) is theamount of housing supply every year and number of housing growth every year. Based on thedescriptive analysis and Likert scale, these variables are described as follows:3.2.1 Validity Test and ReliabilityBased on a primary survey Rungkut District, Kenjeran District, Sukolilo and Mulyorejo District, therewere 182 respondents who doing the residential mobility. In the results, the questionnaire are testedwith the validity and reliability test. Reliability values can be seen from the value of Cronbachs Alphaif Item Deleted while the value of validity can be seen from the value of Corrected Item-TotalCorrelation in SPSS test results. For the results of the test validity and reliability varabel presented inTable 1 below. Table 1. Validity and Reliability Test Results in Residential Mobility Variables in the Suburbs of Surabaya Validity Reliability Indicator Variable Notes (r tabel= 0,144) (α= 0,6) Age of the head of household 0,032 0,704 Not Valid and Reliable Status 0,317 0,678 Valid and Reliable Life-Cycle Number of family member 0,017 0,710 Not Valid and Reliable Job type 0,156 0,695 Valid and Reliable Dwelling duration 0,355 0,674 Valid and Reliable Number of housing supply Valid and Reliable Housing every year 0,543 0,646 Supply Growth of the house every Valid and Reliable year 0,467 0,662Source: Miftahul, 2012It can be seen from the table above that the age of family head and family size variables do not have asufficient validity number to be considered as variables associated with residential mobility in thesuburbs of Surabaya. In statistical tests, these two variables have no correlation values and thevariability that can represent the association on residential mobility. Meanwhile, below are presentedon Table 2 Likert scale results for each variable of residential mobility. Table 2. Likert Scale Results on Each Variables Level of Linkages Index Indicator Variable 1 2 3 4 Value Marital Status 10 51 61 60 133,75 Life-Cycle Job Type 9 88 64 21 115,25 Dwelling Duration 24 110 40 8 99 Number of housing supply 11 99 58 14 109,75 Housing every year Supply Growth of the 19 99 47 17 106,5 house every year Total 1377,253 Average 105,9443 The total amount is obtained from addition of all factors in each indicator, however in this paper, authors only described life- cycle and housing supply indicator.4 Value of mean also obtained from all the factors, thus the value of mean is 105,94. 15
  24. 24. [A-02] source: Miftahul, 2012Based on the results of the study, it is known that the age of head household, family size and dwellingduration variables have no association with residential mobility in the suburbs of Surabaya. This iscaused by a different response to each household on residential mobility variables. Thus, the variablesof internal factors associated with residential mobility in the suburbs of Surabaya are marital statusand occupation. As for the external factor is the amount of housing supply each year and the annualgrowth.3.2.2 Marital StatusBased on interviews with 182 respondents which have been done, it was found several factors relatedto the decision to move. One of the factors that are related is marital status. The fact on the studyshowed that all the samples (actors residential mobility) are in married status. From the Likert scaleresults also showed that the marital status having the highest scores. For them, marriage is the mostappropriate moment to move and have a house (residential mobility). Changes in the status of beingmarried has a higher tendency to move. Therefore, a new household demand for housing. This is inline with Rossi (Feijten; van Ham, 2007) that life events are associated with residential mobility.Figure 1 describes the results a study conducted using questionnaires. The majority of respondents from all four districts agree that marital status has an impact on the decision to residential mobility. As much as 121 of the respondents of 182 respondents claimed that the main reason they moved was because of the change in status (especially since the wedding). While the rest respondents do not consider marital status of his decision to move. Particularly, the reason is because the migrants have managed to buy a house before marriage. Source: Miftahul, 2012 Figure 1. Number of respondents of change in status variable3.2.3 JobRegarding the job variable, in this study, work is described as a career change, change of job sites oreven change the work itself that causes the household must make some adjustments to their homes.From the study conducted in four districts, it is known that the majority actors of residential mobilityhas a job as a self-employed (entrepreneur/businessman). Household characteristics including type ofjob, impact on the response of household residential mobility. Including the preference of householdsto a new house location. The Table 3 below shows the number of respondents for every type of job.16
  25. 25. [A-02] Table 3. Number of Respondents by Type of Job District Job Type Total Kenjeran Mulyorejo Rungkut Sukolilo Army/Police 2 0 1 0 3 Civil Servants 8 6 14 5 33 Entrepreneur/Businessman 17 25 10 27 79 Labor 4 3 1 2 10 Teacher/Lecturer 1 1 1 2 5 Private Employees 10 9 13 9 41 Retired 0 1 5 0 6 Other 1 2 2 0 5 Total 43 47 47 45 182 Source: Miftahul, 2012In certain cases it was found that the house be used as “working capital” and it cause the householdsshould move. They sell their house so they get money to expand their business. The case occurred inhouseholds with a head of household working as self-employed (entrepreneur/businessman). In fact,they moved 12 times. In this case, it appears that type of job in each household associated withresidential mobility, and it is dependent on the life-cycle of each household.Figure 2 shows the frequency for each type of job displacement on the districts studied. The majorityof households move only once. But the reason for their displacement varies according to thecharacteristics of the household. The frequency of residential mobility indicates how often thehouseholds move within the city. This will lead to higher circulation supply and demand for housingmarket in which households with a high frequency of residential mobility takes more houses. But theold house house is to be a supply for households who want to move. Source: Miftahul, 2012 Figure 2. Frequency of residential mobility for every type of jobIn Figure 3 below, it is known that the majority of households that move, have an income of Rp.750,000 to Rp. 2.5 million per month. This means that low income households are more likely to makethe decision to move. 17
  26. 26. [A-02] Source: Miftahul, 2012 Figure 3. Total Revenue for Every JobWhile in Figure 4 shows the data about the proximity to the trade preferences for each type of job. It isknown that the head of the household who works as a self-employed (entrepreneur/businessman) tendto choose the location of the house adjacent to the trading facilities. The reason is the easiness to gettheir daily needs and it is considered as a business opportunity. Location which is adjacent to thetrading facility will facilitate the household who works as self-employed (entrepreneur/businessman)to develop their business. Source: Miftahul, 2012 Figure 4. Proximity preference to the trading facility18
  27. 27. [A-02]3.2.4 Total House Supply Every Year (Supply)The availability of house in a certain location considered to influence household’s decisions to move.Mobility models often treat the supply of housing as an exogenous factor, purportedly becausecomplex government interventions in land use and in finance, construction and pricing of housingconstrain the supply of (new) housing (Strassman, in Dieleman 2001). These are presented on theextent of housing built by developers in every district. Tabel 4. Size of House Construction in Every District District Number of Developer Area Kenjeran N/A N/A Sukolilo 11 378,96 Mulyorejo 12 766,91 Rungkut 19 883,89 Source: Miftahul, 2012From the data above it can be seen that there are quite a lot of housing developers are doingdevelopment in the districts study. Housing can be an alternative to potential actors of residentialmobility. This availability has a close connection to the households decision to move. If theavailability of houses (supply) are considered better than the house occupied now, the household tendsto want to move. Moreover, if the household has increased economic or social side. So basically thedisplacement done to get a better life.3.2.5 House Growth Every YearThese variables explain the growth in the number of houses for a year. The growth of house can be ameasure of going phenomenon of residential mobility. Where the house growth is a form of demandincreasing housing needs. If the needs of housing increases, there will be a growing number of house.As noted earlier that residential mobility is one part in a housing market where every household thatdoes residential mobility needs a new house (demand) and leave the old house into the supply forother households. Growth of the new houses are also considered as a new residential alternative thatbetter be an option for households to residential mobility.4 CONCLUSIONReferring to the results of the study, residential mobility in the suburbs the city of Surabaya hasassociated with internal and external factors. Internal factors include marital status and employment,while the external factors are the supply of houses every year (supply) and the annual growth. Wherethese factors have an impact on the households decision to move. Reactions to residential mobilityfactor may vary according to the household characteristics. This study is important because of theever-increasing demand of the housing needs trial the balance of the sustainability in the urbanperiphery especially at East Surabaya. The further recommendation study is to formulate spatialexternalities impact level in sustainable urban settlement provision in Surabaya.5 REFERENCESAdjisasmita, Sakti, 2011, Transportasi dan Pengembangan Wilayah, Graha Ilmu Publisher, Jakarta.Habib, M Ahsanul. Miller, Eric J., 2007, Modeling Residential and Spatial Search Behaviour, Evidence from Greater Toronto Area, Toronto. 19
  28. 28. [A-02]Cadwallader, Martin, 1992, Migration and Residential Mobility: Macro and Micro Approaches, The University of Winconsin Press, London.Beatty, Christina. Lawless, Paul. Pearson, Sarah. Wilson, Ian, 2009, Residential Mobility and Outcome Change in Deprived Areas: Evidence from The New Deal for Communities Programme, Sheffield Hallam University, London.Caldera Sanchez, A. Andrews, Dan., 2011, To Move or Not to Move: What Drives Residential Mobility Rates in the OECD? OECD Publishing, Paris.Dieleman, Frans M., 2001, Modelling Residential Mobility: a Review Of recent Trends in Research. Utrecht University, Netherlands.Feijten, Peteke. Van Ham, Maarten, 2007, Residential Mobility and Migration of The Divorced and Separated, Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Jerman.Fischer, Claude, 2000, Ever-More Rooted American, University of California, Berkeley.Fullaondo, Arkaitz. Cladera, Josep R., 2006, Residential Mobility and Foreign Immigration Settlement in the Metropolitan area of Barcelona, Barcelona.Holden, Ering., 2004, Ecological Footprints and Sustainable Urban Form, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Printed in the Netherlands.Miftahul, Alen., 2012, Mobilitas Residensial di Surabaya Timur, Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember. Surabaya.Tjiptoherijanto, Prijono., 2000, Paper Badan Perencanaan dan Pembangunan Nasional: Mobilitas Penduduk dan Pembangunan Ekonomi, Jakarta.Rahmawati,, 2012, Kajian Eksternalitas Perumahan di Kota Surabaya, Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember Surabaya.Rossi-Hansberg, E., Sarte, P.-D., & Owens III, R., 2010, Housing Externalities, Journal of Political Economy, pp. 118 (3).World Commission on Environment and Development, 1987, Our Common Future, Oxford.20
  29. 29. [A-03]DEFINING URBAN ACUPUNCTURE AS AN ALTERNATIVE STRATEGY TO CURE THE CITY PROBLEMS OF INDONESIA Astri Anindya SARI1 and SHIRLEYANA2ABSTRACT: Urban acupuncture is an approach offered to cure acute environmental disease in the cityas well as improving the quality of urban life. As a combination between urban design and traditionalChinese medicine called acupuncture, this strategy views cities as living, breathing organisms andpinpoints areas in need of repair. The treatment is conducted by revitalizing some small strategic aspectsof the problem which could finally trigger other aspects to make good improvement. Public open spaceis one of the strategic aspects that affect the quality of the city. By doing some small intervention on it,we can directly improving the quality of urban life. Through comparative study on the application ofurban acupuncture in four successful public open spaces in the world, this paper attempts to study thestrength and weaknesses of the approach and the possibility to be applied in Indonesia. From theliterature study, this paper highly recommends inclusion of public space planning in the urbandevelopment. Further, it also strengthens the importance of joint planning between the government andthe community to avoid providing spaces in vain. Sense of belonging from the community can come upif the community involved in the planning and implementation. Thus creating attractive and uniquepublic spaces for the community in Indonesia is possible within limited spaces and resources.KEYWORDS: Urban acupuncture, public open space, quality of urban life, participative planning.1 BACKGROUNDBig cities in developing countries including Indonesia suffer significant urban problems. The socio-economic problems like poverty, waste management, uneven development, slums, traffic congestions,and environmental degradation become a common thing in the life of the urban society. Theseproblems represent the poor quality of life especially in the urban area.Jaime Lerner, an urban design expert, stated that the poor quality of life is the implications of the poorquality of urban space. Therefore, the essential requirement to improve and enhance the quality ofpeople in cities is to improve the quality of public open spaces. This would not be easy, since theurban problems has a strong chain reaction among the different socio-economic, political, andenvironmental factors. Appropriate methods and approaches are needed to break the chain thus thecurrent problems can be solved without creating new problems.The complexity of the problems is in need of urgent solving. However, it is difficult to find the mostappropriate approach to solve the problems. Many concepts offered from developed countries cannotbe implemented directly, since they have to be in accordance with the socio-economic conditions ofdeveloping countries, like Indonesia. There are differences in geography, socio-economic, culture, andalso planning systems.Another point which hampers the effort to solve urban problems is the perspective of the policymakers. Many policy makers assume the answer to cure such problems is sufficient financial resources1 Lecturer in Architecture, Widya Kartika University, Surabaya, Indonesia2 Lecturer in Architecture, Widya Kartika University, Surabaya, Indonesia 21
  30. 30. [A-03]and good capability of planning instruments problems (Lerner, 2011). As a matter of fact, financialresources have been encountered as the major problems of developing countries. According to Lerner,many policy makers in developing countries merely focused on the magnitude of the problems ratherthan finding ways to make their cities better through developing the cities’ potentials. This falseparadigm implies in the delay of improvement of the cities. This condition will further influence thepeoples’ point of view. People would think that urban problems were prominent and there is nosolution to find a better city. This can result in apathetic community, considering the poor quality oflife as a normal way of life with no effort to alter the pathetic condition.2 URBAN ACUPUNTURE AS AN ALTERNATIVE STRATEGY FOR IMMEDIATE SOLUTIONUrban Acupuncture is one of the alternative strategies to resolve the current urban problems withimmediate effects. It is recognized as urban acupuncture since this strategy combines urban designwith acupuncture, a traditional medical techniques from China. In Urban Acupuncture, cities areconsidered as one living organism with pinpoints areas in need of repair (Lerner, 2003; Harsema,2011). Cities are treated as one living body with its parts, thus when one of the body part started todecay, it should not be cut off. Hence, it is better to repair and make the organism work in differentway. The healing of this broken part will likely bring much improvement to cities instead of justsimply removing or changing it. “A city is like a family portrait. You may not like the nose of your uncle but you don’t tear up the whole family photo. You don’t do this because the family portrait is you.” (Jamie Lerner, 2011)Cities revitalization using the urban acupuncture should be done by giving interventions to the vitalparts of the cities. The successful of this treatment will eventually lead to synergism and improvementof quality of life in the surrounding areas and the city as a whole. Simply using this small interventionto the necessary vital part can minimize the cost for the cities revitalization and faster, compared as ifthe whole cities were changed. "Sometimes, urban planning is just too slow and laborious," Lerner has said. The acupuncture strategy is therefore "a way of supplying the city with a quick dose of energy, using few resources" (Lerner 2003). “A city consists of a complex network of interconnected spaces. These nerve pathways are not always visible, physically, but can also be constituted by intensity zones in the smooth space”(cf. Deleuze & Guattari, Thoughts).As mentioned above, Urban Acupuncture is a method to enhance the quality of the city through smallinterventions at critical parts of the city. One way to locate the critical parts of the city is to performmapping of the intensity of the community activities (cJuul | Frost Architects, 2011). Places with highintensity of activities can be identified as a strategic pinpoint of repair. On the contrary, the strategiclocations in the cities but having low intensity of activities from the community could be a sign ofdecay hence this area need intervention or improvement.Apart from the mapping method, the critical points of the city can be identified from their relation tothe main aspects that determine the quality of the city. Jaime Lerner (2011) acknowledged three mainkeys to the good quality of urban life: mobility, sustainability, and identity.The three main keys were applied by Lerner in his efforts to improve the quality of urban andcommunity life in Curitiba. The mobility is implemented through integrated public transport andinfrastructure planning, known as Bus Rapid Transit (Lerner, 2011). This system gives priority and22
  31. 31. [A-03]convenience to public transportation users. Eventually, this affects public preferences towards the useof transport mode. This successful strategy is evidenced by reduced number of private vehicles andtraffic congestion, which used to happen on the streets of Curitiba.The sustainability is applied by building a collective dream within the community and inviting them toparticipate to determine the future of their city (Lerner, 2011). The community involvement is neededto build their dream together to bring the sense of ownership and public awareness of the city to assurethat the projects will sustain. The community involvement in Curitiba for improving the quality of lifecan be examined from implementation of waste management. They can now have a higher awarenessto manage their solid waste and to wisely use the existing natural resources.To form the image of the city, revitalizing the city center is performed through the implementation ofpedestrian mall and historical area restoration. Besides, Lerner also planned a network of public parkswhich function is not just as a gathering space for community, but also to solve the drainage problemand illegal occupation of blighted areas. These parks also serve as vegetation and animal’s habitat. Allof these parks were designed with attractive theme and different character for a unique and pleasingappearance.All efforts are made with an emphasis on the functionality, begins with the community participation tobuild a collective dream. This good practice results in the enhancement of the quality of public spacesand the life of Curitiba citizens which has been significant increasing since 1940. Almost all ofCuritiba people feel happy to live there.3 PUBLIC SPACE FOR A BETTER QUALITY OF LIFEAccording to Jaime Lerner (2003), livable cities should offer a better quality of life. Big cities start tomiss the value of community and humanity, when cities fail to maintain the three basic elements ofspace: river, street and square- the public open spaces. To have a public life, a public open space isnecessary to be developed. Public spaces are the heart of a city. They offer open access for diverseactivities and social interaction (Madanipour, 1996). They can be in forms of nodes, focal points,symbolizing identities and culture of a city. Public spaces are tangible spaces with tangible qualitieswhere communities have social interaction, doing business or just relaxing (Carr, S et al, 1992). Inneighborhood context those spaces can be parks, playgrounds, playing fields, school playgrounds, andincidental spaces. While, in civic urban context, public spaces serve a bigger area like squares, plazas,and recreational spaces like parks, hospital grounds, transport and waterway corridors (rivers, canals,railways, and roads) (Wolley, 2003).Worpole and Greenhalgh (1996, in Shaftoe, 2008) mentioned the importance of public space as centralto questions sustainable, equitable and enriching urban life. Further, Wolley (2003) also emphasizedthe importance of a well planned, designed, and managed open spaces and community involvement toenhance the quality of life of the people. People do not want bland spaces, and those spaces will notbenefit their life. The benefits and opportunities of open space in urban context have been recognizedas: 1. Social benefits. Public open spaces provide spaces for event and activities, either for recreational, cultural, or educational purposes. Active and passive recreation involving communities can take part in these spaces. Active recreation allows active participation in activities for groups and sports, like football, basketball, or just jogging and walking. Passive recreation considers small activities like reading and watching children, vegetation, animals, and surrounding activities. All these activities provide facts that urban open spaces as a focus to community and even enhance the value of community attributes to its urban open spaces. 23