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The 3rd International Seminar on Tropical Settlements. Urban Deprivation: A Challenge to Sustainable Urban Settlements. Proceeding
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The 3rd International Seminar on Tropical Settlements. Urban Deprivation: A Challenge to Sustainable Urban Settlements. Proceeding


Seminar diselenggarakan oleh Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Perumahan dan Permukiman, Kementerian Pekerjaan Umum. Jakarta 31 Oktober-2 Nopember 2012

Seminar diselenggarakan oleh Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Perumahan dan Permukiman, Kementerian Pekerjaan Umum. Jakarta 31 Oktober-2 Nopember 2012

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  • 1. Proceeding3rd International Seminar on Tropical Eco-SettlementsUrban Deprivation: A Challenge to Sustainable Urban SettlementsOctober 31 – November 2, 2012, Grand Sahid Jaya Hotel, Jakarta – IndonesiaResearch Institute for Human SettlementsAgency for Research and DevelopmentMinistry of Public Works IndonesiaISBN 978-602-8330-63-3
  • 2. DisclaimerAll the papers published in this proceeding have been reviewed by the scientific committee. TheResearch Institute of Human Settlements has endeavored to the maximum possible extent to ensure theformat of all the technical papers to conform to the manuscript template requirement applied in thisproceeding. The Research Institute has made necessary formatting and minor editorial changeswithout altering the substance of the respective papers. Any views and opinions expressed in thepapers are solely those of the corresponding authors and do not necessarily represent the views andopinions of the Research Institute.
  • 3. PREFACEIn developing countries which are mostly located in the tropical zones, population is concentrated inurban areas. The proliferation of urban migrants has caused many people lack of access to many kindsof infrastructure facilities, such as sanitation, transportation, or durable houses. The reduction ofinequalities within cities has been constantly mentioned to the importance of sustainable development.Urban services should not discriminate against poorer urban inhabitants. Urban deprivation hasbecome a characteristic of large cities in all parts of the world, which mostly occurs due to the limitedcapacity of the cities to meet peoples needs. Therefore, to ensure future progress in the improvementof economic, social, and environmental conditions in urban settlements, we must begin withrecognizing and dealing with urban deprivation.Poor management and planning and the absence of coherent urban policies create urban problemsespecially environments rather than urbanization. Deteriorating environmental conditions can causeserious impact on human health and welfare, particularly the urban poor. Harmonized environmentscan only result from urban settlements that are planned, developed and improved by considering allsustainable development principles and their components. This concept has been adopted in mostcountries to address the issue of todays increasing world temperature, whilst the climaticcharacteristics relate to the form of cities, urban designs, and buildings.Since 2006 the Research Institute for Human Settlements has organized Bi-annual InternationalSeminars on Ecosettlements and this year’s Seminar is the third. It is a settlement concept thatharmonizes social, economic, and ecological aspects in the quest of developing a sustainable tropicalecosystem. Given the serious issues associated with urban deprivation, the 2012 Seminar’s theme isUrban Deprivation: a Challenge to Sustainable Urban Settlements.A total of 35 papers from different countries were accepted and categorized into three major issues:new approach in sustainable urban planning and design, ecological concern in green building andurban infrastructure accessibility. They have been orally presented in the parallel sessions on DayOne and Day Two. Optional field-trips were held on Day Three to Tapak Bumi Eco-village.On this occasion, I would like to express my sincere gratitude towards all the parties for theirremarkable contribution that made this Seminar possible. I do hope this Seminar can provide theopportunity for academics and industry practitioners to share their views and experiences from bothtropical and non-tropical countries on how to deal with urban deprivation problems.Jakarta, 2 November 2012Dr. Anita Firmanti E. S.Director of Research Institute for Human Settlements i
  • 4. STEERING COMMITTEE1. Mr. Djoko Kirmanto2. Mr. Graita Sutadi3. Dr. Anita Firmanti EDITOR1. Ms. Siti Zubaidah Kurdi2. Ms. Rian Wulan Desriani3. Mr. Puthut Samyahardja4. Prof. R. Suprapto5. Mr. Rahim Siahaan6. Ms. Nurhasanah Azhar7. Dr. Ing. Andreas Wibowo8. Ms. Fitrijani Anggraini9. Ms. Elis Hastuti SCIENTIFIC COMMITTEE1. Prof. Dr. R. Suprapto2. Ratna Inge Komardjaja, Ph.D3. Dr. Priyana Sudjono4. Mr. Imam Santoso Ernawi5. Dr. Dedy Supriadi Priatna6. Dr. Hideyuki Kobayashi7. Mr. George Soraya8. Ms. Natlja Weihmer9. Mr. Pasi Lehmusluoto ORGANISING COMMITTEE1. Ms. Siti Zubaidah Kurdi2. Mr. Puthut Samyahardja3. Prof. Dr. R. Suprapto4. Mr. Rahim Siahaan5. Ms. Nurhasanah Azhar6. Dr. Ing. Andreas Wibowo7. Ms. Fitrijani Anggraini8. Ms. Elis Hastuti9. Ms. Rian Wulan Desriani10. Mr. Iwan Suprijanto11. Mr. Tibin Ruby Prayudi12. Ms. Rydha Riyana Agustien13. Ms. Sri Maria Senjaya14. Ms. Adhi Yudha Mulia15. Ms. Nitnit Anitya16. Ms. Siti Sadiah17. Ms. Lucky Adhyati P18. Ms. Siska Purniati19. Ms. Roosdharmawati20. Mr. Yana Suryana ii
  • 5. 21. Mr. Sujarwanto22. Mr. Waridjo23. Mr. Reza Hari K24. Ms. Dhea P25. Ms. Siti Rachmawati26. Mr. Budiono27. Mr. Jajang Mulyana28. Mr. Sobar iii
  • 6. TABLE OF CONTENT PagePREFACE ..................................................................................................................................................iSTEERING COMMITTEE........................................................................................................................iiTABLE OF CONTENT .............................................................................................................................iv Issue: New approach in sustainable urban planning and designA-01 DEVELOPING GREEN OPEN SPACE IN URBAN RESIDENTIAL AREAS THROUGH COMMUNITY PARTICIPATION APPROACH By Agung Wahyudi .........................................1A-02 RESIDENTIAL MOBILITY AND SPATIAL EXTERNALITIES AS A CHALLENGE TO SUSTAINABLE URBAN SETTLEMENTS IN SURABAYA CITY By Alen Miftahul And Dian Rahmawati ..........................................................................................................................11A-03 DEFINING URBAN ACUPUNCTURE AS AN ALTERNATIVE STRATEGY TO CURE THE CITY PROBLEMS OF INDONESIA By Astri Anindya Sari And Shirleyana ..................21A-04 THE ACHIEVEMENT OF SUSTAINABILITY ON VERTICAL HOUSING DEVELOPMENT THROUGH WHOLE SYSTEM DESIGN By Christiono Utomo And Yani Rahmawati ...................................................................................................................................31A-05 RIVERINE ECOLOGY DEGRADATION AND HUMAN SETTLEMENT VULNERABILITY IN CITARUM RIVER BANK AND ADJACENT AREA By Harri A. Setiadi ..........................................................................................................................................41A-06 THE INFLUENCE OF VEGETATION TO THE INDOOR TEMPERATURE IN TROPICAL AREA By Khalid A.Mannan , Elisa Anggraeni , Aisyah N. Hayati Aulia F. Muchlis................55A-07 A STUDY ON THE EXTERNALITY OF GAS-STATIONIN URBAN AREA, A CASE STUDY OF BANDUNG, INDONESIA By Mahatma Sindu Suryo And Arip Pauzi Rachman ..65A-08 DEVELOPMENT OF A RAPID SYSTEM FOR URBAN AIR QUALITY INDEX MEASUREMENT BASED ON PHOTONIC CRYSTAL SENSOR By Mamat Rahmat, Muhamad Azis ,Erus Rustami, Wenny Maulina, Isnaeni, Husin Alatas, Arief S. Yuwono, Yong- Hoon Cho And Kudang B. Seminar ............................................................................................73A-09 THE SYSTEMIC DEPRIVATION OF URBAN GREEN OPEN SPACE: A CHALLENGE OF MAKING AN URBAN ENVIRONMENTAL-FRIENDLY By Martinus B. Susetyarto............85A-10 ECOTOURISM DEVELOPMENT IN THE ENVIRONMENTAL OF TRADITIONAL OF HUMAN SETTLEMENTS IN THE UNDISAN VILLAGE - BALI PROVINCE By Muhajirin And Iwan Suprijanto ....................................................................................................................95A-11 LANDSCAPE CHANGES IN DENPASAR CITY By Ni Made Yudantini ..............................109 iv
  • 7. A-12 MODEL OF GREENSPACE RANGE EFFECT TOWARDS SURFACE TEMPERATURE IN URBAN AREA By Putri Yasmin Nurul Fajri ...........................................................................119A-13 THE STUDY OF SO2 POLLUTANT EMISSION FROM BOILER STACK OF BIODIESEL PLANT USING ATMOSPHERIC DISPERSION MODELLING By Rosmeika, Arief S. Yuwono And Armansyah H. Tambunan ...................................................................................................129A-14 THE EMERGENCE OF INFORMAL RIVERSIDE SETTLEMENTS AND CHALLENGES FOR PLANNING: THE CASE OF KALI MAS IN SURABAYA, INDONESIA By Shirleyana And Astri Anindya Sari ..............................................................................................................137A-15 THE CONTRIBUTION OF HOUSING SECTOR TO ANTICIPATE THE INCREASED DEGRADATION OF URBAN AREAS: A CASE STUDY OF BANDUNG CITY By Siti Zubaidah Kurdi ..........................................................................................................................149A-16 HIGH-DENSITY HOUSING IN KAMPUNG BRAGA IN BANDUNG By Sri Suryani And Ismet B. Harun ...........................................................................................................................157A-17 THE CAPACITY OF URBAN ENVIRONMENT, A CASE STUDY OF URBAN KAMPONG AT BANDUNG By Surjamanto W And Sahid...........................................................................167A-18 LANDSCAPE O N LIMITED YARD AS A MICROCLIMATE CONTROL: A CASE STUDY OF MAKASSAR SUBURBAN HOUSING By Veronica N And S.Wunas ...............................173 Issue: Ecological concern in green buildingB-01 THE COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THE INFLUENCE OF BUILDING FORM TOWARDS THE THERMAL COMFORT IN FLATS BUILDINGS By Arief Sabaruddin And Rumiati R. Tobing ........................................................................................................................................181B-02 INTEGRATED DESIGN AND PLANNING PROCESS TOWARDS GREEN BUILDING DEVELOPMENT CASE STUDIES IN DAHANA OFFICE BUILDING AND MINISTRY OF PUBLIC WORKS OFFICE BUILDING By Dian Fitria...........................................................187B-03 PRELIMINARY STUDY OF GREEN BUILDING IN MALANG CITY; CASE STUDY OF COMMERCIAL PUBLIC BUILDINGS By Fitria A. Feliciani, Andika Citraningrum, Agung Murti Nugroho, Damayanti Asikin.............................................................................................199B-04 FLEXURAL BEHAVIOR OF REINFORCED LIGHTWEIGHT CONCRETE SLAB WITH WASTE PUMICE AGGREGATE By Hazairin, Bernardinus Herbudiman And Syarief Abdurrachman ...........................................................................................................................211B-05 THE EFFECTIVENESS OF VEGETATION AS A NOISE REDUCTION IN A BUILDING By Imam Baihaqi , Irwan Suminto Adi , Nur Lailatul Fitria Sulianto , Ernaning Setiyowati.........219B-06 THE INDEPENDENT HOUSE ENERGY FROM RESOURCES THE ENERGY OF POTENTIAL FROM ATMOSPHERE By Lilik Slamet S ........................................................227B-07 ENERGY-EFFICIENT STRATEGY IN JAVANESE TRADITIONAL HOUSE By Mohammad Pranoto Soedjarwo ....................................................................................................................235 v
  • 8. B-08 RESOURCES CONSUMPTION ASSESSMENT TO ACHIEVE FUTURE GREEN OF PRINCE OF SONGKLA UNIVERSITY, SURAT THANI CAMPUS By Piyamas Samsuwan And Somtip Danteravanich ........................................................................................................243B-09 PEOPLE’S BEHAVIOUR IN THE MARKET WASTE MANAGEMENT: RAU MARKET, SERANG BANTEN By Retta Siagian....................................................................253B-10 ROLE OF PASSIVE AND ACTIVE STRATEGY IN GREEN BUILDING CONTEXT By Sahid, Surjamanto W And Sugeng Triyadi.................................................................................261B-11 NEW APPROACH POSSIBILITIES OF USING A SIMPLE LIGHT REFLECTION FOR SAVING ENERGY IN URBAN BUILDINGS By Suriansyah. Y And Gunawan. R ................269B-12 PROBLEMATIC OF HIGH-RISE BUILDING FLATS IN INDONESIA BASED ON THERMAL COMFORT AND FIRE SAFETY PERSPECTIVES By Wahyu Sujatmiko , Hermawan K. Dipojono, Soegijanto, And F.X. Nugroho Soelami.............................................275 Issue: Urban infrastructure accessibilityC-01 BASIN MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS APPROACH TO OFF-SET INFRASTRUCTURE INACCESSIBILITY UNDER RAPID URBANIZATION AND DUE WEAK GOVERNANCE By J Matsushita And Suharyanto ...............................................................................................285C-02 STRATEGIC STUDY OF SPAM DEVELOPMENT IN PONTIANAK CITY FOR MDGS TARGET ACHIEVEMENT 2015 By Laili F. Mahdi And Prof. Arwin A. Sabar .....................297C-03 DOMESTIC WASTE MANAGEMENT FOR REDUCING RIVER POLLUTION: A CASE STUDY CIBEUREUM VILLAGE AND MELONG VILLAGE, DISTRICT OF SOUTH CIMAHI By Puti Renosori, Chusharini Chamid And Yuliadi .............................................309C-04 WASTE REDUCTION THROUGH 3 R (REDUCE, REUSE AND RECYCLING) PROGRAM: A CASE STUDY OF SURABAYA CITY, INDONESIA By Sri Darwati .........319C-05 OPTIMAL SCALE OF WATER SUPPLY PROVISION IN INDONESIA By Sri Maryati ....329 vi
  • 9. [ A-01] DEVELOPING GREEN OPEN SPACE IN URBAN RESIDENTIAL AREAS THROUGH COMMUNITY PARTICIPATION APPROACH Agung WAHYUDI1ABSTRACT: The increase of urban population is closely interconnected to the demand for livingspaces that accommodate various urban activities. When the balance between the need for, and theavailability of such spaces is disturbed, unlivable spaces are generated which would eventuallydowngrade the quality of urban environment. Bearing in mind the increasing clamor over globalwarming during the last two decades, urban planners should carefully anticipate the issue and put theirfocus on, and even provoke the creation of sustainable green space development, including the creationof open green urban spaces. Accommodating the aspirations and participation of citizens, through theapplication of the development principle based on “from, by and for them”, becomes a most important part of the strategy to achieve sustainable development patterns. The worsening environmentaldeterioration due to the stakeholders becoming unheedful about the issue should be taken into seriousconsideration. In the study, observations have been conducted in a descriptive manner by using a nonrandomized experimental design using control at three neighborhoods in West Jakarta, with one of thembeing the controller. It showed that after the first 6 months, the application of green environmentapproach in the neighborhoods was maintained through self-help and communal actions. Communityorganizations that have been established on the spirit of mutual cooperation becomes determinative forthe success of such sustainable pattern; the sustainability would in phases also improve the people’seconomy and their social interaction. The involvement of local governments, the private sector and thecommunity would also greatly influence the creation of sustainable green development pattern, andshould continuously be evaluated and improved for replications in other locations in an ever perfectprocess.KEYWORDS: Sustainability, green open space, participation, partnership.1 INTRODUCTIONUrban areas develop in line with the fast growing number of incoming people who are tempted tosettle because of the seemingly great attractions offered by cities which become destinations ofurbanization. As such, urban birth rate accelerates, increasing the demand for new housing areas.Urban spatial and land use planning develop horizontally and vertically, complemented by aproportional planning of the necessary infrastructure. Residential areas expand with the developmentof new settlements as well as through the renewal or improvement of several old housing areas locatedin the city centers, causing increased densities.Ideal spatial planning is applied to the new settlement areas through the creation of proper balancebetween closed and open, green areas to foster quality, healthy and humane life for the people.Bearing in mind the increase of global temperature during the last decade, which has triggered a greatnumber of natural disasters world wide, it has now become of utmost importance to apply the green-life principle for the benefit of the whole world. Essentially, green-life principle is saving andmaintaining natural resources in all activities which should be understood and applied by mankind.1 Lecturer, Departement of Architecture, Gunadarma University, Indonesia 1
  • 10. [A-01]Initially, this principle should be generated and applied within every household, and further extendedto the respective settlement up to the entire district and urban levels with the ultimate goals of creatinga green development. Several literature and practices around the world reveal that green developmentcan be conducted through consistent green life style which should eventually result in a sustainablegreen development. It is therefore exigent to disseminate the principle properly, comprehensively andin a fast as well as in a target-oriented manner. Points to be publically communicated are for examplethe need to save and conserve potable water, decrease pollution by proper waste management, takingup healthy life style through the creation of clean, tranquil and verdurous environments which couldwell be done by increasing the number of shady and leafy trees in the dwelling environments.Furthermore, energy saving measures through making use of natural resources such as sun rays, wind,and waterfalls if available. The ultimate goal is to foster public awareness that would stimulate realactions.In the context of urban settlements, the importance and meaning of this principle is integrated into thespatial planning process through the planning of green open spaces in proper balance with the closedenvironments. The creation of green open spaces in settlements should be followed by the necessaryproper maintenance. This is a critical point as without maintenance all that have been initiated andplanted would eventually disappear which would curtail the expected impact against all theexpenditure and make the whole effort uneconomical. This would especially happen if the greenenvironment campaign is left to the local administration without being complemented by anycommunal action or role; the whole campaign would be totally ineffective.New residential areas that are planned and built by private developers, and which are generally cateredfor the middle and upper classes, have a well planned spatial planning with a properly balanceddivision between the closed occupied areas and green open areas. The maintenance of each green areain the front, side or back gardens is carried out by the respective occupant. The maintenance of greenopen areas outside the housing plots is initially carried out by the local administration, to be later takenover by the respective housing management and financed by the residents who are not directlyinvolved in the proper activities. In densely urban housing areas of the middle and low income groups,besides the limited open space within the settlement areas, the management depends on theparticipative and mutual self help actions of the community. In settlements without the communalspirit and self help actions, the principle of green living is naturally absent. This study puts the focuson such settlements.The clean city and green development campaign through the implementation of sustainabledevelopment has been conducted for one-and half decade. Quite a number of communityorganizations, communal self-help institutions, community oriented institutions within universities aswell as programs of local authorities have been actively involved in the efforts to anticipate andaddress the problems of this issue. Some have succeeded to achieve positive results and persevered,some have booked initial success but then meandered off due to inconsistent actions, though somehave even managed to achieve much more than planned. Those different cases in three settlements inWest Jakarta are elaborated discussed in the present study.The non-physical aspect, community participation, is further referred to as soft technology whichshould be properly planned; then there is hard technology which refers to complying with technicalcomputations. The two technologies should be integrated in a balanced manner in order tosuccessfully generate sustainable development programs. By conducting a study using a non-randomized experimental design through the application of control (Abramson, 1990), it has becomeclear that the program’s success is equally determined by the availability of partnership from thestakeholders which comprise the respective community, the local authorities and private developers.To obtain programs of sustainability, it is exigent to have the commitments of those stake holders inthe implementation of all the activities by also taking into consideration the aspect of process, besides2
  • 11. [ A-01]the technical aspect, through the integration of the respective social, economic and environmentalaspects.2 SUSTAINABLE GREEN DEVELOPMENT THROUGH COMMUNITY PARTICIPATION APPROACHCurrently, the term sustainability has already become an everyday term that is so often used andwidely spoken; however, we do sometimes wonder if its true meaning is equally comprehended. Inaddition, it is also important to distinguish between “sustainability‟ and “sustainabledevelopment”. From several discussion on a number of references, it is concluded that“sustainability” in general means the capacity of natural systems to endure, to remain diverse andproductive over time. Sustainable development, on the other hand is the practice of humans arriving ata level of economic and social development that does not inevitably alter ecological balance (Slavin,2011).Sustainability in development programs is achieved through a multi-sector planning pertaining to theaspects of economy, food production, built environment, transportation system, utilization of waterand energy and waste management, all of which should be environment friendly. Hence, sustainabledevelopment is invariably connoted to green development or green life style. The ultimate result ofsustainable development is an improved social life. It is therefore necessary to observe the followingthree main aspects pertaining to the implementation of sustainable development: the environment,social and economic aspects all of which should be integrated intertwined. This comprehensivemeaning should be disseminated and socialized among all development stakeholders. The method ofdissemination and socialization should be effective and should not follow the pattern of moderndevelopment theory which tends to be ‘‘top down ‟; but rather, it should be conducted with theactive participation of all actors involved in the collective planning, formulation and implementationaccording to their different respective roles and abilities. It should be conducted in a participativeapproach by putting the interests of local communities as the focus of development programs whichcan be achieved by transforming ‘’experts‟ into ‘’facilitators‟ who collect local knowledge thatenable all actors according to their respective capacities (Hickey & Mohan, 2004) The activeparticipative role of stakeholders in development activities is determinative for the success of programsustainability in a holistic manner.The implementation of sustainable green open space development should be conducted in all lines ofdevelopment, including in the development of urban settlements through the integration of therespective environmental, social and economic aspects of the community. From several literature itcan be summarized that the aspects of environment, sense of openness and space for reflection havebecome the main focus of interest in planning green open spaces in the urban areas; this should first becommonly agreed by the community. The provision of green open space has the objective of creatinga balance in the rapid physical urban development; it is like providing treatment to the psychologicalmental balance of the urban inhabitants (Carmona,2003). Green life style will move the people toprioritize adopting natural sustainable system within urban growth that is currently solely motivatedby economic development interests. Psychologically, the creation of green open space would improvecommunity creativity due to the verdurous natural surroundings which would act as a mentalrefreshing agent for urban inhabitants, making them become more innovative and creative.Viewed from the communal social aspect, there are three points that need to be taken intoconsideration in planning sustainable development; they are the principle of democracy, the principleof justice and the principle of sustainability. Pertaining to the principle of democracy, the interests ofthe community should be prioritized and all the information obtained should be accountable to thepublic. Participatory planning that involves active participation of the public right from the planningprocess provides the solution to underline the democratic nuance (Servaes,1996). The principle of 3
  • 12. [A-01]justice is implemented in a transparent planning system as it provides the opportunity of proportionaldistribution of the benefit and cost. The principle of justice dictates equal treatment to everybody,underlining the importance to manage natural resources for the benefit of future generations. Theprinciple of sustainability emphasizes the awareness of long-term planning. It is necessary toformulate development actions that put the focus on innovate breakthroughs in energy saving andconduct research in alternative proper utilization of resources so they can benefit the life of futuregenerations. The economic aspect entails economical fund management in the implementation of all developmentactivities. Solution to limited funding can be achieved by implementing development in stages.Problems may arise when development in stages do not run consistently, and in some cases it mayeven be impossible to continue the implementation, resulting in uncompleted development due toabsence of funds. For the implementation of successful and economically resilient sustainabledevelopment, it is most exigent to have a planning that would effectively take advantage of theavailable potentials; this could be achieved by building a sense of ownership among members of thecommunity so as to encourage them to fund the maintenance independently. As such, environmentalquality would be gradually established by the community themselves.The three above mentioned aspects need to be scrutinized and adjusted particularly to the respectivefield conditions, issues and potentials. Community participation starting from the planning stage up tothe implementation and evaluation of the program should be consistently maintained. Throughdiscussions with the community, an analysis could be made as to which aspect should be decided as anentry point for all the activities, in order to avoid possible impeding constraints.3 GREEN OPEN SPACE DEVELOPMENT IN URBAN RESIDENTIAL AREASThe terminology of ‘’green development’’ refers generally speaking to all environment friendlydevelopment actions, that emphasize maintenance and non-pollution of the natural environment, theinnovative usage of renewed energy, water conservation, limiting air pollution globally. In short, alldevelopment activities that do not destroy the ecosystem.Following are several results obtained from field studies at a number of housing areas in West Jakarta,using the non-randomized experimental design using control. The study observes the creation andmaintenance of green open space and green life style in three study locations. Before the developmentswere observed in the three locations, exposures and trainings were first provided on the importance ofsustainable management of green open areas by the community. The study locations were: RukunWarga (RW) 04 (citizens association) Housing Settlement, North Kedoya Subdistrict, RW 01 HousingSettlement, South Sukabumi Subdistrict and RW 05 Housing Settlement, Palmerah Subdistrict. In thelast two settlements, implementation of the development activities had been continuously monitoredthrough participative approach, and observations made in the first settlement, RW 4, North KedoyaSubdistrict, was discontinued after successfully conducting the initial training; the location was thendetermined as a point of control.Physical data of the three study locations show the same general characteristics: densely populatedsettlements located in the center of West Jakarta, people have easy access to enter and leave thesettlement although the road access in front of the houses are pedestrian paths, have public electricity,accessible to potable water with each occupant having his or her own ground water well, and theaverage earning of the family head belongs to the middle low income group working as labors, privateentrepreneurs with a few being civil servants. Due to the population density, the housing plots arealmost entirely covered by houses and the public space comprises the pedestrian paths in front of thehouses and very narrow front gardens.4
  • 13. [ A-01]The study started in the beginning of 2005. The physical appearances of the green open public space inthe three locations were the same: they all depended on the government maintenance initiative whichin fact was very limited indeed. Community understanding about green life style was also non-existent, and as such the outside space tended to appear arid, hot and dirty. The action for clean livingand creating verdurous and cool settlement environments by the municipality was conducted followingthe relevant programs of the central government which comprised increasing awareness of urbancommunities on environmental cleanliness and greening of urban areas.Several locations in the city had been made as monitoring points for the “Adipura” award (forgreen and clean environments) which is a central government program . (Adipura is a tribute to citiesin Indonesia are managed in hygiene and urban environmental management) In the middle of 2005,the three study locations were part of more than a hundred monitoring points for the Award in WestJakarta. Consequently, the local authorities had intensified maintenance activities. The actions takenby the respective sub-districts were assisted by the West Jakarta Community Forum of EnvironmentConscious Community (an NGO in the field of the environment) and the Community Service Instituteof Gunadarma University which encouraged the inhabitants to actively maintain the parks and gardensby conducting information campaigns and periodic field actions using participative technology. Sincethe evaluation was done every four months and the findings were then disseminated nationally, thelocal communities were motivated to act in the third month after the first evaluation. Informationmaterial was drawn up with the participation of the community, and agreed upon before disseminationin the field. Members of the community were selected in a non randomized manner since the peopleliving in the study locations were given priority.In the first location, RW 4 Housing Settlement of North Kedoya Subdistrict (see Figure 1), drawing upthe program started by giving initial information and conducting the Planning, Agreement andImplementation Program which was discussed during three participative meetings led by a facilitatorfrom the Support Program who played the role of External Motivator. Initial Drawing up and Planningwas done three times at the beginning of the first three months through the formulating and to downthe problems that need to be solved, and formulating the follow-up steps and action stages which wereadjusted to the local available potentials. This was followed by monthly counselings and consultationsin the fourth to the sixth months. As the head chief of RW 4 was very enthusiastic and thecommunity‟s high awareness and eagerness to achieve result s in a s hort time, the creation ofgreen clean and healthy environments could be completed in the 6th month.(a) RW 4 North Kedoya (b) Stage 1 (c) Stage 2 (d) Stage 3 Figure 1. RW 4 North KedoyaAfter community participation had already been established, in the second month of theimplementation of program 6, the chief Housing Settlement received funding assistance from the sub-district head based on the results that had been achieved which was creating a clean, green and healthyhousing environment. One year after the program was under way, the location won the price in theJakarta competition of green and clean environments. As a present, the location received green supportprogram phase two from private sponsors. In addition, a number of green and clean cadres wereappointed to follow training on Green Development; they were among others trained in appropriaterecycling of waste water in order to maximize water usage, besides making simple absorbing wells.The community’s initiative to participatively build a multi-purpose shelter as a meeting venue for the 5
  • 14. [A-01]people had given a unique characteristic to the location. Since community participation had alreadybeen firmly established, the maintenance and utilization of green open space becomes one of thediscussion topics during community meetings.The sense of ownership of green open space has become an established part of the community’s dailylife. In 2007 , the location was chosen as a model location for the surrounding area that has theintention to establish green and clean environments of their own. This year, RW 4 has become self-sustainable and independent as far as green and clean environment is concerned, and no more requiresthe assistance of outside motivators. That was the argument why in this study, RW 4 was made aspoint of control, since the other two locations are still working together with the supervisor who isacting as a partner consultant. In the second case study, RW 1 Housing Settlement, South Sukabumi Subdistrict (see Figure 2), thegreen and clean program was also implemented in stages using the participative approach. Theimplementation method did not differ much from that in the first location. The movement to create agreen environment through potted plants started in the first or third month. General environmentcleaning activities were also conducted periodically, every first Sunday of the month as agreed by thecommunity during a participative community meeting. At every community meeting, the location ofthe green spatial planning work program was discussed with inputs from invited outside resourcepersons. The new information transmitted to the community included management of householdwaste; waste is turned into compost for the benefit of the inhabitants and when there is a surplus ofcompost, it would be sold and the proceeds transferred to the community chest. As such, it was hopedthat all activities organized by the Housing Settlement would be self financing.(a) RW 1 South Sukabumi (b) Stage 1 (c) Stage 2 (d) Stage 3 Figure 2. RW 1 South SukabumiSince all decisions were communally agreed upon, including the time table of community meetings,and although mass actions pertaining to green and clean programs were not too often conducted dueto the citizens limited free time, it was still possible to establish and maintain greenenvironments albeit at a slow pace. The people’s sense of belonging to the programs was graduallyestablished. Green and clean activities were replicated in stages throughout the whole housingsettlement during three years. As of today, there are 5 field cadres (internal activity) in the RW 1community organization and consultations with supervisors who act as external motivators, are stillbeing conducted. The third location comprises RW 5 Housing Settlement, Palmerah Subdistrict wheremaintenance of the clean environment, greening of the environment and generating green culturestarted in the middle of 2005.Similar to the two previous locations, the RW 05 Housing Settlement at Palmerah Subdistrict (seeFigure 3) was inhabited by the low income group. Due to limited surface areas of the housing plots,the families in general, especially those with the status of extended families, had virtually no openspace since the houses were gradually and informally extended, eventually covering almost the wholesurface plot. The building density is very high and the open space has an average ratio of 10% of thehouse ground plan, while those whose entire plot are covered by the building. The pedestrian pathsrunning outside the houses are utilized as part of the outside open space. The atmosphere in this6
  • 15. [ A-01]housing location is most suffocating and it is the typical housing settlement of the low income groupthat was gradually and informally built and expanded. This location was also included in the green andclean program with participatory approach. It turned out that within the first month, the inhabitantsalready started putting potted plants in the narrow outer space and even hanging potted plants abovethe pedestrian paths, and the pergolas along the pedestrian paths were hung with several decorativepotted plants. There were even rare traditional medicinal herbs. Community participation wasextremely high and every new program pertaining to clean and green environment was enthusiasticallyanticipated, among other things, by making compost from household waste and digging waterabsorption holes along the pedestrian paths in the housing environment. Mass cleaning programs wereconducted every Sunday. The sense of program ownership had already been generated and hadbecome a tangible part of the people’s everyday life. (a) RW 5 Palmerah (b) Stage 1 (c) Stage 2 (d) Stage 3 Figure 3. RW 5 PalmerahAlthough planning of green areas in stages had not yet been evenly conducted throughout the wholeRW housing settlement, the initial supervised location already yielded more than expected as waspartially evident in the activities of the environment cadres who participated in developing housingenvironments in other RW areas. Until today, the people in this location still work together with theinitial supervisor playing the role of a consultant for the implementation of their program through theparticipative approach. Observations of the three locations were conducted during the last two years of2009 – 2010 and the findings were quite astounding, The first case location which had progressedvery rapidly has now fallen into a critical time. The quality of greening activities and the planning ofgreen life style have declined. The program sustainability, that had been expected to be long term andsustainable, has become more uncertain; the situation is decidedly different compared to the last twolocations where the participative approach in program development is still conducted consistently.4 DISCUSSIONSThe initial important step taken in the three case study locations was to transmit the comprehensivesubstance of sustainable green development to the respective communities, and to foster theirawareness and appreciation towards it. Implementation of the program through participatory approachwas carried out by treating members of the community as the main actors, and by transmittinginformation on an equal footing. Considerable time was required to convey the explanation and alsosince in the participatory process consensus by all participants was constantly sought, includingtraining them to make self-assessments during the evaluation of activities.From the experiments conducted in the initial period in two locations, RW 4 North Kedoya and RW 5Palmerah, in 2005 and in RW 1 South Sukabumi in 2006, it became evident that the participation ratetended to increase when the community’s way of deliberations and needs were taken intoconsideration when formulating information materials as well as when implementing the program inthe field. The same applied to the community’s awareness on the essence of sustainabledevelopment. They showed strong willingness to implement all development programs in theirrespective areas, including maintaining and developing open public spaces and green housing 7
  • 16. [A-01]environments in the following years (2006 and 2007 for the second location). A number of externalmotivators were required in the process of developing community’s participation. This was done bythe local authorities with the support of NGOs. In other cases, the community was able to make directcontacts with the NGO, without intervention of the authorities. In the first case of RW 4, NorthKedoya and the third case of RW 5 Palmerah, facilitators as external motivators came in the initialperiod from the West Jakarta Forum of Environment Caring Community who worked together withseveral academics of the Community Service Institute, Gunadarma University who provided thenecessary technical assistance.In the process of providing material pertaining to environment sustainability, social sustainability andeconomical sustainability, the local authorities had also been involved in their capacity as officialsresponsible for the area’s general well being. During the discussions, it was gradually realized whohave the potentials as leaders among the community members; they would then be geared to becomeinternal motivators and leaders at the same time. Such also happened in the second location, RW 1South Sukabumi where the NGO person was also a local inhabitant. By adopting the existingcommunity structure, comprising rukun tetangga (neighborhood association) and rukun warga(citizens association), the process of identifying people with leadership potentials in the three locationscould be achieved in the third month during meetings conducted every three weeks. In the fourthmonth, the community organization for each location was appointed with the duty to draw up theorganization rules that should be accountable to the community. In the end they were named‘’accountable organizations‟. The process of establishing such organizations required some timeand also the active participation of the community to develop social solidarity; this was necessary toensure that the established organizations would function properly. Solidarity function is a socialcapital and is the wealth generated by participation. The higher the community participation, thehigher the social solidarity of its member’s. For example, maintaining the open space is conductedtogether in the spirit of partnership to minimize the expenditures. The saved money could then beallocated to acquire additional facilities and plants for the public open spaces.Technical support provided by the academics in the spirit of partnership raised the community’smobility. For example, members of the organizations in the three locations were instructed by thetechnical support agents (NGO) in the technique of plant management and making compost fromhousehold waste. After implementing the acquired knowledge in their respective areas and havinggained experienced, they represented their organization and became resource persons in otherlocations that require their expertise. As such, the spirit of solidarity to the community’sorganizations was further enhanced and the solidarity among the members was strengthened.The improved solidarity was complemented by the growing commitment among community membersto keep their environments, located in such densely populated areas, clean and green; this took placethrough a process of several months. Working organizations among the inhabitants were alsodeveloped and through such organizations the inhabitants improved the cleanliness and greenness intheir respective areas. It was first necessary to convince the inhabitants of the benefits of the severalactivities before the spirit of solidarity among them could be strengthened. Their eagerness to keeptheir environment clean and green by placing as many planted pots as possible was promoted to othersub districts. In 2006, the green and clean movements had been widespread among other denselypopulated neighborhoods in other sub-districts. The Palmerah Housing Community for example hadtaught the technique of maintaining rare plants and they themselves were also taught by thecommunity of RW 4, North Kedoya on how to turn discarded packages into saleable handicraft items.The second location, RW 2 South Sukabumi also experienced the same process as the two alreadymentioned locations. However, it took a longer time. It was not possible for the external motivators toforce the program implementation through the participatory approach, and the role of the respectivestakeholders had to be called in. Green Development activities in the three locations were alsomonitored in 2009 and 2010. In RW 4, North Kedoya, which at the beginning of the live time span had8
  • 17. [ A-01]fastly progressed, showed a decline in activities during the last two years. This was due to the fact thatat the end of 2009, no community meetings were conducted pertaining to participatory environmentmaintenance. It is not yet possible to establish the reasons why this had happened. What is alreadyclear, however, is that the External Activist should be immediately called infuse fresh breath in thecommunity organization in order for it to accomplish again its past excellent achievements.The experience gained from the above cases indicates that external and internal motivators areindispensable in order to generate and improve the communities’s awareness in maintaining anddeveloping the potentials of their environments. Prior to this, it is necessary to establish the sameperceptions and motivations among the inhabitants pertaining to what should be done. For furtherdevelopment, it is necessary to involve other stakeholders in partnership relation, such as privateentrepreneurs.5 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONSSustainable Green Open Space Development has an important role in supporting the social life ofurban communities, as well as in balancing urban ecological conditions. Both points are important forthe implementation of the sustainability principle into urban planning. Hence, it is necessary that allurban citizens should be informed of the importance of Green Concept in developing urban housingsettlements. This is especially true for communities living in areas with limited open public space. Therespective knowledge and new information should be continuously disseminated with the ultimateobjective of creating a common perception that is to be used in the implementation of futuredevelopment programs, particularly sustainable development.The Principle of Sustainable Development through Community Participation Approach should bemade known to all stakeholders and dissemination of this information should be conductedtransparently in order to strengthen the sense of ownership among the community, which isindispensable for sustainable development. It is also necessary to conduct law enforcement of alreadyexisting local rules and regulations pertaining to the conditions for green open space in urban areas.An agenda need to be drawn up pertaining to the formulation of participative role divisions among thestakeholders, with the focus on sustainable development. Data base of open public space owned bylocal authorities should be made and kept up to date.It is necessary to establish a partnership between the government, communities and the private sectorto arrive at a division of roles among the stakeholders, particularly pertaining to the creation of greenopen space in urban areas and to eventually maintain them and prevent them from deterioration. Suchpartnership would stimulate participative planning which would ensure that what have been mutuallyagreed would become the commitments of all parties concerned in conducting sustainabledevelopment activities.6 REFERENCESAbramson JH, 1990, Survey Methods in Community, 4th ed, Churchil Livingstone., New York, USA.Carley, M. et al., 2001, Urban Development and Civil Society, the Role of Communities in Sustainable Cities, Earthscan Publications Ltd, London UK.Carmona M. et.al., 2003, Public Places – Urban Spaces, The Dimension of Urban Design, Elsevier, Oxford.Craig, C and Mayo, M, 1995, Community Empowerment, a Readed in Participation and Development, Zed Books Ltd., London, UK. 9
  • 18. [A-01]Hickey, S. and Mohan, G., 2004, Participation, from Tyranny to Transformations?, Zed Books Ltd., London, UK.Kersten, G.E. et al., 2000, Decision Support Systems for Sustainable Development, International Development Research Centre, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.Lineberry W.P., 1989, Assessing Participatory Development, Westview Press Inc., Boulder, Colorado. USA.Mattessich, P.W. et Al. (1997), Community Building: What Makes It Work, Amherst Wilder Foundation, Saint Paul, MN, USA.Nas, P.J.M. et al (1999). Modernization, Leadership, and Participation, Leiden University Press, Leiden, The Netherlands.Rizalsyah, Ady Thahir (2012) Generating Sustainable Green Open Space Development in Urban Residential, Proceding IsLivas, Trisakti University, JakartaServaes, J. et al. (1996). Participatory Communication for Social Change, Sage Publications,New Delhi, India.Slavin. L.M., (2011), Sustainability in Americas Cities, Island Press, Washington, Covelo, London.Steele, J. (1997). Sustainable Architecture, Principles, Paradigms and Case Studies, McGraw- Hill, New York. Spencer L. J. (1989). Winning through Participation, Kendall/ Hunt Publishing Co. USA.Williams D.E., (2007). Sustainable Design, Ecology, Architecture, and Planning, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, New Jersey, USA.10
  • 19. [A-02] RESIDENTIAL MOBILITY AND SPATIAL EXTERNALITIES AS A CHALLENGE TO SUSTAINABLE URBAN SETTLEMENTS IN SURABAYA CITY Alen MIFTAHUL1 and Dian RAHMAWATI2ABSTRACT: Population movement more done along with the increasing development needs of urbancommunities that vary. The population movement in terms of meeting housing needs in the city, bothinside and on the edge of town, is called residential mobility. This movement became one of the maindrivers of change in land use in the short term, and changes in the structure of urban space in the longterm. Residential mobility has led to new patterns of living and a lot going on in the big cities indeveloped countries and in developing countries. The occurrence of the residential mobility isunavoidable, especially for the variables of human life-cycle and limited land in urban areas. Residentialmobility raises many externalities, both positive and negative externalities, especially the change of thestructure of space in big cities in Indonesia, including Surabaya. As the second largest city in Indonesia,Surabaya has a high attraction as a migration destination. This has an impact on the growing housingneeds where demand is then affects the occurrence of changes in land use and socio-economiccharacteristics in the suburbs city of Surabaya and surrounding areas immediately adjacent to Surabaya.Physically, this change appears to be an urban sprawl. Externalities posed a challenge in creating asustainable settlement area. The purpose of this study is to achieve the decisions about the effect ofresidential mobility on sustainable housing in the city of Surabaya. This goal is achieved through twoobjectives, namely (1) identify the general characteristics of residential mobility obtained through theliterature studies related to the phenomenon of residential mobility in major cities around the world; (2)analyse the characteristics of residential mobility and housing externalities generated in Surabayaobtained through quantitative-qualitative descriptive analysis techniques.KEYWORDS: Settlements, Residential Mobility, Housing Externalities.1 PREFACEAs the second largest city, Surabaya became the center of the development and growth with the veryhigh population number. The population doing movements, both in the city or outside the city in orderto get a better life. Population movements within the city known as residential mobility. There is astrong connection between residential mobility and the structure of urban space where the connectiongives the cyclical effects and cumulative impacts on the demand for housing and urban structure. Thecause of residential mobility is an internal factor, i.e. life-cycle, and external factors, i.e. housingsupply. Life-cycle is a variable associated with life events experienced by the households, includingthe age head of the family, status (married or divorced), the number of family members, occupationand dwelling duration. While housing supply include the amount of housing supply variable each yearand the growth of the house each year. Residential mobility can be seen as a demand for theavailability of housing. Increasing demand on housing has lead the externalities to the occurrence ofother housing developments. According to Brown and Holmes changes in the housing location inurban areas play an important role in changing the urban system and urban spatial structure. Moreover,the construction of housing also consume energy and require materials that can cause environmentaldegradation (Holden, 2004).1 Student, Sepuluh Nopember Institute of Technology, Indonesia2 Lecturer, Sepuluh Nopember Institute of Technology, Indonesia 11
  • 20. [A-02]The research was conducted at Kenjeran District, Muloyerjo District, Sukolilo District and RungkutDistrict which are a suburb of Surabaya. The district has a development function which is mutuallyexclusive because it is directed as the enclaves of settlements, but on the other hand also have areferral to a conservation area. Sustainable development requires a combination and balance ofeconomic, social and environment, therefore, important to understand the forms of residential mobilityand housing externalities as external and internal factors to approach the sustainable urban settlementsin the context of the urban economy.2 LITERATURE REVIEW2.1 RESIDENTIAL MOBILITY; POPULATION MOVEMENT PHENOMENON AS AN ACCESS TO THE HOUSEResearch on residential mobility has been done in many cities. In various studies, some variables thatlead to residential mobility has been known. The decision to move has proved closely related to theevents in someones life, such as the establishment of family, dissolution and in particular changes inthe employment (Dieleman, the Caldera, 2011).Residential mobility in line with the way of life or lifecourse (Módenes; Puga, in Fullaondo; Cladera,2006), the major life events that led to the movement are marriage, child birth and divorce (Pujadas etal in Fullaondo; Cladera., 2006). Rossi (Feijten; van Ham, 2007) describes the connection between thehouseholds career and housing career, have an effect on the households decision to move. Life eventssuch as leaving the parents’ house, getting married, and having children often coincides with thedecision to move.Age of the household head is likely to affect household decisions to move. Younger households have ahigher tendency to move as compared to the older households. The existing evidence confirms that inmany countries, households between the ages of 20 and 35 years old have a higher tendency to move(Dieleman, the Caldera, 2011). Previous studies have shown that changes in the job over longdistances naturally require the house movement (Clark; Withers, the Caldera, 2011) and that thedecision to change jobs is closely related to the decision to move (Bartel, the Caldera, 2011). Thenumber of family members who have worked inversely proportional to the residential mobility. Thismeans that the more members of working families, the lower the level of residential mobility.Dwelling duration is also one significant determinant of residential mobility decisions. The longerduration of stay at a site, the lower the tendency to move. This proves the hypothesis of inertia thatinhibits the possibility to move because of the connections between the dwelling duration with thecurrent environmental conditions (Habib; Miller, 2007). Household characteristics such as number offamily members, marital status and age of head of household also influenced the decision to move(Caldera, 2011). Residential mobility is seen as a form of housing opportunities, demand andavailability of houses, urban renewal, and as a result of income, family size.2.2 HOUSING EXTERNALITIES AS THE EXTERNAL FACTORS OF RESIDENTIAL MOBILITYBrown and Moore (in Dieleman, 2001) divides the residential mobility process into two phases. In thefirst stage, the perpetrators are not comfortable with his current condition due to changes in certainparts of neighborhood. Along with the increasing sense of discomfort, bring the perpetrators to thesecond stage: the searching process of the house availability and the decision to stay or move. Fischer(2000) says that housing-related aspects dominate the movement, mainly because households wanted ahouse with better quality. At this stage, external factors have a significant role because of the decisionto migrate is influenced by the availability of appropriate housing to suit the needs of the offender.12
  • 21. [A-02]Generally, the availability of housing the city involving various stakeholders, including thegovernment as the main provider of housing for low-income people in particular; private sector as aprovider of housing for people who are generally middle and upper because the main goal is profitoriented, and other providers are by themselves as has been widely described by Turner (in Rahmawatiet al, 2012). Availability of house or housing supply is closely related to the housing market, one ofwhich affected the externality of the housing is a development of the concept of economicexternalities, i.e. the impact of a citys economic activity is non-market (can not be traded) because ofmarket failure. Housing construction activity is one of the citys economic activity that is suspected tohave a strong impact on the surrounding, either positive or negative; impact on producers (in thiscontext, housing developers) and consumers (the general public, and the inhabitants of a particularhousing).The concept of housing externalities have been studied previously in the developed and developingcountries. It was found that in developed countries, the development and revitalization of an urbanhousing area has an impact on the increase in land values in the surrounding areas up to a few milesfrom the housing (Rossi-Hansberg et al, 2010). Meanwhile in developing countries it was found thatthe construction of a housing having an impact on the rapid growth of housing development in thesurrounding area resulting from the agglomeration economies (Rahmawati et al, 2012). Housingexternalities become a driver of increasing housing supply, where the higher housing supply isexpected to increase the residential mobility in Surabaya, especially in the countryside. The morevigorous the developers build houses, the more the land for housing and settlements and the possibilityto move from one center to the other areas will also be greater. In other words, the government policyin the context of housing and settlement development and the ability to adapt to the needs of real estatedevelopers become one the factors triggering the residential mobility. It is feared that it will be adecrease and the region has experienced setbacks dispersion. Indicator of the house availability will beillustrated through the supply of houses every year, while the indicator housing externalities will beillustrated by the growth rates concentrated in certain areas as a depiction of the agglomerationeconomies.2.3 THE REALIZATION OF SUSTAINABLE SETTLEMENT REGARDING TO RESIDENTIAL MOBILITY AND HOUSING EXTERNALITIES PHENOMENONSustainable city associated with the condition of housing and settlements within it. Housing is oneform of the specific aspects of sustainable development called consumption. The needs of housing andof course the needs of the household is a form of energy consumption in large quantities. Housingdevelopment in recent decades has led to the environmental degradation. Housing requires sufficientenergy for daily operational needs. However, Housing is not only consume energy. A large number ofmaterial required to operate and maintain the housing units. Including furniture and furnishings,technical purposes and electronic equipment, and other equipment in order to maintain and operate thehouse inside or outside. Individually, these products do not represent a massive consumption, but atthe same time these products consume enormous energy (Holden, 2004). Perhaps, the most prominentfeature on the pattern of energy consumption in the last decade is the increasing consumption thatoccurred in the transport sector. The house is often becomes the center of transportation consumption,where the house becomes the starting point of departure to the office, care centers, schools, shops andother activities (Holden, 2004).3 STUDY3.1 RESIDENTIAL MOBILITY IN VARIOUS CITIESIn many countries, research on residential mobility has been done and there are wide range ofresidential mobility characteristics were found. In the study, variables are known to influence the 13
  • 22. [A-02]residential mobility. Rossi (Feijten and van Ham, 2007) explains that there is a close associationbetween the life of the household (household careers) and housing programs (housing careers) in thehouseholds decision to move on a journey of life. The study presented by Muhammad Ahsanul Habiband Eric J. Miller in 2007, suggested that in the Greater Toronto Area, the variables associated withresidential mobility are:  Age of the head of the family and the life cycle, such as the birth of children (number of children) have a significant effect on residential mobility. Young households have more tendency to move as compared to older households.  The number of working family members have inverse ratio to the level of residential mobility. The more family members working, the lower the level of residential mobility.  Dwelling duration also become one of the significant determinants of residential mobility decisions nowadays. The higher the duration in the current location, the lower the possibility of moving.  In various studies, the ownership of (property) is considered to be an important variable in explaining residential mobility.  The model shows that if the Decision Making Unit (DMU) is in a stable community, (no change over the past five years), then it affects the low level of residential mobility.  Changes in interest rates also affect the decision to move.  Distance houses, workplaces and CBD have a significant impact on the decision to move.While the research conducted by Aida Caldera Sanchez and Dan Andrews took place in all membercountries of the OECD (Economic Co-operation and Development), which includes 26 countriesaround the world and performed in 2011. In these studies can be drawn, namely:  Generally, the owner of the house, has a low tendency to move than renters.  In many countries, residential mobility among households living in social housing or subsidized housing are lower because they have to waive his right when doing movement.  Higher transaction costs in buying and selling property affects the low level of residential mobility, especially for a young group of households.  The availability of Housing (housing supply) is associated with high residential mobility.  Residential mobility tends to be higher proportional to the ease of access to credit (loan to buy the property). Further evidence suggests that younger households get more benefits from the greater access to credit in terms of mobility.From the research that has been conducted in various countries, it can be seen that residential mobilityis influenced by several variables that can be grouped into internal and external factors. Where thepaper is limited to internal factors related variables associated with the life-cycle, while externalfactors related to housing supply variables.3.2 RESIDENTIAL MOBILITY CHARACTERISTICS IN THE SUBURB OF SURABAYASpatial scope in this study took the suburb area of Surabaya, so the population in this study is theresidents of suburb of Surabaya. Where are specified districts selection studies over again on thesuburb of Surabaya which only has planned to be as conservation areas. Then to determine the sampledistricts, conducted by the delineation of districts based on the highest population comes. And thesedistricts are appertain of administration area of East Surabaya. The study took sample of 18214
  • 23. [A-02]households spread over four districts to investigate the characteristics of the residential mobility.Internal factors (life-cycle) further translated into five variables, age head of household, marital status,occupation, family size and dwelling duration. While the external factors (housing supply) is theamount of housing supply every year and number of housing growth every year. Based on thedescriptive analysis and Likert scale, these variables are described as follows:3.2.1 Validity Test and ReliabilityBased on a primary survey Rungkut District, Kenjeran District, Sukolilo and Mulyorejo District, therewere 182 respondents who doing the residential mobility. In the results, the questionnaire are testedwith the validity and reliability test. Reliability values can be seen from the value of Cronbachs Alphaif Item Deleted while the value of validity can be seen from the value of Corrected Item-TotalCorrelation in SPSS test results. For the results of the test validity and reliability varabel presented inTable 1 below. Table 1. Validity and Reliability Test Results in Residential Mobility Variables in the Suburbs of Surabaya Validity Reliability Indicator Variable Notes (r tabel= 0,144) (α= 0,6) Age of the head of household 0,032 0,704 Not Valid and Reliable Status 0,317 0,678 Valid and Reliable Life-Cycle Number of family member 0,017 0,710 Not Valid and Reliable Job type 0,156 0,695 Valid and Reliable Dwelling duration 0,355 0,674 Valid and Reliable Number of housing supply Valid and Reliable Housing every year 0,543 0,646 Supply Growth of the house every Valid and Reliable year 0,467 0,662Source: Miftahul, 2012It can be seen from the table above that the age of family head and family size variables do not have asufficient validity number to be considered as variables associated with residential mobility in thesuburbs of Surabaya. In statistical tests, these two variables have no correlation values and thevariability that can represent the association on residential mobility. Meanwhile, below are presentedon Table 2 Likert scale results for each variable of residential mobility. Table 2. Likert Scale Results on Each Variables Level of Linkages Index Indicator Variable 1 2 3 4 Value Marital Status 10 51 61 60 133,75 Life-Cycle Job Type 9 88 64 21 115,25 Dwelling Duration 24 110 40 8 99 Number of housing supply 11 99 58 14 109,75 Housing every year Supply Growth of the 19 99 47 17 106,5 house every year Total 1377,253 Average 105,9443 The total amount is obtained from addition of all factors in each indicator, however in this paper, authors only described life- cycle and housing supply indicator.4 Value of mean also obtained from all the factors, thus the value of mean is 105,94. 15
  • 24. [A-02] source: Miftahul, 2012Based on the results of the study, it is known that the age of head household, family size and dwellingduration variables have no association with residential mobility in the suburbs of Surabaya. This iscaused by a different response to each household on residential mobility variables. Thus, the variablesof internal factors associated with residential mobility in the suburbs of Surabaya are marital statusand occupation. As for the external factor is the amount of housing supply each year and the annualgrowth.3.2.2 Marital StatusBased on interviews with 182 respondents which have been done, it was found several factors relatedto the decision to move. One of the factors that are related is marital status. The fact on the studyshowed that all the samples (actors residential mobility) are in married status. From the Likert scaleresults also showed that the marital status having the highest scores. For them, marriage is the mostappropriate moment to move and have a house (residential mobility). Changes in the status of beingmarried has a higher tendency to move. Therefore, a new household demand for housing. This is inline with Rossi (Feijten; van Ham, 2007) that life events are associated with residential mobility.Figure 1 describes the results a study conducted using questionnaires. The majority of respondents from all four districts agree that marital status has an impact on the decision to residential mobility. As much as 121 of the respondents of 182 respondents claimed that the main reason they moved was because of the change in status (especially since the wedding). While the rest respondents do not consider marital status of his decision to move. Particularly, the reason is because the migrants have managed to buy a house before marriage. Source: Miftahul, 2012 Figure 1. Number of respondents of change in status variable3.2.3 JobRegarding the job variable, in this study, work is described as a career change, change of job sites oreven change the work itself that causes the household must make some adjustments to their homes.From the study conducted in four districts, it is known that the majority actors of residential mobilityhas a job as a self-employed (entrepreneur/businessman). Household characteristics including type ofjob, impact on the response of household residential mobility. Including the preference of householdsto a new house location. The Table 3 below shows the number of respondents for every type of job.16
  • 25. [A-02] Table 3. Number of Respondents by Type of Job District Job Type Total Kenjeran Mulyorejo Rungkut Sukolilo Army/Police 2 0 1 0 3 Civil Servants 8 6 14 5 33 Entrepreneur/Businessman 17 25 10 27 79 Labor 4 3 1 2 10 Teacher/Lecturer 1 1 1 2 5 Private Employees 10 9 13 9 41 Retired 0 1 5 0 6 Other 1 2 2 0 5 Total 43 47 47 45 182 Source: Miftahul, 2012In certain cases it was found that the house be used as “working capital” and it cause the householdsshould move. They sell their house so they get money to expand their business. The case occurred inhouseholds with a head of household working as self-employed (entrepreneur/businessman). In fact,they moved 12 times. In this case, it appears that type of job in each household associated withresidential mobility, and it is dependent on the life-cycle of each household.Figure 2 shows the frequency for each type of job displacement on the districts studied. The majorityof households move only once. But the reason for their displacement varies according to thecharacteristics of the household. The frequency of residential mobility indicates how often thehouseholds move within the city. This will lead to higher circulation supply and demand for housingmarket in which households with a high frequency of residential mobility takes more houses. But theold house house is to be a supply for households who want to move. Source: Miftahul, 2012 Figure 2. Frequency of residential mobility for every type of jobIn Figure 3 below, it is known that the majority of households that move, have an income of Rp.750,000 to Rp. 2.5 million per month. This means that low income households are more likely to makethe decision to move. 17
  • 26. [A-02] Source: Miftahul, 2012 Figure 3. Total Revenue for Every JobWhile in Figure 4 shows the data about the proximity to the trade preferences for each type of job. It isknown that the head of the household who works as a self-employed (entrepreneur/businessman) tendto choose the location of the house adjacent to the trading facilities. The reason is the easiness to gettheir daily needs and it is considered as a business opportunity. Location which is adjacent to thetrading facility will facilitate the household who works as self-employed (entrepreneur/businessman)to develop their business. Source: Miftahul, 2012 Figure 4. Proximity preference to the trading facility18
  • 27. [A-02]3.2.4 Total House Supply Every Year (Supply)The availability of house in a certain location considered to influence household’s decisions to move.Mobility models often treat the supply of housing as an exogenous factor, purportedly becausecomplex government interventions in land use and in finance, construction and pricing of housingconstrain the supply of (new) housing (Strassman, in Dieleman 2001). These are presented on theextent of housing built by developers in every district. Tabel 4. Size of House Construction in Every District District Number of Developer Area Kenjeran N/A N/A Sukolilo 11 378,96 Mulyorejo 12 766,91 Rungkut 19 883,89 Source: Miftahul, 2012From the data above it can be seen that there are quite a lot of housing developers are doingdevelopment in the districts study. Housing can be an alternative to potential actors of residentialmobility. This availability has a close connection to the households decision to move. If theavailability of houses (supply) are considered better than the house occupied now, the household tendsto want to move. Moreover, if the household has increased economic or social side. So basically thedisplacement done to get a better life.3.2.5 House Growth Every YearThese variables explain the growth in the number of houses for a year. The growth of house can be ameasure of going phenomenon of residential mobility. Where the house growth is a form of demandincreasing housing needs. If the needs of housing increases, there will be a growing number of house.As noted earlier that residential mobility is one part in a housing market where every household thatdoes residential mobility needs a new house (demand) and leave the old house into the supply forother households. Growth of the new houses are also considered as a new residential alternative thatbetter be an option for households to residential mobility.4 CONCLUSIONReferring to the results of the study, residential mobility in the suburbs the city of Surabaya hasassociated with internal and external factors. Internal factors include marital status and employment,while the external factors are the supply of houses every year (supply) and the annual growth. Wherethese factors have an impact on the households decision to move. Reactions to residential mobilityfactor may vary according to the household characteristics. This study is important because of theever-increasing demand of the housing needs trial the balance of the sustainability in the urbanperiphery especially at East Surabaya. The further recommendation study is to formulate spatialexternalities impact level in sustainable urban settlement provision in Surabaya.5 REFERENCESAdjisasmita, Sakti, 2011, Transportasi dan Pengembangan Wilayah, Graha Ilmu Publisher, Jakarta.Habib, M Ahsanul. Miller, Eric J., 2007, Modeling Residential and Spatial Search Behaviour, Evidence from Greater Toronto Area, Toronto. 19
  • 28. [A-02]Cadwallader, Martin, 1992, Migration and Residential Mobility: Macro and Micro Approaches, The University of Winconsin Press, London.Beatty, Christina. Lawless, Paul. Pearson, Sarah. Wilson, Ian, 2009, Residential Mobility and Outcome Change in Deprived Areas: Evidence from The New Deal for Communities Programme, Sheffield Hallam University, London.Caldera Sanchez, A. Andrews, Dan., 2011, To Move or Not to Move: What Drives Residential Mobility Rates in the OECD? OECD Publishing, Paris.Dieleman, Frans M., 2001, Modelling Residential Mobility: a Review Of recent Trends in Research. Utrecht University, Netherlands.Feijten, Peteke. Van Ham, Maarten, 2007, Residential Mobility and Migration of The Divorced and Separated, Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Jerman.Fischer, Claude, 2000, Ever-More Rooted American, University of California, Berkeley.Fullaondo, Arkaitz. Cladera, Josep R., 2006, Residential Mobility and Foreign Immigration Settlement in the Metropolitan area of Barcelona, Barcelona.Holden, Ering., 2004, Ecological Footprints and Sustainable Urban Form, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Printed in the Netherlands.Miftahul, Alen., 2012, Mobilitas Residensial di Surabaya Timur, Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember. Surabaya.Tjiptoherijanto, Prijono., 2000, Paper Badan Perencanaan dan Pembangunan Nasional: Mobilitas Penduduk dan Pembangunan Ekonomi, Jakarta.Rahmawati, et.al., 2012, Kajian Eksternalitas Perumahan di Kota Surabaya, Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember Surabaya.Rossi-Hansberg, E., Sarte, P.-D., & Owens III, R., 2010, Housing Externalities, Journal of Political Economy, pp. 118 (3).World Commission on Environment and Development, 1987, Our Common Future, Oxford.20
  • 29. [A-03]DEFINING URBAN ACUPUNCTURE AS AN ALTERNATIVE STRATEGY TO CURE THE CITY PROBLEMS OF INDONESIA Astri Anindya SARI1 and SHIRLEYANA2ABSTRACT: Urban acupuncture is an approach offered to cure acute environmental disease in the cityas well as improving the quality of urban life. As a combination between urban design and traditionalChinese medicine called acupuncture, this strategy views cities as living, breathing organisms andpinpoints areas in need of repair. The treatment is conducted by revitalizing some small strategic aspectsof the problem which could finally trigger other aspects to make good improvement. Public open spaceis one of the strategic aspects that affect the quality of the city. By doing some small intervention on it,we can directly improving the quality of urban life. Through comparative study on the application ofurban acupuncture in four successful public open spaces in the world, this paper attempts to study thestrength and weaknesses of the approach and the possibility to be applied in Indonesia. From theliterature study, this paper highly recommends inclusion of public space planning in the urbandevelopment. Further, it also strengthens the importance of joint planning between the government andthe community to avoid providing spaces in vain. Sense of belonging from the community can come upif the community involved in the planning and implementation. Thus creating attractive and uniquepublic spaces for the community in Indonesia is possible within limited spaces and resources.KEYWORDS: Urban acupuncture, public open space, quality of urban life, participative planning.1 BACKGROUNDBig cities in developing countries including Indonesia suffer significant urban problems. The socio-economic problems like poverty, waste management, uneven development, slums, traffic congestions,and environmental degradation become a common thing in the life of the urban society. Theseproblems represent the poor quality of life especially in the urban area.Jaime Lerner, an urban design expert, stated that the poor quality of life is the implications of the poorquality of urban space. Therefore, the essential requirement to improve and enhance the quality ofpeople in cities is to improve the quality of public open spaces. This would not be easy, since theurban problems has a strong chain reaction among the different socio-economic, political, andenvironmental factors. Appropriate methods and approaches are needed to break the chain thus thecurrent problems can be solved without creating new problems.The complexity of the problems is in need of urgent solving. However, it is difficult to find the mostappropriate approach to solve the problems. Many concepts offered from developed countries cannotbe implemented directly, since they have to be in accordance with the socio-economic conditions ofdeveloping countries, like Indonesia. There are differences in geography, socio-economic, culture, andalso planning systems.Another point which hampers the effort to solve urban problems is the perspective of the policymakers. Many policy makers assume the answer to cure such problems is sufficient financial resources1 Lecturer in Architecture, Widya Kartika University, Surabaya, Indonesia2 Lecturer in Architecture, Widya Kartika University, Surabaya, Indonesia 21
  • 30. [A-03]and good capability of planning instruments problems (Lerner, 2011). As a matter of fact, financialresources have been encountered as the major problems of developing countries. According to Lerner,many policy makers in developing countries merely focused on the magnitude of the problems ratherthan finding ways to make their cities better through developing the cities’ potentials. This falseparadigm implies in the delay of improvement of the cities. This condition will further influence thepeoples’ point of view. People would think that urban problems were prominent and there is nosolution to find a better city. This can result in apathetic community, considering the poor quality oflife as a normal way of life with no effort to alter the pathetic condition.2 URBAN ACUPUNTURE AS AN ALTERNATIVE STRATEGY FOR IMMEDIATE SOLUTIONUrban Acupuncture is one of the alternative strategies to resolve the current urban problems withimmediate effects. It is recognized as urban acupuncture since this strategy combines urban designwith acupuncture, a traditional medical techniques from China. In Urban Acupuncture, cities areconsidered as one living organism with pinpoints areas in need of repair (Lerner, 2003; Harsema,2011). Cities are treated as one living body with its parts, thus when one of the body part started todecay, it should not be cut off. Hence, it is better to repair and make the organism work in differentway. The healing of this broken part will likely bring much improvement to cities instead of justsimply removing or changing it. “A city is like a family portrait. You may not like the nose of your uncle but you don’t tear up the whole family photo. You don’t do this because the family portrait is you.” (Jamie Lerner, 2011)Cities revitalization using the urban acupuncture should be done by giving interventions to the vitalparts of the cities. The successful of this treatment will eventually lead to synergism and improvementof quality of life in the surrounding areas and the city as a whole. Simply using this small interventionto the necessary vital part can minimize the cost for the cities revitalization and faster, compared as ifthe whole cities were changed. "Sometimes, urban planning is just too slow and laborious," Lerner has said. The acupuncture strategy is therefore "a way of supplying the city with a quick dose of energy, using few resources" (Lerner 2003). “A city consists of a complex network of interconnected spaces. These nerve pathways are not always visible, physically, but can also be constituted by intensity zones in the smooth space”(cf. Deleuze & Guattari, Thoughts).As mentioned above, Urban Acupuncture is a method to enhance the quality of the city through smallinterventions at critical parts of the city. One way to locate the critical parts of the city is to performmapping of the intensity of the community activities (cJuul | Frost Architects, 2011). Places with highintensity of activities can be identified as a strategic pinpoint of repair. On the contrary, the strategiclocations in the cities but having low intensity of activities from the community could be a sign ofdecay hence this area need intervention or improvement.Apart from the mapping method, the critical points of the city can be identified from their relation tothe main aspects that determine the quality of the city. Jaime Lerner (2011) acknowledged three mainkeys to the good quality of urban life: mobility, sustainability, and identity.The three main keys were applied by Lerner in his efforts to improve the quality of urban andcommunity life in Curitiba. The mobility is implemented through integrated public transport andinfrastructure planning, known as Bus Rapid Transit (Lerner, 2011). This system gives priority and22
  • 31. [A-03]convenience to public transportation users. Eventually, this affects public preferences towards the useof transport mode. This successful strategy is evidenced by reduced number of private vehicles andtraffic congestion, which used to happen on the streets of Curitiba.The sustainability is applied by building a collective dream within the community and inviting them toparticipate to determine the future of their city (Lerner, 2011). The community involvement is neededto build their dream together to bring the sense of ownership and public awareness of the city to assurethat the projects will sustain. The community involvement in Curitiba for improving the quality of lifecan be examined from implementation of waste management. They can now have a higher awarenessto manage their solid waste and to wisely use the existing natural resources.To form the image of the city, revitalizing the city center is performed through the implementation ofpedestrian mall and historical area restoration. Besides, Lerner also planned a network of public parkswhich function is not just as a gathering space for community, but also to solve the drainage problemand illegal occupation of blighted areas. These parks also serve as vegetation and animal’s habitat. Allof these parks were designed with attractive theme and different character for a unique and pleasingappearance.All efforts are made with an emphasis on the functionality, begins with the community participation tobuild a collective dream. This good practice results in the enhancement of the quality of public spacesand the life of Curitiba citizens which has been significant increasing since 1940. Almost all ofCuritiba people feel happy to live there.3 PUBLIC SPACE FOR A BETTER QUALITY OF LIFEAccording to Jaime Lerner (2003), livable cities should offer a better quality of life. Big cities start tomiss the value of community and humanity, when cities fail to maintain the three basic elements ofspace: river, street and square- the public open spaces. To have a public life, a public open space isnecessary to be developed. Public spaces are the heart of a city. They offer open access for diverseactivities and social interaction (Madanipour, 1996). They can be in forms of nodes, focal points,symbolizing identities and culture of a city. Public spaces are tangible spaces with tangible qualitieswhere communities have social interaction, doing business or just relaxing (Carr, S et al, 1992). Inneighborhood context those spaces can be parks, playgrounds, playing fields, school playgrounds, andincidental spaces. While, in civic urban context, public spaces serve a bigger area like squares, plazas,and recreational spaces like parks, hospital grounds, transport and waterway corridors (rivers, canals,railways, and roads) (Wolley, 2003).Worpole and Greenhalgh (1996, in Shaftoe, 2008) mentioned the importance of public space as centralto questions sustainable, equitable and enriching urban life. Further, Wolley (2003) also emphasizedthe importance of a well planned, designed, and managed open spaces and community involvement toenhance the quality of life of the people. People do not want bland spaces, and those spaces will notbenefit their life. The benefits and opportunities of open space in urban context have been recognizedas: 1. Social benefits. Public open spaces provide spaces for event and activities, either for recreational, cultural, or educational purposes. Active and passive recreation involving communities can take part in these spaces. Active recreation allows active participation in activities for groups and sports, like football, basketball, or just jogging and walking. Passive recreation considers small activities like reading and watching children, vegetation, animals, and surrounding activities. All these activities provide facts that urban open spaces as a focus to community and even enhance the value of community attributes to its urban open spaces. 23
  • 32. [A-03] 2. Health benefits. Urban open spaces are used for improving people’s physical and mental health. This means people have opportunities to use these spaces for exercising, resting, and relaxing. 3. Environmental benefits. Urban open spaces bring on more than just greeneries and preserving wildlife habitat. They improve airflow, reduce air pollution, air temperature, and reduce noise pollution. Availability of these spaces improves the urban climate through vegetation and green spaces. 4. Economic benefits. Green spaces will increase property values and provide a variety of employment opportunities and promote tourism. They develop self esteem and empower communities to develop new skills (ibid).These benefits are closely related to measurement for the quality of life. Thompson and Travlou(2007) associate a better quality of life to “concepts of independence, active social life, good health,and good neighborhood environment.”. Carr, S et al (1992) emphasized the need to improve publicspace as the way to reach public welfare. Nevertheless, urban sprawl has turned down the use ofpublic space and the importance of these spaces for activities and communication (Madanipour, 1992).Especially in developing countries, public spaces have turned into left over spaces.Learning of the roles of public open spaces in improving quality of life, there should be a concern foreffective use of public spaces, not just making these spaces functionally appropriate, but alsoconsistent with the surrounding character (Pasaogullari and Doratli, 2004). Using the principle ofurban acupuncture, there should be lines of actions, to treat urban open spaces as living organisms, toproduce immediate effects, with reasonable cost and applicable to managed (Lerner, 2011).4 LESSONS LEARNED FROM BEST PRACTISES IN PUBLIC SPACE ACUPUNCTURE4.1 CHEONGGYECHEON STREAM REVITALIZATION - SEOUL, SOUTH KOREAAn example of small intervention with a big impact to urban public space is the revitalization projectof Cheonggyecheon Stream in Seoul, South Korea (Murray., et al, 2010). Cheonggyecheon used to bea stream flows from West to the East through the central part of Seoul downtown until mid of 1970s.Its strategic location stimulated the area along the Cheonggyecheon Stream to be vital parts for Seoulinhabitants. Since the Dinasty of Joseon, the Stream became densely populated and a well-knownbusiness district (Hwang, 2007).During 1967-1976, the Korean Government decided to cover the approximately 6 kilometers stream ofCheonggyecheon and change it with public road, and even made elevated highway with total length of5,84 kilometers above the road. This highway construction became a symbol of South Koreandevelopment for years. Yet, it also resulted in a decline in the quality of the surrounding environmentof Cheonggyecheon. For many years, more than 168 cars per day passed by the highway and 62.5% ofthem are stuck in traffic (Hwang, 2007). Moreover, the residents living around Cheonggyecheon sufferrespiratory diseases more than twice as compared to the other residents. Years over years, number ofpeople resides in the downtown of Seoul has decreased by 66%. This happened as well to businessactivities in the city center, which sharply decreased over the years.According to Hwang (2007), the new paradigm towards sustainable development has brought the ideafor the Cheonggyecheon Stream Revitalization, along with the problem of security and the high costfor highway’s service and maintenance. This project later on is considered to be the first right step toimprove the quality of urban life.24
  • 33. [A-03]The Cheonggyecheon was restored to its earlier function as an urban natural stream, to provide ahuman and environmentally friendly waterfronts space and sidewalks. The project focused on creatingattractive public space with sense of place and historical impression as well as a pleasing place forcommunity activities. Since its opening on October 1st, 2005, the Cheonggyecheon Stream has brought100 billion visitors within 50 days. Cheonggyecheon finally became the most popular tourismdestination throughout Seoul and the Central Business District (CBD). Source: Lee, 2006 Figure 1. Cheonggyecheon Stream before and after restorationThe successful of Cheonggyecheon restoration program has brought positive implications in theimprovement of environmental quality for surrounding area. Moreover, Cheonggyecheon popularity asa tourism destination area also has triggered the successful of Gangbuk regeneration project called‘Newtown in town’. Gangbuk itself is a CBD area which during the highway existence encounteredenvironmental degradation, thus its role changed from a central business into a neglected area.The high number of tourists brings back the business center of Seoul to life. Land price and real estatehas increased significantly and redevelopment is happened everywhere. Eventually, the restorationproject provides opportunity for Seoul transformation into a hub city in the North East Asia andInternational Finance Center. The most important part of this is the balanced development growthbetween the North and South part of Seoul (Hwang, 2007).4.2 ESTONOESUNSOLAR - ZARAGOSA, SPAINEstonoesunsolar means ‘This is not a vacant lot’ is a strategy conducted to give intervention toneglected public space in Zaragosa and change it into a temporary live public space. At the beginning,this project is initialized by the local government of Zaragosa to provide employment opportunity toreduce number of unemployment (Di Monte and Gravalos, 2011). In the original plan, the only workavailable is cleaning the unattended private lots in the historical city center. But during itsimplementation, the planning team pointed by the government called for the community ideas to alterthe vacant lot into a temporary public space according to their needs (Di Monte and Gravalos, 2011;Di Monte, 2012). The community welcomed the idea enthusiastically. Several of communityorganization such as: neighbourhood associations, schools, parents’ associations and cultural centersparticipated to realize the projects. The participatory process took place over a series of meetings untilthey reach a unanimous decision. 25
  • 34. [A-03]Source: http://www.underconstructions.eu/estonoesunsolar-spain-2/ Figure 2. Estonoesunsolar, Zaragosa - SpainThe project finally succeeded in altering the vacant lots in the city center as well as other vacant lotsacross the city. The range of modified vacant lots has spread within 13 months and managed to 18public and private plots with approximately 42,000 square meters with more than 60 communityorganizations involved (Di Monte and Gravalos, 2011). So far they have been converted intochildren’s playgrounds, basketball courts, urban gardens and squares.In the end, the project was not only able to reduce the number of unemployment, but also helps toimprove the quality of the city and provide spaces for activities based on the community needs.Further, the thought of communicating ideas of community in series of workshops has helped toconfigure a ‘collective dream’ for the future of the city. This collective dream is certainly enhance thesense of belonging from the community to the city they live. As Lerner (2011) remarked, the sense ofbelonging and community participation are important to create a sustainable development.4.3 PALEY PARK - NEW YORK, USAPaley Park is a pocket park covering an area of 1 hectare, designed by Zion & Breene Associate, andfunded by William Paley, Chairman of CBS (the William S. Paley Foundation). It is located on theopposite of the road, and thus makes this park very visible and easily accessible to the public. Besides,the design details make people enjoy being inside the park. The seats are moveable, hence people arefree to choose sitting wherever they like. The existence of waterfall and some greenery make the parkas a vocal point amid the bustle of downtown of Manhattan while creating a dramatic atmosphere thatprovides peace and privacy for people. Likewise, the availability of good food with friendly priceadded the reason of why Paley Park is admired by all people, surrounding community, employees ofdowntown Manhattan, or even people who just passing by (Project for Public Spaces).Located among the skyscrapers buildings of downtown Manhattan, New York City, this park finallymanaged to be the pleasant place for surrounding atmosphere, as a meeting point, relaxing place, andlunch spot for people who works in nearby offices. This park has become an oasis, an escape offatique life atmospehere. “I would like to go to the park again to just relax, I mean I love the city. But sometimes it gets so fast paced and overwhelming that its a good thing Paley park is there to get you away from it all. I think it keeps a person more down to earth. I wish I was able to just sit there for a long while.” (Virginie L. review for Paley Park http://www.yelp.com/biz/paley-park-new-york)26
  • 35. [A-03]Source: Jale Sari teaching document. http://www.akademia.edu) Figure 3. Paley Park4.4 PARK FICTION, SAN PAULI – HAMBURG, GERMANYSt. Pauli Neighborhood where the Park Fiction located is a densely populated and poor neighborhoodalong the Elbe River in western part of Germany. Parks are rarely found in this high density area. ThePark Fiction Movement began in 1995, the same time as the harbor wall along the Elbe River was soldoff to Schäfer media companies (2004). The local government planned to close the view to river with ablock of buildings along the harbor wall. This plan was not in accordance with the wish of thecommunity. They do not require buildings which blocked the scenery to the river. All they want is apark.The community of St. Pauli Neighborhood comprises of musicians, priests, a headmistress, a cook,café-owners, bar-men, a psychologist, squatters, artists and interventionist residents; did ademonstration to express their wishes and aspirations. This ‘constituent practice’ was done along withthe series of lectures, talks, discussions, exhibitions, and other infotainment facilities to come up withthe desired park. The strategy of using bottom-up approach in the St. Paul Park Fiction not onlybenefitted the community in demanding a public space, but also gives an example as if the parkexisted. In the reality, many residents and visitors have used empty spaces as a meeting point, evenbefore the park was eventually built in 2005 (Casanova and Hernandez, 2011) Source: Schäfer, 2004 Figure 4. Park Fiction Movement4.5 COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE STUDYThe improvement of public open spaces in the previous four case studies was performed usingdifferent approaches: top-down, bottom-up, or even combination of both approaches. Theimplementation and maintenance agent also varies from the public, private agency, community, or thejoint co-operation between public agency and community. However, all of the case studies representthe positive implications in enhancement of the quality in urban life. The next question is which ofthese approaches and implementation mechanism is suitable to face the challenge and opportunities inIndonesia. 27
  • 36. [A-03]Another lesson to be learned from the cases above is that intervention is needed to improve the qualityof public open space to reach sustainable urban environment and places for community activities. Theexistence of public open space with varies community activities will provide an identity for the city,turn the atmosphere of the city, and most importantly make the people enjoy living in the city.5 DEFINING URBAN ACUPUNCTURE AS A SOLUTION FOR INDONESIA – A DISCUSSIONIndonesia also faces many challenges in the attempt to provide and improve the quality of public openspace. Some of the challenges include improper point of view from the government to preserve andmaintain public spaces (Yoga and Antar, 2007); no sense of belonging from the community to thepublic open spaces, and lack of resources.Until now, many of the policy makers do not view the necessity of providing public open space forcommunity activities. The investment made for the provision of new public spaces as well asmaintenance cost expended for the existing public spaces are considered less profitable thaninvestment made in other subject areas. This results in the exclusion of public open space amid theurban development, even when its existence is primarily needed to balance the urban environment.This false perspective from the government can be viewed from the planning process andimplementation of public open spaces that has been occurred without the community involvement. Atthe end the planning will result in public space that is not really suitable with the need and preferenceof the community, and this means a vain attempt. Furthermore, empowering the community in theoverall process-planning and management of public space- will gain result in the emergence sense ofbelonging of the community to the open space. That will eventually support the sustainability of theplace.The second challenge faced is the lack of sense of belonging of the community to the public space.This is evidenced by the low public awareness to take part in maintaining and preserving public space.The high level of vandalism and the behavior of throwing away the garbage anywhere is just such anexample. Another thing to be considered is the bad character of most of Indonesian people who areless concerned about the environment. This character requires the right approach to be cured.The slackening space in urban areas and the limited financial resources that owned by the governmentare also frequently used as excuses for the lack provision of public open spaces that are appropriate forthe community. However, from the case study that have been conducted previously, it is found that bydoing the right strategy, a good and livable public open space is possible even though in the limitedspace and a lack of funds. Thus, those cannot be considered excuses anymore.Beside these challenges, there are also some opportunities for supporting the provision of public openspaces that are appropriate to the needs of people in Indonesia. Indonesia is a country which has abeautiful panorama as a natural gift. On the other hand, the high number of population in Indonesiaand its diversity are the country’s potentials which can be further utilized and managed. Many peoplein Indonesia are experts in the field of design, architecture, urban planning, and landscaping. They allcan be considered as an asset to be used. Besides, there are also so many young adults and theircommunities which are full of creative energy. In addition, the ethnic diversity and cultural uniquenessthat underlie people of Indonesia are such big assets that should be managed to create some attractiveand unique public space that is beneficial for the community.Considering the challenges and opportunities in Indonesia, it seems that the human resources are thelargest asset owned by the nation. With this consideration, the most appropriate approach to solveproblems of public open space in Indonesia is through the combination of top-down and bottom-upapproach with community participation, as has been done in Estonoesunsolar in Zaragosa.28
  • 37. [A-03]The combination of top-down and bottom-up approach is considered as the most appropriate approachfor Indonesia because it includes the role of society and government. Community serves as the mainsubject; doing the planning, designing, and also managing as well as end users who use the openspace. On the other hand, the government runs a supporting function and control. The role of societyand government are required in order to have planned programs run smoothly without anycontradictions that can be detrimental to one another. As Casanova & Hernandez (2011) stated that atthe time of development and communications technology, people are increasingly active in voicingtheir aspirations including in the term of planning and development of public open spaces. Hence, thestrategy of community-based planning and management is deemed most appropriate. Besides, theparticipation of the community is required not only to reduce costs but also to bring such a sense ofbelonging of public open space.6 CONCLUSIONUrban problem affected in the poor quality of urban life. One way to enhance the quality of life is byimproving the public urban open spaces. For such build environment, small interventions are neededto cure the city problems and bring solution to bring forth a sustainable environment. UrbanAcupuncture can be a way to build a collective dream within community to create and determine thefuture of a city, as a pleasing place to live. The public open space is an essential part of this effort. Itsexistence will strengthen the identity for the city, contribute in the lively urban atmosphere, and mostimportantly make people happy to live in the mid of urban environment.To make our cities better will need an effort from all stakeholders from the government, privateagencies, and the community to work together in a joint planning. The community participation is themajor requirement to make the project for public spaces sustainable. The local government should alsochange their perspective and examined the bottom up planning approach to welcome the ideas fromthe community. If all parts of the city participate and work together, the project will likely to besuccessful.Urban Acupuncture opens access to all stakeholders for a good quality of public space. TheGovernment of Indonesia can apply this method where the problems in major cities need to be cured.All of Indonesian citizens will definitely put hope on immediate effects especially with our limitedfinancial resources. Naturally, this effort would need our first attention in creating great public spacesto make our cities comfortable for living.7 REFERENCESAmerican Society of Landscape Architect (ASLA), 2012, Jaime Lerner: A City Is Like A Family Portrait. The Dirt, Connecting The Built And Natural Environment. http://dirt.asla.org/2012/01/27/jaime-lerner-a-city-is-like-a-family-portrait/ downloaded at 1st August 2012Blake, Alison, 1998, Urban parks: Pocket parks. http://depts.washington.edu/open2100/pdf/2_OpenSpa ceTypes/Open_Space_Types/pocket_parks.pdf. downloaded at 30th July 2012Carr, S., Francis, M., Rivlin, L. G. and Stone, A. M., 1992, Public Space, Cambridge University Press, New York.Casanova, H and Hernandez, J., 2011, The Regeneration of Public Life. ‘Scape: The International Magazine For Landscape Architecture And Urbanism 2011/1. pp. 18-25cJuul | Frost Architects., 2011, Public Space 2: The Familiar Into The Strange. Copenhagen: 2011/2009. http://byensrum.dk/english/documents/BYENSRUM2PM.pdf. downloaded at 30th July 2012 29
  • 38. [A-03]Di Monte, P and Gravalos, I., 2011, Estonoesunsolar-Zaragosa, Spain. Observatory of innovative architectural practice in Europe. http://www.underconstructions.eu/estonoesunsolar-spain-2/ downloaded at 30th July 2012Di Monte, P., 2012, Estonoesunsolar-thisisnotaplot. Presented in Eurocities, March 2012. http://nws.eurocities.eu/MediaShell/media/Case%20Study%20march%202012%20- %20estonoesunsolar.pdf downloaded at 30th July 2012Harsema, H., 2011, Acupunctuur. ‘Scape: The International Magazine For Landscape Architecture And Urbanism 2011/1. pp. 15-17Hwang, Kee-Yeong., 2007, Cheonggyecheon Restoration and Downtown Revitalization, Paper presented in HKIP & UPSC Conference on When Creative Industries Crossover With Cities, Hong Kong; 2007Joga, N., Antar, Y., 2007, Komedi Lenong Satire Ruang Terbuka Hijau. Jakarta: Gramedia Pustaka UtamaLerner, J., 2003, Urban Acupuncture, Rio de Janeiro, Record.Lerner, J., 2011, Migration and Global Environmental Change: Lesson Learn From Curitiba, fastest urbanisation rate with a higher standard of living than its neighbours. A Review for UK Government’s Foresight Project, Migration and Global Environmental Change. Gorvenment Office for ScienceMadanipour, A., 1996, Design of Urban space. An Inquiry into a Socio-spatial Process, John Wiley & Sons, New York.Madanipour, A., 2003, Public and Private Spaces of the City, Routledge, New York.Murray, R., Grice., J. C., Mulgan, G., 2010, The Book of Social Innovation. Social Innovator Series: Ways To Design, Develop And Grow Social Innovation. The Young Foundation PublishingPasaogullari, N and Doratli, N., 2004, Measure Accessibility and Utilization of Public Spaces in Famagusta. Cities, Vol. 21 No. 3, pp. 225-232.Project For Public Space. Paley Park. http://www.pps.org/great_public_spaces/one?public_place_id=69. Downloaded at 1st August 2012Schäfer, C., 2004, The City is Unwritten: Urban Experiences and Thoughts Seen Through Park Fiction, in Belltown Paradise / Making their own Plans, ed. by Brett Bloom and Ava Bromberg (Chicago: White Walls Inc., 2004), pp. 38-51. http://www.inthefield.info/unwritten.pdf. downloaded at 2nd August 2012Shaftoe, E., 2008, Convivial Urban Spaces: Creating Effective Public Spaces. Earth Scan, London.Thomson, CW and Travlou, P., 2007, Open Space: People Space, Taylor & Francis, New York.Woolley, H., 2003, Urban Open Spaces, Spon Press, New York.30
  • 39. [A-04] THE ACHIEVEMENT OF SUSTAINABILITY ON VERTICAL HOUSING DEVELOPMENT THROUGH WHOLE SYSTEM DESIGN Christiono UTOMO1 and Yani RAHMAWATI2ABSTRACT: The development of urban economic brings not only positive causes but also negative aswell, especially in urban environment. One factor that causes negative impact is the emerging of newcomers. Some negative impacts are the appearance of slums, crowded roads, and social degradations.The provision of affordable and feasible vertical housing is needed in order to handle the problems. Toovercome this, the Government formulates the 1000 towers program. It is the program with mainpurpose is to build 1000 leased and owned apartments in some big cities all over Indonesia. The towersare built in order to facilitate the needs of places to stay for people categorized as the middle-low incomelevel. The program can not be continued, because of some problems related to the failure of 1000 towersprogram realization. Urban space planning is still featured by the presence of slums, and the density ofmobility path. This condition ruins the environment system as a whole. The failure and delays of 1000towers program are mainly caused by the lack of integrated design as a whole system. At the planningprocess, problems are solved without implementing design thinking process as a whole sustainablesystem by considering social, economy, and environment aspects. In order to solve this problem, thispaper presents a comprehensive literature study-based research with main purpose is to build atheoretical framework which can be used to support successful design process in achieving sustainabledesign through Whole System Design (WSD). A major contribution is to acquire potential research inthe area of WSD by a new conceptual model resulted in this paper.KEYWORDS: Sustainable design, collaborative design, whole system design, vertical housing.1 INTRODUCTIONDevelopment of urban economics in Indonesia is improving rapidly, not only in major areas, but alsoin minor areas. Several new companies are popping up, followed by the emerging of national andinternational companies’ branches in several cities, as well as the development of previous companiesin the city. These contribute to enliven the economic development of a city (Firman, 2006). Migrationis appeared as necessitate in getting labors and employees to fill vacancies of various companies. Thecities are becoming crowded, as well as problems related to provide requirement space in facilitatingdevelopment of the city itself (Harjanti, 2002). Space is needed for the development of enterprises,residential space for new comers, space for mobility, and also space for infrastructures. These areneeded to be considered in supporting the city or urban development. Problems that are majorconcerns are provision of living space for new communities, especially for low-income communities(Mauliani, 2002). Higher living costs in a city leads people to look for affordable housing orsettlement in suburbs which will affect daily routine mobility becoming overcrowded (Biro Kominfo,2012). Some people who cannot reach their needs of affordable houses will lead to the increase ofslums in a city. High density of urban spatial structure, overcrowded mobility, and the increasing ofslums will lead to the destruction of sustainability environment of the city itself which will affect otherareas as well. Surtiani (2006) found factors that influence the increase of slums in downtown, whichconsist of number of occupants, ownership status, income, area, period of stay, density, buildings1Department of Civil Engineering, Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember, Indonesia2Department of Civil Engineering, Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember, Indonesia 31
  • 40. [A-04]types, and also facilities and infrastructure. From those several factors, the strongest influential factoris income. It can be concluded that low-income communities is emerging and will cause widespreadslum area in the city. In facing this problem, the Government should provide an appropriate residentialfacility for civil categorized on middle-low level.In addressing the issue of affordable settlements, government proposed the concept of vertical housingdevelopment for middle-low communities called 1000 towers program (program 1000 menara) whichwill be built in several cities in Indonesia. The 1000 towers program consisted of Rusunami (ownedresidential apartment) and Rusunawa (rental residential apartment). The realization of 1000 towersprogram was a failure. There are few things behind the failure of 1000 towers program development.Tanuwidjaja et.al (2009) mentioned several factors that caused the failure of 1000 towers program,which included political issues, economic issues (funds), and environmental issues (related toenvironmental sustainability). Some aspects that can be used as reference from the failure of 1000towers program is the need to consider all aspects as an integrated system, with the purpose to carrysustainability of built environment through design process. In order to achieve sustainability of builtenvironment, it is important to consider social, economic and environment aspects to produce abuilding design or a system of sustainable built environment. Tanuwidjaja et.al (2010) described thecriteria of sustainable building design for vertical housing project in supporting sustainability of urbandevelopment, which consist of affordability, accessibility, near to resources and infrastructures haveclear ownership status, close to social places, safety, healthy with adequate infrastructures, safe fromany possibility of disaster, able to reduce negative impact on environment.In achieving sustainability project development, Stasinopoulos et.al (2009) introduced one approachthat can be applied to design process which is called Whole System Design (WSD). The method isadapted from Whole System approach at pre-construction process that is in design process. Thismethod has been applied by the Australian government with the purpose to achieve a sustainable builtenvironment in Australia (The Natural Edge Project, 2007). The Government of Australia educatedtheir experts to apply WSD at design process, which is need to be done in order to take into accountsustainability of built environment in their minds and thoughts. By implementing this step, factor ofsustainable development becomes a major factor and goal that need to be achieved by experts. BesidesAustralia, the Government of Netherland also applied the approach to program development inNetherland (Melchert, 2007). Implementation of the system is expected to support the development ofeach country, especially in supporting the sustainability of built environment.This research examined problems that arise from urban economic development through the provisionof vertical settlement which is allocated to middle-low communities by using WSD approach in designprocess, with considering social, economic, and environmental aspects in order to develop and buildproject with purpose to achieve sustainability of project development in vertical settlement.Complexity of design criteria, especially considering the integration of various design aspects into onewhole system, is leading to the involvement of various experts in design process with main purpose toachieve optimum design. A good system of collaboration is necessary to facilitate the diversity ofparticipants involved in design process. Utomo et.al (2011) conducted research in building concept ofnegotiation in collaboration process with main purpose to achieve sustainable construction. Therefore,this research aims to obtain a model of collaboration on design process by using WSD approach, inwhich it can be applied to achieve design that can support environmental sustainability in accordancewith the criteria of social, economic, and environmental optimally. It is also conducted in order todiscover potential research in the area of WSD.2 CONCEPTUAL BACKGROUNDThe main objective of this research is to build a model which aims to produce sustainable design ofvertical residential buildings for the middle-low communities through literature review. The model is32
  • 41. [A-04]leading to effective collaboration process design, which can be applied to facilitate and support WSDapproach on design process by considering three main aspects which support sustainable development,that consist of social, economic, and environmental. This literature study-based research wasconducted to address the provision of living space as causal factor of urban economical development.From this basic thoughts, as seen on Figure 1, it can be described several bodies of knowledge that canbe used as theoretical basis in this research, such as real estate development with a focus on verticalresidential development; Whole System Design (WSD); collaborative design; and sustainable builtenvironment (sustainable built environment). In building the model, the authors will describe thescope of WSD, collaborative design, and sustainable built environment, including the conceptualdefinition of knowledge and supported factors that contribute as foundation in constructing the model.Outcomes resulted from this research is a conceptual model in which it can be used as a considerationin producing sustainable design of vertical housing in solving issue of urban living space planning ascaused from the development of urban economics. Figure 1. Conceptual model of theoretical mapping3 LITERATURE REVIEWLiterature review is applied as research methodology in building the conceptual model. The mainpurpose of the methodology is to reveal and construct conceptual definition of each body ofknowledge from collected papers. It also used as method in finding and compiling supported factorsthat can be used as a foundation in building the model. The body of knowledge consists of wholesystem design, collaborative design, and sustainable built environment.3.1 WHOLE SYSTEM DESIGNRocky Mountain Institute (2006) outlined that considerations in achieving optimum result on designprocess is not only based on single aspect, but also requires consideration of whole system whichinvolves expertise of multi disciplines followed by good teamwork of experts. Everything must also beconsidered and analyzed simultaneously to express and describe mutual benefit of interaction amongthem. From these statements it can be concluded that optimum result can be achieved throughconsideration of multi aspects as one integrated whole system in the process, especially in planning ordesign phase. In line with this, Anarow et.al (2003) stated that every individual who is involved in theteamwork needs to change their thinking process from individually into globally by considering allinfluenced aspects as a whole integrated system, especially in achieving the concept of sustainabledevelopment. Based on the idea of Anarow et.al (2003), Piancastelli et.al (2011) concluded that inachieving sustainable development, it required an optimal design of sustainable built environment, in 33
  • 42. [A-04]which it can be achieved by making changes in design thinking process by implementing andconsidering whole system as basic thought in design.Consideration of multiple aspects is needed in the design thinking process, especially in achievingsustainable built environment, in which it can be achieved through optimum and sustainable design ofbuilt environment, by implementing the whole system design in the design process. Consideration ofsustainable built environment is becoming emerging topics in the research; WSD is developed by theresearcher in order to achieve it. Charnley et.al (2010) examined factors that supported successfulimplementation of WSD in design process to produce sustainable design in which it synergized withits environment. These factors consist of forming and sustaining a partnership, individualcharacteristics, alignment of interest, facilitating WSD, sense making, integration, understanding ofpurpose and process, and also human and non human interaction. The results were developed andapplied by Piancastelli et.al (2011) on the production of sport car design which is quite popular inItaly.Compston (2010) stated that the context of WSD has to be informed in order to educate experts andpublic communities in the future to implement WSD through sustainability environment considerationin their professional work. Design will not only viewed from several aspects, but also considers allrelated aspects (especially environmental aspects) as integrated whole systems. The concept of WSDwas also introduced by Stasinopoulos et.al (2009), by encouraging development of relationships worksbetween experts whom involved in design process and composed of diverse backgrounds, disciplines,and different parties with the purpose to find solutions which are innovative, sustainable, and optimalaccording to all criteria.The aspect of sustainability environment is a main consideration in WSD, which needs to consider theaspects of social, economy, and environment in implementing it. Those three aspects need to beconsidered and integrated with the product’s design as whole systems, in which it is done to achievethe sustainable development. In realizing the WSD approach, participants with various backgroundsand different skills are involved, with the main purpose to obtain optimal solution. Utomo et.al(2009a) stated that in optimizing building design needs agreement of multi-person decision. Theinvolvement of diversity participants needs an effective collaborative design process in order tofacilitate the collaboration of multiple experts in achieving the expected result.3.2 COLLABORATIVE DESIGNDevelopments in the construction industry are leading to involve complexities of various disciplines incompleting construction projects. Development of architecture and building design, development ofbuildings’ structure, and also development of buildings’ utilities and facilities are some reasons whichcaused multiple experts are involved in design process who collaborate in producing architectural andbuilding design. According to Favela et.al (1994) collaboration is a very important aspect in designprocess, it is because of decision making in design process is not linear and requires collaborationprocess in making decisions. Kvan (2000) stated that collaboration of various experts is one ofapproaches that need to be made in order to support problem solving and decision making process. Itrelated to the need of data and information from experts in accordance with required expertise inproducing design. Collaboration is needed in design process, Sebastian and Prins (2009) described thatcollaboration in design process is developed because of the increasing of global organization which isused with purpose to finish works effectively and efficiently in accordance with data and informationobtained from each expert in solving the problem.There are some definitions of collaborative design. According to Chiu (2002), collaborative design isan activity which requires participation of individuals in sharing information and organizing tasks andresources. Especially on a large scale project, the design always involves multiple participants orgroups who work together in design process. They need to collaborate in information sharing,34
  • 43. [A-04]negotiating, and decision-making. In addition Zha and Du (2006) stated that collaborative design isconsidered in design process which members are working together in order to jointly define designgoal; formulating alternatives; and building solutions. Bucciarelli (2002) described collaborativedesign as a collective activity of diverse individuals or teams in teamwork with different competence,responsibility, and results on same object. From previous descriptions, it can be concluded thatcollaborative design is needed in order to facilitate the collaboration works of multiple disciplines.Detienne (2006) stated that there are two important processes in collaborative design, which consistsof coordination process in managing task interdependence and also negotiation mechanisms in order tomanage integration of multiple perspectives.The main goal of collaborative design process is experts’ collaboration in producing design process inorder to complete complexities of building and construction systems. Participants involved incollaborative design process are architects, civil consultants, mechanical and electrical consultants,owners, sub-contractor, project managers, engineers and suppliers. According to Kvan (2000),collaborative design is a design process where participants with various expertise are working togetherto complete the design effectively and efficiently. From previous definitions of collaborative design, itcan be concluded that collaborative design is required to obtain complex design works doneeffectively and efficiently. Liu et.al (2004) supported this statement by explaining that collaborativedesign on construction is an early stage at construction project which is involving multiple experts inproducing design with solutions built from complexities of various disciplines. In line with thisstatement, Sebastian and Prins (2009) explained that collaborative design is process that supportsdesign production which is placed at the beginning of project that is in the process of designmanagement. Patel et.al (2012) conducted literature study-based research and concluded severalfactors that affect fruitfulness of collaborative design process, especially related to human factors. Thesupported factors consist of context, support, task, interaction process, teams, individuals andoverarching factors.Many factors affect the success of the collaborative design process. Lin et.al (2008) formulates amodel that supports the effectiveness of collaborative design process through the achievement ofsocial and task factors. Social factors are achieved through communication process which supports toestablish the relationship between individual development and cohesion among individuals withinteamwork. Both of these factors can affect performance and results of collaborative design process.Rahmawati et.al (2012a) conducted literature study and concluded that there are two main factors thatneed to be considered in conducting successful collaborative design process. The factors are technicaland social factors. In reaching the success of collaborative design, it is recommended to consider bothtechnical and social factors. Based on this statement, Rahmawati et.al (2012b) revealed socio-technicalfactors which support successful collaborative design. The factors consist of project collaboration,change management, shared understanding, distributed teamwork, efficiency, knowledge/datamanagement, shared workspace, data integration, integrated social infrastructure, organization,communication, perspectives, cohesion, partnership, social agreement, social presence, participation,conflict management, and social sustainability.The involvement of experts with divers background causes collaborative design process becomes veryimportant in supporting and facilitating design process in implementing WSD (Charnley et.al, 2010).Integration of knowledge through collaborative design process is an important aspect that can drive thesuccess of WSD. Integration basically can be achieved through a well-supported decision making andproblem solving process that can facilitate the achievement of optimum design (Chiu, 2002; Zha andDu, 2006; Buciarelli, 2002; Detienne, 2006). Agreement of participants needs to be achieved in orderto support selecting alternatives process in formulating solution at design process (Utomo, 2009b).These aspects should be taken into consideration to produce an optimal and sustainable design whichis able to support the achievement of sustainable development of the built environment. 35
  • 44. [A-04]3.3 SUSTAINABLE BUILT ENVIRONMENTThere are three main aspects that need to be considered in achieving sustainable development. Theaspects are social, economic, and environmental. Built environment must consider environmental andsocial aspects through building construction process and the building object itself, which impact thesustainability of the urban development (Ding, 2008). Social aspect also needs to be considered inorder to support urban economic growth (Besley and Ghatak, 2010). The concept of sustainabledevelopment can be reached if all of these aspects are integrated into whole system (Heising, 2012),whether it is in the construction process or its result. White and Lee (2009) stated that sustainabledevelopment is not only supported or achieved through the completion of each criterion, but it has tobe integrated in all aspects. In terms of achieving urban development as a whole system, it needs toapply sustainability of built environment as a whole system in design thinking process.Development that does not support the aspect of environmental sustainability, will affect the structureand systems of urban as a whole system, which has been concluded by Meijer et.al (2011). Forexample is the emergence of flood as a result of bad arrangement and planning of building systemsthat do not pay attention to sustainability aspects of built environment, especially influences to otherenvironmental sustainability. In addressing environmental problems which are impacted from buildingthat does not consider whole system in built environment is to applied consideration of sustainablebuilt environment in design thinking process, by producing building design that meets all criteria forsustainable buildings as an integrated whole system. Omer (2008) stated that sustainable buildingdesign is necessary in order to renew energy system, by producing smart building design. In which itcan be achieved if the building design able to save energy and reduce negative impacts ofenvironment. The other criteria is revealed by Pulaski (2004) that is an independent building design, inwhich it is defined as building that does not consume conventional resources. These criteria supportthe design production process which is suitable to the achievement of sustainability of builtenvironment.4 RESULT AND DISCUSSIONThis research is conducted with the main purpose to reveal factors which can be used in buildingconceptual model that able to support the achievement of sustainable development through verticalhousing building design. From empirical study, it can be concluded that the government needs tosupport programs in facing the problems of affordable settlement provision for middle-lowcommunities. The Government has already had a program to solve the problem, by proposing the 1000towers program. The program failed, because of the lack of sustainable development consideration inproducing the design. Based on literature study, it can be concluded that sustainable developmentespecially in built environment can be achieved through WSD (Stasinopoulus, 2009; The Natural EdgeProject, 2007; Charnley et.al, 2010; Compston, 2010; Piancastelli et.al, 2011).WSD approach has been applied to some countries with the main purpose to achieve sustainabilitydevelopment of their own country (The Natural Edge Project, 2007; Melchert, 2007). WSD is appliednot only for achieving urban sustainability of built environment through building design, but alsoapplied to other design process which contributes to influence the sustainability of the environment asa whole system (Charnley et.al, 2010; Piancastelli et.al, 2011). It can be concluded that WSD is usedas an approach to achieve the sustainable built environment, not only through building design but alsovehicle design, in which both of them influence the environmental sustainability. WSD is an importantapproach that enables to support the achievement of environmental sustainability through theimplementation of whole system consideration in design thinking process. Based on this conceptualdefinition of WSD, authors build model based on it in solving vertical housing development throughWSD-based design process.36
  • 45. [A-04]In order to deal with the main purpose of this research, the authors propose a model based onempirical and theoretical study which can be applied in producing sustainable design outcomes. Themodel, which is illustrated in Fig ure2, is built based from WSD approach. Because of the need toinvolve multiple disciplines or expertise in implementing WSD approach, it needs successfulcollaborative design process to facilitate collaboration and integration of experts. The implementationof WSD in order to achieve design that support sustainable development of building is mainly focuson the aspect of sustainability built environment, which is considering environmental, social, andeconomical aspects as an integrated whole system.There are three main factors that support the achievement of sustainable design outcomes, whichrelated to design of vertical housing development. The main factors consist of WSD, collaborativedesign, and sustainable built environment (see Figure 2). Those main factors are applied to buildmodel in achieving sustainable building development through design production. The model is mainlyconcerned with the implementation of WSD in design process, in which it can be applied successfullythrough the influences of sustainable built environment aspects and successful collaborative designprocess.Source: adopted from Charnley et.al (2010), Patel et.al (2012), Rahmawati et.al (2012a, 2012b), Stasinopouloset.al (2009), Heising (2012), Besley and Ghatak (2010), White and Lee (2009), Meijer et.al (2011) andTanuwidjaja et.al (2010) Figure 2. Conceptual model of achieving sustainable development through WSD5 CONCLUSIONWhole System Design is an approach that can be applied in design process with the main purpose ofachieving sustainability environment as an integrated whole system. This approach is able to be usedin solving problems of providing vertical housing which is suitable to sustainable development ofurban through design process. The success of WSD implementation in design process can be achievedby applying successful collaborative design and considering sustainable built environment aspects, inwhich these main factors are used with purpose to build model in achieving sustainable designoutcomes. 37
  • 46. [A-04]6 REFERENCESAnarow, B. et.al 2003, Whole System Framework for Sustainable Consumption and Production, Vol. 807, Denmark: Danish Ministry of the environment, pp. 1-51.Besley, T, and Ghatak, M. 2010, Chapter 68 – Property Rights and Economic Development, Handbook of development economics, Vol. 5, pp. 4525-4595, Elsevier.Biro Kominfo 2012, Kajian Perkotaan: Kemacetan Kota Bandung Sebagai Dampak Perkembangan Ekonomi, (http://km.itb.ac.id/site/?p=7255, published on February 9th 2012, accessed on July 28th 2012).Bucciarelli, L. 2002, “Between Thought and Object in Engineering Design”, Journal of Design Studies, Vol. 23, pp. 219-223.Charnley, F, Lemon, M, and Evans, S. 2010, “Exploring The Process Of Whole System Design”, Journal of Design Studies, Vol. 32, no. 2, pp. 156-179.Chiu, ML. 2002, “An Organization View of Design Communication in Design Collaborative”. Journal of Design Studies, Vol. 23, pp. 187-210.Compston, P. 2010, “Review, Whole System Design: An Integrated Approach To Sustainable Engineering By P. Stasinopoulos, M.H. Smith, K. Hargroves, C. Desha, Earthscan”, UK 2009, Journal of Cleaner Production, Vol. 18, pp. 695.Detienne, F 2006, "Collaborative Design: Managing Task Interdependencies And Multiple Perspective", Journal Of Interacting With Computer, Vol. 18, pp. 1-20.Ding, GKC 2008, “Sustainable Construction - The Role Of Environmental Assessment Tools”, Journal of Environmental Management, Vol. 86, pp. 451-464.Favela, J, et.al 1994, "Hypermedia Support For Collaborative Design", Journal of Design Studies, Vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 45-58.Firman, T. 2006, Chapter 7.5: Globalisasi Dan Tata Ruang Wilayah Dan Kota, Dari Era Boom Ekonomi Ke Otonomi Daerah Dan Desentralisasi Fiskal, Sejarah Penataan Ruang Indonesia.Harjanti, A. 2002, Identifikasi Faktor-Faktor Penyebab Perubahan Penggunaan Lahan Permukiman Menjadi Komersial di Kawasan Kemang Jakarta Selatan, Final Project, Universitas Diponegoro.Heising, W. 2012, “The Integration of Ideation and Project Portfolio Management – A key factor for sustainable success”, International Journal of Project Management, Vol. 30 (5), pp. 582-595.Kvan, T 2000, “Collaborative Design: What Is It?”, Journal of Automation in Construction, Vol. 9, pp. 409-415.Lin, C, Standing, C, and Liu, YC. 2008, “A Model to Develop Effective Virtual Teams”, Journal of Decision Support Systems, Vol. 45, pp. 1031-1045.Liu, H, Tang, M, and Frazer, JH 2004, “Supporting Dynamic Management In a Multi-Agent Collaborative Design System”, Journal of Advance In Engineering Software, Vol. 35, pp. 493-502.Mauliani, L 2002, “Rumah Susun Sebagai Alternatif Penyediaan Perumahan Bagi Masyarakat Golongan Menengah Bawah”, Jurnal Arsitektur – NALARs, Vol. 1, No. 1.Meijer, M. et.al, 2011, “A Next Step for Sustainable Urban Design in the Netherlands”, Journal of Cities, Vol. 28, pp. 536-544.Melchert, L 2007, “The Dutch Sustainable Building Policy: A Model For Developing Countries”, Journal of Building and Environment, Vol. 42, pp. 893-901.Omer, AM 2008, “Energy Environment and Sustainable Development”, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Vol. 12, pp. 265-30038
  • 47. [A-04]Patel, H. et.al, 2012, “Factors of Collaborative Working: A Framework for a Collaboration Model”, Journal of Applied Ergonomics, Vol. 43, pp. 1-26.Piancastelli, L. et.al 2011, “Applying Whole System Design in a Sportscar Factory”, Nonlinier Sciences: Adaptation and Self-Organizing Systems, Cornell University Library, arXiv: 1107.3085.Pulaski, MH 2004, Book Field Guide for Sustainable Development, the Partnership for Achieving Construction Excellence.Rahmawati, Y. et.al 2012a “Collaborative Design in Construction: Past, Present, and Future Research”, International Conference of Sustainable Built Environment, presented on July 10-12, 2012.Rahmawati, Y. et.al 2012b “Exploring Socio-Technical Factors to Successful Collaborative Design in Product Development: A Review”, International Conference of Organization Innovation, presented on July 10-12, 2012.Rocky Mountain Institute 2006, Hypercar Design and Technology, in Charnley, F, Mark, L, and Evans, S 2010, “Exploring the process of whole system design”, Journal of Design Studies, Vol. 32, no. 2, pp. 156-179.Sebastian, R, and Prins, M 2009, Chapter 5 : Collaborative Architectural Design Management, in Emmit el al (2009), Architectural Management International Research and Practice, United Kingdom : Willey-Blackwell.Stasinopoulos, P. et.al 2009, Whole System Design: An Integrated Approach To Sustainable Engineering, London: Eartscan.Surtiani, EE 2006, Faktor-Faktor Yang Mempengaruhi Terciptanya Kawasan Permukiman Kumuh di Kawasan Pusat Kota (Studi Kasus : Kawasan Pancuran, Salatiga), Master Thesis, Engineering of Urban and City Development, University of Diponegoro.Tanuwidjaja, G. et.al 2009, “Integrasi Kebijakan Perencanaan Dan Desain Rumah Susun Yang Berkelanjutan, Dalam Konteks Pembangunan Kota Yang Berkelanjutan”, National Conference on Institut Teknologi Bandung.The Natural Edge Project 2007, Engineering Sustainable Solutions Program Technical Design Portfolio : Whole System Design Suite, Australian Government: Department of the environment and water resources.Utomo, C. and Idrus, A., 2011, “A Concept toward Negotiation Support for Value Management on Sustainable Construction”, Journal of Sustainable Development, Vol. 4(6), pp. 56-66.Utomo, C. et.al, 2009a, “Agreement Options in Multi-person Decision on Optimizing High-Risk Building Columns”, International Journal of Computer, Information, and System Science, and Engineering, Vol. 3(2), pp.97-104.Utomo, C. et.al, 2009b, “Agreement Options on Multi Criteria Group Decision and Negotiation”, International Journal of Computational and Mathematical Science, Vol. 3(5), pp. 203-207.White, L. and Lee, GJ., 2009, “Operational Research and Sustainable Development: Tackling The Social Dimension”, European Journal Of Operational Research, Vol. 193, pp. 683-692.Zha, XF, and Du, H 2006, “Knowledge Intensive Collaborative Design Modelling and Support Part 1 : Review Distributed Models and Framework”, Journal of Computers in Industry, Vol. 57, pp .39- 55. 39
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  • 49. [A-05] RIVERINE ECOLOGY DEGRADATION AND HUMAN SETTLEMENT VULNERABILITY IN CITARUM RIVER BANK AND ADJACENT AREA Harri A. SETIADI1ABSTRACT: Citarum riverine ecosystem degradation contributed mainly by the changes of watercatchment area converted to human settlements, paddy field and commercial area. As a result,environmental degradation affected ecological balance along Citarum watershed. The implication of thisecological imbalance is changing in flood characteristic. Flood occurrence repeatedly occurred not asnatural hazard but transformed into natural disaster. This situation raising vulnerability along Citarumriver bank and adjacent area as human settlement. This study was designed to determine whether or notconceptual factors which contribute to the vulnerability of human settlement are present in the studylocale. Qualitative inquiry was used and research conducted on human settlement on the river bank andthe adjacent area, principal tool for collecting primary data are using observation and interview. Thetheory of urban sustainability was used in this study. The result showed that almost all of the conceptualfactors were found.KEYWORDS: Urban sustainability, riverine degradation, flood, vulnerability.1 INTRODUCTIONWhen human settlement spread and so does the activity, urban and agricultural land uses destroy andalter natural environment. Environmentally sound ecosystems are basic requirement for thesustainability of human settlement (Perlman & Milder, 2005). Unfortunately this very basicrequirement frequently ignored, people continue to live in urban area which environmentally unsound.From urban sustainability stand point, degradation of environmental will raise the vulnerability ofhuman settlement (Baker, 2006; Benton-Short & Short, 2008; Monto, Ganesh, & Varghese, 2005;Forman, 2008).Rising density in riverine areas is accompanied by greater amount of impervious surfaces, thehydrological system, and an overall diminished capacity for these systems to hold and store surfacewater run-off naturally. As a result, communities, households and private property are increasinglyvulnerable to damage from repetitive flood (Brody et.al, 2007).Several decades ago flood along Citarum river and its tributaries are normal occurrence during rainydays. Flash flood and heavy flood rarely happened. Adversely, when green landscape in the upper andalong Citarum river changing into human settlement, paddy field and other economic activity, heavyflood become normal occurrence. Heavy flood in Citarum river mainly caused by the environmentaldegradation of Citarum riverine ecosystem (BBWS Citarum, 2011). Rapid and uncontrolledurbanization colonized Citarum watershed ecosystem mainly viewed as the main drive ofenvironmental degradation (Kunto, 1986). Flood in current situation have been changing from naturalhazard become natural disaster due to spreading human settlement and their activity along Citarumriver watershed.1Researcher in the field of development management, Research Institute for Human Settlement, Indonesia 41
  • 50. [A-05]Human settlement along Citarum river bank and its tributaries are susceptible for flood hazard. Mediareported that flood occurrence affected by Citarum overflow more frequent to recent dates. It issuspected that human settlement along Citarum river bank and adjacent area were built above floodplain and become disaster prone area. Frequent occurrence of flood affected the vulnerability ofhuman settlement. This present study explores the flood impact on human’s health, building damageand infrastructure disruption. The objective of this study is to determine whether or not conceptualfactors which contribute to the vulnerability of human settlement present in the study locale. Theassessment mostly based from the aftermath of heavy flood occurrence in 2010.2 METHODOLOGYThe present study use qualitative research which refers to the research method from Creswell.One outof five strategy of inquiry, phenomenology, was used to identify the essence of phenomenon basedfrom people’s experience (Creswell, 1998). The study conducted in three village which located by theCitarum river bank and well-known as worst flood-hit area in Bandung. The location is underadministration of Bandung Regency, West Java. Principal tool for collecting primary data are usingobservation and interview. Additional data are obtained from government report, research report,official census publication and media report.Method of analysis of the present study uses the concept ‘urban sustainability’, exploring the inter-lock among ecology, economic and social (Forman, 2008; Laquian, 2005). Research mainly focusedon ‘sustainability of human settlements’, which derived from sustainability concept, to explore part ofurban region deprivation caused by environmental degradation. Indicator to review human’s health,building damage and infrastructure disruption derived from urban sustainability perspective (see Table). Method of assessing building damage and infrastructure disruption are using direct and indirectmethod. Direct method uses visual observation to assess building damage, infrastructure disruptionand interview conducted with local resident, indirect method using photographic analysis of theaftermath event and publication. Table 1. Study locale No & Area area code Kampong RW I Andir Cogosol, Andir, Cibadak, Parung Halang, 13, 07, 09 Jambatan, Sindang Reret II Bale Endah Kp. Cienteung 9, 10, 20, 21, 28 and RT 09 III DayeuhKolot Bojongasih, Cangkuangwetan, Pasawahan 04, 14, 08, 09, 052.1 STUDY LOCALEHousing and settlement.Geographical feature of study location indicate some part of settlement andhousing which hard-hit by flood are built above the flood plain area. Flood plain is relatively smoothvalley floors adjacent to and formed by alluviating rivers which are subject to overflow(Licker,2003).This indication confirmed by informant that their house was built on land which previously itwas a paddy field and fishing pond and for the most time inundated during rainy season. Aerialtopographic along Citarum River and research report also confirmed that the study locations are partof Citarum flood plain (Kunto, 1986). River surface elevation during normal flood measured 659.3meters above sea level, whereas average land surface elevation in the study locale located below theabove number, even some places located 658 meter above sea level (BBWS Citarum, 2012).42
  • 51. [A-05]Human population. According to data from official census publication the study locale is part of thefast growing and urbanized area of Bandung municipality (Badan Pusat Statistik, 2010).Demographicinformation of people reside in the study locale are comprise mostly factory worker, private companyworker; informal trader and small number are farmer (Badan Pusat Statistik, 2010).Citarum river and it’s tributaries and flood occurence. The Citarum river,which is the largest river inWest Java Province, connected with it’s tributaries (Cikapundung and Cisangkuy river) in location notfar from study locale. Flood occurrence is natural characteristic in the study locale. Historical recordof heavy flood occurrence was reported in 1917 and 1931(Kunto, 1986). Normal flood occurrenceinundated the whole study area when local rain pour in and around study area, water level submergedaccess road but receded to normal level in less than two – eight hours. In the present day morefrequent heavy flood occurrence inundated larger area, submerged not only inland road but main roadand in some area (including study locale) totally changing visual appearance of Citarum river and itstributaries(BBWS Citarum).2.2 ENVIRONMENT AND RIVERINE ECOSYSTEM DEGRADATION ALONG CITARUM RIVERDegradation is human-activity process decreasing natural vertical structure, horizontal pattern, and/orflows in a natural area (Forman, 2008). Degradation along Citarum River intakes place mainly due toland conversion into human settlements, paddy field and economic activity (Kunto, 1986); surfacewater depletion, sedimentation, domestic solid waste, changing in morphology of river(BBWSCitarum, 2011), and susceptible changing pattern of global climate which affected local climate.Land conversion. Historically, riverine ecosystems along Citarum River are consisting mostly greenvegetation and flood plains. Human activity altered the water catchment area into human settlement,paddy field and other economic activity. Inappropriate land uses in Citarum riverine include forest andflood plain conversion into farmland and conversion of farmland into human settlement(Kunto,1986).Replacing green vegetation and flood plains removes the absorptive capacity of naturalvegetation, and accelerates water flows over the land surface into streams and rivers. More waterarrives faster, causing a higher peak flow or flood in Citarum River. In the upper Citarum regionsettlement area increased from 25,000 ha (1991) to 46,000 ha (2001), correspond with decline 40%paddy field(BBWS Citarum).Changing morphology of river. Naturally morphology of Citarum riverine trailed with geologiccontour. Some effort to mitigate flood is to re-align or to straightened out the body of river (throughcut off), in doing so expectantly the flow of water move straight to the lower part of river, to reducethe inundated area during flood, to lower the number of people affected by the flood. Conversely,effort to alleviate flood in the upper part of river have had negative effect in lower part of river.Increasing peak flow, expanding large part of inundated area and escalating the number of the floodvictim in lower part of river.2.3 FACTOR THAT CONTRIBUTE TO THE RISING VULNERABILITY OF HUMAN SETTLEMENT IN RIVER BANK AND ADJACENT AREAWater flooding level. In the past, it is estimated based from informant’s interview, water floodingelevation generally less than half body height. Recent measurement, using visual observation indicatethat water flood’s elevation, found after receding the water flooding, water elevation in some locationreach up to rooftop of house. That is almost equivalent with 3 meter above ground elevation.2010flood recorded as the worst flood affected not only human settlement in research location but almostthe whole human settlement along Citarum river bank and its adjacent area (BBWS Citarum, 2011).The worst in term of areainundated by waterflooding, duration of waterflooding, number of victims& 43
  • 52. [A-05]displacee, loss & damage of property, and social-economic disruption caused by the flood (BBWSCitarum, 2010).Flood duration. Normally water flooding receded within hours or in less than a day; in worst situationwater flooding will recede within days or week. In 2010 flood, never before in history of peoples livedin Citarum river bank and adjacent area, water flooding did not recede up to 10 months. In the years tocome heavy flood become embedded characteristic of Citarum river. This pattern contributed bychanging in local climate pattern which is coincides with the changing pattern of global climatesituation(DArrigo, Abram, Ummenhofer, Palmer, & Mudelsee, 2009).Sediment and pollutant load. The average annual sediment inflow was estimated at 8 million m3, it isequivalent to an erosion rate of 3 mm per year. Wet season floods carry large amount of sediment. Theincreased flood frequency and severity is associated with sedimentation(BBWS Citarum).The riverpolluted by untreated domestic sewage, solid waste disposal and industrial effluent. In the upper partfarming and household dairy industry contributed for organic pollutant. Mounting sedimenttransported during heavy flood, mixture of mud and solid waste are main component of sediment.3 URBAN SUSTAINABILITY AND HUMAN SETTLEMENT VULNERABILITY AFFECTED BY ECOLOGICAL FACTORAccording to Seralgedin (1995), three component needed to understand the concept of urbansustainability, i.e. economic, social and ecological. Ecological sustainability addresses ecosystemintegrity, habitat conservation, the interaction of species and their preservation, and consideration ofcarrying capacity of ecological system (Laquian, 2005). Monto, Ganesh & Varghese (2005) alsoproposed that ecological sustainability is a healthy living environment that enables fullfilment ofsocietal, economic and governance (including political) need by trying to achieve balance beetwenresource needs for human development and protection of environmental vitality (Monto, Ganesh, &Varghese, 2005).The Natural environment performs certain functions that are essential for the welfare and survival ofthe human species, and which can not duplicated by humans.The living environment is an importantdeterminant of the health of the community. Good housing and suitable physical and socialenvironment are to promote good mental and physical health. Where these are absent, physicaldisorder can become a major cause of morbidity and eat within community, and severely threaten thesustainability of community. Also location were human lived is very important, as long as there isexist a force that draw a community to a particular location it will continue to remain in that location(Monto, Ganesh, & Varghese, 2005).Forest provides natural protection from floods, evidence that forest loss imposes and additionalvulnerability on landscapes to floods; at least in certain circumstances. The proposed mechanism isthat loss vegetation can lead to increased runoff due to reductions in the interception of rainfall and theevaporation of water from tree canopy, coupled with reduction in the hydraulic conductivity(infiltration rate) of soil (Bradshaw et.al., 2007). Riverine flood are mainly caused by the overflow ofstream channel.Flood occurrences in an urban area continue to mount. Media report showed that flood loss rising frompast to present date. Floods are serious in urban region where people and human structures are soconcentrated. Major component of urbanization and contributor to flood occurrence is the increase inimpervious surfaces. Flood, as natural hazard, become a disaster when the ability of communityunable to cope with that event. Directly the flood become hazardous to structure and living thing, bythe pressure it can exert to structure and when it fill the lungs and prevent respirations (Lindell &Prater, 2003).44
  • 53. [A-05]In term of quantitative economic estimation, flood impact to human settlement classified intocategories, tangible and intangible impact (Nadal et.al., 2010). Building damage and infrastructuredisruption classified as tangible impact and inhabitant’s health problem can be classified as intangibleimpact. In this result and discussion divide into three sections. The conceptual factors of flood whichcontribute to the vulnerability of human settlement are as follow. Table 2. Conceptual factor which affect Inhabitant’s Health, Building damage and Infrastructures disruption Category Examples SourcesI (Cause building damage)1. Sediment Soil, silt Land erosion2. Water absorption Building-decay Inundated water3. Kinetic force Building erosion, Structural & non- Water flow structural deformation4. Horizontal static pressure floor cracking, floating furniture /home Raised water raised water Upward appliance hydrostatic pressure5. Debris load/impact Structural &non-structural deformation LogII Cause infrastructure disruption1. Sediment Soil, silt Land erosion2. Water displacement Infrastructure dysfunction Inundated water, organic and inorganic water-content, fungus 3. Pollutant load Environment contamination Industrial and household effluentsIII Cause health problems 1. Infectious agents Bacteria, viruses, parasites Human and animal excreta 2. Organic chemical Pesticides, plastics, detergents, oil, and Industrial, household, and farm use gasoline3. Inorganic chemical Acid, caustic, salts, metals Industrial effluents, household cleansers, surface run-off4. Radioactive materials Uranium, thorium, cesium, iodine, radon (Mining and processingSource : Nadal et.al., 2010; Gao et.al., 2007; Licker, 2003; DrDacky, 20104 ASSESSMENT OF FLOOD IMPACT ON HUMAN HEALTH, BUILDING DAMAGE AND INFRASTRUCTURE DISRUPTIONThe first section examine vulnerability assessment of inhabitant’s health problem, and the nextassessing building damage and followed by the last which assessing flood impact on infrastructure.This assessment based from the aftermath of heavy flood occurrence in 2010 and later heavy floodwith magnitude disaster is less than 2010 flood. Data shown in Table 3,Table 5 and Table 7 areobtained from interview with flood victim and official from respected village and have hadcrosschecked with available data publication. Author admitted that the data may be different with thedata obtained from different sources; some of the disclosed data are conflicting among any sources(especially data in the form exact number). 45
  • 54. [A-05] Table 3. Number of people affected by flooding No& area Area Number of people code Kampong RW (People/household) I Andir 1.1 Cogosol, Andir, Cibadak, - N/A ParungHalang, Jambatan, SindangReret 1.2 - 13, 07, 09 N/A II Bale Endah 2.1 - 20 370 household or (1047 people) 2.2 - 9, 21, 28 N/A 2.3 Kp. Cienteung 870 people 2.4 - RT 09 350 people 2.5 - 10 N/A III DayeuhKolot 3.1 Bojongasih - 600 household 3.2 Cangkuangwetan, Pasawahan - N/A 3.3 - 04, 14, 08, 09, 05 N/A4.1 GENERAL ASSESSMENT OF INHABITANT’S HEALTH PROBLEMNo action was taken during normal water inundation. Prolonged Inundated water flooding forcedwellers to evacuate to temporary settlement, the duration of water flooding correspond with thelength dweller live in temporary shelter. The longest duration the dweller live as displace occurred in2010, with almost 10 months continuously. It is estimated flood affecting nearly all human settlementswithin study locale. The severity of flood also affected and disrupted not only dweller along Citarumriver bank and adjacent area but almost of local resident as well.The diseases affected human through direct physical contact with water flooding or through inhaleddegrading air quality which contaminated with infectious agents (no. 1 of Table 4). No human deathand disappearance are reported during heavy flood and these diseases generally are non-life-threatening, affecting mostly infant, elder and sickness people. However, small number of life-threatening disease from the above category 1, 2 and 3 (see Table 5) also found, such as leptospirosisand inorganic intoxication, further examination are required because the victims are from outsidestudy locale.Generally types of disease found during and after water flooding are list on Table 5. Researchliteratures suggest that flood not only affected physical health, also mental health as well. Although noknown cases found directly in the study locale, however qualitative inquiry to flood victim andinterview with health practitioner indicates to some degree that flood also affected mental health aswell. Research literatures and government publication also revealed that mental health affected moresevere than physical health (Carrol et.al., 2010; Departemen Kesehatan RI, 2002). The most prevalentsymptom of mental sickness is headache, loss of appetite, hypertension, insomnia, and emotionaldisturbance. This clinical symptom is hard to treat if problem associated with mental sickness notrooted out. Prolonged and frequent occurrence of heavy flood with no real solution to solve theproblem raised the severity of mental illness.46
  • 55. [A-05] Table 4. General assessment of suspected contributing factors to inhabitant’s health problem ContributingNo Description factors1. Infectious agents Physical contact with contaminated flood water and inhaled unclean air are major source of sickness by infectious agents.2. Organic chemical Dairy farm industries and farming are mostly located in the upper part Citarum river (Situ Cisanti). Waste generated from this home industries disposed directly to the body of Citarum river and become major sources of organic chemical which contaminated Citarum river, including study locale.3. Inorganic chemical In and around study locale were found many type of factories (food processing, textile, garment & apparel, housing industries) which polluted river with its effluent dumped directly to the body of river.4. Radioactive No conclusive evidence with the existence or trace of radioactive material. The materials mountains surrounding the origin of Citarum river are mining area. Table 5. Type of disease found during and after waterflooding Location Study Non- Study Non- flooded Diseases locale locale, flooded adjacent area area Respiratory problems √ √ √ Skin irritation √ √ √ Cuts, bruises and other physical injuries √ √ Leptospirosis √4.2 ASSESSMENT OF BUILDING DAMAGEFlood actions describe those effects that a flood could directly impose on a building, potentiallycausing damage or even structural failure (Nadal et.al., 2010). Building infrastructure, residential andnon-residential building, and other human built object are subjected to various forces and actionduring flood occurrence. Building infrastructure found on the study locale are bridge, school, electricand telecommunication tower, water drainage. Residential gate, monument, are among building object.Majority of residential building are permanent building (building with foundation and column withbrick as wall partition) and semi-permanent building (building with foundation but no column andused wood or bamboo as wall partition). Traditional building (building without foundation and columnand almost entirely used organic building material such as wood or bamboo) is also found. Mosques,church are non-residential building.During heavy and normal flood all types of building were affected. Table 6, show residential and non-residential building affected by flood. The damage corresponds to the type of building and height ofwater flooding and the duration of inundated water. Direct measurements of flood water height up to 3meter from surface elevation. Indirect measurements of flood (using photographic analysis) waterflooding reach rooftop of building. Table 6 shows number of building which are affected by heavyand normal flood. 47
  • 56. [A-05] Table 6. Number of building affected by flooding Area Building affected No & Heavy Normal area code Kampong RW flood flood I Andir Cogosol, Andir, Cibadak, Parung 1.1 - Halang, Jambatan, SindangReret N/A N/A 1.2 - 13, 07, 09 II Bale Endah 2.1 - 20 2.2 - 9, 21, 28 2.3 Kp. Cienteung - 3,084 952 2.4 - RT 09 2.5 - 10 III DayeuhKolot 3.1 Bojongasih - 3.2 Cangkuangwetan, Pasawahan - N/A 690 3.3 - 04, 14, 08, 09, 05Contributing FactorsSediment. Sediment is a mass of organic or inorganic solid fragmented material, or solid fragmentitself, that comes from weathering of rock and suspended water, that forms in layer on the earthsurface such as mud. The main part of sediment carried off after flood occurrences are soil and loosedorganic material (such as decayed wood and leave). Normal sediment is easy to clean. In normal floodoccurrence sediment washed away by itself after inundated water receded, leave only bigger particlewhich easy to clean. In heavy flood with longer duration leave a wider area covered by mountingsediment. Mounting sediment is not washed away by itself when it solidifies and also not easy toremove when it hardens. Mounting sediment in 2010 flood, measuring 1 – 1.5 meter of thickness.Destructive effect of mounting sediment when it makes contact with soft-material of the building,especially wooden partition (see Figure 1 (a)).The more destructive the effects of sediment when itsolidify and develop into harden material. Prolonged contact of harden sediment with partitiondamaged both wood and non-wood partition.Water absorption. All permanent residential and no-residential building in the study locale are non-hydraulic building. The infiltration of flood water into building are through small opening of door andwindow. The damage started when building material (such as wood and brick), usually started fromlowest part, absorbed water, then it raised humidity which lead to lose its strength. Water absorptionaffected severely wooden building material such as window and door partition which are commonlymade from wood. Wet material is easily colonized by biological infection. The most prevalentbuilding damage caused by water absorption is building decayed (see Figure 1 (b)).Kinetic force. Kinetic forces or hydrodynamic forces those generated by flowing flood water (Nadalet.al., 2010). This kind of force occurred when flood water moves with high or significant velocity.Kinetic water penetrate through particulate media can wash out fine particle and cause land subsidencewhich may cause further damage residential building and infrastructure building such as school. Whenflood water inundated densely building, water move through narrow alley or narrow passage andflowing with higher velocity. The building segments which severely damage are free standing wallpartition (see Figure 1(c)), opening such window and door, and fences. Building damage caused bythis type of force mostly located along the edge of river and inside densely building found on area IIand III.48
  • 57. [A-05]Hydrostatic pressure. Hydrostatic pressure those impose by a mass still flood water acting on abuilding or building component such as columns, walls, doors, and windows. (Nadal et.al., 2010).Examples for this building damage by this type of force are floor cracking (see Figure 1(d)), floorbending, inclined or distorted wall. Buoyancy is associated with hydrostatic pressure, it lift up anykind of material which have lower density with water such wood (furniture) and plastic (utensil) andfloating-movable material. This kind of damage found almost on inundated building. It also penetratessewerage system which has dangerous effect to the dweller’s health (area code I, II, III; see table 1 forreference). (a) Building covered by mounting and harden sediment (b) progressive damage of semi-permanent building caused by frequent inundated (c) Building wall collapsed unable to resist the kinetic forces (d) Crack on floor, and water lift Figure 1. Type of building damageDebris load/impact. River stream transport floating object. Although no conclusive evidence ofbuilding was damage or hit with debris collision, during flood occurrence, all kind of debris / materialtransported by Citarum water stream. Debris frequently reported clogged clean water pipe system andlocal sewerage. 49
  • 58. [A-05] Table 7. General assessment of contributing factors to building damage found on study locale ContributingNo Description factors1. Sediment Mixture of mud with solid waste, and other organic material (wood, leaves, and corpses) littering and layering study locale during and after flood occurrence.2. Water absorption The most severe damage are building which located in low lying area, which inundated longer than any other area. Area II and I fit with this criterion.3. Kinetic force Traditional building and semi-permanent building are the worst building damaged by kinetic force. Official assessment reported that area I had more building damaged than area II and III4. Hydrostatic In low lying area II which had building surrounded by wall container (levee), when pressure elevation of river surface higher compared with surrounding ground elevation, water inundated in certain building flowing up through the ground.5. Debris Buildings near the edge of river comprise mostly semi-permanent building. Although load/impact no evidence of building damage caused by collision with debris is found, it is susceptible if that will happen, it will happen in this area.4.3 ASSESSMENT OF INFRASTRUCTURE DISRUPTIONIn term of infrastructure functionality, flood impact exaggerated and affect all residence lived both inflooded and non-flooded area. Table 8. Level of flood and flood mitigation No & Area Recorded peak level Flood structural mitigationarea code Kampong RW Flood Sediment (meter) (meter) I Andir 1.1 Cogosol, Andir, - 1.0 – 2.0 0.1 – 0.5 N/A N/A Cibadak, ParungHalang, Jambatan, Sindang Reret 1.2 - 13, 07, 09 1.0 – 2.0 0.1 – 0.5 N/A N/A II Bale Endah 2.1 - 20 2.5 – 3.0 1.0 – 1.5 Levee Water (height 1,5 m, pumping long 150 m) 2.2 - 9, 21, 28 2.0 – 2.5 0.5 – 1.0 N/A N/A 2.3 Kp. Cienteung 2.0 – 2.5 0.5 – 1.0 2.4 - RT 09 2.0 – 2.5 0.5 – 1.0 N/A N/A 2.5 - 10 2.0 – 2.5 0.5 – 1.0 N/A N/A III DayeuhKolot 3.1 Bojongasih 1.0 – 2.0 0.1 – 0.5 N/A N/A 3.2 Cangkuangwetan, 1.0 – 2.0 0.1 – 0.5 N/A N/A Pasawahan 3.3 - 04, 14, 08, 1.0 – 2.0 0.1 – 0.5 N/A N/A 09, 0550
  • 59. [A-05]Contributing factorsWater displacement or inundated water. Almost 100% study locale areas are submerge during flood(see Figure 2 (a)). Directly flood occurrence disrupt the functionality of transportation, communicationand electricity infrastructure inside flooded area, further social and economic losses also affect allresidence lived in non-flooded area. During the flood occurrence all mean of conventionaltransportation will stop working, mobility of people, good and service will ceased as well. Usingcertain estimation tool, economic losses caused by infrastructure malfunction are enormous, but non-economic losses estimated cost much higher.Prolonged flood water can loose and wash away subsoil or clay mortar from masonry. Deformation ofsmall bridge and non-concrete rock-hardened road found inside inundated settlement. Contaminatedwater with chemical or biological substances and made contact with building caused chemicalcontamination and biological infection. Discolorations of building and rapid growth of fungus arecommon in inundated building. After recedes, tones of garbage littering and pile up in open space.Sediment and pollutant load. Citarum famously known by its notoriety as the most polluted river in theworld. During flood occurrence contaminated water inundates both residential building andinfrastructure building indiscriminately. Low lying areas are the most severe contaminated withsediment and pollutant load (see Figure 2 (b)). (a) Non-conventional mean of transport replace land (b) Mounting harden sediment disrupt transportation conventional mean of transportation infrastructure Figure 2. Type of Infrustructure Disruption Table 9. Assessment of contributing factors to Infrastructure Disruption ContributingNo Description factors1. Sediment Transportation infrastructure disrupted during flood, even after water receded disruption continue by the sediment blockage. To normalize, transportation infrastructure cleaned up from mounting sediment and more effort needed when sediment hardened. Sediment obstruct infrastructure in all research area.2. Water Directly, water inundated public building (school, hospital, mosque) and forced to displacement closed. Additionally and indirectly, water and electric power contain potential danger of being electrocuted if contacted or touched with wet material.3. Pollutant load It is suspected that Citarum river contaminated with pollutant load. Intact flood water during flood had characteristic strong hazardous odor, and visually darken. Many pollutant sources present in and around study locale. 51
  • 60. [A-05]5 CONCLUDING REMARKRising escalation and intensity of flood is an indication of an obstruction of Citarum riverinehydrological system in absorbing rain water, retain it and to drain the rain water to the body of riversteadily. The obstructions of hydrological system are due to disproportionate land-used into humanbuilt purposed, mainly human settlement, paddy field and other economic. If this obstruction persistedso do with the escalation and intensity of flood. In the end it will create new environmental balancewith heavy flood become common occurrence. The ‘new environmental balance’ with typicalcharacteristic of frequent heavy flood occurrence will raise vulnerability of human settlement inCitarum river bank and adjacent area. More human health problem, building damage andinfrastructure disruption will be the companion of the ‘new environmental balance’. With denselyhuman settlement, flood occurrence no longer as natural hazard but a human disaster. Unless certainactions need to reverse the situation, Citarum river bank and adjacent area are vulnerable location forhuman settlement. Until now only with adaptive capability strategy, people still able to live in thedisaster prone area.6 REFERENCESBadan Pusat Statistik 2010, Hasil Sensus Penduduk 2010 Data Agregat per Kecamatan di Kabupaten Bandung. Bandung.Benton-Short, L., & Short, J. R. 2008, Cities and Nature. New York: Routledge.Birkland, T., Burby, R., Conrad, D., Cortner, H., & Michenner, W. 2003, River Ecology and Flood Hazard Mitigation. Natural Hazard Review.Bradshaw, C. J., Sodhi, N. J., Peh, K. H., & Brook, B. W. 2007, Global Evidence that Deforestation Amplifies Flood Risk and Severity in Developing World. Global Change Biology.Brody, S. D., Zahran, S., Highfield, W. E., Grover, H., & Vedlitz, A. 2007, Identifying the Impact of the Build Environment on Flood Damage in Texas. Overseas Development Institute.Carrol, B., Balogh, R., Morbey, H., & Araoz, G. 2010, Health and Social Impacts of Flood Disaster : Responding to Needs and Implications for Practice. Disaster.Creswell, J. W. 1998, Qualitative Inquiry and Research Design, Choosing Among Five Tradition. SAGE Publication.DArrigo, R., Abram, N., Ummenhofer, C., Palmer, J., & Mudelsee, M. 2009, Reconstructed Streamflow for Citarum River, Java, Indonesia : Linkages to to Tropical Climate Dynamic. Springer - Verlag.Departemen Kesehatan RI. 2002, Menanggulangi Masalah Kesehatan Akibat Banjir.Forman, R. T. 2008, Urban Region Ecology and Planning Beyond The City. Cambridge University Press.Kunto, H. 1986, Semerbak Bunga di Bandung Raya. Bandung: PT Granesia.Kuswartojo, T., Rosnarti, D., Effendi, V., Eko K, R., & Sidi, P. 2005, Perumahan dan Permukiman di Indonesia, Upaya Membuat Perkembangan Kehidupan yang Berkelanjutan. Bandung: Penerbit ITB.Laquian, A. A. 2005, Beyond Metropolis The Planning and Governance of Asias Mega-Urban Region. John Hopkins University Press.Licker, M. 2003, Dictionary of Environemntal Science. Mc Graw - Hill.52
  • 61. [A-05]Lindell, M., & Prater, C. 2003, Assessing Community Impacts of Natural Disasters. Natural Hazards Review.Mani, M., Varghese, K., & L.S., G. 2006, Integrated Model Framework to Simulate Sustainability. Journal of Urban Planning and Development.Monto, M., Ganesh, L., & Varghese, K. 2005, Sustainability and Human Settlement, Fundamental Issues, Modelling and Simulations. New Delhi, Thousand Oaks: SAGE Publication.Nadal, N. C., Zapata, R. E., Pagan, I., Lopez, R., & Agudelo, J. 2010, Building Damage Due to Riverine and Coastal Floods. Journal of Water Resources Planning Planning & Amanagement @ ASCE.Perlman, D. L., & Milder, J. C. 2005, Practical Ecology for Planner, Developers, and citizen. Lincoln Institute of land Policy. 53
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  • 63. [A-06] THE INFLUENCE OF VEGETATION TO THE INDOOR TEMPERATURE IN TROPICAL AREA Khalid A. MANNAN1, Elisa ANGGRAENI2, Aisyah N. HAYATI3 Aulia F. MUCHLIS4ABSTRACT: The climatic characteristic of tropical area is the high temperature and humidity. Thismay cause the uncomfortness to live in a tropical area. Some people feel so exhausted for the hotweather. This problem should be handled by building to create a thermal comfort in a building.Vegetation is believed to be a building element that has the ability to decrease temperature. Theobjective of this research is to find the placement of a vegetation in a building to create a thermalcomfort. The method of this research is the field measurement using a model and a hygrotermometer asa tool to measure the temperature. There are five different placement of vegetation in a building to becompared to find the best placement in creating thermal comfort. the result of this research is that usingvegetation is a good way in creating thermal comfort. The placement in the west side of wall is the bestplacement to create thermal comfort.KEYWORDS: Vegetation, thermal comfort, temperature.1 INTRODUCTIONIndonesia is the region around the equator has a humid tropical climate, rich in water vapor due tocloud formation. In the humid tropical climate, the conditions inside buildings are often lesscomfortable to live if there is no exchange of air in it. The temperature inside the building will tend tothe threshold standard of comfort or overheating (Himawan, 2005), and provide physical andpsychological discomfort for the users of buildings, and high energy consumption .Thermal comfort has a close relationship with the local climatic conditions, in order conditioning andindoor air regulation. To obtain the thermal comfort within a building, can be done in various ways,including active control, passive control, and hybrid control (Priatman, 2003). For active and hybridcontrol are processes that involve the use of electrical energy.Most of the energy used in homes is used for indoor thermal systems, both for heating and cooling.Department of Primary Industries Data and Energy Commonwealth of Australia in 1997 (Priatman,2003) suggests that most of the energy used in residential buildings are used for thermal comfort,which is about 43% for Air Conditioner, 13% for unitary AC and 6 % for cooling tower and about40% is used for other electronic devices. The figure above shows the amount of energy used forthermal comfort in buildings. It would require a specific strategy for thermal comfort is obtained withlow energy consumption and comfort for the occupants can be achieved.A solution which can be an alternative to overcome these problems is the use of vegetation as part ofthe landscape elements, but also may have other functions as a thermal controller. This is analternative that can be utilized to maintain the temperature in a stable condition. As we know that the1 Student, Department of Architecture, State Islamic University of Maulana Malik Ibrahim Malang, Indonesia.2 Student, Department of Architecture, State Islamic University of Maulana Malik Ibrahim Malang, Indonesia.3 Student, Department of Architecture, State Islamic University of Maulana Malik Ibrahim Malang, Indonesia.4 Lecturer, Department of Architecture, State Islamic University of Maulana Malik Ibrahim Malang, Indonesia. 55
  • 64. [A-06]vegetation produces oxygen which is then released into the air so as to make the surrounding airbecomes cooler. This study emphasizes the placement of vegetation on some of the buildings, in orderto see how much the temperature can be reduced so that the effect on thermal comfort and indoor-based energy-efficient1.1 RESEARCH PROBLEMSOverview of some of the above, some of the problems that the target of this research: 1. How does the placement of vegetation on thermal comfort in the room ? 2. Where is the best placement of vegetation to reduce the temperature in the room ?1.2 RESEACH BOUNDARYThis study will provide a great benefit to science, especially in the field of thermal building. Thelimitation in this study using a model similar residential buildings, both of the types of buildingmaterials, location of openings, area of the room, as well as the type of vegetation. The only differenceis the placement of vegetation on some of the buildings. The result will be known to the impact of theplacement of vegetation to temperature in the room.1.3 RESEARCH METHODThe study was conducted to determine the effect of vegetation on placement in the room temperaturein the tropics in Indonesia, by taking samples in the area around the city of Malang. Purple-leavedvegetation (Graptophylium pictum) was chosen because it readily available at the communityresidential area.Model building measuring 50x50 cm made with cement and brick material, adapted to the originalbuilding material. Vegetation attached to the walls of the building to the north, south, east, west and onthe roof of the building.At each placement, the temperature was measured using a hygrometer per hour within the same day.The measurement results were then compared between the placement of one placement to another tofind out where the best placement in reducing the temperature in the room.In general it can be concluded that the independent variables in this study is the placement ofvegetation on the model building. Control variable is the type of vegetation, time and material modelof the building. While the dependent variable is the temperature in the model room of the building.The research process described in the following chart in Figure 1. Figure 1. Research process56
  • 65. [A-06]2 LITERATURE REVIEWIntangible energy in various forms, and one form of energy that exist on this earth is the thermalenergy (Lechner, 2001: 50). Thermal energy is divided into three forms, namely: 1. The heat can be felt / measured (semsible heat) / can be measured by a thermometer. 2. Latent heat (latent heat) change of form or a phase change material. 3. Radiated heat (radiant heat) radiation is a form of an electric magnet.2.1 THERMAL COMFORTThermal comfort is a thermal condition that is felt by humans, not by the objects, animals, andarchitecture, but is conditioned by the environment and objects around the architecture. To createthermal comfort, we should be able to understand not only the mechanisms of heat loss from thehuman body, but also to the environmental conditions that can make the heat disappear. The fourconditions are: 1. Air temperature (◦C) 2. Humidity 3. Air Speed (Feet / Minute) 4. Radian Mean Temperature (MRT)Thermal comfort can be obtained by controlling the following matters: 1. Heat sources (combustion of carbohydrates in food, air temperature, solar radiation). For that there must be heat transfer (lower or heat exchange) from the body into the environment. 2. Moisture, should be conditioned or control the moisture from perspiration, of these objects, the source of moisture, which is the source of water and plant species 3. Wind, wind occurs because of differences in air pressure and air temperature differences. 4. The source of radiation heat comes from direct sunlight and indirect (reflection and conduction) and the combustion process in the human body (metabolism).2.2 HEAT, VEGETATION AND THERMALInternal condition of the building has a large amount of heat generated by humans, light and electronicequipment or any combination in between. Heat is a form of energy, contained in substances asmolecular motion or appearing as electromagnetic radiation in space (Szokolay, 2004). The heat that isformed is called sensible heat / latent. Vegetation is one of the principal factors that could affect themicro and macro climate. By providing shelter in buildings, can significantly reduce the temperature.For hot and humid climate, the ideal situation is to have a roof covering of tall trees for shade. The airis stuck in low trees and shrubs allow moisture to wake up in a very undesirable. In cold climates,trees can reduce noise and air clean of dust and other pollutants.In addition, broad-leaved plants have the ability to absorb carbon dioxide (CO2) is greater. In onehuman being requires 2.9 kg of oxygen (02) so that the plants help to accelerate the procurement of 02in the room during the day. For the comfort room, a plant which can be utilized such as in-law tongue(Sansevieria), srigading (Dracaena Massangeana), Chrysantheium monfohum, Sri sustenance(Aglaonema modestum), and plant root fibers. 57
  • 66. [A-06]3 DISCUSSIONIn this study using five measurements with different placement of vegetation. The first measurementsmade on the placement of vegetation on the west wall, continue on east, south, north and finalplacement on the roof as a roof garden. Can be explained in Figure 2. (a) West (b) South (c) Eeast (d) North (e) Roof garden Figure 2. Placement of a vegetation on the wallThe results of measurements at room temperature, the placement of vegetation on the west and eastwalls, are showed in Table 1 and Table 2. Table 1. Measurement results for the placement of vegetation in the Western Indoor temperature (oC) Outdoor The temperature difference Time Before* After* Temperature (oC) before and after * 06.00 24,6 24,1 24,8 0,5 07.00 24,8 24,5 25 0,3 08.00 25,9 25,7 26,3 0,2 09.00 26,6 26,2 26,8 0,4 10.00 26,4 26,0 26,8 0,4 11.00 26,8 26,3 27,1 0,5 12.00 26,5 26,3 27,1 0,2 13.00 26,9 26,2 27,3 0,7 14.00 27,0 26,5 27,5 0,5 15.00 27,7 27,1 27,9 0,6 16.00 27,4 27,0 27,8 0,4 17.00 27,4 27,2 27,7 0,2 18.00 27,5 27,0 27,6 0,5 Table 2. Measurement results for the placement of vegetation in the East Indoor temperature (oC) Outdoor The temperature difference Time Before* After* Temperature (oC) before and after * 06.00 24,6 24,4 24,8 0,2 07.00 24,8 24,4 25 0,4 08.00 25,9 25,7 26,3 0,2 09.00 26,6 26,5 26,8 0,1 10.00 26,4 26,1 26,8 0,3 11.00 26,8 26,5 27,1 0,3 12.00 26,5 26,3 27,1 0,2 13.00 26,9 26,5 27,3 0,4 14.00 27,0 26,7 27,5 0,3 15.00 27,7 27,5 27,9 0,2 16.00 27,4 27,3 27,8 0,1 17.00 27,4 27,1 27,7 0,3 18.00 27,5 27,3 27,6 0,258
  • 67. [A-06]In a period of time (day and evening) of the above can be seen a drop in temperature after the laidvegetation, both on the west and east. The average value of temperature drop, for placement in thewest is 0.415 ° C. While the average value of temperature drop in the room, to the east is theplacement was 0.25 ° C. Chart comparison between the temperature before and after the placement ofvegetation on the east and west can be seen in Figure 3. 28 27 26 25 24 23 22 06.00 07.00 08.00 09.00 10.00 11.00 12.00 13.00 14.00 15.00 16.00 17.00 18.00 Indoor temperature (Before) Indoor temperature (After)- Vegetation on West Indoor temperature (After)- Vegetation on East Figure 3. Comparison between the temperature in the room before and after, the placement of vegetation the west and eastMeasurement is then performed for vegetation that is placed on the south and north. Results of thesetwo measurements ware showed in Table 3 and Table 4. Table 3. Measurement results for the placement of vegetation in the South Indoor temperature (oC) Indoor The temperature difference Time Before* After* temperature (oC) before and after * 06.00 24,6 24,2 24,8 0,4 07.00 24,8 24,4 25 0,4 08.00 25,9 25,8 26,3 0,1 09.00 26,6 26,5 26,8 0,1 10.00 26,4 26,2 26,8 0,2 11.00 26,8 26,4 27,1 0,4 12.00 26,5 26,3 27,1 0,2 13.00 26,9 26,7 27,3 0,2 14.00 27,0 26,7 27,5 0,3 15.00 27,7 27,4 27,9 0,3 16.00 27,4 27,1 27,8 0,3 17.00 27,4 27,2 27,7 0,2 18.00 27,5 27,3 27,6 0,2 59
  • 68. [A-06] Table 4. Measurement results for the placement of vegetation in the North Indoor temperature (oC) Outdoor The temperature difference Time Before* After* temperature (oC) before and after * 06.00 24,6 24,5 24,8 0,1 07.00 24,8 24,6 25 0,2 08.00 25,9 25,7 26,3 0,2 09.00 26,6 26,4 26,8 0,2 10.00 26,4 26,2 26,8 0,2 11.00 26,8 26,6 27,1 0,2 12.00 26,5 26,2 27,1 0,3 13.00 26,9 26,7 27,3 0,2 14.00 27,0 26,8 27,5 0,2 15.00 27,7 27,3 27,9 0,4 16.00 27,4 27,3 27,8 0,1 17.00 27,4 27,0 27,7 0,4 18.00 27,5 27,3 27,6 0,2In a period of time (day and evening) from the table above can be seen a drop in temperature after thelaid vegetation, both on the south side and on the north side. The average value of the decrease intemperature in the room is equal to 0.254 °C, for the placement of vegetation on the southern side.While the average value of the decrease in temperature in the room for placement on the north side isamounted to 0.207 °C. Chart comparison between the temperature before and after the placement ofvegetation on the south and north can be seen in Figure 4. 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22 06.00 07.00 08.00 09.00 10.00 11.00 12.00 13.00 14.00 15.00 16.00 17.00 18.00 Indoor Temperature (Before) Indoor Temperature (After) - Vegetation on North Indoor Temperature (After) - Vegetation on South Figure 4. Comparison between the temperature in the room before and after, placement of vegetation on North and South60
  • 69. [A-06]The last measurement made on the placement of vegetation as a roof garden. Results of these twomeasurements ware showed in Table 5. Table 5. Measurement results for the placement of vegetation in the North as roof garden Indoor temperature (oC) Outdoor The temperature difference Time Before* After* temperature (oC) before and after * 06.00 24,6 24,3 24,8 0,3 07.00 24,8 24,6 25 0,2 08.00 25,9 25,8 26,3 0,1 09.00 26,6 26,3 27,0 0,3 10.00 26,4 26,2 26,8 0,2 11.00 26,8 26,5 27,1 0,3 12.00 26,5 26,4 27,1 0,1 13.00 26,9 26,6 27,3 0,3 14.00 27,0 26,8 27,5 0,2 15.00 27,7 27,3 27,9 0,4 16.00 27,4 27,1 27,8 0,3 17.00 27,4 27,3 27,7 0,1 18.00 27,5 27,1 27,6 0,4In a period of time (day and evening), can be seen a decrease in temperature after the vegetationplaced on the roof garden. The average value decrease of indoor temperature is 0.246 ° C. Chartcomparison between the temperature before and after the placement of vegetation as a roof garden canbe seen in Figure 5. 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22 06.00 07.00 08.00 09.00 10.00 11.00 12.00 13.00 14.00 15.00 16.00 17.00 18.00 Indoor Temperature (Before) Indoor Temperature (After)-as Roof Garden Figure 5. Comparison between the temperature before and after, the placement of vegetation as a roof garden 61
  • 70. [A-06]From the above results, the comparison of data obtained by the placement of vegetation to thedecrease of temperature is showed in Figure 6. 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22 06.00 07.00 08.00 09.00 10.00 11.00 12.00 13.00 14.00 15.00 16.00 17.00 18,00 Vegetation on West Vegetation on East Vegetation on South Vegetation on North as roof garden Figure 6. Comparison all of temperature after placement, of vegetation on the North, South, East, West and as a roof.4 CONCLUSIONFrom the above data, it can be concluded that: 1. the use of vegetation shown to lower the temperature in the room so that it can be applied in planning the design of houses, so it does not require more water conditioner 2. tlacement of vegetation that are most pressing at room temperature is the placement on the west wall of the room.5 SUGGESTIONThis research is beginning to prove the influence of the placement of vegetation to the decrease oftemperature in the room. This study has several disadvantages, one of them the weather is alwayschanging at the time of the study, so it can not be a formal reference in the determination of the actualplacement of vegetation. However, the results of this study may be the basis for further researchregarding the placement of vegetation that is more detailed and focused, so that the obtained resultsare more valid and convincing.6 REFERENCESLechner, Norbert. 2001, Heating, Cooling, Lighting: Metode Desain untuk Arsitektur, Rajagrafindo Persada, Jakarta, pp. 50.62
  • 71. [A-06]Szokolay, Steven V. 2004, Introduction to Architectural Science The Basis of Sustainable Design, Architectural Press, Burlington. 5.Priatman, Jimmy. 2003, Energi Conscius Design, Konsepsi dan Strategi Perancangan Bangunan di Indonesia, Dimensi Teknik Arstektur, Vol. 31, No 1, pp.45.Himawan, F. 2005, Arsitektur Berkelanjutan Dayak Kenyah Ditinjau dari Aspek Kenyamanan Termal, Studi kasus di Desa Pampang, Samarinda Utara, Kalimantan Timur, Tesis, Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember, Surabaya. 63
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  • 73. [A-07] A STUDY ON THE EXTERNALITY OF GAS-STATIONIN URBAN AREA, A CASE STUDY OF BANDUNG, INDONESIA Mahatma S. SURYO1 and Arip P. RACHMAN2ABSTRACT: Urban infrastructure must be developed based on the principal of sustainabledevelopment. Without a good comprehensive planning, it would be contra productive for thedevelopment. Gas-stationis very important in Indonesian cities, which have high dependency on privatevehicles (cars and motorcycle). In certain case, the existence of gas-station has created a negative effecton urban area especially in the form of traffic congestion. This paper attempts to identify theexternalities of gas-station and to formulate planning criteria for gas station in this area. The study wasconducted by field observation and critical discourse based on related standards. The study identifiesthat gas-stations, which are located on street intersection and provide commercial function will createconsiderable negative externalities on traffic. This paper is expected to provide policy recommendationand urban design guideline related to gas-station planning in urban area.KEYWORDS: Externality, gas-station, urban design guideline.1 INTRODUCTIONIndonesian cities can be considered as automobile-dependent cities. These cities dependency to theprivate cars has been triggering various problems such as traffic congestion and conflicts among roadusers. The high number of personal automobile also the reason of why this country has a high level offuel consumption. As reported by Bisnis Jabar (6 June 2012), such condition will be followed by theoperation of many gas-stations in order to catch the market demand.The tight competition among the gas-station operators enforces them to increase their service byproviding additional service such as retail store, which complemented by cafeteria, as well as shuttle-bus terminal. One crucial issue arises from this condition is the increasing level of traffic generationcaused by the operation of these gas-stations as well as the land use function created surroundingthem.The purpose of the study is to identify the gas-station’s typology regarding its location and land usefeature.2 LITERATURE REVIEWThe growing number of private vehicles have induced the increasing number of gas-stations inIndonesia. There are requirements, and specific criteria must be met in planning and designing the gas-station.The gas station site selection is a multi-criteria complex problem. It includes criteria such assurrounding traffic, environmental factors, visibility, and criteria related to competitors (Semih &Seyhan,2011). Aslan and Alesheikh (2011) categorized theparameter of gas station in Iran in thefollowing classes: 1) Safety: Safety mostly refers to safety of stations, including their vicinity to firefighting stations and their remoteness from earthquake fault line, high pressure electric posts and oil1Researcher, Puslitbang Permukiman PU, Indonesia2Researcher, Puslitbang Permukiman PU, Indonesia 65
  • 74. [A-07]and gas lines. 2) Traffic: Gas stations should be located far from squares and one way streets toconsiderably reduce the traffic. 3) Accessibility: This class includes the ease of access to highways andmain roads and the maintenance of a suitable distance from parking. 4) Environmental: Gas stationsshould be far from green areas, hospitals and schools.In general, Pertamina – as a private owned enterprise and the biggest player in fuel distributionbusiness in Indonesia – has developed detailed requirements for it’s station. According to Pertamina,the building anatomy of its gas-station has to meet the standard as follows: 1. The design of the building has to be adapted to the characteristic of its surrounding (e.g.: the location of the entrance and exit gate); 2. The building elements have to be adaptive with the climate and environment (the design of louvre and the utilization of proper material and texture) 3. The design of gas-station has to be harmonious with the character of dominant building in its surrounding; 4. The architecture of supporting facility building has to be integrated with of the main building. 5. All the buildings facade has to express consistent detail and character. 6. Attractive variation of roofing’s form and line 7. The building has to be adaptive with the solar heat and its refflection through designing louvre 8. The building is divided into smaller scale components in order to avoid oversized building form.For the circulation of gas station: 1. The circulation is designed so that any vehicle can make turns easily to enter the gas-station and into the queue near the pump. The vehicles also facilitated to make easy turn while leaving the station without encounter any obstruction and the drivers provided good visibility when re-entering the street; 2. The entrance and exit of gas-station must not be intersected 3. There should be at least two entrance lanes into the gas-station; 4. The minimum number of exit lane is three or same with of the petrol-filling lane. 5. The width of entrance and exit of the gas-station are set to be at least 6 m.There are also many gas-station operator that provide additional services, suc as: praying room, air-pump, toilet, etc. Modern gas station ofthe provides with minimarket and ATM.Planning criteria forlocation of Petrol Filling Stations (RURA Version) 1. Stations should be located within a growth center or an urban area except in circumstances where it can be shown through appropriate studies that the need exists otherwise. 2. Stations should be located at a minimum of 100 m from any public institution such as schools, churches, public libraries, auditoriums, hospitals, public playground, etc. However, other small and medium commercial activities may be located within the specified limits. 3. Distance between one gas-station and another : 150 m 4. Area of land to be developed should be sufficient to allow maneuvering of vehicles within its cartilage but should not be less than 1100 m2 with a minimum frontage of 9 m on the primary street.66
  • 75. [A-07] 5. Filling stations will not be allowed in any area where the traffic situation is such that it will cause obstructions in entering or leaving a station or on tight curves where visibility is not adequate. 6. Petrol pumps shall be located a minimum 30 m from any residential building. 7. Urban stretches :  Intersection with any category of road (irrespective of carriageway width) 100 m  Undivided carriageway 300 m  Divided carriageway 100 m if not on same side of carriageway; 300 m if on same side of carriage way  Minimum plot size of gas-station shall be 35 m x 35 m  Maximum building coverage 60%  Minimum landscaping 10% 8. Where the site adjoins the side or rear boundary of residential lot, a solid wall 3 m in height should be constructed and maintained along that lot boundary. 9. Normally no acces to or egreess from a gas-station shall be closer than 45m to any road intersection or 75m from the intersection of two main roads.3 CASE STUDY3.1 SPBU ARCAMANIK HERMINAArcamanik Gas-station is located on Jalan A.H. Nasution Bandung. This gas-station is the main gas-station in this area within 4 km range. The size of this gas-station is about 1575 square meter with 11meter width of each acces. The site is located on busy crosssection between the main road andsecondary road. It is surrounded by public institutions such as elementary school, hospital, policestation, and minimarkets within 100 meter radius. The additional facilites in this area is ATM. LEGEND Gas Station Commercial Housimg Public Institution (School, Hospital, Office) Figure 1. Land use map surrounding the Arcamanik Gas StationThe main problem that occurs in this area is the traffic congestion. This traffic congestion is mainlycaused by the traffic flow from the road intersection and the inflow. 67
  • 76. [A-07] Main flow Secondary flow Local Alley flow Gas Station flow Figure 2. Traffic Flow surrounding the Arcamanik Gas Station3.2 SPBU PUSDAIGas-station is located on Jalan Surapati. This gas-station is the main gas-station in this area within 4km range. The size of this gas-station is about 1843 square meter with 12 meter width of entrance and6,8 meter width of the exit. The site is located on busy crosssection between the main road andsecondary road. It is surrounded by public institutions such as PUSDAI, traditionl market, banks, andminimarkets within 100 meter radius. The additional facilites in this site are minimarket, ATM,Shutlle Bus Pool, and Carwash. LEGEND Gas Station Commercial Housimg Public Institution (School, Hospital, Office) Traditional Market 0 10 20 m Figure 3. Land use map surrounding the Pusdai Gas StationThe main problem that occurs in this area is the traffic congestion. This traffic congestion is mainlycaused by the traffic flow from the road intersection and externalities from the gas-station, shuttle buspool and traditional market.68
  • 77. [A-07] 0 10 20 m Figure 4. Traffic Flow surrounding the Pusdai Gas Station3.3 SPBU AHMAD YANIGas-station is located on Jalan Ahmad Yani. This gas-station is the main gas-station in this area within2 km range. The size of this gas-station is about 2488 square meter with 50 meter width of each acces.The site is located on the corner of busy crosssection between the main roads. It is surrounded bypublic institutions such as Public School, Government office, Shopping Malls (IBCC Plaza) andshophouses within 100 meter radius. The additional facilites in this site are minimarket and ATM. LEGEND Gas Station Commercial Housimg Public Institution (School, Hospital, Office) Figure 5. Land use map surrounding the Ahmad Yani Gas StationFigure 6 shows that Ahmad Yani Gas Station is located on busy cross section. The potential conflict oftraffic flow will occure on the exit gate which is on Jalan Riau and the entrance side on Jalan AhmadYani. This gas stastion is to close to any crossection within 50 meter range. 69
  • 78. [A-07] 0 10 20 m Figure 6. Traffic flow surrounding the Ahmad Yani Gas Station3.4 SPBU SURAPATIGas-station is located on Jalan Surapati. This gas-station is the main gas-station in this area within 4km range. The size of this gas-station is about 1500 square meter with 7,4 meter width of entrance and11 meter width of the exit. The site is approximately 150 meter far from crosssection. It is surroundedby public institutions such as public school, university, banks,offices, and minimarkets within 100meter radius. There is no additional facilities such as ATM or minimarket. LEGEND Gas Station Commercial Housimg Public Institution (School, Hospital, Office) 0 10 20 m Figure 7. Land use map surrounding the Surapati Gas StationFigure 8 shows that Surapati gas station has minimal conflict on traffic flow compared to other gasstation in this study. There is no road intersection in the surrounding area. The closest intersection is in150 range from this gas station. The externalities from the surrounding area is not as much as otherobjects..70
  • 79. [A-07] 0 10 20 m Figure 8. Traffic flow surrounding the Surapati Gas Station4 SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONAccording to field observation, it is identified several facts as follows: 1. The city government has no guidelines or building code in urban masterplan which regulates the gas station. 2. The typology of gas-station according to its position and proximity to the nearby street a) Gas-station located on t-junction and has close proximity to public facilities tends to give significant externalities to the traffic. b) Gas-station which also serves as shuttle-bus terminal will generate considerable traffic the surrounding area. c) Generally, the width of entrance and exit of gas-stations analyzed in this study has met the standard requirement; more than, 6 meters. Figure 9. Typology of gas station based on its location.5 RECOMMENDATIONStandard/guideline in planning gas-station in urban area is needed to control traffic generations andexternalities to the surrounding area of the station. This guideline may consist of :  the aprroriated location of gas station  minimal radius from road intersection  minimal radius from public facilities such as traditional market, hospital and public school. 71
  • 80. [A-07]6 REFERENCESAslan,M and. Alesheikh,A 2011, Site selection for small gas stations using GIS , Academic Journals, Vol. 6(15), pp. 1361-3171, 11 August, 2011Guidelines Construction for Petroleum Station, Rwanda Utilities Regulatory Agency, www.rura.gov.rw, downloaded June 2012Panduan Bangunan SPBU Pertamina, spbu.pertamina.com, downloaded June 2012Rencana Tata Ruang Wilayah Kota bandung 2011-2031, Pemerintah Kota Bandung, 2011Semih, T & Seyhan, S. 2011, A Multi-creiteria Factor Evaluation Model for Gas Station Selection, Journal of Global Management, July 2011, Volume 2. Number 172
  • 81. [A-08] DEVELOPMENT OF A RAPID SYSTEM FOR URBAN AIR QUALITY INDEX MEASUREMENT BASED ON PHOTONIC CRYSTAL SENSOR Mamat RAHMAT1, Muhamad AZIS2, Erus RUSTAMI3, Wenny MAULINA4, ISNAENI5, Husin ALATAS6, Arief S. YUWONO7, Yong-Hoon CHO8 and Kudang B. SEMINAR9ABSTRACT: Urban air pollution has become increasingly severe and uncontrollable.Thus, requiringproper and accurate detection equipment. Acquired data can be used to perform anticipation actionsbased on the clear priority. In this study, we developed an integrated air pollution measurement systemthat consists of several parts: sensor systems, wireless data acquisition systems, and informationtechnology systems. The sensor system was built using an optical sensor formed nanostructures photoniccrystal based on physical material characteristics of pollutant gases. Wireless data acquisition system(WDAS) was built using open hardware module DFRduino and Xbee-PRO based wireless datacommunications. Analog data from sensors, which are converted into digital, is then stored in a MySQLdatabase. The data is displayed in real-time in the form of desktop and web-based applications, which isdeveloped using a graphical user interface (GUI) and visual basic programming, hypertext preprocessor(PHP), asynchronous JavaScript and XML (AJAX) and J-Query techniques. The data can be showndirectly in web pages and downloadable in Microsoft Excel format.KEYWORDS: Urban air pollution, real-time, photonic crystal sensor, wireless data acquisition system,web based application.1 INTRODUCTIONPollution in major cities in Indonesia such as Jakarta, Bandung, and Surabaya has come to an alarmingextent. Concentration of pollutant gases in the form of suspended particulate matter (SPM), nitrogendioxide (NO2), and lead (Pb) are above the standards set by the World Health Organization (WHO)(Soedomo et al., 1991; Resosudarmo 2002). Gurjar et al. (2008) put Jakarta as one of the cities withthe Mega-cities Pollution Index (MPI) equivalent to Beijings tallest, higher than Karachi and Cairo.Urbanization and industrialization is a major cause of air pollution in developing countries likeIndonesia (Hertel&Goodsite 2009).Nitrogen dioxide is part of the nitrogen oxides (NOx), the most attention related to air pollution andhuman health (WHO 2000; Brunekreef 2007; Esplugues et al., 2007). Nitrogen oxides produced fromhuman activities (anthropogenic) and natural (biogenic) (USEPA 2008). The transport sector is thelargest contributor of nitrogen oxide emissions in Asia and America than power generation andindustry (Streets et al., 2003; USEPA 2006).The government of Indonesia has set a nitrogen dioxide1 PhD Student, Agriculture Engineering Science Study Program,Graduate School–Bogor Agricultural University, Indonesia2 Master Student, Biophysics Study Program,Graduate School – Bogor Agricultural University, Indonesia3 Master Student, Biophysics Study Program,Graduate School – Bogor Agricultural University, Indonesia4 Master Student, Biophysics Study Program,Graduate School – Bogor Agricultural University, Indonesia5 Reseacher,Department of Physics – Korea Andvanced Institute of Science and Technology, Korea6 Associate Professor,Department of Physics – Bogor Agricultural University, Indonesia7 Associate Professor,Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering – Bogor Agricultural University, Indonesia8 Professor,Department of Physics – Korea Andvanced Institute of Science and Technology, Korea9 Professor,Department of Agriculture Engineering and Biosystem – Bogor Agricultural University, Indonesia 73
  • 82. [A-08]along with particulate matter (PM), sulfur dioxide (SO2), carbon monoxide (CO) and ozone (O3) as aparameter of the air pollutant standard index (IndeksStandarPencemarUdara, ISPU) (MNLH 1997).The impact of air pollution on human health is affected by the type of pollutant, concentration,duration of exposure, and vulnerability of each individual (Mishra 2003). In general, exposure to NO2a long time and a high concentration has a negative impact on health, especially for children, such asreduced lung function, wheezing, and asthma (Galan et al., 2003; Gauderman et al. 2005). Healthproblems from air pollution are also affected by the economic sector. Patankar and Trivedi (2011)reported a total financial burden, including burden of individuals, government spending and socialcosts, due to health problems in India at around $ 218.10 million to 50 g/m3 increase in NO2gas.NO2 exposure measurements are performed by the method of passive air samplers (PAS) or active airsamplers (AAS). PAS method can be used to complete the AAS with the advantage of cheaperoperating costs (Gouin et al., 2005; Moodley et al. 2011). However, the PAS method has thedisadvantage that it cannot provide data in real time on the in-situ measurements, because thecharacterization performed in the laboratory. Parameter measurements of NO2 to ISPU PAS methodhave been standardized by the Indonesian National Standard (SNI).In this study, we developed a detection system of air pollution, because it is very important to benoticed and become the focus of the world. Development of photonic crystal sensors are the basis ofthe concept development of the measurement system and built in integrated ISPU ranging fromtheoretical studies, experimentation, instrumentation and applications of information technology todeliver data presented to the public. This is done to address climate change and environmentalpollution for the development of a rapid system for urban air quality index measurement based onphotonic crystal sensor.2 RECENT DEVELOPMENTNO2 gas sensor has been developed semiconductor based detectors (Meixner et al., 1995; Bei et al.,2004; Wei et al. 2004), a thin layer (Tsiulyanu et al., 2001; Shishiyanu et al. 2005) and nanowire(Zhang et al ., 2004; Ahn et al., 2008; Choi et al., 2008). On the other hand, optical-based detectionmethods have also been progressing quite rapidly. Photonic crystal optical material is one that iswidely used as a sensor (Asher et al., 2003; West Ham et al., 2003; Koronov et al., 2005; Chuang et al.2011). Refractive index became one parameter in a photonic crystal-based detection (We et al., 2008;Chen et al., 2008). Alatas et al. (2006) developed a refractive index sensor based on a one-dimensionalphotonic crystal with two defects (defects). The addition of two defects in the crystal produces aphenomenon called photonic pass band (PPB). PPB intensity is very sensitive to changes in therefractive index in the second defect. Testing of photonic crystal sensor for measuring theconcentration of sugar solution to produce data with the coefficient of determination (R2) reached 98%(Grace 2009).The development of information technology (IT) is very fast in recent years and has expanded intomany areas of life, including in agriculture. At first, the utilization of information technology inagriculture is widely used to disseminate information about fresh produce and agricultural industries tobe traded and it is widely used by business people in agriculture, and also to spread information aboutresearch results, and dissemination policies that are done by government agencies, universities,nongovernmental organizations and business people in the farming and agricultural industry (Thysen,2000).Therefore, a distributed instrumentation required to submit the results of this monitoring.Technological developments currently allow the use of applications to deliver informative data at alow cost, fast, and easily accessible. The most rapid and easily accessible facility is internet.74
  • 83. [A-08]Therefore, communication is used to connect the server with the public internet network. The databaseis displayed on a web server to be distributed to the public. The present data also needs to be given aspecial format because many people who do not understand about the air quality data. Measurementdata should be packaged in the form of data that is informative, so that ordinary people can use it (Hartand Martinez, 2006).Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) is an equipment package system in which there is one or moreautomatic sensor and is equipped with communication systems, where each point sensor in the sensornetwork is equipped with a radio transceiver or some sort of wireless communication devices. Suchsensors work together and are typically used to monitor the condition of the physical environment,such as temperature, motion, sound, vibration, color changes, and others. Each point (spot) sensors areusually equipped with a microcontroller and energy source (battery or solar cell). (Affan, 2006)WSN application in the fields of environmentare is known as the Environmental Sensor Network(ESN). ESN facilitates fundamental studies related to the process and the development of an alarmsystem contamination. ESN has been developed starting from a passive storage system that requiresthe downloading of the manual to sensor networks that enable intelligent network stain combination ofautomatic sensor and communication systems that can actively communicate data in a Sensor NetworkServer (SNS) at which data can be integrated with environmental data sets other. Stains sensor can beplaced in fixed and moving in mobility scale suitable for measuring specified environmentalparameters (Hart and Martinez, 2006).3 SCOPE AND LIMITATIONIn this paper, we present the results of the development of the photonic crystal sensor for the detectionof gas concentrations of pollution, followed by instruments supporters to generate measurement datadigitally. The next step is to make wireless data acquisition system and database system that reads andstores the data so that data can be displayed in computer either desktop-based or web-based. In thiscase, we present only one sensor development nitrogen dioxide (NO2) as an illustration in thedevelopment of other sensors, such as O3, SO2, CO and so on. While the development ofinstrumentation and data acquisition system, we builtthree devices which have five sensors in eachstation.4 METHODOLOGY4.1 GAS CHARACTERIZATIONA pollutant gas sample, in the case of NO2 gas, is sucked into the impinger containing a solution of 10mL Griess Saltzman. Suction vacuum pump set at a rate of 0.4 L/min. Sampling was carried out for 60minutes. Temperature and humidity environment is accounted for three times, i.e. the first minute, the30th minute, and the 60th minute. Then the sample characterizedusing a spectrophotometer UV-VISOcean Optics USB 4000 with observed changes in the wavelength spectrum and displayed on acomputer screen.4.2 SENSOR DEVELOPMENTPhotonic crystal sensor system was developed based on the characterization of pollutant gases whichshow absorption wavelength in accordance with the rules of Beer Lambert. Photonic crystal sensordesign adapted to the results of previous studies conducted Alatas et al. (2006) using the transfermatrix method with the optimization of design patterns using two defects. Fabrication of photoniccrystals used electron beam evaporation method at a temperature of 300 K and pressure of 2 x 10-5 Pa. 75
  • 84. [A-08]The coating process was performed in two steps. First, coating process are 14 layers from layer-1until layer-14 before the second defect. In this first process, the first defect in layer-5 was alreadyincluded. This process was implemented in substrate-1 that was in the form of glass BK-7 (refractiveindex = 1.52). Second, coating 5 layers from layer-20 until layer-16, meanwhile layer-15 was emptiedto place the sugar solution that will be further analyzed. This process was implemented in substrate-2that was also in form of glass BK-7 (refractive index = 1.52).The resulting fabricated photonic crystal is formed in a circular disk with a diameter of 6.5 mm. Thedevice is constructed by setting a light source left the photonic crystal system and the photo detectorright, so that light will pass through the photonic crystal before received by the photo detector.Reagent solution is inserted with a spacer interval of l - 2 mm which allow easy and continuous flow.The next stage is the testing and validation of sensor performance based on the SNI standard method.4.3 INSTRUMENTATION DEVELOPMENTNO2 gas measurement instrumentation system that is built consists of three subsystems, namelyphotonic crystal-based optical sensors, signal conditioning circuit (signal conditioning), as well ascontrol and data processing (control and data processing). The analysis is restricted to the design offunctional analysis, namely the selection of components based on the function that fits the needs of thesystem. Functional analysis of a series devoted to the optical sensor and signal conditioner through theprocess of selecting LED, photodiode, op amp, and Instrumentation amplifier.The simulation was performed to investigate the characteristics of electronic components or circuitsthat are used. Simulation photodiode, transimpedance amplifier, and the analog low pass filter usingOrcad Capture Professional 9.2 PSPICE. And for the other electronic components simulated using theIsis Proteus 7.7 Professional.4.4 APPLICATION SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENTApplication software development consists of three main parts include design of data acquisitionwirelessly (wireless), design of interface software of desktop-based applications, and design ofinterface software of web-based application. The software thatwe used in this study i.e. Windows 7operating systems, Visual Basics 6.0, Arduino, X-CTU/Putty, TeraTerm, Dreamweaver 8.0, PHP,MySQL, Apache, and FusionCharts. While the programming language used in this study include:BASIC, C / Wiring, PHP, HTML, XML, Javascript (Inc. AJAX, jQuery) and FusionCharts.5 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION5.1 PHOTONIC CRYSTAL SENSOR SYSTEMOptical sensor components are selected based on characteristics of the absorbance of NO2 in theGriess-Saltzman reagent solution and the properties of fabricated photonic crystal. The maximumabsorbance occurs in the wavelength range 500 nm to 600 nm, the highest peak in the 550 nm. Thegreatest interaction between light energy and NO2 gas which absorp in reagent occurs at a wavelengthof 500 nm to 600 nm.To increase the sensitivity of the PPB photonic crystal designed to operate at a wavelength of 550 nm.But the influence of tooling factor in the production process led PPB operating at 533.16 nm value.This value is still within the range of maximum absorbance of the GriessSaltzman reagent solution.LED light source and a photodiode using EPIGAP optronic products. LED operating wavelength is480 to 606 nm with a peak at 525 nm. While photodiode wavelengths operate at between 490 to 560nm. Figure 1 shows the spectra of optical components making up the photonic crystal-based sensors.76
  • 85. [A-08]Suitability of the operating wavelength can prevent other measurability of environmental interaction.PPB received photodiode intensity comes from the interaction of photonic crystals with the reagents.PPB intensity change only affected by changes in the refractive index of the solution. Figure 1. Spectra characteristics of the sensor components i.e. photonic crystal (PC), LED as light source and photodiode as detector5.2 SIGNAL CONDITIONING CIRCUITSTransimpedance Amplifier (TIA) circuit was built using artificial LMC660 IC NationalSemiconductor as the core of the current to voltage converter and amplifier. Component selection isbased on the input bias current is very small, which is about 2 pA. The smaller the value input biascurrent willgenerate the smaller noise also.TIA circuit stability is influenced by the characteristics of the photodiode is used. One of the potentialto raise noise is the source capacitor (Cs) which is an intrinsic characteristic of photodiode. Thesimulation was performed to see the influence of a combination of Cs and the feedback resistor (Rf) ofthe noise and how to reduce them. Simulation are based on its equivalent circuit are photodiode. Thesimulation results illustrate that the influence of noise due to Cs can be reduced by adding a feedbackcapacitor (Cf) in parallel with Rf. Figure 2 shows the equivalent circuit photodiode combined with aseries of TIA. Figure 2. Equivalent circuit of photodiode and TIAThe experimental results show the same phenomenon with the simulation, i.e. the greater the smallerthe value of Cf noise is also generated, as shown in Figure 3. TIA output voltage value is convertedinto digital data using analog to digital converter (ADC) 10-bit internal microcontroller.The main part is to strengthen the signal conditioning circuit and an analog low pass filter.Strengthening selected using 204 PGA Instrumentation amplifiers Burr-Brown made to strengthen thesignal up to 1000 times. Signal amplification has a negative impact that noise from the previous seriesshares the gains. ADC values measured before the reinforcement is stable in the absence of noise. In 77
  • 86. [A-08]fact, based on measurements obtained using an oscilloscope noise value of about 4 mV. This value isstill below the 10-bit resolution ADC with a reference voltage of 5 V, which is 4.88 mV. ADC did notdetect any change in the bits of the circuit being measured. At the time of strengthening the influenceof noise becomes significant. Measurements using an oscilloscope states that after the strengthening of100 times the noise value of about 200 mV with a frequency of 50 Hz. This value is equivalent to 40bits in digital data. To cope with the emergence of the added noise due to the strengthening of passivecircuit analog low pass filter with cutoff frequency of 1 Hz. Changes due to noise signals withfrequencies above 1 Hz will be blocked. The series just miss the true value of the previous series. Cut-off frequency of 1 Hz obtained from the combination of 3.9 kΩ resistor and a capacitor 47 F. Figure 3. Illustration of Feedback Capacitor (Cf) dependence of signalsThe presence of data outliers may affect the accuracy of the results of measurements of NO2 gas. Dataoutliers arise as a result of system problems or limitations of microcontrollers internal ADC. To avoidsuch incidents will require the addition of filter data in digital form median filter. The method used inthe median filter is taking a number of data, sorted, and then find the middle value (median). Orderingdata insertion sorting method has advantages in terms of time, which is a faster process (Astrachan,2003). The median value is taken because it is more robust against data outliers. Amount of datacollected measured values affect stability. Figure 4 shows the variation of data population to the ADCoutput. Figure 4. Illustration of variation of data population in median filterInstrumentation system build to response of changes in gas concentration of NO2 in the reagentsolution that shown in Figure 5. A change in concentration of 30 μg/m3 is detected by the change bit of254 bits. In order word, it can be said that the system has a measurement resolution of 0:13 μg/m3 perbit. NO2 gas concentration tests performed for an hour is only about 46 μg/m3. The system can detectchanges in the concentration of NO2 gas even in small amounts. For larger concentrations of gasdetection is more likely to do. Just need to be adjusted in the reinforcement as it relates to themeasurement range can be handled.78
  • 87. [A-08] Figure 5. Illustration of performance test of the sensor5.3. WIRELESS DATA COMMUNICATIONIn the instrument development, we use dummy sensors. A dummy sensor of 10 kΩ potentiometer isused to simulate of the equivalent circuit before using the actual sensor, photonic crystal sensor. Theoutput of the dummy sensor is presented in the form of analog data voltage value. The resulting analogdata is processed by DFRduino Mega 1280 into digital data. Mega DFRduino module 1280 isequipped with analog circuits to digital converter (ADC) 10 bit. So, it is not need an external ADCcircuit. The output of the sensor can be directly connected to analog pin on the module boardDFRduino Mega 1280. Every module is programmed DFRduino Mega 1280 and 5 dummy sensors areconnected to analog pin.Xbee transceiver section serves as a transmitter. Xbeetransmitter is used to transmit data wirelesslyfrom the location of the station prototype to a computer server. Xbee transceiver has two modes ofoperation as a configuration, the transparent mode (AT) and Packet mode (API). Due to the design ofthis study is only point-to-point is simple, and then the mode is transparent mode (AT) with 16 bitaddressing system. The receiver consists of transceiver Xbeemodules and Xbee adapter. Xbeetransceiver section serves as a receiver. Data on Xbee transceiver can be received and accepted by theserver computer requires a data communication intermediary, in this case is Xbee adapter. While Xbeetransceiver is used to configure the X-CTU software. The wireless data communication systemillustrate on Figure 6. Figure 6. Illustration of schematic of wireless data communication based on Xbee platform.5.3 APPLICATION SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENTIn general, program of the module with Arduinoplatform consists of two main functions void setupand void loop. Function void setup is usually used to perform initialization such as serialcommunication mode, setting baudrate, pin mode of Mega DFRduino modules 1280, and so on. While 79
  • 88. [A-08]the function void loop typically contains commands that are used by programs such as reading analogRead, enter a function or formula, giving the delay time (delay) program, print to a serial, and so forth.Mega DFRduino module 1280 has the analog to digital converter (ADC) with a resolution of 10 bits.So there are 1024values which presented the digital value supplied by the voltage sensor. This meansthat the voltage between 0-5 volts is supplied by the sensor digital value equivalent to 0-1024. Whenused as the Vcc voltage is 5 volts, then the resulting resolution is 5 Volt/1024 = 0.0048 volts = 4.8mV. This means that any increase in voltage of approximately 4.8 mV the digital value will rise by 1.AnalogRead syntax () has function to read an analog voltage pin.As was mentioned earlier that the ISPU has some range category, i.e. GOOD (0-50), MEDIUM (51-100), NOT HEALTH (101-200), VERY UNHEALTHY (201-300), and DANGEROUS (301-500), tofacilitate interpretation of the data is unreadable, the authors narrow down the digital value with amaximum value of 1000. ISPU maximum value 1000 is the assumption that thepollutant gas levelalready saturated. To separate the digital data of each parameter of ISPU station prototype, we usecharacters #, $, and @. So that although the five pieces of data sent from each of three differentprototype ISPU stations will not be confused, and will be recognized by both the desktop application.After Xbee transceiver on the receiver and connected to the pin on programed by UartSbee v4.0, thenext step is to test a wireless serial communication (wireless). If the dummy data sent by the sensor isin conformity with the expected range is from 0 to 1000, means the series has been running well. Thefollowing Figure 7 shows the results of testing of serial communication with a USB cable usingTeraTerm application. Figure 7. Illustration of wired and wireless data communication inTerraTerm application.5.3.1 Desktop Application DevelopmentData sent by each station prototype ISPU stored in the database with the name dbsispu, initially onlyconsists of three tables is dbstasiun1, dbstasiun2, and dbstasiun3. This database developed usingMySQL software. And the desktop application developed using Microsoft Visual Basic. Desktopapplication is developed to display measurement data from database. Display of desktop application isshown in Figure 8. This application is capable to accomodate multiple station data in real time modeand simultanously. Each station operate 5 sensors directly. In this application, we can select tab ofthe station that will be display. Here, we can read the real time measured data and ghraphical interfaceto display data fluctuation in time series. And we can select the delay time of data capture. Figure 8. Desktop application display of multistation of air quality index measurement system80
  • 89. [A-08]5.3.2 Web Application DevelopmentWeb applications are built require some additional tables, banner, download, halamanstastis, contact,MainMenu, modules, stations, statistics, submenu, templates, and users. Similar with typical web sitepage, we create Home contains menu information on the website, About Us consists of the followingsub-menu Aims and Developer Team. Main page is ISPU Real Time. This page contains informationabout ISPU graphs in real time with the technique of Asynchronous JavaScript and XML (AJAX)from each station. In other page, we create Non-Real Time ISPU. This page contains informationabout the data ISPU in non-real time (more accurately called datalog ISPU) with paging techniquesfrom each station.Download page contains information files that can be downloaded by theuser.Contact Us contains a form that serves as a medium for the delivery of advice and constructivecriticism of an integrated system that has been made.To complete the web interface, we create additional widgets. ISPU Today is a widget that providesinformation about the minimum, maximum, and average ISPU today. Values listed in the form of data(moving average of data). These values change with increasing time, calculated starting from 00.00pm every day. Brief Info is widget contains information newsticker. Newsticker is running the newscontained in webisite client.User statistics widget contains statistical information about users whoaccess the website. Bannerprovides information to display ads (banners) in the form of logos andrelated links, such as KEMDIKBUD, IPB, and MENLH. And Datalog ISPU is a module functions toview the datalog ISPU and to export and download datalog ISPU in Microsoft Excel file format. Filesare downloaded to a computer that will automatically have access datalog_ispu_sta format(nomorstasiun).xls and already has a title header when opened by Microsoft Excel application (onwindows) or Calc (in linux). The development result of web application can be seen in Figure 9,Figure 10 and Figure 11.(a) Main page of web application to display air quality (b) Non Real Time page to select period range of index measurement data in real time mode saved data Figure 9. Main page and Non Real Time page (a) Non Real Time page to display selected data (b) Function module to export and download datalog ISPU in xls file format Figure 10. Non Real Time page and function module 81
  • 90. [A-08] Figure 11. Downloaded data that displayed in Microsoft Excel application.6 CONCLUSIONThis study has successfully developed a rapid system for urban air quality index measurement basedon photonic crystal sensor. This configuration allows users to access data easier. It is not only possibleto handle the data by the user directly, but also possible to support decision making based on artificialintelligent approach. Development of air quality index measurement has been using low price openhardware component, low power consumption, and several open source software. This air qualityindex measurement can be operated with three stations each of which is equipped with five sensors inreal-time mode.7 FUTURE WORKIn the future, we will study the implementation of air quality index measurement in the real field ofurban environment. The target is air quality index measurement that can work well when operated inthe real field. The next stage will test the durability and power management consideration.8 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTThe research was supported by Integrated Outstanding Scholarship (BeasiswaUnggulanTerpadu)Program from the Ministry of Education and Culture of the Republic of Indonesia, Center forEnvironmental Research - IPB (PPLH-IPB), Department of Physics, Department of Civil andEnvironmental Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering and Bio-systems BogorAgricultural University (IPB), West Java, Indonesia, Department of Physics Korea Advanced Instituteon Science and Technology (KAIST), Republic of Korea.9 REFERENCESAffan, M, F, F. 2006, Perspektif Pertanian Dalam Lingkungan Yang Terkontrol, Inovasi Vol.6/XVIII/Maret 2006.Ahn MW et al. 2008, Gas sensing properties of defect-controlled ZnO-nanowire gas sensor. Applied Physics Letters 93:263103.Alatas H, Mayditia H, Hardhienata H, Iskandar AA, Tjia MO, 2006. Single Frequency Refractive Index Sensor Based On Finite One-Dimensional Photonic Crystal With Two Defects, Japanese Journal of Applied Physics 45 (8B) pp. 6754.82
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  • 92. [A-08]Rahmat M. 2009, Design And Fabrication Of One Dimensional Photonic Crystal As A Real Time Optical Sensor For Sugar Solution Concentration Detection [Thesis]. Bogor: Graduate School, Bogor Agricultural University.Resosudarmo, BP. 2002, Indonesia’s Clean Air Program. Bulletin of Indonesian Economic Studies 38 (3): 343-365.Shishiyanu ST, Shishiyanu TS, Lupan OI. 2005, Sensing Characteristics Of Tin-Doped Zno Thin Films As NO2 Gas Sensor, Sens. Actuators B 107:379-386.Soedoemo M, Usman K, danIrsyad M. 1991, Analisis Dan Prediksi Pengaruh Strategi Pengendalian Emisi Transportasi Terhadap Konsentrasi Pencemaran Di Indonesia: Studi Kasus Di Jakarta, Bandung, Dan Surabaya. Bandung, InstitutTeknologi Bandung.Streets DG et al. 2003, An Inventory Of Gaseous And Primary Aerosol Emissions In Asia In The Year 2000. J. Geophys. Res 108:8809.Tsiulyanu D, Marian S, Miron V, Liess HD. 2001, High Sensitive Tellurium Based NO2 Gas Sensor. Sens. Actuators B 73:35-39.Thysen, I. 2000, Agriculture In The Information Society, Journal of Agriculture. Engineering Research, 76, 297-303.[USEPA] United States Environmental Protection Agency. 2006, 2002 National Emissions Inventory Booklet. North Carolina: USEPA[USEPA] United States Environmental Protection Agency. 2008, Integrated Science Assessment For Oxides Of Nitrogen-Health Criteria, North Carolina: USEPAWei BY et al. 2004. A Novel Sno2 Gas Sensor Doped With Carbon Nanotubes Operating At Room Temperature, Sens. Actuators B 101:81-89.[WHO] World Health Organization. 2000, Air Quality Guidelines For Europe, 2nd ed. WHO RegPublEurSer 91:1-287.Zhang D et al. 2004, Detection Of NO2 Down To Ppb Levels Using Individual And Multiple In2O3 Nanowire Device, Nano Letters 4:1919-1924.84
  • 93. [A-09] THE SYSTEMIC DEPRIVATION OF URBAN GREEN OPEN SPACE: A CHALLENGE OF MAKING AN URBAN ENVIRONMENTAL-FRIENDLY Martinus B. SUSETYARTO1ABSTRACT: Rapid urban expansion without effective environmental consciousness has occurred inurban areas in Indonesia. Government regulations are not able to anticipate the dynamics of rapid urbandevelopment so that the city seemed to grow incrementally without good enough management. One ofthe phenomena seen is the deprivation of the presence of green open spaces of the city. If anything, thegreen open space that was built is not an integral part of urban planning system, but as the rest of thespatial planning puzzle. This paper examines some of the challenges of urbanization and sustainabledevelopment of the urban green open space in the Jakarta City. This work is as an assessment of theimplementation of the Millennium Development Goals in the contexts of sustainable urbandevelopments which is being done by positivistic methodology. Special concern examines the goalspertaining to poverty alleviation and environmental sustainability and their application in high densityurban settlements. It was discovered that none of the identified goals or targets has been adequatelyaddressed. Therefore, the Jakarta City actually is far from achieving Sustainable Urban Development.The paper concludes by recommending some urban planning strategies for achieving sustainable urbandevelopment, especially the new approach of urban green open space development.KEYWORDS: Urban green open space, deprivation, environmental-friendly.1 INTRODUCTIONUrban planning and urban development are one unified process of urban spatial which is dynamic,interlocking, mutually correcting, and complementary. Urban planning has never been a process thatstops for a specific period only, for example: 20 years for Regional Spatial Planning (RTRW) of DKIJakarta. It does not always lead to the commencement of the urban development process. It could becorrected, and/or equipped with a more detailed urban planning, which is generally called as urban(environment) design. All of these processes tend to be a comprehensive urban management processand holistic approach of the growing urban areas dynamically. When the dynamics of urban spatialdevelopment occurred, rapid economic growth would be more considered in the urban planning andurban development processes rather than the socio-cultural dynamics, and awareness of environmentalquality is ignored. Furthermore, the face of a city would be more economical, no space enough for theprocess of socio-cultural interaction, as well as happening a decline in quality environment.Conversely, if the socio-cultural dynamics of the people, and environmental quality of settlements ofmore attention in the urban planning compared to the dynamics of economic growth, then the blueprint of urban development planning assumed to be less strategic to achieve the business prosperity.Synchronization to the reality of the dynamic urban growth is actually needed to be held carefully byurban management system which is dignified and humane. Urban development and environmentalproblems of humankind appear with an exceptionally dramatic effect on focus group discussion of thesystemic deprivation of urban green open space of Jakarta Metropolitan: a challenge of making urbanenvironment-friendly. That fact came to be realized as early as year 2005, when Jakarta Metropolitanpeople first began to be really conscious of environmental problems, such as: rob (means inundationdue to sea water intrusion) and flood, air pollution, waste, traffic jam, micro climate change, etc. Atthat time, it was not already undeniable that for a while environmental problems threatened seriously.1 Lecturer in Architecture Department, Faculty of Civil Engineering and Planning, Trisakti University, Indonesia 85
  • 94. [A-09]2 SYSTEMIC DEPRIVATIONJakarta Metropolitan city became one of the largest contributors of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the world,the cause of global warming as a result of traffic congestion that occurs every day, the high exhaustgas emissions of the city, and the reduction of urban green open space. The global warming actually isresulting in rising sea levels to the mainland. A simulation of the satellite images illustrates that in year2010, the sea levels will explore coastal plains north of Jakarta. By year 2020, a part of the Soekarno-Hatta Airport will be inundated by sea water. Then year 2050, the Presidential Palace and the NationalMonument Park will be submerged by sea water, and at that time the seaside city shifts to Dukuh Atas.Such simulations would not be excessive considering 40% of geographical land area of Jakarta isbelow sea level at the time of tide, and the Jakarta area is passed by 13 rivers, which run from Bogorarea to the north coast of Jakarta. With a height of seven meters of land to minus three meters abovesea level, and the result of groundwater pumping on a large scale by the inhabitants of the city, as wellas the inability to resist the intrusion of sea water inland, the tendency of sea level rise 0.57 cm peryear, and land subsidence occurred 0.8 cm per year, then of course 24% of Jakarta would bepermanently inundated.The temperature of Jakarta rise 1.46 degrees Celsius in just two years, well above the rise in Earthsaverage temperature 0.8 degrees Celsius (1980-2005). Increased air temperatures occurred mainly inthe center of commerce, roads with high traffic congestion, and at the densely populated residentialareas. The temperature of Jakarta is more oppressive to be breathed free cause air pollution levels ofthe city is also higher, and reduced the shady trees, shrubs, and ground cover in the green open spacesof the city. Regarding the reduction of urban green open spaces need to be observed, that in fact therehas been a deprivation of rights to the green open spaces of systemically, both in term of making lawsand the implementation. It may be noted that the Master Plan (RIK) of Djakarta 1965- 1985mentioned, that targets the land use for urban green open space is defined 37.2% of the area ofDjakarta at that time, or about 241,8 km2. Refers to the General Spatial Plan (RUTR) of DKI Jakarta1985-2005, the land use plan of urban green open space turned into 25.85% of the total area of DKIJakarta in 1985. At the Regional Spatial Plan (RTRW) DKI Jakarta 2005-2010 (see Fig.1), the landuse planning of urban green open space is reduced again to 13.94% of DKI Jakarta area, or about95.44 km2. Total area of DKI Jakarta is about 661.52 km2. However, based on the Act No.26/2007 inthe Spatial Planning, the Master Plan (RTRW) of DKI Jakarta 2010-2030 should mention that the landuse planning for urban green open space is 30% of total area of DKI Jakarta. How come DKI Jakartagovernment can achieve it? While the areas of green open spaces (rain water catchment areas) inJakarta were declining, so that rainfall in the region to reach two billion m3 per year, only 36% of it isabsorbed, some flushed rains flooded roads, flooded the public spaces, flowing directly into sewersand rivers.Awareness of environmentally sound urban development in developed countries has taken place in amatter of centuries. In the days of ancient Egypt, historically green open spaces laid out in parks orgardens are enclosed by walls, and such agricultural lands in the Euphrates valley and Tigris river, andhanging gardens of Babylon are very impressive, the Temple of Aman Karnak, and some parks in theresidential area. Subsequently the Greeks and Romans developed the Agora, the Forum, Mausoleumsand various urban spaces to give pleasure to people and also the symbol of the greatness of a leader inpower at that time. Next on Meldevel era, the church courtyard that serves as a place to trade, gatheredso dominant before the Renaissance era of glamorous replaced with plaza, piazza and vast square, withspacious and interesting ornaments. Art developed optimally at that time so that the implementation ofthe beauty and perfection of design, such as: Versailles and Paris became a role model of the world.The new movement was more aware of environmental significance delivery of large-scale city parksand may be cited as the beginning of thinking about urban open space system. New Yorks CentralPark by Frederick Law Olmested and Calvert Voux gave birth to the profession of LandscapeArchitecture, then expands and worldwide. Seeing this fact seems green open space requirements arenot only prioritized to the aspects of flexibility, but also to aspects of security and beauty in a city86
  • 95. [A-09]which cannot be avoided, even from day to day urban green open space becomes increasinglycrowded. How metro cities dealt with this, the following described several cities that are considered torepresent the success of the government in hold of urban management system especially in term ofurban green open space development. Singapore, with area of 625 km2 and population of 3.6 millionin 2000 and the density of 5200 people/km2, is projected to have awakened the space reaches 69% ofthe city as a whole. The plan outlined 24% or 177 km2 as green open space, thus opening spacestandard to 0.9 hectares per 1,000 people. However, Shirvani (1985) said that green open spacesshould not be less than 30%, and Grove (1983) stated that 1.200 m2 plant canopy is necessary for onepeople.Tokyo made improvements to the green open space development on the green belt road, industrialestate, hotel and closure of several lanes. Although the vast city of Tokyo is very limited, theGovernment is still seeking city parks, which have a standard of 0.21 ha per 1,000 people. Meanwhile,the approach to the provision of green open space made in Bombay, India, can also be used as initialinput in order to understand the hierarchy of green open space in dense neighborhoods. Further, itcould be shown a study from Ker, 1994, illustrated 12 metro cities with amount of population and thegreen open space which could be contributed to the city. Because Jakarta is not included, and thenauthor added the data of Jakarta to the Table 1. Jakarta with the population density is quite high;reaching 8 million people in daylight is a reality. It means Jakarta should achieve the vast green openspaces about 16.538 m2/people in year 2030, or 198.456 km2. To determine which areas of the cityshould be developed as urban green open spaces, it has to be made a comprehensive study based onthe needs of the present community to meet their own vision of urban environmental-friendly withoutcompromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. Therefore, the study shoulduse inductive methodology so by the indigenous people in each region the researchers wouldformulate urban green open spaces that should be served for their dense residential areas. Theexistence of urban green open spaces, both volume of areas and function of urban green open spaces,actually have to relate with the density of the settlements so that urban green open spaces could serve aregion to create socio-cultural interaction as well as the growth of economic. Table 1. Green open space in the Metro City Population Green Open Space No. Metro City (millions of people) (m2/people) 1 Singapura 2,70 7,0 2 Baltimore 0,93 27,0 3 Chicago 3,37 8,80 4 San Fransisco 0,66 32,20 5 Washington DC 0,76 45,70 6 Muenchen 1,27 17,60 7 Amsterdam 0,81 29,40 8 Geneva 0,17 15,10 9 Paris 2,60 8,40 10 Stocholm 1,33 80,10 11 Kobe 1,40 8,10 12 Tokyo 11,80 2,10 13 Jakarta 8.00 11.93 Source: Liu Thai Ker, 1994, and data of Jakarta, 2012In terms of implementation, the approval of the Government to use urban green open spaces for otheruses, such as: housing, services and trade (commercial), public facilities and social facilities, and roadspaces, although be used for the time being, in essence is an act that violates the constitution, and nottake sides in the program of sustainable development. Any reason given for violations of the use ofurban green open space for the benefit of that is not related to the function of urban green open spacethen it must be dealt with in accordance with the provisions of existing laws. Enforcing the functions 87
  • 96. [A-09]of urban green open space should start from preserving the existing vegetations, keeping the wholelandscapes and soil as a function of surface water infiltration.Therefore, in practice actually people have to take a part of making an urban environmental-friendly.Awareness of the citizen to the loss of urban green open spaces or switch-functions of urban greenopen spaces should be improved by reminding the parties that want to eliminate or use them for otherpurposes. When it is ignored, people could make report to the relevant institutions or even further tomake a class action in cases of deprivation of rights to enjoy the urban green open spaces. Meanwhile,the Government is expected to immediately respond to complaints by citizens who are disadvantagedbecause of the loss or switch-functions of urban green open spaces to other functions that are not inaccordance with statutory provisions. To be sensitive to the presence of citizens of the urban greenopen spaces is high, then the agency should place their information board about the name and addressof urban green open spaces and technical information that relates to the things that need to bemaintained and taken care of by the citizens or the users of green open spaces.Systemically deprivations of urban green open spaces are done in Jakarta. For examples:  Construction of electrical power, houses of worship, police station, or post security environment.  Development of Mall and commercial area in the Senayan sport centre, the Sumantri Brojonegoro sport centre, ex-Kemayoran Airport, etc.  Intensive development of housing in areas with low coefficient of the basic building (KDB), such as: Kebayoran Baru, Condet, Situ Babakan, Halim Perdana Kusuma Airport, etc.  Omission of the spatial management of green open space along the river banks and the railway line.  Negligence in the care of vulnerable tree fell on the sidewalk and public spaces.  Expropriation the catchment area, UI Depok and surrounding, or a violation of the basic building coefficient (KDB) while taking care of Building Permit (IMB).Basically by definition, urban green open space is a region or area of land surface is dominated byplants cultivated for functions specific habitat protection, and/or facilities of urban environment, orsecurity and network infrastructure, and agriculture or aquaculture. In addition to improving thequality of the atmosphere, supporting water and soil conservation, green open space in the midst ofurban ecosystems also serve to improve the quality of the urban landscape. A number of urban areas inthe tropical hemisphere which are experiencing the effects of air pollution and a prolonged hotweather, city residents prefer the social interaction in public spaces in the building with airconditioning rather than outside the building. As if modern architecture of Jakarta, such as the mall,hotel, commercial building, multipurpose room, etc. have been eliminated by social and culturalcustoms of traditional communities in tropical regions to gather outside the building, in the green openspaces which provide natural air of coolness and freshness. If so, then of course hanging out withpeoples habits will be constrained by the availability of air condition energy, limitations of thegroup/social status, and time consumption of the building. On the other hand, the development of ideasto continue to seek additional land area for green open space in Jakarta was eliminated by the habit of"cool off" in a building with air conditioning. Ideally, urban green open spaces are about 30% until40% of the city area. However, some metropolitan cities of the world have defined that New York is25.2 % of the city area in year 2020; Tokyo 32% of the city area in year 2015; London 39% of the cityarea in year 2020, Singapore 56% of the city area in year 2034; Beijing 43% of the city area in year2008; Curitiba 30% of the city area in year 2020. In fact the urban green open space is needed forhealth, playground, sports and public communication. Therefore, development of urban green openspaces should follow the structure of national or regional standards that exist.88
  • 97. [A-09]Curitiba, a city in Brazil is a testament to the success of spatial planning that emphasizes urban greenopen space development. Through efforts such as the spatial development of trade centers in a linearway to the five parts of the city, transportation systems, and various regional development incentives,waste and green space, the city has managed to increase the average area of green open space percapita than 1 m2 to 55 m2 for last 30 years. As a result the city is now a comfortable city, income percapita increased population has doubled. This shows that the assumption that only the development ofgreen open space would reduce the citys economic productivity is not proven. All of these phenomenacould be explained by the ESE model, which is shown in Figure 1. Source: www.wikipedia.org Figure 1. Sustainable Development ConceptCuritiba was developed through the efforts of dynamic spatial management, such as the developmentof economic activities in trade and services, transportation systems built into five-way over town, andvarious regional development incentives grows, including providing urban waste and green openspace, etc. It means the city manager has managed to attract a balanced range of three pillars ofsustainable development concept. Pillars of economic, environment, social (and cultural) drawn intothe center of the three circles, so that the three central of circles have the same wheelbase to the centre.It is able to generate a momentum of balance or significance the survival function of the three pillars,which then inter-connection of the three pillars is called "sustainable". When the inter-connection isestablished between two pillars, for example: economic and social pillars, then the momentumgenerated is referred to as "equitable." If so, the interconnection between social and environmentalpillars is called "tolerable," and interconnection between economic and environment pillars is called"viable." When sustainable condition is achieved significantly, the other three interconnections occurscertainly significant too, i.e. tolerable, viable, and equitable. At moments like this, the concept ofsustainable development is underway, and the city manager must always maintain a state of balance.3 SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENTSustainable development is “development that meets the needs of the present generation withoutcompromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs” (WCED, 1987). The term“sustainable development” is debatable since it calls for a balance between two opposing needs, i.e.utilization of natural resources for production and conservation of natural resources for futuregenerations. Redclift (1987) identifies the ambiguity of the concept as a contradiction of developmentvis-à-vis environment. Yet, Chan and Yung (2004) argue that “sustainability” is a possibility withpolitical and ethical commitments. It is a desirable compromise since it serves to obscure the economicgrowth in the name of environmental protection. However, if the sustainability as a concept is wiselyapplied it would not allow economic growth takes precedence over environmental protection or vice 89
  • 98. [A-09]versa. Sustainable development as a guiding principle has been integrated into national developmentpolicies of many countries. Despite that economic development priorities are often seen to take thepriority over environmental goals. Sustainable development is also interpreted as a trade-off betweenutilization and consumption, between environment and economics, or between development andconservation. Later interpretations of the term call for achieving social equity goals while achievingeconomic efficiency and environmental goals.Infrastructure development from the perspective of sustainable development should also achieve thesethree goals. Otherwise, infrastructure development would only produce physical development per sewithout contributing to achieve social, economic and environmental goals of development. Similarly,focusing only on economic goals would possibly leads to adverse environmental impacts as well associal equity problems. Integration of the three goals of development at the planning stage itself wouldenhance the possibility of achieving sustainability in infrastructure development. This review studydefines sustainable infrastructure development as a process of developing physical infrastructure forvarious purposes that uses minimum amount of non-renewable resources and minimizes their impactswhile adequately facilitate sustainable living. With this definition, the development of infrastructureshould consequently promote economic development and at the same time minimize the use ofresources used. To ensure that sustainable infrastructure development is properly addressed in allcities, particularly some metro cities in developing countries in Asia and the Pacific, the concept ofsustainable infrastructure development should be mainstreamed into the policies of nationaldevelopment. The process of mainstreaming infrastructure development may involve major aspects ofthe development other than social, economic and environmental considerations. The other majoraspects include planning and design of infrastructure, regulatory control, financing, investment,institutional arrangement, and most importantly, implementation system. Opinions of pertinentstakeholders, particularly infrastructure development experts, on what considerations should bemainstreamed in government’s policies are very vital.Sustainable urban development should be guided by a sustainable planning and management visionthat promotes interconnected green open spaces, multi-modal mass transportation system, and mixed-use development. Diverse public and private partnerships should be used to create sustainable andlivable communities of the city that protect historic, cultural, and environmental resources. In addition,policymakers, regulators and developers should support sustainable site planning and constructiontechniques that reduce pollution and create a balance between built environment and naturalenvironment systems. New sustainable urban development or redevelopments should provide a varietyof commercial, institutional, educational uses as well as housing styles, sizes and prices. The provisionof sidewalks, trails, and private streets, connected to transit stops and an interconnected street networkwithin these mixed-use developments provides mobility options and helps reduce pollution byreducing vehicle trips. Walking, bicycling, and other mobility options should be encouragedthroughout the urban mixed-use core and mixed-use neighborhoods with easily accessed and well-defined centers and edges.4 SPATIAL PLANNING PUZZLEMaintaining the existence of urban green open space and revising all the provisions of the Governor ofDKI Jakarta which does not favor the development efforts of urban green open space is a legalisticeffort that needs to be done. But making urban green open spaces of the green Jakarta should beintensified both within the budgeting program and designing program so the development not just putthe green zone into the urban space is left, as the Jakarta government experience over the years, suchas:  [Re]development of Interactive Neighborhood Parks in the crowded and squalid housing, by way of pay back to the house plots that allow the local government bought.90
  • 99. [A-09]  [Re]development urban green open spaces in the urban spaces are left, even in areas with high traffic density, such as: Green open space of Kampung Sawah, West Jakarta, next to the high way of Tomang - Kebon Jeruk, and Green open space of Kampung Condet, a part of Ciliwung riverside, East Jakarta.  [Re]development green open spaces, such as: Mega Kuningan District, Puri Kembangan Region, Menteng Park, Barito Park, etc. Source: www.google image Figure 2. [Re]development of Green Open SpacePlanning and development of urban green open space at the moment is similar to arrangement thegreen puzzle on the map of Jakarta which is already massive with residential zone, commercialbuildings, industrial, roads and toll roads, and indeed these are DKI Jakarta governments best efforts,which technically held by the agency of urban landscape and the funeral. There was no cleardevelopment concept in term of urban green open space in Jakarta. In fact, in the spatial planning onlymentioned that urban green open space as a space to complement greenery of the city, which meantthat it was only as a supplement or cover the remaining space in between other urban spaces. Forexample, development of urban green open space in the road islands, or pedestrian way, its existencedepends from the organizer of road transportation agencies because according to the law the urbangreen open space in the street at any time can be eliminated if roads need to be expanded, andotherwise can be redeveloped if roads need the green open space as traffic control devices. It isunfortunate fate of green open space in Jakarta which was systemically deprived since the spatialplanning of DKI Jakarta is done.In addition, the spatial planning puzzle otherwise tend to be a way of corruption, because DKI Jakartagovernment has to buy a piece of land with many optional locations in order to propose the projectbudget of green open space development to the house of representative (DPRD). The budget could buythe land to add a quantity of urban green open space, the landscape material, the mechanical andelectrical, the maintenance of parks, or the maintenance of funeral area, etc. The price of land fordeveloping urban green open space is unpredictable, and there are games of the land broker. Thosephenomena are very difficult to overcome. All of the spatial puzzle developments are facts andproblem which could be solved by the Governor of DKI Jakarta.5 NEW APPROACH OF URBAN GREEN OPEN SPACE DEVELOPMENTAlthough DKI Jakarta is growing to a modern metro city, the movement of the economic growthshould maintain to the most visible sustainable urban development trend. The most innovativemovement should be more embryonic, economic, and strategic, in order to ensure environmentalsustainability related to Millennium Development Goals. One of the greatest barriers of making urbanenvironmental-friendly, making the public and private investments and policy changes to mitigateclimate change and enhance environmental sustainability is the fear feeling that such actions would betoo costly and disruptive to economic growth. This concept in US (2007) is namely “sustainable 91
  • 100. [A-09]economic strategy” which aims at achieving climate prosperity and quality of life. Beyond the issue ofthe absolute necessity of climate protection, however, there still remains deep concern about thepossible negative effects of climate action on economic growth and prosperity. Therefore, it isbecoming increasingly urgent to directly address these concerns by demonstrating that protectingagainst climate change by improving urban sustainability can actually be good for the economy, andimprove the prospects for prosperity, productivity, competitiveness, efficiency and cost-effectiveness.Firstly, the city should expand production of “green” technologies will create many new business andjob opportunities, thus increasing incomes for many people and institutions. Secondly, replacing fossilfuels with energy efficiency and renewable energy sources will greatly conserve natural resources andlead to substantial cost savings in the long run, particularly since fossil fuel production is peakingglobally and the costs will continue to rise to astronomic heights as supplies dwindle and the demandkeeps rising. Thirdly, strengthening “green” infrastructure will reduce vulnerability to harm from thenatural environment due to changes in the weather and other related factors. For example, reducingtraffic congestion through higher urban densities and better mass transportation saves time and moneyand lowers risks of “oil shocks” and climate disruptions. Finally, a greener, cleaner, more conservingof existing land and buildings, and more pedestrian-friendly, urban environment greatly strengthensquality of life, which is essential for attracting and retaining a highly skilled workforce. In the neweconomy of the 21st century, which is knowledge and information-based, technology andcommunication-intensive, and globally oriented, people are now the single most important economicasset in the world, more than geographic location, natural resources, or even financial capital. In orderto attract and retain a highly skilled workforce, every urban area must have a good quality of life,including an attractive and sustainable physical and cultural environment. Thus, economic growth isno longer the enemy of environmental protection, and a good environment is essential for a goodeconomy. Further, it would be proposed a new approach of urban green space development refers tothe sustainable development concept and response to the challenge of making environmental-friendly.5.1 REVITALIZING: IMPROVEMENT LAND-USE AND MASS RAPID TRANSPORTATIONIn order to response sustainable development issue, i.e., making a balance of economic growth, socialand cultural activities and environmental protection, firstly DKI Jakarta government has to revitalizeland-use and urban transportation by involving initiatives of its inhabitants. The issues of land-use forurban green open spaces development and build mass rapid transportation must be clearly understoodby urban communities with the consequences are fundamental revolution of urban spaces. On theother hand, the condition of existing urban land is such a massive development, so its hard to think ofchanging the orientation of private sector and citizens to re-arrange their environment to be residentialor commercial environments that are more environmentally friendly. Green revolution in this city haveto successfully socialize into a strong foundation for a growing movement to build a sustainableeconomy by promoting the creation of a comfortable environment for living, socio-cultural activityand economic growth, and finally to improve the quality of life for Jakarta citizens wherever they liveand work. It is something ideal urban [re]development concept that should be sounded by theGovernor of DKI Jakarta government. The concept would combine three distinct issues into onecomprehensive legislative and policy package, thus uniting four separate political constituencies insupport of the revitalizing proposal. The three issues were: 1) revitalizing inner city neighborhoods; 2)revitalizing older inner suburban communities and small towns; 3) preserving agricultural land andgreen open spaces from urbanization; and 4) stopping the endless growth of suburban “sprawl.” Theconcept in a very innovative way towards creating smart growth management or growth controls byinvolved citizens effort to impose strict land-use regulations to inhibit and direct development patterns.5.2 SUSTAINABLE ARCHITECTURE: GREEN BUILDINGS AND URBAN COMMUNITIESOne of the interesting trends in sustainable urban development issues is the growth of “green”building, both new buildings and retrofits. These buildings are exemplary for energy efficiency inheating and cooling and lighting, for water conservation, and for many other environmentally friendly92
  • 101. [A-09]features. Some buildings also include solar panels for renewable energy, and a few even have smallwind turbines. DKI Jakarta government should have a kind of Green Building Council whichorganized by affiliate organizations, and provides education and training to encourage green buildings.However, it would be better if the Green Building Council is as non-governmental organization,formed by urban communities concerned within urban environment affairs and sustainable urbandevelopment. Involving the urban communities could encourage the credibility and integrity of theorganization itself, particularly in guiding a norm of sustainable development, and "green" building tothe urban communities.5.3 URBAN AGRICULTURE: LOCAL FOOD AND FLOWERAnother interesting trend is reorientation away from globalized local food production and distributionwith its intensive energy utilization, organic fertilizers, and without pesticides. Many metro cities arenow encouraging farmer’s markets on vacant lots in parking lots or small parks, with organic andlocally grown food brought in for direct sale to urban residents. In addition, urban green open spaces,urban gardens, including roof gardens, both for foods and for flowers, and other attractive vegetation,are also being supported by many city governments and non-profit community groups. Theseinitiatives sometimes are supplemented by extensive tree planting to provide shade, beauty, and helpkeep the air cleaner. Finally, urban parks and green open spaces, including pedestrian plazas andrelated cultural amenities, are becoming more important because of the vital importance of quality oflife in attracting a good workforce as well as promoting tourism and attracting suburban visitors.5.4 CLEANING UP: AIR AND WATER POLLUTIONCleaning up air and water pollution is the most important aspect of urban sustainability in DKIJakarta, when environmental laws should be enforced, including both the clean air which used forneighborhoods and waste water into the river. Since air quality is actually getting worse in mostmetropolitan regions due mainly to the incessant growth of motor vehicle utilization, land-use andtraffic congestion, and other transportation problem. Cleaning up urban waterways -rivers, lakes, bays,estuaries, and sea coasts- is also of greater interest for commercial and recreational use, includingboating, swimming, and fishing. Land-use pattern also becomes an important factor, because manyurban areas historically used their waterfronts for industry, railroads, ports, and warehouses. However,some of them which have declined in business, opportunities have grown to redevelop waterfronts forupscale cultural and social attractions, such as hotels, restaurants, esplanades, museums, stores, andperforming arts venues. The redevelopment of the port perhaps would be the most celebrated successalong the history of Jakarta. Land-use planning of Jabodetabek also is becoming more necessary toprotect urban watersheds, prevent run-off and contamination, avoid and control flooding, and preservehealth drinking water. Finally, water conservation is part of green building design.5.5 URBAN CONSERVATION: ENERGY EFFICIENCY AND RENEWABLE ENERGYAnother trend, given both the rapidly rising costs of fuel, the problems of Indonesia dependency offoreign oil imports and the growing climate crisis of carbon and other greenhouse gas emissions fromburning fossil fuels, is an accelerating focus mainly on energy efficiency or conservation, and to alesser extent, on renewable energy production.For example, many urban governments are redesigning new government buildings and facilities, oftenwithout the standards of energy efficiency. They are installing new energy efficient lighting, includingin street lights and traffic signals, along with cooling, water and plumbing, and other mechanicalsystems, as well as recycling materials much more than before. In some cases they are alsoexperimenting with different types of solar or photovoltaic panels on the roofs of buildings to generaterenewable energy. Cutting energy costs saves money for the municipal budget at the same time that itreduces the city’s “carbon footprint” to protect against global warming. Public opinion has now 93
  • 102. [A-09]changed in DKI Jakarta to be much more supportive of such urban initiatives, so good energy andenvironmental policies are also finally becoming good politics at the same time.5.6 URBAN RECYCLING: WASTE MANAGEMENT AND MATERIAL FLOWSOne of the most visible recent trends is the rise in urban recycling, including pick up the waste incurbside, glass, metals, paper, and other materials. Those actions help to conserve energy and otherresources and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. In general, the urban sustainability movement hasbeen raising the issue of the need to transform urban life, production, and consumption from “linearmetabolism,” in which materials currently are discarded as waste in landfills and sewers, polluting theland, air, and water, be “circular metabolism” whereby all materials and resources can be recycledback into productive use raw materials or finished products for other viable uses. Under thissustainable method, everything once again becomes part of the continuous cycle of birth, growth,death, and rebirth, as circular metabolism naturally.6 CONCLUSIONSystemic deprivation of urban green open space has to be closed and changed by the new approach ofurban green open space development. The six stages must be implemented with really understandingto the actual condition on each area and based on the needs of the present generation withoutcompromising the future generation to meet their own needs. Therefore, in case of Jakarta urbandevelopment, the stage of revitalizing i.e., improvement land use and MRT must be realized andhopefully be a stimulus of sustainable development and making an urban environmental-friendly.7 REFERENCESKunszt Gyorgy 2003, Sustainable Architecture, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest, Hunoru, Periodica Polytechnica Ser.Civ.Eng, Vol 47, No 1, pp 5 – 10,Perera, R and Permana, A S 2009, Review of current practices and criteria used to integrate environmental and social aspects into urban infrastructure development processes in cities in Asia and the Pacific, Urban Environmental Management Program, School of Environment, Resources and Development, Bangkok.Thompson B Paul 1997, Sustainability as a Norm, PHIL & TECH 2:2 Winter, Texas A&M University, Texas, pp. 75 – 94.Weiss A Marc 2007, Sustainable Urban Development in the US, A report prepared for the Government of Sweden’s Mistra Foundation for Strategic Environmental Research, US, Global Urban Development, pp. 1 – 11.Yoga, N and team 2009, Jakarta Menuju RTH 30%, Kajian RTH: RTRW Jakarta 2010-2030, Dinas Pertamanan dan Pemakaman, Pemerintah Provinsi DKI Jakarta, pp.89.94
  • 103. [A-10] ECOTOURISM DEVELOPMENT IN THE ENVIRONMENTAL OF TRADITIONAL OF HUMAN SETTLEMENTS IN THE UNDISAN VILLAGE - BALI PROVINCE MUHAJIRIN1 and Iwan SUPRIJANTO2ABSTRACT: Some of environmental of traditional human settlements in Bali are potential to developas ecotourism area, one of them is Undisan Village. The problem is how to develop ecotourism areawithout making environment worse, maintaining and conservating the natural environment, social andculture by participating the whole of stakeholder. The methodology in this study used a qualitativedescriptive method that is trying to describe a social phenomenon that accured in the Village Undisan.Reffering to object and interesting tourist areas (natural, culture and human made areas) that had beenowned by Undisan Village, therefore the models of the development of ecotourism which can bedeveloped by defending of natural enviroment and social order of society and persistently onconservation needed, conservation area, minimazing an impact on the environment, consider to sacredcharacteristic and a cultural product which prevails in Undisan Village, the protection of natural nuanceof village, a traditional house plan, drainage system plan, managerial of waste water and garbage, anincreasing buildings quality, the implementing of one door management model in managing eco-tourismand costumer oriented philosophy in servicing tourists who will come to Undisan Village.KEYWORDS: Environment, traditional of human settlements, ecotourism, object and interestingtourist areas.1 INTRODUCTION1.1 BACKGROUNDBali as one of the favorite tourist destination for domestic and foreign tourists. According to CentralBureau of Statistics (BPS) Bali Province (2009) that the tourist arrivals to Bali during the period fromJanuary to October 2008 as many as 1,660,258 people, an increase 20.34% over the same period theprevious year was recorded 1,379,907 people. Some tourist destinations in Bali that are of interest inthe form of nature tourism, cultural and man-made. Object Development and Tourism Attractions canbe ecotourism or a visit to a traditional neighborhood that is still natural.1.2 PROBLEM FORMULATIONBased on the above background, the issues raised in this paper is how to do tourism development,while still conserving the natural environment, artificial and culture that integrates all relevantstakeholders.1 Researcher in the field of Human Settlements & Accessibility, Traditional Housing Technology Development Center of Denpasar, Indonesia.2 Researcher in the field of Human Settlements & Accessibility, Traditional Housing Technology Development Center of Denpasar, Indonesia. 95
  • 104. [A-10]1.3 LIMITATION OF THE PROBLEMSubstantial scope of this activity: a. Assessment of potential ecotourism in traditional neighborhoods; b. Assessent of patterns of community development in Undisan village; c. Preparation of a model ecotourism in the traditional neighborhoods.Site assessment is Undisan Village, District Tembuku, Bangli District as a traditional neighborhoodplanned as an environmentally sustainable rural tourism (ecotourism).1.4 RESEARCH PURPOSESTo develop the concept of tourism development (ecotourism) that match/ fit with the local indigenouscommunity and also increase the income of local communities.1.5 BENEFITS OF THE RESEARCHAs a reference for local governments and the private sector in tourism development (ecotourism) intraditional neighborhoods.2 METHODSThe method used in this study is a qualitative descriptive. According to Maman (2002: 3) descriptivestudy sought to describe a social phenomenon. In other words, this study aims to describe the nature ofsomething that is taking place at the time of the study. Qualitative methods provide the latestinformation so beneficial to the development of science and a lot more can be applied to variousproblems (Hussein Omar, 1999).2.1 METHODS OF PARTICIPATORY RURAL APPRAISAL (PRA)The method used in the preparation of ecotourism models in a traditional neighborhood is the methodof PRA (Participatory Rural Appraisal), which emphasizes community involvement process in fullfrom the planning, implementation, monitoring and evaluation.2.2 DATA COLLECTION TECHNIQUESThis study used data collection techniques of observation / observation and in-depth interviews/ in-depth interviews (Chaedar, 2002). Also to enrich the data in the preparation of models of ecotourismin the village of Undisan was conducted technical discussions with experts / specialists in the field oftourism, architecture and environment.2.3 PROCESSING TECHNIQUES AND DATA ANALYSISAccording to Miles and Huberman (1992) to analyze this research, it is done with the following steps: a. The collection of information, through interviews, questionnaires and direct observation. b. Reduction. This step is to choose which information is appropriate and not according to the research problem. c. Tabulation. Once selected, the information can be presented in tabular form with an explanation or description.96
  • 105. [A-10] d. The final stage, is to draw the conclusions.Questionnaire submitted to the informant only as a basic study material for making conclusions.However the opinion of many people is an important though not guaranteed validity. The moreinformation, it is expected to produce data that is filtered with a tighter and more accurate.3 STUDY REFERENCES/ THEORY3.1 DEFINITION OF ECOTOURISMBy The Ecotourism Society (1990) in Chafid Fandeli (2000) is a form of travel to natural areas withconservation objectives and preserve the lives and welfare of local residents.Ecotourism is a new form of responsible travel to natural areas and an adventure that could create atourism industry (Eplerwood, 1999). The phenomenon of education needed in the form of this type asdefined by the Australian Department of Tourism (Black, 1999) is based on nature tourism byincluding aspects of environmental education and interpretation of natural and cultural communitywith the management of ecological sustainability. This definition emphasized that not only the aspectsrelated to the business as well as other forms of tourism, but closer to special interest tourism,alternative tourism or special interest tourism with objects and natural tourist attraction.3.2 ECOTOURISM MANAGEMENT APPROACHEcotourism is a form of tourism that is managed with conservation approach. If ecotourismmanagement of natural and cultural communities to ensure sustainability and prosperity, whileconservation is an effort to sustain the use of natural resources for present and future time. This isconsistent with the definition of the International Union for Conservation of Nature and NaturalResources (1980), that conservation is a human attempt to make use of biosphere by trying to givegreat results and sustainable for current and future generations.Ecotour destinations that tourists are interested in natural areas. Conservation area as an object can bea tourist attraction of national parks, forest parks highway, nature reserves, wildlife reserves, themeparks and hunting parks. But others, such as forest protection forest and production forest if it has anatural object as the attraction of ecotourism can be used also for the development of ecotourism.Natural areas such as rivers, lakes, swamps, peat, at the headwaters of the river or estuary can also beused for ecotourism with the approach while maintaining the area remain stable as a natural area.3.3 CONCEPT DEVELOPMENT OF ECOTOURISMThe development of ecotourism implemented as the development of tourism in general. There are twoaspects to consider which aspects of the destination and market aspects. For tourism developmentcarried out by the concept of product driven. Although aspects of the market to consider, but kind,nature and behavior of objects and attractions of nature and culture and sought to preserve itsexistence.In effect the use of ecotourism and conserving natural and cultural community, far more stringent thanjust sustainable. Environmentally sound ecotourism development is much more reliable results in thepreservation of nature rather than sustainable development. Ecotourism is not the exploitation ofnature, but only use the services of nature and society to meet the needs of the knowledge, physicaland psychological tourists. Even in the various aspects of ecotourism is a form of tourism that led to 97
  • 106. [A-10]metatourism (instead of selling the destination but the selling philosophy). From the aspect ofecotourism is not going to know the market saturation.3.4 ECOTOURISM PRINCIPLESThe Ecotourism Society (Eplerwood, 1999) says there are eight principles, namely: a. To prevent and overcome the impact of tourist activities on nature and culture, prevention and management tailored to the nature and character of nature and local culture. b. To educate tourists and local people the importance of conservation. This educational process can be performed directly in nature. c. To arrange the area used for the management of ecotourism and conservation that can receive direct income or revenue. And conservation tax levy can be used directly to develop, preserve and improve the quality of nature conservation area. d. To invite the community participation in tourism development planning. Similarly, in the supervision, the role of the community are expected to participate actively. e. To provide tangible benefits the local economy of tourism activities and to encourage people to preserve natural areas. f. All development efforts including the development of facilities and utilities should continue to maintain harmony with nature. g. In general, the natural environment has a lower carrying capacity on the carrying capacity of the artificial. Although it may demand very much, but supportive of limiting power. h. Income opportunities on a large portion of the country so that the spending of foreign tourists and foreign exchange could be enjoyed by local government.3.5 OVERVIEW OF THE VILLAGE UNDISANUndisan Village in the Tembuku Bangli District, lies on the path to Denpasar - Besakih if passedBangli City. Undisan village consists of five hamlets (banjar), namely: Tabunan, Sekaan, UndisanKaja, Undisan Pancasari and Undisan Kelod. Undisan village border to the Village Peninjoan (Bangli)in the north, Bangbang Village (Bangli) in the east, Tembuku Village and Yangapi Village (Bangli) inthe west and Nyanglan Village (Klungkung) to the south.3.5.1 Conditions of PopulationThe population of Undisan Village in 2004 amounted 3531 men, 1805 men and 1726 women. Dividedin 1009 households (HH) by the number of family members on average 3-4 people per family. Thisstructure of population as much as 58.20% of the population is of working age Undisan Villageproductive between the ages of 17-55 years as shown in Figure 1. Source: Monografi of Undisan Village, 2006 Figure 1. Composition of the people in Undisan Village based on age98
  • 107. [A-10]Referring to the educational background of its people, the population of Undisan village has acomposition based on the level of education and business fields as shown in Table 1 and Table 2. Table 1. Composition of the people in Undisan Village based on education No. Level of education Amount People Percent 1 Illiterate 140 3,96 2 Pre-school 252 7,14 Pre-Elementary School 3 171 4,84 (age is over 65 years old) 4 Elementary School 1.563 44,27 5 Junior High School 554 15,69 6 Senior High School 724 20,50 7 Bachelor 72 2,04 8 Under Gratuated 55 1,56 Amount 3.531 100 Source: Monografi of Undisan Village, 2006 Table 2. Composition of the people in Undisan Village based on business Amount No. Business of people People Percent 1 Agriculture 1.000 69,74 2 Middle and big entrepreneur 10 0,68 3 Craftman/ small industries 170 11,85 4 Building labour 61 4,25 5 Transportation 91 6,34 6 Official Government 82 5,72 7 Indonesian Army 15 1,05 8 Chiken farmers 5 0,35 Total 1.434 100 Source: Monografi of Undisan Village, 2006Educational facilities available in one unit Undisan Village Kindergarten (TK) and one unit theelementary school.The population of Undisan Village entirely (100%) Hindu religion, with the temple as much as 52units.3.5.2 The Environmental of characteristics of the villageUndisan village situated on the plateau, where in the East, South and West is a ravine (an overdraft inthe landscape relative). In general, conditions of the lanscape and or codes of green landscape of thisvillage was built up and maintained well, evidenced by the still solid the existing vegetation aroundthe village. As shown in Figure 4.The quality of the environmental of the Undisan Village are natural and still awake of its original,between the built environment and the natural environment in harmony. 99
  • 108. [A-10] NORTH DIRECTION SITUATION OF VILLAGE CENTRE WEST DIRECTION EAST DIRECTION SOUTH DIRECTION Figure 2. Situation in the Village Centre3.5.3 Housing landThe average area of each house ± 2500 - 5000 m2, which is divided into three parts: the front oftelajakan (a transitional area between the street with houses that used to park curbside), the patr of thecenter is housing (cluster mass with the different functions) and the back is called teba (vacant landused as reserves land for residential expansion, implementation of the ceremony which is daily usedfor plantations and corral). Sketch of the division of their yards as shown in Figure 3. TELAJAKAN PERUMAHAN TEBE JALAN DESA Figure 3. Land yard divisionThe most of the home in Undisan Village have a "tebe" (land rear), but there are some houses that donot have them, especially homes in Banjar Undisan Kelod that is located in the center of the village.100
  • 109. [A-10]3.5.4 Road Network Systems and Other InfrastructureThe road network in the village of Undisan consists of two types: inter-city road network - District(Bangli - Klungkung – Karang asem) and the road of network environment. Both of district andneighborhood streets are paved, paved county road had hotmix and the road of environment is asphaltlapenNetwork is the power grid and other infrastructure that has reached a whole village, a network of cleanwater through the ministry of water from the taps and surface water and telecommunications networks.The whole network is in good condition and has been serving the entire village community Undisan aslisted in Table 3 and Table 4. Table 3. Communication Facilities In Undisan Village No. Types Amount Remarks 1 Fixed phone (from telkom) 17 Home phone 2 Celuler 15 %  15 % from total people 3 Phoneshop - - 4 Internet shop - - 5 Post Office Pos - - Table 4. Water resources in Undisan Village No. Water Resources Amount Debit 1 Surface water 2 resources 9 liter/second 2 Water under the land - - 3 Regional Water 100 % PDAM Services Company (PDAM) 4 Bubuh river Depend on Tidal SeasonThere are 4(four) units of health facilities as aid health center. Some public economic support facilitiessuch as a building unit market with permanent/ semi permanent, 15 store /kiosks /bank, moneychanger and ATM is not available in this village. For security supporting facilities are equipped with 5security posts, but there is no police station.3.5.5 Potential of TourismObjects and potential tourist attraction in the village of Undisan can be grouped into the potential ofnatural, cultural and man-made.In terms of natural potential, the potential Undisan Village, among others, comes from the beauty ofthe landscape (view), the atmosphere of the countryside, rice fields, plantations/ fields, the plants(flora) and animals (fauna). Some of the objects and natural tourist attraction in the village Undisancan be seen in Table 5. Objects of cultural and tourist attraction / artificial can be seen inTable 6. Some of the potential attractions/ tourist activities found in the village of Undisan can be seenin Table 7. In addition to object and appeal of cultural/ artificial mentioned above, in the UndisanVillage area also available handicraft products which are sold to support tourism in the village ofUndisan shown in Table 8. 101
  • 110. [A-10] Table 5. Objects and Natural Tourist Attraction In Undisan Village No. Names of Objects Locations & Natural Tourist Attraction 1 Giant tree In Manik Bringin Temple, Banjar Undisan Kelod 2 Rice field terraces Border east village area and Part of West of village area. 3 Cacao and coffee plantations In Banjar Undisan Kaja and Undisan Kelod 4 view from the high land in Pucak Sari Temple area 5 Fishing locations Banjar Undisan Kelod 6 Natural Water Resources (natural spring) Banjar Undisan Kaja Table 6. Objects and Cultural tourist attractions in Undisan Village No. Names of Objects and Tourist Location Remarks attractions 1 Swimming Pool Banjar Undisan Kaja In progress development 2 Manik Bingin Temple Banjar Undisan Kelod Big Banyan Tree 3 Ganesha Statu Diameter 1 m Puseh Temple Heritage Ancient 4 Monument / stone sacred rock Puseh Temple believed to be resized the day getting bigger 5 Baris Gede Dance Kahyangan Tiga Temple Danced at the ceremony piodalan 6 Cupak n calon Arang Dances 7 Traditional market Yangapi Market (in the out of As a supporting attraction village) located in West Village Undisan Table 7. Types of attractions/ tourism activities in Undisan Village No Types of Attractions Remarks 1 Bicycle From Undisan Village to Besakih 2 Trekking Short, middle and long track 3 Mapeed Along the way Undisan (can be exercised at any time upon request) 4 Art/ dance performance It can be exercised any time on demand 5 Ceremony at the temple Kahyangan Tiga Temple & others (regular at a particular time) 6 Melasti Along the road to spring (regular) 7 Ngaben Along the road to the cemetery (any time)102
  • 111. [A-10] Table 8. Types of craft product is sold in Undisan Village No. Name of Products Origin of Products Destinati-on area Destinati-on area (from inside) (from outside) 1 flower crafts Gianyar; Kr. Asem; Denpasar. artificial (imitation) 2 Means jewelry/ Clothing Undisan area Gianyar; Kr. Asem; Denpasar. Bali wedding 3 Woodcraft Undisan area Gianyar.Tourism InfrastructureTourism facilities and infrastructure in the village of Undisan still very minimal. Currently, touristaccommodation facilities are available only at home Jro Gede Karang TS (A Bali tourism figures arederived from the local village). The accommodation facilities which are provided such as homestaywith 11 rooms. If the terms of the number of rooms available, then the accommodation can be classedas jasmine hotel is equipped with restaurant facilities. However, there are several places around therice fields trekking paths have the potential to be used as a location to eat (lunch) as coined a beautifulview. Bar, cafe and accommodation support is not yet available.At this location also has available a swimming pool, although still in the stage of completion andfishing facilities in Banjar Kaja Undisan, as well as private fishing pond in Banjar Undisan Kelod. Inthe village are also available helipad located around the pool. However, in the Village is not yetavailable Undisan art market or art gallery where display and sell handicrafts/ art.Travel Products That Have Been MarketedTourism products which are sold in the village is Undisan trekking package in the Village area and itssurroundings. Trekking is packaged into three different packages, namely: short lines (about 1.5hours), medium line (about 2 hours), and the path length (about 4 hours). Illustrations can be seentrekking paths in Figure 4.Travelers visit to the village of UndisanThe village located in the real Undisan a strategic, as it is a tourist route to Pura Besakih (a BigTemple). According to Head of Undisan village information almost every day there are tourists stop inthe village of Undisan. Per day 5 to 10 people stopped by the hour intensity of visiting less than 1hour. Precisely the tourists are get down at the main intersection Undisan Village and took the time tolook around the intersection. From direct interviews with tourists who happened to stop in the villageof undisan, generally they are attracted by the presence of Pura Manik Bingin and the old of BanyanTree at the intersection of Undisan Village. However, tourist arrivals have not been able to make ameaningful contribution to the Village Undisan.On the other hand the existence of a tour package tourists visiting the village Undisan currently onlytourists who follow the tour package offered by the companys Gde Karang Jro only and numbers arestill very limited. Current which is the main tourist markets of Europe (France, Belgium andGermany), who loves the nuances of the countryside. Usually they come in small group or largegroup. Visits are incidental. In general, tourist arrivals of foreign tourists approximately 2-3 per week,given the still new Undisan village as a tourist attraction and is still in development stage. Until nowUndisan tourists visiting the village has not been recorded. 103
  • 112. [A-10] T 3 P E N IN J A U A N B A N J A R T A B U N A N T 3 T 3 B A N J A R S E K A A N Y A N G A P I T 2 B A N J A R T 1S t a r t U N D IS A N K A J A K O L A M T 3 T 2 T 3 B A N J A R U N D IS A N P A N C A S A R I W A N T IL A N D E S A T t a2 r t S K A N T O R P U R A D E S A M A N IK B IN G IN B A N G B A N G T 2 B A N J A R T E M B U K U U N D IS A N K E L O D T 3S t a r t K e t e r a n g a n : T 1 = T r a c k in g P e n d e k T 2 = T r a c k in g M e d iu m T 2 T 3 = T r a c k in g P a n ja n g N Y A N G L A N Source: Map of Bali, 2008 Figure 4. Trekking paths in the village and surrounding Undisan4 THE RESULTS OF PARTICIPATORY RURAL APPRAISAL (PRA)For the development of ecotourism activities in the Village Undisan, there are several requirementsthat must be met, such as:A. General Requirements for Development 1. Activities with the main objective to get pleasure 2. Contains educational activities relating to recognize and preserve the natural 3. Oriented to the preservation of natural environment 4. Travelers not only enjoy in activities but actor in activities 5. Aiming for the welfare of local people (not as an object)B. Special Requirements Development 1. Tourism activities that are developed are not potentially damaging to the natural 2. Types of tourism activities that developed an activity supporting the preservation and conservation of natural 3. Tourists positioned not as lovers but as active agents of activities104
  • 113. [A-10] 4. The communitys role involve in its implementation 5. Aiming to improve the welfare of society or the direct benefits enjoyed by local people.C. Additional Requirements for Development 1. In general, the traditional settlements, aspects of environmental sanitation should receive priority attention in the development of eco-architecture to support eco-tourism activities. 2. Infrastructure development in traditional neighborhoods adapted to the conditions of each region (topographical, geographical, and wisdom of local communities) 3. Ecoarchitecture and ecotourism develop-ment as much as possible involve the participation of local communities. 4. Sought outside investment does not change and damage the environment and still maintain / preserve the local environment.D. Typology Development  Stop a moment (just stop for a moment)  Single Tourist attractions (not varied).  The distance is relatively close to the center of tourist accommodation.  The amount of restricted settlement (population, characteristics, and area)  The Trust Systems and community with strict rules.  It is not supported by infrastucture.  Stop for a while (rest for a while)  Varied of Tourist attractions is enough.  Mileage is far away from the city and it is tourist road.  The amount of settlement is limited (population, characteristics, and area)  The system of trust and community with strict rules  Supported by adequate infrastructure.  Inpatient stay (enjoy an overnight stay).  tourist attraction is varied  mileage is relatively far away from the city  The amount of settlements is relative to the area and supporting to the tourism activities (population, characteristics, and area)  The trust system and community with a relatively flexible rules  Suported by the available of infrastructureE. Ecoarchitecture suport to ecotourismThe steps can be choosen to realize the ecoarchitecture that support ecotourism, namely:  Maintain the patterns of traditional settlement  Maintain the shape, spatial patterns in the traditional housing 105
  • 114. [A-10]  Utilizing the natural potential in the region around/ local and appropriate technologies to meet the needs of environmently to fullfill the energy required in the management of ecotourism, for example: the use of hot springs, wind, waterfall to produce electricity.  Providing the incentives to the people who defend the authenticity of the building and traditional settlement patterns. These incentives can be a direct funding or building materials.  Provide the incentives to communities who want to plant origin plants used for traditional buildings such as grass, bamboo, and local wood.  Provide the incentives or rewards to the public/ private/ local government that promote and preserve the traditional settlements such as direct grants, tax elimination, the administrative convenience and so forth.  Management of retribution such as admission to the attraction of traditional settlements which will be allocated for the needs of traditional settlements.  Provide a research to identify the traditional buildings and traditional settlements so that its data can support the preservation of traditional buildings and settlements.  Provision of supporting tourism facilities who adopt traditional architectural forms.  Establish/ develop groups of arts, crafts, carpentry in the community, especially the younger generation so that arts and culture is maintained.5 CONCLUSIONReferring to the potential objects and Tourist Attractions (Nature, Culture and Artificial) in Undisanvillage then the model what can be developed to ecotourism in the Undisan village are as follows:A. Development of Object & Tourism AttractionsThe existing of beautiful landscape, the atmosphere of the country side with rice fields and gardensincluding various types of plants (flora) and animals (fauna) are still maintained its existence, If it willbe developed without destroying the existing and the interests of sustainability.Developing of object and tourist attractions should be in harmony between nature and environmentand able to minimize negative impacts.B. Development of cultural/ human madeSwimming pool, Bringin Manik Temple, Ganesha Statue, Monument/ Rock Rock, Dance Line Gede,Dance and Candidate Cupak Charcoal and Traditional Market, various crafts are developed byconsidering the sacred and permissive of these cultural products.Residential and rural environments that have been formed naturally are needed the maintain andstrengthen more natural feel of the village such as structuring telajakan, drainage systems, wastemanagement and waste, improving the quality of the buildings.6 RECOMMENDATIONSThe need for facilities and infrastructure required in order to Ecotourism Development in the UndisanVillage are:106
  • 115. [A-10] • A place of management of construction / building as an ecotourism center which is equipped with various office and communications facilities. • Providing the shuttle transportation to deliver tourists to the guest house or to objects of the attractions. • In each hamlets (in Balinese : Banjar) is needed the place for tourists transit before being placed in their respective houses. • Providing guide who is always standby to pick tourists up to ecotourism area, especially for tourists who do not stay. • Required parking area for individual travelers or group or travel agents. • It is needed a models integrated management in ecotourism management. • The application of customer oriented concept in providing services to tourists who will visit to Undisan Village.7 REFERENCESAnonymous 2009, Attractions in Bali. www.Google.com (accessed January 27, 2009).Anonymous 2009, Taiwan Tourist Arrivals to Bali Down. News and Views. www.mediaindonesia.com (accessed January 4, 2009).Traditional Housing Technology Development Center of Denpasar. 2008, Final Report: Development of Model Ecoarchitecture Environment and Ecotourism in Traditional Settlements.Traditional Housing Technology Development Center of Denpasar 2009, Final Report: Model Development Environment Ecoarchitecture & Ecotourism in Traditional Settlements.Fandeli, Chafid or Mukhlison 2000, Cultivation of Ecotourism. Yogyakarta, Faculty of Forestry, University of Gadjah Mada. 107
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  • 117. [A-11] LANDSCAPE CHANGES IN DENPASAR CITY Ni Made YUDANTINI1ABSTRACT: Denpasar City is one of cities in Bali Province which faces the problem of landscapechange. Most land use is for rice fields, dry lands, crops, housing, grave yards, fish ponds, forests andother functions. Based on Agriculture Office, in 2010 Denpasar City has 20% rice fields of the city’stotal area, compared to 41% rice fields of the city’s area in 1992. This shows that Denpasar landscapehas changed from agriculture field to commerce, housing, industry etc. and that changing landscape alsohappened in several green belt areas. This fact is supported by the Agriculture Office report thatDenpasar City lose rice field about 25 hectares every year. In contrast, Denpasar City must provide atleast 30% of land for open spaces. Furthermore, Denpasar City should keep city based on traditionalphilosophy such as Tri Hita Karana concept, Rwa Bhineda concept, etc. This paper examines the causesof landscape changes due to growing of population, tourism facilities, economic, and lack ofgovernment policy. There are the negative impacts of landscape changes which are associated withsocial economics and environmental issues. This study seeks to offer guidance for the legitimate use oflandscape planning for sustainability development in Denpasar City. Some recommendations could beapplied such as prevention of population growth, tourism development base, strict building regulationand increase tax property, and provide the policy and institutional options in land use planning.KEYWORDS: Landscape changes, traditional philosophy, cultural landscape, conservation, DenpasarCity.1 INTRODUCTIONBali is one of Indonesia’s 13,667 islands, and is located between the Java Island in the west andLombok Island in the east. The mainland of Bali is surrounded by 5 smaller islands including NusaDua, Nusa Ceningan, Nusa Lembongan, Serangan and Menjangan Island. Bali covers an area of5,632.86 km² (around 140 km x 80 km) or about 0.29% of the Indonesian area (5,632.86 km2). Baliconsists of 9 administrative regions (8 regencies and 1 municipality), 51 districts, 579 villages, and3,945 traditional banjar and these are populated by 3,522,375 inhabitants (Badan Pusat Statistik, 2011)with a population density of 625 inhabitants per km² focused in the southern part of Bali.Denpasar City’s population currently stands at 788.445 people (www.denpasar.go.id, 2010) with thetotal area of 123.98 km2 (47.9 sq mi). This means the density of Denpasar City is 6.359,5 per km2(16.470, 9/sq mi). Based on Agriculture Office, in 2010 Denpasar City has 2.717 hectares of rice field(20% of the city’s total area), compared to 5.343 hectares or 41% of the city’s area in 1992 (Atmojo,2011). This shows that Denpasar land use has changed from agriculture field to commerce, housing,industry etc. and that changing land use also happened in several green belt areas. This fact issupported by the Agriculture Office report that Denpasar City lose rice field about 25 hectares everyyear. In contrast, Denpasar City must provide at least 30% of land for open spaces (Public WorkRegulation No. 26/2007). Furthermore, Denpasar City should keep city based on the Balinese culturaland traditional values. Regarding this, it is necessary to review and investigate the negative impact ofchanges in land use especially Balinese traditional landscape.1 PhD student, School Architecture and Building, Deakin University, Australia 109
  • 118. [A-11]The paper will review the Balinese traditional landscape and land use development in Denpasar City,followed by examining the causes and effects of the problem of changing in land use in Denpasar City.Finally, the paper would like to recommend the appropriate scheme of the concepts of land useplanning adapted in sustainable urban development and landscape planning in Denpasar City.2 THE BALINESE TRADITIONAL LANDSCAPE AND LAND USE ASSOCIATED TO LANDSCAPE CHANGESBali Province has an area of 5,632.86 square kilometers (2.175 square miles) with a very rich naturespread over the island. Based on study of landscape in the program of “Bali to head for GardenIsland”, (Dinas Kebersihan & Pertamanan and Udayana University, 1998), structurally, the vernacularof Balinese landscape can be divided into five types as follows: Regional Landscape, Villageslandscape, City landscape, Highway landscape and Inheritance / Archaeological landscape (see Figure). Regional Landscape Bali Provincea) City Landscape Village Landscape Inheritance Landscape Highway Landscape Source: a) Google Earth, 2012 Figure 1. Bali Province and the Balinese traditional landscape typesThe Balinese traditional landscape is based on the concept of Balinese culture and related to itsreligion. Hindu religion has several concepts for Balinese culture development, which have beenreformulated by the Local Government of Bali (1994), including Tri Hita Karana Concept, RwaBhineda Concept, Desa Kala Patra Concept, Karma Phala Concept, Sekala Niskala Concept, TriMasa Concept, Catur Parama Artha Concept, Taksu and Jengah Concept, and Spatio Balinese CultureConcept.Denpasar City is one of cities in Bali Province which faces the problem of land use change. Most landuse is for rice fields, dry lands, crops, housing, grave yards, fish ponds, forests and other functions.Table 1 shows land use in Bali Province from 2001 to 2006. As can be seen, rice fields had decreasedsignificantly from 101.815 Ha to 97.636 Ha, followed by dry lands, crops fields, fish ponds andforests. On the other hand, housing, grave yard and other functions have increased in the same period.110
  • 119. [A-11] Table 1. Land use in Bali Province in 2002 to 2006 Grave Rice Field Dry Land Crops Housing Fish Ponds Forest Other Year Yard (Ha) (Ha) Field (Ha) (Ha) (Ha) (Ha) (Ha) (Ha) 2002 101,815.00 188,385.00 183,776.00 51,892.00 - 1,283.70 205,096.00 51,883.00 2003 100,230.00 189,240.00 175,031.00 52,353.00 - 1,298.00 205,075.00 52,019.00 2004 100,012.28 167,378.93 174,720.97 53,076.00 350.38 1,228.00 171,475.00 68,221.18 2005 99,098.00 194,300.60 183,572.00 53,857.00 - 1,205.50 196,676.00 53,383.35 2006 97,636.00 199,752.78 179,325.00 54,334.00 416.26 999.26 197,984.20 53,950.32Source: Bali Dalam Angka, 2005Table 2 illustrates the pattern of land use in each region in Bali Province in year 2006. The pattern ofland use in most regions has increased in built-up areas and decreased in green open spaces. Anexample for this trend is that built-up areas in Denpasar City increased from 7.651 Ha to 7.832 Hafrom 2002 to 2006, and non built-up areas decreased from 5.136,73 Ha (59,88%) to 4.955,73 Ha(38,78%) in the same period.Urban development affects Balinese traditional landscape, which creates a lot of changes such as lossof open spaces, sprawling development, changes of function from field to housing, yard, etc. Thiscondition is also shown by the study of Regional Spatial Planning (RTRW) team of Denpasar City(2006) that explains that most problems of Denpasar City such as the increase in land housing demandare caused by population growth, thus influencing the change of rice fields to settlements. Theincreasing of incoming people requires urban facilities and utilities.Although some effort has been done by local government to solve city problems such as the planningof traditional villages in some regions in Bali and planning and improvement of green open spaces insome cities, the projection for the coming years seems to be getting worse (see Table 2). Table 2. The pattern of land use in each region in Bali Province in 2002 to 2006Year Land Jembrana Tabanan Badung Denpasar Gianyar Klungkung Bangli Karangasem Buleleng Use Function (Ha) (Ha) (Ha) (Ha) (Ha) (Ha) (Ha) (Ha) (Ha) Built-Up Area 5,722 5,484 9,076 7,651 5,029 1,258 3,282 2,405 4,7902002 Green Open 78,458 78,449 32,776 5,137 31,771 30,242 48,799 81,549 131,798 Space Built-Up Area 5,891 5,597 9,139 7,656 5,036 1,268 3,282 2,424 4,8182003 Green Open 78,289 78,336 32,713 5,132 31,764 30,232 48,799 81,530 131,770 Space Built-Up Area 5,993 5,950 9,171 7,679 5,068 1,273 3,282 2,434 4,8962004 Green Open 78,187 77,983 32,681 5,109 31,732 30,227 48,799 81,520 131,692 Space Built-Up Area 6,089 5,967 9,341 7,714 5,078 1,279 3,309 2,439 5,1012005 Green Open 78,091 77,966 32,511 5,074 31,722 30,221 48,772 81,515 131,487 Space Built-Up Area 6,067 6,020 9,383 7,832 5,079 1,297 3,322 2,447 5,2202006 Green Open 78,113 77,913 32,469 4,956 31,721 30,203 48,759 81,507 131,368 Space Luas Wilayah 84,180 83,933 41,852 12,778 36,800 31,500 52,081 83,954 136,588 (Ha)Source: Bali Dalam Angka, 2007 111
  • 120. [A-11]3 CAUSES OF LANDSCAPE CHANGESThis study will focus on four major causes of land use change in Denpasar City that contribute tourban development in Bali Province. These causes are population growth, tourism development,economic development, and lack of government regulation.3.1 POPULATION GROWTHPopulation growth is one of factors that play an important role in land use changes in Bali Province.As can been see from Table 3, the increasing population of Bali Province from 2004 to 2005 is 1.36%of average growth. Two regions that have highest population growth are Badung Region and DenpasarCity with 4.32% and 2.09% of average growth in 2004 and 2005, respectively. This population growthwill continue to increase for coming years. Table 3. Bali Inhabitants in 2004 and 2005 Inhabitants Growth No. Region/City 2004 2005 Average (%) 1. Jembrana 221,316 224,990 0.71 2. Tabanan 397,673 405,484 1.05 3. Badung 358,311 374,377 4.32 4. Denpasar 379,005 463,915 2.05 5. Gianyar 170,092 382,591 0.66 6. Klungkung 210,103 170,744 0.44 7. Bangli 389,576 211,186 0.23 8. Karangasem 607,616 395,409 1.41 9. Buleleng 446,226 618,076 0.64 Total 3,179,918 3,247,772 1.36 Source: Bali Dalam Angka, 2005; Bali Dalam Angka, 2006Figure 2 shows that Denpasar City has the densest population among regions in Bali Province with4.21% of average growth in year 2007. This is caused by Denpasar City as a centre of Bali Provincewhich is based on Bali Province Master Plan. All national activities are centred in Denpasar City aswell as international services for Bali Province. Source: Statistic of Bali Province, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006 and 2007 Figure 2. Population Growth in each Region in Bali Province112
  • 121. [A-11] 1,800,000 1,600,000 1,400,000 1,200,000 1,000,000 Jiwa 800,000 600,000 400,000 200,000 - Kabupaten Kabupaten Kabuaten Kabupaten Kabupaten Kabupaten Kabupaten Kabupaten Kota Jembrana Tabanan Badung Gianyar Klungkung Bangli Karangasem Buleleng Denpasar 2007 256,164 415,125 378,633 390,745 174,023 215,364 409,854 657,447 686,033 2012 280,752 440,855 419,478 409,053 181,816 232,924 437,196 734,455 843,125 2017 307,701 468,180 464,729 428,219 189,958 251,915 466,362 820,482 1,036,18 2022 337,236 497,199 514,861 448,283 198,465 272,456 497,474 916,587 1,273,46 2027 369,606 528,016 570,401 469,287 207,352 294,671 530,662 1,023,94 1,565,06 Source : Analysis of Bali Green Open Space Team, 2008 Figure 3. Population Growth Prediction in each Region in Bali Province, 2007-2027Figure 3 illustrates the prediction of population growth in Bali Province. It appears that Denpasar Citywill have a population more than one and half million in 2027, followed by Buleleng Region, whichwill have one million people. On the other hand, other regions will have population only about500.000 in 2027. The increasing population growth will affect the provision of housing and publicfacilities but Denpasar City has the only a total area of 123.98 km2.3.2 TOURISM DEVELOPMENTAs a destination island in Indonesia, Bali Island cannot avoid the needs of tourism developmentfacilities in tourist areas such as in Kuta, Sanur, Nusa Dua etc. As Warren (2005) denotes, during the1990s land was diverted from agriculture to mega-developments in some areas of tourism. This wasalso based on central authority in that period in which the Suharto’s regime was very strong todetermine areas such as at Tanah Lot, BTID in Serangan, Pecatu Graha in Nusa Dua and other sites.These projects were considered as threatening Bali’s cultural and environmental integrity.One method to monitor the changing of land use is by using remote sensing and GIS technique.Bedugul is one of tourism destinations in northern part of Bali Province. There is an increasing use ofBedugul land for settlement, dry lands, forests etc. Table 4 shows the land use type in Bedugul in 1981and 2003. There were land use changes in Bedugul, Bali, based on research over 22 years (1981-2003). Settlement areas increased by 62.6 Ha which are caused by the development of hotels orlodgings and new villas. Dry land vegetable crops increased by 7.5 Ha which are caused by the changeof coffee crops in Pancasari Village into dry land. Shrub increased by 26.2 Ha that are caused by bushfire in 1994. However, coffee crops decreased by 116.5 Ha, and forest areas decreased by 32.5 Hawhich are caused by the development of the exploration of geothermal project for electricity by BaliEnergy Ltd. (Adnyana, et al., 2006).3.3 ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENTThe development in Denpasar City is growing based on citizens’ finances to fulfill demand for theirsocial lives and better lifestyle. People in the city who find better job and earn more money will preferto invest their money by owning properties to do their business in the future. Table 4 show theincrease in built-up areas such as housing, hotels, and new villas etc. 113
  • 122. [A-11] Table 4. Areas of land use type in Bedugul Region year 1981 and 2003 Area (ha) No. Land Use 1981 2003 1. Settlements 126.7 189.3 2. Dry land 967.1 974.6 3. Mixed crops 58.9 86.3 4. Coffee crops 130.8 14.3 5. Golf course 120.0 120.0 6. Shrub 237.7 263.9 7. Protected forest 3748.4 3715.9 8. Secondary forest 183.3 208.5 9. Botanical garden 159.2 159.2 10. Beratan, Buyan and Tamblingan Lakes 1029.4 1029.4 TOTAL 6761.4 6761.4 Source: Adnyana, et. al, 20063.4 LACK OF GOVERNMENT REGULATIONThe weaknesses of land use’s government regulations to defend and conserve green open spaces interm of building permit, the regulation of floor area ratio and building density coefficient do notappear to fulfill the requirement. There are some reasons for these such as lack of regulation, nooptimalization of green open space regulation, inappropriate land use duty forms, and inappropriatejob description of land use planning office. These will bring faster growth of land use change if thereis a planning of new road provision. This phenomenon is quite difficult to protect, while governmentregulations do not have power to limit the problems.Government also has an important role to develop stakeholders understanding of land use planning,especially green open spaces in the city. On the other hand, citizens still have weaknesses inunderstanding and awareness of green open space.4 THE NEGATIVE IMPACTS OF LANDSCAPE CHANGESThere are some effects of land use change in Bali Province, especially in Denpasar City. Due to theuncontrolled nature of land use development and lack of government regulations, many socialeconomic and environmental impacts result from the problems (http://www.istp.murdoch.edu.au).Social economic problems have occurred in society such as restricted access to beaches for localpeople for leisure and ceremony; noise pollution; traffic congestion; conversion of valuable productiveland to tourist developments; and touristification of culture (dance, theatre, crafts and art). Whileenvironmental impacts of land use changes have appeared on the scene such as beach erosion;pollution of fresh water resources; loss of offshore coral reefs due to mining and pollution; loss offorest elevation due to legal and illegal logging; loss of lowland mangrove forests due to cutting downthe mangrove for new lands; and exhaustion of fresh water resources and resultant salt water intrusiondue to huge destruction by dominant customers such as hotels and golf courses.114
  • 123. [A-11] Figure 4. The sprawling pattern of development in Denpasar City5 THE CONCEPT OF LAND USE PLANNING IN DENPASAR CITY.5.1 PREVENTION OF POPULATION GROWTHDue to the fast growing of population in the coming years in Denpasar City and to avoid uncontrolledmigration which will affect the land use change as well as environmental degradation, somerecommendations could address the problems.5.1.1 Redirected Migration FlowsIt is recommended that migration flows be redirected (Ministry of Environment and ForestsGovernment of India, 2009) in order to prevent population growth. This way would avoid populationdensity in certain places such as slum areas. In addition to this, investments should be directed in smallcities which have been ignored. It would improve urban financial and band migration redirection tonew small cities could be possible.5.1.2 Encouraging of Family ProgramIn order to minimize population growth, the family planning program of the Indonesia Governmentneeds to be strictly implemented. The program encourages every family to only have maximum twochildren. Therefore, government regulations should be associated with city urban planning whichcontains such as operation, development and monitoring (Ministry of Environment and ForestsGovernment of India, 2009).5.2 TOURISM DEVELOPMENT BASERegarding to history of tourism in Bali, the Tourism Master Plans for Bali (SCETO) was produced in1971 and had aim for tourism development. However, the board was closed due to financial problemand a new provincial government department, then followed by uncontrol of tourism development insome areas which are out of the tourism boundaries. Therefore, it is recommended that tourismdevelopment base in improving networking and increasing awaraness of tourism would be adapted.5.2.1 Improving Networking of TourismIt is recommended that tourism roundtable partnership as concern in South Australia (State andTerritory Australia Government, 2008) be applied in order to improve a better tourism partnership. 115
  • 124. [A-11]This would create a good networking between stakeholders who relate in tourism’s activities such ashoteliers, restaurants, souvenirs, business, travel agencies, entertainments, as well as the localcommunity who are involved. This would provide adequate information in tourism activities to limitunnecessary land use dysfunctions.5.2.2 Environmental and Social Awareness of TourismAs Bali tourism concern in traditional culture, it is necessary that the local wisdom of Tri Hita Karanaconcept can be adapted to improve the tourism industry (WWF, 2007). The Tri Hita Karana concept isBalinese philosophy which is applied for all development in Bali. This concept implies a relationshipbetween human to the God or creator, relationship between human to human being, and relationshipbetween human to environment. This concept is also inspiriting the Balinese people lives. In this way,tourism can be involved in the environmental awareness and social activities which can givecontribution to the society. Moreover, ‘sense of belonging’ (Jaya, n.d., p.65) should be developed intourism activities to control and protect nature and culture.In order to develop stakeholder understanding of land use planning, an action of community – basednatural resources management needs to be applied (Ministry of Environment and Forests Governmentof India, 2009). Regarding to this, it is appropriate to empowering farmers to defend their traditionalagriculture. Evidence for this, Balinese people have traditional “subak’ irrigation system that would bethe rich opportunities in the implementation of community-based natural resources strategy. It wouldimprove social productivity of natural resources and can prevent environment friendly.5.3 STRICT BUILDING REGULATION AND TAX PROPERTY INCREASEIn order to prevent land use changes which are caused by development and population growth, strictbuilding regulations and increasing tax properties should be implemented. Investors should strictlyapply building regulations which contain traditional architecture and local norms. In addition,increasing tax properties for investors will reduce the use of productive lands. These strategies wouldpreserve natural land use and traditional building appearances in order to the implementation ofsustainable development and Denpasar City base on culture.5.4 PROVISION OF THE POLICY AND INSTITUTIONAL OPTIONS IN LAND USE PLANNINGIt is recommended that the Spatial Planning Department should provide the Policy and InstitutionalOptions to cope with the land use change problems (Ministry of Environment and Forests Governmentof India, 2009). It is necessary to emphasize increasing stakeholder responsibility and accountabilityand promoting more cooperative efforts to limit the problems of land use change. Therefore, it isnecessary to improve awareness and to involve people at local level to make decisions. Theparticipatory approach has been seen as one of the best solutions for government to involve localpeople who are playing a role in decision making processes that will benefit them.6 CONCLUSIONBali Island is one of tourism destinations with Denpasar City as the centre of Bali Province faces landuse problems regarding in improvement in many areas of development.This paper has proposed the four basic causes of land use changes in Denpasar City. The first cause isrelated to population growth, which has predicted to continue to increase for coming years. Increasingpopulation will be gathered in the provision of social facilities. The second cause is due todevelopment of tourist facilities in some tourist destinations. The third cause is necessary from the116
  • 125. [A-11]increase of society finance. People will improve their future life by investing in some properties thataffects the land use too. Finally, goverment regulation has an important role for land use changes toprotect, control and monitor development in many areas. However, this is not properly done due tolack and weaknesses of government regulation in approaches and implementation.Land use changes will bring negative impacts in social economics and environmental problems suchas pollution, restricted area, beaches erosion, exhaustion of fresh water resources etc. The action isneeded to tackle those problems. The recommendations could be adapted in Denpasar City i.e.prevention of population growth, tourism development base, strict building regulation and tax propertyincrease, and provision of the policy and institutional options in land use planning. Moreover, thephilosophies of Balinese culture should be adopted in all development areas which are inspiriting allBalinese lives.7 REFERENCESAdnyana, Nishio, Sumantyo, Hendrawan 2006, ’Monitoring of Land Use Changes Using Aerial Photograph and Ikonos Image in Bedugul, Bali’, Remote Sensing and Earth Sciences, Vol 3Atmojo 2011, the Jakarta Post, JakartaBadan Pusat Statistik 2011, Bali Dalam Angka, DenpasarDinas Kebersihan dan Pertamanan Propinsi Daerah Tingkat I Bali dan Universitas Udayana 1998, Hasil Penelitian: Penyusunan Rencana Umum Pertamanan, Propinsi Daerah Tingkat I Bali, Denpasar.http://www.worldatlas.com/webimage/countrys/islands/au/bali.htm, retrieved 1st September 2011Impact Assessment and Development/Land Use Planning in Bali (http://www.istp.murdoch.edu.au/ISTP/casestudies/Case_Studies_Asia/bali/case01.html#physical), retrieved 30th August 2011Jaya, IGAP n.d., ’The Conservation of Green Open Spaces in Bali’, ASEAN Journal: Hospitality and Tourism, Vol. 1, pp. 63—68, Indonesia, retrieved 6th September 2011Ministry of Environment and Forests Government of India 2009, State of Environment Report, India 2009, retrieved 5th September 2011Rindrasih Erda 2008, Bali Tourism Footprint Regarding to Climate Change, http://erdha.wordpress.com/2008/01/22/bali-footprint-regarding-to-climate-change/, retrieved 30th August 2011State and Territory Governments in Australia 2008, Climate change: Best practices, retrieved 5th September 2011Tjokorda Nirarta Samadhi 2000, ’Conservation Of Principles Or Objects? An Approach Of Conserving The Traditional Balinese Cultural Landscape In Urban Areas’, Dimensi Teknik Arsitektur, Vol. 28, No. 2, pp. 98 – 105Warren, Carol 2005, ’Community mapping, local planning and alternative land use strategies in Bali’, Danish Journal of Geography,Vol. 105, No. 1, pp 29-41WWF, 2007 Rapid Assessment On Climate Change, Potential Threats And Impact To Bali’s Economy And Community Livelihoods And The Role Of The Tourism Industry Potential Threats And Impact To Bali´S Economy And Community, retrieved 6th September 2011 117
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  • 127. [A-12] MODEL OF GREENSPACE RANGE EFFECT TOWARDS SURFACE TEMPERATURE IN URBAN AREA Putri YASMIN Nurul Fajri1ABSTRACT: This research was conducted in Bogor, located at 106o4840E and 6o3053S until106o4622E and 6o4008S. The research aimed at determining the influence of greenspace distance onurban surface temperature, and therefore the effective distance of greenspace can be determined forurban spatial planning consideration. Urban surface temperature is functioned as energy balancecomponent & greenspace distance. Information of greenspace was derived from satellite image ofLandsat 5. The image was classified into seven types of landcover including water bodies, constructedland, bush, paddy field, high vegetation, field, and palm. Distance between each greenspace type (bush,paddy field, high vegetation, field, and palm) were calculated by using Euclidean distance principle.Energy balance components of each landcover class including net radiation (Rn), soil heat flux (G),sensible heat flux (H), and latent heat flux (LE) were extracted from band 1,2,3 and 6 of Landsat 5 TMimage data. The analysis result showed that the influenced of energy balance component & greenspacedistance to surface temperature could be formalized in an equation. When the albedo is the ratio ofradiation reflective to incoming radiation, Rn is the net radiation, Dpaddy is the distance of observationpoint on the paddy field, and Dfield is the distance of observation point on the field. The equation has acoefficient of determination (R2) 88% and validation results showed a correlation 93.3% between theestimated surface temperature and the actual surface temperature. In the equation, the high vegetationdoes not affect significantly to the surface temperatures due to the high value of LE in the area of Bogor.Therefore, it is required to increase the high vegetation in Bogor by considering the relationship betweenthe high vegetation on the surface temperature and the correlation value 67.8%.KEYWORDS: Remote sensing, vegetation, energy balance, urban environment, surface temperature.1 INTRODUCTIONSurface temperature is a variable of microclimate that influences the other microclimates, for exampleair temperature, wind direction etc. The atmosphere condition is strongly influenced by human andlanduse activities. The activities form typical microclimate of urban area. One of visible microclimatecharacteristic is urban heat island. As a definition, urban heat island (UHI) is a phenomenon showing areal gap of mean heat flux between sub-urban and urban area. Heat flux that is showed by meantemperature at the urban area will decrease toward sub-urban area.Basically, land use will be influenced by the solar radiation acceptance and land cover materialcapacity to release heat accepted from the sun. According to Wardhani (2006), vegetation land covercan reduce urban temperature toward sub-urban. By those reasons, the urban area really needs opengreenspace existence. Nevertheless, almost of all urban area planning is built without anyconsideration to the physical aspects. Thus, it needs a formula for determining the best distancebetween an open greenspace areas to the other areas. It was conducted to create a good microclimatein urban area. Nevertheless, recently, urban area planning is built without any consideration to thephysical aspects. Commonly, open greenspace is built on the vacant land and it doesn’t have enougheffect for reducing urban heat. Therefore, it needs a formula for determining the best distance betweenan open greenspace areas to the other one. It was done create a good microclimate in urban area.1Graduate student of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Bogor Agricultural University, Indonesia 119
  • 128. [A-12]The effective distance of open greenspace for decreasing urban heat and urban surface temperature canbe determined by a direct observation approach. Of course, this approach needs long period data serieswhich spread evenly in the study area. Consequently, it is quite difficult to conduct this approach..Therefore, remote sensing method and the geographical information system are the best ways todetermine a fit model for calculating the distance of open greenspace as the diminution of urban heatand urban surface temperature. Those approaches can easily produce data series of spatial data thatspread in the study area evenly.Moreover, to anticipate bias prediction of the model because of climate effect, this research wasconducted in the normal year. It mean s the reference year of the model was the year without beinginfluenced by ENSO (El Nino Southern Oscillation) and IODM (Indian Oscillation Dipole Mode) .Furthermore, this research was aimed at determining the model of greenspace distance’s influence onurban surface temperature, and therefore the effective distance of greenspace could be determined forurban spatial planning consideration.2 MATERIALS AND METHODThis research was conducted at Laboratory of Environmental Analysis and Spatial Modeling,Conservation of Forestry Resources and Ecotourism Department, Bogor Agricultural University, inOctober 2010 until April 2011. The specific study of the research was conducted1 in Bogor, located at106o4840E and 6o3053S until 106o4622E and 6o4008S. In this research, spatial analysis (landcover classification, determined open greenspace distance and determined energy balance components,albedo and surface temperature) was processed by software named ArcGIS 9.3. Additionally,statistical software named Minitab 15 was also utilized in this research for deciding the best model ofgreenspace distance’s influence on urban surface temperature.For determined the model of greenspace distance’s influence on urban surface temperature, in thisresearch has been through some spatial analytical processes and statistical process. They are: madeland cover classification, determined open greenspace distance using Euclidean distance principle anddetermined a model. Each step needs some materials as their input and analysis. They are: Landsat 5TM+ image Path/Row 122/065, acquisition date May 18th 2006 and cloud cover 0%; administrativemap of Bogor; and climate data series of Bogor.2.1 LANDOVER CLASSIFICATIONIn this research, land cover was classified by supervised classification method. For helping determineand classify any kinds of land covers on the research area, the classification process of the researchwas helped by three bands of Landsat 5 TM+ image. They are band 5 as band for detecting clouds,band 4 to detect water bodies, and band 3 for determining and classifying vegetation species.Supervised classification of the research was conducted by comparing land cover classifications basedon the image to land cover classifications based on ground check at the research area. Theclassification was accorded by dominant land cover classifications in the study area. In Bogor,dominant land cover classifications are water bodies, building land, paddy field, grasses, field, highvegetation, and palm field (Figure 1).120
  • 129. [A-12] (water body) (paddy field) (high vegetation) (palm field) (field) (built area) (bush) Figure 1. Land overtypes of the research area.2.2 DETERMINING OPEN GREENSPACE DISTANCE USING EUCLIDEAN DISTANCE PRINCIPLEEuclidean distance is defined as a distance technical computation between two object s usingPythagoras theory. In this research, each vegetation land (paddy field, grasses land, palm field, fieldand high vegetation) would be connected to the same kind of land cover. Therefore, it resulted somedistance functions between an area of paddy field and the other ones, an area of high vegetation andthe other ones, etc.2.3 DETERMINING SURFACE TEMPERATURE, ENERGY BALANCE COMPONENTS AND ALBEDO2.3.1 Surface TemperatureSurface temperature was extracted from band 6 of Landsat 5 image. According to Landsat 7 sciencedata Users Handbook-chapter 11 (2003), to get surface temperature, firstly, digital number of band 6was converted to spectral radiance by following Eq. 1 where Lλ is spectral radiance at band-i (Wm-2sr-1µm-1), QCAL is digital number band-i, LMINi is minimum spectral radiance band-i, LMAXi ismaximum spectral radiance band-i with minimum pixel value, QCALMIN is 1 for LGPS Products and0 for NPLAS Products, QCALMAX is Maximum Pixel value (255).  LMAX (i )  LMIN (i )  L    QCAL  QCAL   QCAL  QCALMIN   LMIN (i )   MAX MIN  (1) 121
  • 130. [A-12] Before getting surface temperature value, spectral radiance was converted to brightness temperature by following Eq. 2 where TB is brightness temperature (K), K1= 607.76 Wm-2sr-1m-1 and K2 = 1260.56 Kelvin, Lλ is spectral radiance band-i (17.04/255 ) DN radiance (Wm-2sr-1m-1). Basically, brightness temperature was computed by consideration to the emissivity, conductivity and heat capacity of the land. As defined, brightness temperature is a temperature that is reflected to the computation of thermal radiation intensities emitted by objects. K2 TB   K1  ln  1  L  (2) After getting brightness temperature, it was converted to surface temperature by following Eq 3. (3) Where TS is surface temperature, δ is value of hc/σ (δ = 1.438 x 10-23), σ is Boltzman constant (1.38x10-23 JK-1), λ emission long wave radiation (11.5 m) and ε is emissivity. According to Artisdan Carnahan (1982) in Hermawan (2005), emissivity value for un-vegetated land is about 0.96, for vegetated land is about 0.97 and for water bodies is 0.98. 2.3.2 Albedo Albedo is defined as a ratio between output radiations and input radiations. Albedo is also used to determine soil heat flux and the other energy balance components. According to Landsat 7 science data Users Handbook-chapter 11 (2003), albedo was determined based on spectral radiance of the land by the following Eq. 4. (4) When d is astronomical distance (Earth-Sun); ESUNλ is average value of solar spectral radiance; Lλ is solar radiance of Eq. 1; and cos ө is zenith angel of The Sun. Computational albedo parameters of the research in Eq. 4 are showe on Table 1. Table 1. Albedo parameters of the research. Parameter Band 1 Band 2 Band 3Sudut elevasi matahari 58o32 -58o32 58o32Solar irradiation 1969 1840 1551Distance between Sun and Earth 1.016707 1.016707 1.016707 2.3.3 Energy Balance Components Energy balance components of this research consist of net radiation (Rn), soil heat flux (G), heat flux (H) and latent heat flux (λE). They were extracted of band 1, band 2, band 3, band 6, albedo and surface temperature. Firstly, band 3 and band 4 were extracted to be NDVI by the following Eq. 5. 122
  • 131. [A-12] (5)When NDVI is normalized difference vegetation index, NIR is near infra-red and IR is Infra-red.Afterwards, soil heat flux (G) was predicted in the following Allenet. al. equation (Eq. 6), when α isalbedo, Ts is surface temperature and Rn is net radiation extracted by band 6 (Eq. 7). Net radiation isdetermined by input shortwave radiation (Rs↓), output shortwave radiation (Rs↑), input longwaveradiation (Rl↓) and output longwave radiation (Rl↑) (Jing et. al., 2006). (0.0038 (6) Rn = Rs↓-Rs↑+Rl↓-Rl (7)Subsequently, sensible heat flux was predicted by following Eq. 8, where  is bowen ratio. Bowenration is ratio of sensible heat flux to latent heat flux. (8)2.4 DETERMINING A MODELThe data extracted by image interpretation assumed as variables for determining a model of opengreenspace range effect to surface temperature in urban area. The variables consist of soil heat flux,sensible heat flux, latent heat flux, net radiation, albedo and the vegetation distance (paddy field, bush,palm field, field, high vegetation) explained by Sub-topic 2.2.For generating a model by sample pointof variables, in this research, points were placed on the built area refer to open greenspace and wereextracted as independent variables (soil heat flux, sensible heat flux, latent heat flux, net radiation,albedo and the distance of paddy field, distance of bush, distance of palm field, distance of field,distance of high vegetation) and dependent variable (surface temperature).In generating a model using regression analysis, it is needed an assumption test (Draper et. al., 1981).The assumption are: errors of independent variables are normal, varieties of independent variables arehomogen (homoscedasticity), there is not autocorrelation among independent variables. After theassumption were completed, they were analysed by regression analysis between independent variablesand dependent variables.3 RESULT AND DISCUSSION3.1 LANDOVER CLASSIFICATIONLandover classification in Bogor, located at 106o4840E and 6o3053S until 106o4622E and6o4008S, consist of seven classifications. They are: water bodies, land building, field, bush, paddyfield, palm field, and high vegetation (Table 2). 123
  • 132. [A-12] Table 2. Landcover classification at 2006 Landcover Area (Ha) Area (%) Water bodies 505 2.3 Paddy land 2357 11.0 High vegetation 1704 7.9 Bush 2786 12.9 Palm field 118 0.6 Field 7434 34.5 Building land 6616 30.7The land cover classification showed that agricultural land (65.95%) was the domination land cover inthe study area at 2006. In this research, high vegetation area showed only 11% of all land cover inBogor. It was happened because of land conversion (high vegetation area to built area and agriculturalarea). This condition was supported by increasing of population (226 populations per Km2 per decade)and construction activities in Bogor (Figure 2). Figure 2. Landover classification of the research area3.2 ENERGY BALANCE COMPONENTSThis research resulted that latent heat flux was the greatest allocation of net radiation than sensibleheat flux and soil heat flux (see Figure 3). According to Meyers T P et. al. (2004) and June (1993), thiscondition could be influenced by vegetation and water bodies domination. This statement wassupported by this research. The research showed that presentage vegetation land in this research was65.95%, water bodies was 2.34 %. The total of vegetation area and water bodies were bigger thanbuilding land.124
  • 133. [A-12] Figure 3. Energy balance proportion of land cover in Bogor3.3 DETERMINING ENERGY BALANCE AND SURFACE TEMPERATURE EFFECTThe result of normality test of energy balance effect towards surface temperature in 2006 showed thaterror of energy balance components (Rn, G, H dan λE) were normal and had homogen varieties.Nevertheless, there were multicolinierities among independent variables, especially in energy balancecomponents. The multicolinerities showed at relations among net radiation with soil heat flux andsensible heat, and the relation between soil heat flux and sensible heat. Langensiepen (2003) andMonteith (1975) explained the formula among net radiation, latent heat flux, soil heat flux andsensible heat flux (Eq. 9). It showed that there was relation among energy balance components.Drapper (1981) explained that the way for handling multicolinierity was reduce any variables whichhad multicolinierities relations. Base on Eq. 9 and Drapper (1981), in this research, themulticolinierities among the variables (net radiation, latent heat flux, soil heat flux and sensible heatflux into a variable, that was net radiation) was handled by reduction them into a variable. Thatvariable was expected can represent all of energy balance components. Hence, net radiation waschosen as a variable which explained energy balance components. Rn = G + H + λE (9)3.4 DETERMINING EFFECT OF EACH OPEN GREENSPACE TYPE TO SURFACE TEMPERATUREAccording to image processing result by tracking sample point around and outward Bogor BotanicalGarden, it showed that high vegetation in Bogor Botanical Garden influenced surface temperature ofbuilding land at distance 515 m and surface temperature 34oC. This effect decreased continuously atdistance 707 m. At distance more than 707 m towards Bogor Botanical Garden, surface temperaturechanged dramatically (surface temperature was 37oC). Regression analytical result showed relation ofhigh vegetation range towards surface temperature in built area had correlation 67.8%. Highvegetation range (Dv) was also contributed 29.2% to influence whole of Bogor surface temperature(Ts) by Eq. 10. Ts = 28.6 + 1.17ln(Dv) (10)In regression analytical result, showed that almost there wasn’t relation between bush and surfacetemperature on built area. It was different when compared with field and paddy field. Field range 125
  • 134. [A-12](Dfield) had correlation 45.8% and it was contributed 32.4% towards surface temperature on built area(Eq.11). For paddy field range, it could explain surface temperature on urban area 21.5% and it hadcorrelation 46.4% (Eq. 12). Ts = 24.6 + 1.47 Ln(Dfield) (11) Ts = 31.3 + 0.00471 (Dpaddy) (12)In the research area, minimum distance of palm field to urban area was ± 11.544 kilometer. By thedistance and wide of palm field (118.5 m2), this land cover type only contributed a little influenced tosurface temperature on urban area (Figure 4). Figure 4. Sample points of analysing high vegetation range effect3.5 DETERMINING MODEL OF GREENSPACE RANGE EFFECT TOWARDS SURFACE TEMPERATURE IN URBAN AREAAccording to predictors (net radiation, albedo, high vegetation, field and paddy field) as the modelgenerator, they were analysed toward surface temperature on built area. The result showed that onlynet radiation (Rn), albedo, range of field (Dfield) and range of paddy field (Dpaddy) influencedsurface temperature on built area. High vegetation did not influence surface temperature on urban area.It was showed by P-value on regression analysis at 0.495. This condition was caused by high numberof λE (latent heat flux) in research area. High content of λE was a reflection of vegetation whichdominates in urban area. It showed by mean NDVI value in research area was 0.341. Moreover, theother vegetation beside high vegetation was the domination landcover in Bogor. It allowed for othervegetation reduce the influence of high vegetation towards surface temperature on built area. Besidesthat, image from Landsat 5 was captured at 10.00, so surface temperature of Bogor is almost homogen.After getting the fit independent variables, they were transformed by natural logarithm. This methodwas chosen to normalise the variables. Subsequently, to get the best model which explained126
  • 135. [A-12]greenspace range effect towards surface temperature in urban area, dependent variable (surfacetemperature) was transformed by Box-Cox transformation. This transformation normalise the residualof dependent variable. The model was showed at Eq. 13. = -0.0280+ 0.0198 albedo+0.00538 Ln(Rn)- 0.000038 Ln(Dpaddy)- 0.000053 Ln(Dfield) (13)The model of this research had R2 at 88.0%. In addition, validation 20 % sample points between Ts ofthe model and Ts observation were 93.3 %. Therefore, it could be called that the model are a goodmodel. It expressed that greater range of opengreen space towards built area, would result highersurface temperature on built area until the surface temperature reached the maximum surfacetemperature of the study area.4 CONCLUSIONDetermined relation between open greenspace and surface temperature of built area, resulted anequation: = - 0.0280 + 0.0198 albedo + 0.00538 Ln(Rn) - 0.000038 Ln(Dpaddy- 0.000053 Ln(Dfield) (12)Selected model between open greenspace and surface temperature of built area had a linier pattern. Itmeans that short range of open greenspace would reduce higher surface temperature of built area.Influenced open greenspace in Bogor consist of field and paddy field because high vegetation had notenough wide to meet Bogor’s needs.5 REFERENCESAllen R G, Masahiro T, Kramber W J, Trezza R dan Wright J L. 1998, Crop Evapotyranspiration- Guidelines for Computing Crop Water Requirement-FAO Irrigation and Drainage Paper 56. FAO-Food and Agricultue Organization of The United Nation. Rome.Draper N R dan Smith H. 1981,.Applied Regression Analysis, 2nd ed. New York : John Wiley and Sons.Hermawan E. 2005, Analisis Perubahan Komponen Neraca Energi Permukaan, Distribusi Urban Heat Island dan THI (Temperature Heat Index) Akibat Perubahan Penutup Lahan Dengan Menggunakan Citra Landsat TM/ETM+ (Studi Kasus Kanalung tahun 1991 dan 2001) [skripsi]. Departemen Geofisika dan Meteorologi FMIPA IPB. Bogor.Jing H, Fienhua Z, Xiaomin S, Zilin Z danYanlian Z. 2006, Study Of Model Correcting For The Effect Of Horrizontal Advection On Surfaces Fluxes Measurement Based Of Remote Sensing. Science in China Series: 49 : 273 – 280.June T. 1993, Ekofisiologitanaman.Pelatihan Dosen-dosen Perguruan Tinggi Negeri Indonesia Bagian Timur dalam Bidang Agrometeorologi. Bogor 26 Juli- 7 Agustus 1993. Bogor.Langensiepen M. 2003, Evaporation and Energy Balance Encyclopedia of Water Science., Taylor & Francis : 1 : 153.Meyers T P, Hollinger S E. 2004, An Assessment Of Storage Terms In The Surface Energy Balance Of Maize And Soybean. Agrformet : 125 : 105-115.Monteith JL. 1975. Vegetation and Atmosphere. Academic Press, London: 278. 127
  • 136. [A-12]USGS. 2002, Landsat 7 Science Data Users Handbook. http://ltpwww.gsfc.nasa.gov/IAS /handbook_htmls/chapter111.html. [5 Juli 2010]Wardhani D E. 2006. PengkajianSuhuUdara Dan IndeksKenyamananDalamRuang Terbuka Hijau (StudiKasus : Kota Semarang). DepartemenGeofisikadanMeteorologi FMIPA IPB. Bogor.128
  • 137. [A-13] THE STUDY OF SO2 POLLUTANT EMISSION FROM BOILER STACK OF BIODIESEL PLANT USING ATMOSPHERIC DISPERSION MODELLING Rosmeika1, Arief S. YUWONO2 and Armansyah H. TAMBUNAN3ABSTRACT: Fossil fuel depletion, global warming issues, and environmental pollution issues, hadbeen encouraging the development of biodiesel industry. Biodiesel is an alternative fuel that isrenewable, sustainable, and environmentally friendly. However, several biodiesel plants still utilizefossil fuel as a boiler fuel that can give the negative impact to the environment. The purpose of thisstudy was to analyze the distribution of SO2 pollutant concentration emitted from the biodiesel plantstack using Gaussian Dispersion Equation. To obtain the concentration of SO2 pollutant distributionrequired the meteorological condition data from the impact receiving area, such as wind speed, winddirection, and atmospheric stability. Dispersion models use mathematical formulations to characterizethe atmospheric processes that disperse a pollutant emitted by a source. Several types of fuel that wereexamined including industrial diesel oil (IDO), firewood, and coal. The result of this study showed thatthe SO2 concentration level for utilization of IDO and firewood as boiler fuel was still below thethreshold values, which was below 0.08 mg/m3 with the ISPU value was below 50. It was mean that theSO2 concentration level was still in the safe level. Whereas, SO2 pollutant concentration from theutilization of coal as boiler fuel, give negative impacts to the environment in the radius below 200 mfrom the emission source. Therefore, it was considered not to be used.KEYWORDS: Biodiesel plant, Gaussian Dispersion Equation, SO2 pollution, human health.1 INTRODUCTIONBiodiesel is an alternative fuel that could substitute the petroleum diesel fuel. Compared to petroleum-based diesel, biodiesel has a high cetane number (a measure of a fuel’s ignition quality) and has apotential to reduce emission because it yields a better combustion emission profile, such as loweremissions of carbon monoxide, particulate matter and soot, unburned hydrocarbons, NOx and,especially, SOx (Zhang et al., 2003a; Zhang et al., 2003b; Kiwjaroun et al., 2009). Therefore, biodieselis recommended as a fuel that has impact on the reduction of air pollution and public health risks.The development of biodiesel industry is currently became very important along with the declining ofpetroleum diesel fuel reserves, global warming issues, as well as the issue of environmental pollution.However, in the industrial process, some of biodiesel plants still use the fossil fuel to producebiodiesel. Therefore, in planning of a biodiesel plant establishment should be considered to the properlocation in order to minimize the impact of environmental pollution that may endanger thepopulation’s health nearby the plant. The quantity of air pollutants that potentially could be releasedfrom the biodiesel plant should be considered.The major emission sources associated with the operation of the biodiesel plant is emissions from theboiler stack (ERM, 2007). Some air pollutants like nitrogen oxides (NOx), carbon monoxide (CO),sulfur dioxide (SO2), hydrocarbons (HC) and particulate matter (PM), generated from the combustion1 Research engineer, Indonesian Center for Agricultural Engineering Research and Development, Indonesia2 Researcher, Bogor Agricultural University (IPB), Indonesia3 Researcher, Bogor Agricultural University (IPB), Indonesia 129
  • 138. [A-13]process from boiler providing steam and energy to the process, directly affects the environment andhealth risks (Cretu et al., 2010).Pollution is the act that pollutes the environment that causes instability, disorder, harm or discomfortto the ecosystem i.e. physical systems or living organisms. Air pollution is one of the major problemsof urban environment as a consequence of economic development, urbanization, energy consumption,air and urban road transport and increasing number of urban population. Air pollution has been andcontinues to be a significant health hazard all over the world. Exposure to air pollution is an issue ofconcern due to the diversity of these pollutants, adverse effects were observed at different levels of airpollution, and a large number of people at risk. The effects of air pollution can sometimes be observedeven when the pollution levels below the level indicated by the air quality guidelines (Cretu et al.,2010).Sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions come from burning sulfur-containing fossil fuels which may containup to 6% sulfur. At relatively high concentrations, SO2 causes severe respiratory problems atsufficiently high concentrations; SO2 exposure is harmful to susceptible plant tissue. Sulfur dioxide isalso a source of acid rain, which is produced when SO2 combines with water droplets to form sulfuricacid (H2SO4). Fine particles of H2SO4 will be binding in the lungs which can cause respiratorydiseases. It can also heighten the risk of skin cancer due to sulfate and nitrate compounds into directcontact with skin. Another impact of acid rain include: influence of surface water quality, dissolvedheavy metals contained in the soil thus affecting the quality of groundwater and surface water, and itscorrosiveness damaging materials and buildings. Sulfur dioxide and other tropospheric aerosolscontaining sulfur are believed to affect the radiation balance of the atmosphere, which may causecooling in certain regions (Cahyono, 2007; Fardiaz, 1992; Matthias et al., 2006).Considering the fact that SO2 pollutant has been associated with a series of adverse health effects, it isimportant to predict SO2 pollution from the biodiesel plant stack. An easy and an inexpensiveestimation can be performed through atmospheric dispersion modeling. The purpose of this study wasto analyze the distribution of sulfur dioxide (SO2) pollutant concentration from the biodiesel plantstack using Gaussian Dispersion Equation. Several types of boiler fuel that were examined includingindustrial diesel oil (IDO), firewood, and bituminous coal.2 METHODOLOGY2.1 AIR POLLUTION DISPERSIONPollutants dispersion in the air can be visualized by looking at the pattern of dispersion (plume) ofsmoke emitted by the stack continuously. The size of the plume carried by the wind will increase dueto dispersion. Dispersion also leads to the decreases of pollutants concentration in the smoke alongwith the increase of the distance from the emission source.Dispersion models use mathematical formulations to characterize the atmospheric processes thatdisperse a pollutant emitted by a source. Using observations and/or simulated meteorological fields,dispersion models can predict concentrations at selected downwind receptor locations (Matthias et al.,2006). The Gaussian Dispersion Equation, a mathematical approximation that simulates the steady-state dispersion of pollutants from a continuous point source is given below (Turner, 1994; Matthias etal., 2006). (1)130
  • 139. [A-13]Where:C = point concentration at receptor, in μg/m3(x, y, z) = ground level coordinates of the receptor relative to the source and wind direction, in meters;H = effective release height of emissions, in meters (m);Q = mass flow of a given pollutant from a source located at the origin, in μg/s; = wind speed, in m/s; and = standard deviation of plume concentration distribution in y and z plane, in meters.Value of in the above equation is estimated from several empirical formulas that connected withthe distance of the wind flow and the stability conditions of the air flow (equation 2). The formulaswere developed by Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). and (2)Where values of a, b, c, and d, are parameters that depend on the stability conditions of the air flow(Matthias et al., 2006). It is assumed that the total reflection of the plume at ground level (z = 0conditions).2.2 SCENARIOThe study was limited to a small scale biodiesel plant and used the data of SO2 emission from theboiler stack of biodiesel plant, then the distribution of SO2 pollutant concentration was analyzed usingGaussian models (equation 1). The air qualities were measured based on Air Pollution Standard Index(Indeks Standar Pencemar Udara / ISPU) based on KEP 45 / MENLH / 1997 and Kep Ka. BapedalNo. 107 in the year of 1997.There are three types of fuel that were examined including industrial diesel oil (IDO), firewood, andbituminous coal. SO2 Pollutant concentration from the combustion of IDO in Boiler was directlymeasured from the boiler stack of a small scale biodiesel plant located in Research DevelopmentEngineering Operation (RDEO) in the region of Research Centre for Science and Technology,Serpong, South Tangerang, Indonesia. The plant capacity is 1 ton/day with a compact design and smallsize boiler for steam generator. Whereas, the SO2 pollutant concentration from the combustion offirewood and coal used the Data SO2 emission factor from IPCC 2006 that found in the category ofemission factor database for fuel combustion activities in the boiler (EFDB, 2012).To obtain the concentration of SO2 pollutant distribution required the meteorological condition datafrom the impact receiving area. The data included wind speed, wind direction, and atmosphericstability.3 RESULT AND DISCUSSIONThe meteorological condition data that were obtained from the first class of Geophysics Station in theMeteorological, Climatological, and Geophysical Agency Tangerang, on the official site of SouthTangerang City Government, were as follows: the wind speed average is 8.3 m/s, with the winddirection in January to April and November to December is to the West, while May to October is tothe North (South Tangerang City Government, 2012). Air flow conditions in Tangerang tend to beunstable because the number of high buildings. 131
  • 140. [A-13]The wind is one of the most important meteorological parameters for the transport and dispersion ofair pollutants. The wind acts either by speed and direction, its influence on air pollution being highvariable, depending on the source position. Generally, wind speeds increases with altitude; thedispersion is being facilitated by the wind. More wind will be stronger; the pollution levels will belower whereas, a wind with a low speed supports the local accumulation of pollutants (Cretu et al.,2010).Based on the research that was conducted at the RDEO biodiesel plant, IDO boiler stacks emitted0.000025 kg/s SO2 pollutant. Emission rate of SO2 from the combustion of firewood and bituminouscoal in boiler stack obtained using biodiesel production process data, physical characteristic of theboiler stack, meteorological condition, and the IPCC 2006 emission factor. SO2 emission rate forfirewood and coal boilers was 0.000012 kg/s and 0.000608 kg/s, respectively.The analysis result for SO2 Pollutant concentration from biodiesel plant using Gaussian DispersionModel (equation 1) is given in Table 1. Table 1. The value of SO2 concentration distribution Distance by the wind SO2 Concentration, C (mg/m3) direction, x(m) IDO Firewood Coal 25 0.969418 0.031823 1.6666627 50 0.027196 0.012467 0.652948 100 0.008920 0.004089 0.214163 200 0.002772 0.001271 0.066555 300 0.991387 0.000636 0.33307 400 0.000848 0.000389 0.020347 500 0.000578 0.000265 0.013876Analysis result showed that the coal boiler emitted the higher concentration of SO2 pollutantcomparing to IDO and firewood boiler. While the lowest concentrations of SO2 pollutant wasproduced by the firewood boiler. The result shows that utilization of IDO and firewood as boiler fueldidn’t affect to the air quality around the biodiesel plant, which based on the ISPU, a distance of 25meters from the emission source (boiler stack) for the utilization of those two fuels, already in goodcategory, where the concentration of SO2 was below 80.00 μg/m3 (0.08 mg/m3) with the ISPU valuebelow 50. At this air quality level, there was no adverse effects neither on the health of humans,animals, and plants, nor on the building and aesthetic value.The analysis result for utilization of coal as boiler fuel showed that a distance of 25 m from theemission source was in the ISPU danger category, which the concentration of SO2 was 1.67 mg/m3with ISPU value was 617. Air quality level in this condition could harm the health of humans, animals,and plans, seriously. In a distance of 50 m from emission source, the concentration of SO2 was 0.65mg/m3 with ISPU value was 166, which mean it was in ‘not health’ category. At this air quality level,the concentration of SO2 could be harmful to humans or groups of sensitive animals and could causethe damage to the plants or aesthetic value. In a distance of 100 m from emission source, theconcentration of SO2 was 0.21 mg/m3 with ISPU value was 74, which mean it was in ‘medium’category. The level of air quality in these conditions had no negative impact on human or animalhealth, but could affect to the sensitive plants that could cause injury to some plant species and couldaffect to the aesthetic value. The ‘good’ category was obtained at a distance of 200 m from theemission source.SO2 pollutant distribution models can be seen in Figure 1, Figure 2, and Figure 3 for IDO, firewoodand coal fuel, respectively.132
  • 141. [A-13] y (m) 100 50 0 -50 -100 x (m) 100 200 300 400 500 Figure 1. SO2 pollutant distribution model derived from IDO boiler y (m) 100 50 0 -50 -100 x (m) 100 200 300 400 500 Figure 2. SO2 pollutant distribution model derived from firewood boilerThe result showed that SO2 emission from the biodiesel plant that utilize IDO and firewood as boilerfuel was below the threshold for SO2 emission, which means it did not endanger the surroundingpopulation. Whereas, SO2 pollutant concentration from the utilization of coal as boiler fuel in theradius below 200 m from the emission source, give the negative impacts to the environment.Therefore, the utilization of coal as boiler fuel considered to be avoided. 133
  • 142. [A-13] y (m) 100 50 0 -50 -100 x (m) 100 200 300 400 500 Figure 3. SO2 pollutant distribution model derived from coal boiler4 CONCLUSIONSThe analysis result of the distribution model of SO2 pollutant concentration derived from the boilerstack of biodiesel plant using Gaussian Dispersion Model showed that the utilization of IDO andfirewood as boiler fuel didn’t influence the air quality around the biodiesel plant, which based on theISPU, a distance of 25 meters from the emission source (boiler stack) for the utilization of those twofuels, already in good category, where the concentration of SO2 was below 0.08 mg/m3 with the ISPUvalue below 50, which mean it was still in the safe level. Whereas, SO2 pollutant concentration fromthe utilization of coal as boiler fuel, give the negative impacts to the environment in the radius below200 m from the emission source. Therefore, it was considered not to be used. The analysis for theother pollutants (NO2, CO, PM, and O3) that emitted by biodiesel plants will be conducted todetermined the safe distance of biodiesel plant site to the settlements area.5 REFERENCESCahyono, W E 2007, Pengaruh Hujan Asam pada Biotik dan Abiotik, Berita Dirgantara Vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 48 – 51. (in Bahasa Indonesia)Cretu,M, Teleaba, V, Ionescu, S and Ionescu A 2010, Pollution Scenarios Through Atmospheric Dispersion Modelling Based on Real Measurements - Impact on Human Health, WSEAS Transactions on Environment and Development, Issue 8, Vol. 6, pp. 604 – 613.EFDB 2012, Emission Factor Database, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), http://www.ipcc-nggip.iges.or.jp/EFDB/find_ef.php. [29 Juli 2012].Environmental Resources Management (ERM) 2007, Development of Biodiesel Plant at Tseung Kwan O Industrial Estate, Project Profile, Environmental Resources Management, Hongkong.Fardiaz, S 1992, Polusi Air dan Udara, Penerbit Kanisius, Yogyakarta. (in Bahasa Indonesia)Kiwjaroun, C, Tubtimdee, C and Piumsomboon, P 2009, LCA Studies comparing Biodiesel Synthesized by Conventional and Supercritical Methanol methods, Journal of Cleaner Production, Vol. 17, pp. 143–153.134
  • 143. [A-13]Matthias, A D, Comrie, A C and Musil, S A 2006, Atmospheric Pollution, Environmental and Pollution Science, 2nd Edition, Elsevier.Tangerang Selatan City Government 2012, Kondisi Geografis dan Iklim, Pemerintah Kota Tangerang Selatan, Provinsi Banten,. http://www.tangerangselatankota. go.id/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=62&Itemid=56. [29 Juli 2012]. (in Bahasa Indonesia)Turner, D B 1994, Workbook of Atmospheric Dispersion Estimate, PHS. Publication No. 999, Ap-26, Cincinnati, Ohio.Zhang, Y, Dube, M A, McLean, D D and Kates, M 2003a, Biodiesel production from waste cooking oil: 1. Process design and technological assessment, Bioresource Technology, Vol. 89, pp.1–16.Zhang, Y, Dube, M A, McLean, D D and Kates, M 2003b, Biodiesel production from waste cooking oil: 2. Economic assessment and sensitivity analysis, Bioresource Technology, Vol. 90, pp. 229– 40. 135
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  • 145. [A-14] THE EMERGENCE OF INFORMAL RIVERSIDE SETTLEMENTS AND CHALLENGES FOR PLANNING: THE CASE OF KALI MAS IN SURABAYA, INDONESIA SHIRLEYANA1 and Astri Anindya SARI2ABSTRACT: Informal settlement is now a worldwide issue in developing countries. Rapidurbanization has triggered urban growth and slum formation is likely to go hand in hand with the urbangrowth. In Surabaya, informal settlements have been a problem since the last seven decades. Poorpeople choose to squat on abandoned land, such as riverbanks for their living places, since these are theonly affordable options for them. Hence, informal settlements can be seen along the river. The localgovernment is on the way to implement the River Redevelopment Plan as one strategy of the SurabayaVision Plan 2005-2025 to introduce pro-business approach to redevelop riverside to attract investors.Yet, this plan has not come up with a proper solution for the informal riverside settlements. This studyaims to investigate the reasons behind the emergence of informal riverside settlements and theirimplications and also to bridge the gap between the existing river redevelopment plan and the existinginformal settlements along the riverbanks. Recommendations for planning approach will provide aninput for the local government on how to deal with the informal riverside settlements to create a betterplanning in the future.KEYWORDS: Informal settlements, planning challenges, river redevelopment.1 INTRODUCTIONOn a global scale informal settlements are a significant problem especially in developing andtransitional countries. About half of the population growth in these countries is the result of naturalincrease. The natural increase of the population generates pressure on resources and this situationtriggers migration movements (Drakakis-Smith, 1981). Urban growth in developing countries comesprimarily from individuals migrating from rural areas, searching for job opportunities in urban areas.The rapid urbanization accelerated urban growth and led to urgent need for shelter. The inadequatecapability to cope with housing needs of people in urban areas contributed to rapid increase in theevolution of informal settlements (Europe Aid-Asia link, 2007).The number of people living in informal settlements, slums and squatter settlements has increased toover one billion, and more than half of them live in Asia (UNCHS, 2003). The most obvious place tochoose is unauthorized public land, such as: river banks, fire access lanes, railway yards, and evenChinese cemeteries (Dick, 2002). These are the only options poor migrants who have to acquire aliving space. The common features of informal settlements are low level of infrastructure, poorsanitation, inadequate social services and lack of open space, which highlights conditions related topoverty (Sheuya, 2004).Surabaya, as the second most important city in Indonesia, faces the same problem. Evidently, thephenomenon of informal settlements along the riverside is to be seen. River is one of the importantgeographic factors that shape an image of a city. But the riverside in many cities of the developingworld has become an available and open place for the poor to squat in unauthorized and unsupervised1 Lecturer in Architecture, Widya Kartika University, Surabaya, Indonesia2 Lecturer in Architecture, Widya Kartika University, Surabaya, Indonesia 137
  • 146. [A-14]land. On one side, the municipality plans to redevelop the riverside and try to invite investors for thedevelopment of business districts along the river. On the other side, inhabitants in informal riversidesettlements feel threatened of being evicted. Even before the Riverside Redevelopment Plan, informalsettlements already have several problems which mostly affect inhabitant. Therefore, planningchallenge for informal riverside settlements should be addressed.This paper provides a better understanding of the reasons behind the emergence of informalsettlements and to answer the challenges it poses to municipal and city planners, particularly on howthe river redevelopment project can still be implemented in view of addressing the existing situation ofinformal settlements – poverty, health problems, and poor living conditions. The main issue is havinga better planning practice and approach that can improve the quality of life of the riverside settlements.In undertaking this study, the main data was collected from various secondary sources, such as:planning documents, official site from local government, previous studies, and aerial photographs. Theprimary data collection is derived from observation for the informal riverside settlements’ condition.2 AN OVERVIEW OF INFORMAL SETTLEMENTS2.1 DEFINING INFORMAL SETTLEMENTSThe definition of informal settlements varies and it depends on a specific context of a given country.UN Habitat Program probably gives the most widely applicable definition for informal settlements asresidential areas where a group of housing units has been constructed on land to which the occupantshave no legal claim, or which they occupy illegally; and unplanned settlements and areas wherehousing is not in compliance with currentplanning and building regulations (unauthorized housing).(UN, 1996, quoted by WHO, 2008). Another term used for informal settlement is slums, defined aslegal, permanent dwellings which have become substandard through age, neglect, and/or subdivisioninto micro occupational units such as rooms or cubicle (Drakakis-Smith, 1981). According to Silas(1989), the more appropriate definition for informal settlements in Indonesia is ‘pemukiman kumuh’ –settlements with poor living conditions. There are two appropriate terms for informal settlements inIndonesia: (1) Kampung kumuh, is a kampung with legal tenure but bad living conditions, and (2)Kampung liar, is an illegal settlement (ASIP, 2008).The definition for informal settlement in this study is based on what is commonly used as illegalsettlements in Indonesia. Hence, the informal riverside settlement is defined as a settlement which hasno legal bounding, lack of urban services, and the condition itself has been seen as a slum area of thecity.2.2 CHARACTERISTICS OF INFORMAL SETTLEMENTS IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIESAbout 924 million people lived in slums worldwide in 2001, or 32 percent of the global urbanpopulation. Particularly, slums have the highest concentration in cities of developing countries. Fifty(50) percent of slum dwellers were found in both South-central and Eastern Asia, and 14 percent inLatin America and 17 percent in sub-Saharan Africa (UNCHS, 2003). In South-East Asia, number ofpeople living in urban slums is as high as 498 million, about half of the total urban population(UNESCAP, 2003).United Nations Centre for Human Settlements (UNCHS) defines land tenure as the main indicator:“Households in squatter housing, or housing which has no title to the land on which it stands, and whopay no rent” as well as “Households in squatter housing who pay rent” (UNCHS, 1997). In South EastAsia, informal settlements tend to locate on the sides of rail tracks, riverbanks, steeper slopes/hill,garbage dumps, or industries waste sites. These locations are in the inner city, which influenced by138
  • 147. [A-14]their economic activities. Most of the settlers use their houses as part of livelihood strategies togenerate income, since most of them come from low income groups.A common feature of informal settlements is their construction materials. Shack housing built out ofrecycled and reused materials. The materials which they use, namely: zinc, plastic, cartons, woods,palms, branches, have little resistance and are not appropriate for housing constructions (Napier et al,2002). Lack of basic urban services such as water supply, sanitations, waste disposal, and electricitycan also be taken as an indicator of the prevalence of informal settlements. In riverbanks, theinhabitants use river for sewerage disposal and bathing. Electricity is illegally obtained by theinhabitants themselves by linking to the local power lines (Napier et al, 2002). The inhabitantsnormally suffer from health problems and diseases. Unavailability of clean water supply andappropriate drainage lead to water borne diseases, such as diarrhea. Lack of medical facilitiesintensifies this health risks problem lead to increase in mortality and morbidity rates. The settlers alsosuffer from high densities and crowding in informal settlements, which give poor air quality.The settlements are mostly located in hazardous locations, thus natural disasters like flood, draught,and earthquake threaten the inhabitants’ life, particularly when the house structure is not supportedwith permanent construction materials. Waste can build up in gullies and block drain or waterways(Napier et al, 2002). On the other hand, informal settlements can promote the emergence of informaleconomic activities. These people will have to look for other opportunities which are likely to besmall-scale – informal economic sector (CSIR, 2001).The Indonesian Ministry of Environment (quoted by Larasati, 2006) pointed out that in 2000 about 25percent of all households in Indonesia lived in houses below the ideal size of 10 square meters perperson as specified by the World Health Organization. It was getting worse during the economic crisis,because less people could afford to buy a house and in fact a substantial part of the community cannotafford to pay housing credit. The lack of affordable housing has partly led to the increase in numbersof informal settlements, which reached to four million hectares in 1996 (Larasati, 2006).2.3 RESPONSES AND INTERVENTIONS TOWARDS INFORMAL SETTLEMENTSThere have been a huge variety of responses to informal settlements over the last half-century. Fromeviction, low-cost housing, relocation, slum upgrading, land sharing, and providing loan for lowincome group. In the last few years, promoting partnership between and among government with Non-Government Organizations (NGOs), Community Based Organizations (CBOs), and local communityfor slum upgrading has been an effective way to build the institution’s capacity in both community andlocal government level (UNCHS, 2001). Slum upgrading consists of improving infrastructure. Typicalupgrading projects include providing footpaths and pit latrines, street lighting, drainage and roads, andwater supply (UNESCAP, 2003).In Indonesia, one of the most famous settlements upgrading in the world is the Kampung ImprovementProgramme (KIP). The objective of the programme is to provide access to physical infrastructure, suchas roads, footpaths, drainage, sewage systems, water supply, and social infrastructure, such as schoolsand health centre for the urban poor living in the informal settlements. It has improved more than 500kampungs and provided basic services to about 3.8 million people (United Nations, 1989 quoted byEurope Aid-Asia Link, 2007).Another example of successful slums upgrading implementation in Indonesia is the Code River case inYogyakarta. Settlements along the banks of the Code River were planned to be demolished by thelocal government, with the argument that the river view caused negative impressions for the tourists.Evictions have been implemented several times, but the inhabitants keep on returning to their formerplace. In 1983, an initiator, Y.B. Mangunwijaya (a former priest, architect and writer) came to assistthe inhabitants and tried to persuade the government to pursue an upgrading project instead of 139
  • 148. [A-14]demolition. He worked together with Code River community to create an acceptable settlement, andsucceeded. The neighborhood was almost entirely built by the residents themselves. The patterns onthe walls of the houses were painted by a group of art students, which gave the site a unique andcolorful appearance. Finally, the government issued land ownership certifications for the Code Rivercommunity, whose site has received international recognition (Aga Khan Award in 1992) and hasbecome one of the city’s tourist attractions (Larasati, 2006).Despite all of these efforts and successful stories, the problem of informal settlements still exists.Therefore, it is necessarily to give emphasis on urban planning for settlement of this type which willintroduce safer forms of building and services.3 KALIMAS RIVERSIDE SURABAYA CASE STUDY3.1 SURABAYA AT A GLANCESurabaya, the second biggest city in Indonesia, is located in East Java Province. It has borders of StraitMadura in the East and the North, and Sidoarjo Regency in the South, and Gresik Regency in theWest. Surabaya is also known as the City of Budipamarinda. It stands for Industries, Commerce,Maritime, Education, Culture, and Tourism, for its location, ethnic diversity, and economic activities(Ferita, 2006).The area is lowland at 3 to 6 meters above sea level, except the southern area, which is 25 to 30 metersabove the sea level (Pemkot-SBY, 2008). The metropolitan region occupies a land area of 33,048hectares and is divided into 31 sub districts and 163 villages (Bappeko-SBY, 2008). The totalpopulation recorded in the Family Cards until December 2007 reached 2,861,928 inhabitants,consisting of 755,914 households (Citizenship and Civil Record Agency quoted in Bappeko-SBY,2008). The population growth is about 0.5 percent per annum, as measured on the constant number ofpopulation census conducted in 2000 (Bappeko-SBY, 2008).The area of Surabaya consists of built up areas reaching 60.06 percent of all area. According to theMaster plan of Surabaya (Figure 14), the area used for housing reaches 42 percent, service and tradearea 10.76 percent; industry and warehouse area 7.3 percent, and the rest are open areas taking a shareof 36.94 percent (Bappeko-SBY, 2008). According to the Executive Summary of Land Use Planningof Surabaya (2007), land to be used for settlements in Surabaya in the next ten years is assumed toreach 85 percent of built up area (Bappeko-SBY, 2007). In 2001, the land use for settlement hasreached nearly 13,711 hectares. Out of the 13,711 hectares used for settlements, 63.34 percent haveprivate ownership status, 19.35 percent are on land leasing basis, 11.17 percent are housing leasing,0.17 percent is government housing, land of free rent reaches 3.84 percent, and the rest 2.13 percentare informal settlements (Rolalisasi, 2006).The revision of Surabaya Master Plan 2004 (quoted by Rolalisasi, 2006) reported that slum areas arefound in 23 sub districts out of the 163 sub-districts in Surabaya. Surabaya municipality hasimplemented many programs on slum upgrading such as C-KIP (Comprehensive-KampungImprovement Program) and Social Rehabilitation of Slum Area (Rehabilitasi Sosial Daerah Kumuh/RSDK). Nevertheless, informal settlements are not decreased significantly because of lack ofcommunity involvement in the beginning of the process. There are 11,416 households of informalsettlements scattered in the 23 sub districts with a total of 36,208 inhabitants (Rolalisasi, 2006).140
  • 149. [A-14]3.2 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF INFORMAL SETTLEMENTS IN SURABAYAAfter the colonial era in 1930, the quality of housing deteriorated mainly because of an economicdepression. There was a collapse in the volume of sugar export in the country. This slashed thedemand for wharf labor. The labor was repatriated from North Sumatra to Java, which reachedthousands to East Java. Those returnees who were not accepted in their old village made their wayback to Surabaya and hoped to get better income there. Since they were unable to turn to any extendedliving place, they started to form squatter settlements and started to live in terrible conditions (Dick,2002).Subsequently, the rapid growth of population during Japanese occupation and the destruction of manykampungs in the Battle of Surabaya caused housing shortage. Later on in 1946, there was an influx ofimmigrants which had given suspension more to size and quality of housing stock. Squatter housingwas noticeable in formerly open spaces, such as parks, riverbanks, and railway lines, and had nodecent infrastructure (Dick, 2002).During 1978, in the heart of business district, squatters had built shacks and were actually growingmaize and cassava along the riverside. From there to Wonokromo, the river was lined with illegalextensions and squatter shacks. The way they lived, threw garbage into the river, had blocked the riverand cause flood. Public schemes of dredging were set up along 10 kilometers of Kali Mas. Beforebeginning the dredging process, there must have been clearance of the building in riverbanks. Thedredging began in 1976 and was completed in 1985, but after a year, the river was again shallow andclogged. Almost a thousand squatter huts had been cleared in 1978-1980 which were rapidlyreappearing (SP, 7/11/86, quoted in Dick, 2002).The municipality started to initiate Kampung Improvement Program in 1969. Many areas have beenupgraded and are now protected from flooding. However, the upgrading program did not reach theinhabitants of informal settlements, since they are scattered and are mostly small settlements (SeeFigure 1). Some slum clearance project were done but failed to relocate the people to bettersettlements. The slum dwellers were moved out to sub-urban and peri-urban or fringe villages(Wibowo, 2005). This partially happened because improved transport facilities between the villagesand the built up areas of the city have made these areas more accessible (Silas, 1989). According toDick (2002) the cause of deterioration which created slums was rising density of population, lack ofbasic infrastructure, lack of cooperation from the kampung dwellers, and lack of regular supervisionby the municipality (ibid). Source: Dick, 2002 Figure 1. Location of Marginal Settlements in Surabaya Inner-City 141
  • 150. [A-14]3.3 INFORMAL SETTLEMENTS ALONG KALI MAS SURABAYAKali Mas flows from South to the North through the middle of Surabaya City and ends in TanjungPerak, port of Surabaya to Strait of Madura. The length of Kali Mas is approximately 12 kilometers,with the width varies from 20-35 kilometers (Bappeko SBY, 2008). At the moment, the river functionsas: urban drainage for flood control, irrigation water supplier for rice field in East Surabaya, groundwater surface regulator along the river, and to prevent water sea intrusion with Gubeng Dam support(Ferita, 2006).Kali Mas condition which is visible now, is very contradictive. Some demarcations of Kali Mas havebeen arranged beautifully and it is now a recreation place or tourism destination, with added values ofTaman Prestasi and Submarine Monument. Yet, on the other side of the scenery visible alongside ofKali Mas is a grimy area, as a consequence of scattered shacks by outsiders of the community andbeggars (Ferita, 2006).Along the Kali Mas, scattered informal settlements (see Figure 2). Settlements with poor livingconditions are located from north to south district: Perak, Jembatan Merah, Semut Kali, Peneleh,Genteng, Kayoon, Keputran, Darmo Kali, and Wonokromo at the gate of the river. Poor quality of thesettlements are characterized by non permanent building structure or substandard, small size ofhouses, high density, and some are built on the top of water surface and throw sewage directly to theriver. Figure 2. Informal Settlements along Kali Mas Surabaya142
  • 151. [A-14]3.3.1 The Study Area: City Center - Genteng Sub DistrictThe Genteng subdistrict is one of the 31 subdistricts (kecamatan) of Surabaya City that is located inthe city center, near the centre of Surabaya City Government. It covers a 353 hectares area, withborders of: Simokerto and Pabean Cantikan sub district in the North, Gubeng dan Tegalsari sub districtin the South, Bubutan sub district in the West, and Tambaksari sub district in the East. There are 62resident associations (RT) and 318 neighbourhood associations (RW). According to 2006 Census data,the Genteng sub-district has 68,200 inhabitants belonging to 17,634 households (Monografi GentengSubdistrict: Pemkot-SBY, 2008).3.3.2 Characteristics of the Informal Riverside Settlements in the City CenterAs investigated by this study the characteristic of informal riverside settlements in city centre has acomponent of physical environment, land tenure, public facilities, economic features and livelihoods,and social and culture conditions. Figure 3. Maps showing Squatters location in Surabaya Land Use Planning 2006 of Genteng Sub District1) Land Tenure; The settlements stand on public owned land. The settlers have no legal status, andthey actually know that they have no right to live there. Land is occupied illegally and the shacks arebuilt through informal process.2) Physical Environment; The shacks are scattered along the riverside. The houses are constructedfrom non-permanent building materials such as: zinc, tarpaulin, and wood (see Figure 4). Most of thesettlements are built on the riverbanks and they are without any sanitation facilities. Eventually, theriver environment is get deteriorated and cause some health risks. Figure 4. Informal Settlements in Genteng District 143
  • 152. [A-14]3) Public Facilities; The settlement lacks proper open public spaces for social activities. They alsolack basic public utilities like water, electricity, telephone, and drainage system and garbage disposalmechanisms.4) Economic Features and Livelihoods; Close to where the settlement located, there are largetraditional markets, smallscale fruit markets, truck pool, commercial areas, and local governmentbranch offices. These provide opportunities for different sources of livelihoods. The main sources oflivelihood are: street vendors, carrying market stuffs for the consumers, pedicab driving, parkingkeeper, and scavenging.5) Socio Cultural Conditions; The informal settlers live in a way which poses a threat for theenvironment and the inhabitants themselves. They use the river for bathing and washing clothes.Environmental degradation also occurs and affects the quality of ground water due to the infiltration ofthe polluted surface water. The informal settlers have a high social relationship among themselves, dueto close distance between houses and the common problems and social characteristic they share.3.4 PROBLEMS: CAUSES AND IMPLICATIONThe major socioeconomic factors behind the emergence of informal riverside settlements include:unmet demands for housing, lack of affordable housing, and economic inability of the inhabitants tohave formal shelter. This problem is also linked to poverty, reflected by unemployment and lowincome of people. Similar causes under economic factors are lack of credit facilities (micro finance),increased cost of construction, and high interest rate and collateral requirements of financialinstitutions which lead to inadequate affordable housing.The informal settlements have implications of poor living conditions because of degradation andpollution of the river environment, contaminated ground water surface, and health risks due to poorsanitation and drainage facilities. Moreover, they do not have land tenure security due to their inabilityto buy or to rent a house. In fact, they live as a marginal society, isolated from the rest of thecommunity. Nevertheless, these people have a very high solidarity among themselves which is similarto the lifestyle of people living in the rural villages. The informal settlers are creative to make incomesources, such as petty trade. For them, the settlement is not only a place to live, but also a place tomake a living.From the government point of view, these settlements are illegal. Looking at the possible measures tobe taken by the government there are different expectations. In the worst case, the municipality maydemolish squatters’ houses and evict them with violence. In the positive case, the government willundertake upgrading of these settlements and/or relocation of the settlers based on certain jointagreements/consensus building which leads to a smooth, effective and win-win solution to thisparticular problem. The different approaches are expensive and have their own side effects and needscareful consideration and proper management. However, eviction should be avoided as much aspossible as it leads to social conflict and instability. Indeed, it is hard for the marginal society to find aplace to live and also to make a living.4 CHALLENGES FOR PLANNINGAs a part of the Surabaya Vision Plan 2005-2025 (SVP), the municipality came up with the RiversideRedevelopment Plan. The Vision Plan itself act as a supporting document for Surabaya Mid-TermDevelopment Plan (Rencana Pembangunan Jangka Menengah-RPJMD) and Regional Spatial Plan(Rencana Tata Ruang Wilayah-RTRW), particularly providing input to achieve the goal of becoming aWaterfront City- city of trade and services, focusing on waterfront and maritime zones to attractinvestment and tourists as well (SVP, 2005).144
  • 153. [A-14]The municipality has committed to redevelop the river side areas as a unique feature of Surabaya. Asshown in Figure 5, the plan proposed to bring seven main areas along the river (SVP, 2005). The KaliMas riverside redevelopment plan attempts to create one continuous network of pedestrian andwaterfront lifestyle residential communities. The objective is to improve the river side environment,building structure, open spaces, to create a safety and quality landscape which is attractive to touristsand investors. From the business approach, the redeveloped area will promote investments andfacilitates many business outlets along with a new well-lighted promenade. In the city center, the planseeks to revitalize and transform Surabaya’s city center into a business lifestyle district (CentralBusiness Improvement and Beautification District or CBIBD) by upgrading the image of riverfrontage. The applied Urban Design Strategies include (SVP, 2005): focusing development along theriver, with guidelines requiring new projects from the river; creating locations for events andcelebrations along the river; creating distinct riverfront identities and connecting promenade with adiversity of edge (e.g. Soft green parks, hard-plaza edges); and improving overall linkages,connections and access to the river (river boat, taxi, tour, etc.). Source: Surabaya Vision Plan, 2005 Figure 5. Surabaya Riverside Redevelopment PlanThe current challenge for the local government is the way to implement the plan which is alreadydeveloped, not only seeing what is not right in the existing condition, but also takes the potentials. Allproblems challenge the government to be creative and open to incremental planning action, whichmeans that the government will allow changes through the process. Planning is actually a processwhich can accommodate changes through inputs, feedback, and evaluation. The challenge is how tointegrate both the pro-poor and pro-business approaches in implementation of the redevelopmentplans. In other words, how the government can promote business in the city without excluding themost vulnerable segments of the community. Another point from the government view, it is difficult tolegalize the informal settlements. Legalizing settlements should be done carefully to avoid misuse oflicense given by the municipality, for example in land speculations.There is a great possibility that the government will again encounter problems if it continues toexclude the affected groups. Thus, it is important to involve the affected groups, the informal settlersas key stakeholders in planning and implementation processes, and this should be started at early stagein the planning process. The late consultation results in difficulties during implementation. From thecommunity side, the challenges is as how to build the local capacities which enable them perform 145
  • 154. [A-14]better and contribute more in planning process. Consequently, there should be an effort for integratingpeople factor in the development process.5 CONCLUSIONS & RECOMMENDATIONS The major reason behind the emergence of informal riverside settlements in the case study area isrural urban migration. The city center became an attractive destination for the migrant people to moveand stay, because of income generating opportunities it offers. The informal settlers themselves are theone who suffers most because of the poor conditions of the informal settlements. Poor livingconditions and poverty are common features of informal settlements with a chain reaction among thedifferent socioeconomic, political, and environmental factors. Eviction is not the best way to deal withinformal settlements. It strongly violates human rights and makes the settlers victim. Moreover, it willcreate further conflicts between the municipality and the informal settlers. The eviction will only movepeople from one location to another location in the city. A joint planning between the local authorityand settlers as the affected group based on certain agreement can be a good practice to avoid potentialconflict.Total participatory approach which includes the ‘real poor community’- the informal riverside settlersneed to be implemented (see Figure 6). The involvement of the settlers as the affected group needs tobe done in the early stage of the planning process. This could be organized by creating a dialogueforum which functions as advisory, consensus, and enabling forum. An external negotiator ormediator, like an NGO, can be used so that it is possible to bring the different interests into onecommon consensus. This should be followed by integration between pro-poor and pro-businessapproach from the government planning agency to keep a balanced approach, to promote businesswithout excluding the interest and need of the poor. In the decision making process, plan appraisal hasto involve all the stakeholders, to give input for final approval by the municipality. In theimplementation, the business investors or private sectors can involve the poor in the action plan andthe NGO as a mediator. Evaluation results can be a basis for further readjustment as planning is aprocess and changes can be made for good. Figure 6. Restructuring Planning ProcessThe possibility of combining upgrading and relocation of the informal riverside settlements can be anintegral solution for redeveloping the riverside (see Figure 7). Upgrading can be in the form of twostories - housing with mixed use functions: as a place to live and to make a living. Even, with creative146
  • 155. [A-14]design, the upgraded settlements hopefully can be one of the tourist attractions for the city. Theupgrading process should be done through government subsidies, private sectors, NGOs support, andself-help initiatives. Relocation of the informal riverside settlements as an alternative offered by thegovernment should be based on consensus building. It should consider physical and non-physicalaspects, thus people will finally agree on why, how, when, and where to move. Another importantpoint is that prevention for further emergence of the informal riverside settlements has to be donesimultaneously. This again necessitates capacity building of the local government to have a strongcontrol mechanism for preventing the spread of informal riverside settlements together with clearpolicy and regulations towards the actions of upgrading or relocating the informal settlements. Figure 7. Physical improvement frameworkAll aspects in the recommendations are aimed at one focus so that the informal settlers will not returnto their afflictive poverty. As a development planner, it is good to have a business orienteddevelopment approach, but it is more important to keep a balance between pro-poor and probusinessapproaches.6 REFERENCESASIP (Asian Social Issues Program) 2008, What is a "Slum"? An Etymological Tour around Asia. [http://www.asiasource.org/asip/housinglanguage.cfm] (last accessed 11 May 2008).Bapeko-SBY (Surabaya City Development Planning Agency) 2008, Official website for Surabaya City Development Planning Agency. [http://bappeko.surabaya.go.id] (last accessed 16 May 2008).CSIR (Council for Scientific and Industrial Research) 2001, Guidelines for Human Settlement Planning and Design, CSIR Report, BOU/E2001, Pretoria.Dick, H 2002, Surabaya, City of Work. A Socioeconomic History, 1900-2000, Ohio University Center for International Studies, Ohio.Drakakis-Smith, D W 1981, Urbanisation, Housing, and the Development Process, Croom Helm, London. 147
  • 156. [A-14]Europe Aid-Asia Link 2007, Informal Land Market and Urban Poverty. UPA Package Module 2. Wuhan University. [www.itc.nl/upa/pack2/pres/Package_2_Module_3_Lesson_2.pps], (last accessed 17 January 2008).Ferita, H D 2006, City Report of Surabaya, AUICK First 2006 Workshop, [www.auick.org] (last accessed 3 January 2008).Larasati, D 2006, Towards an Integral Approach of Sustainable Housing in Indonesia, With an Analysis of Current Practices in Java, Technische Universiteit Delft, Delft.Napier, M, de Bustillos, L A, Santosa, H and Rubin, M 2002, Understanding the interface between the environment and sustainable livelihoods in the integration of informal settlements in Asia, Latin America and Africa: a review of current thinking and practic, CIB, Rotterdam.Pemkot-SBY 2008, The Official Site of The Surabaya City Government. Geography. [http://www.surabaya.go.id/geografis.php] (last accessed 14 June 2008).______ 2008, The Official Site of The Surabaya City Government. Monography Genteng Subdistrict. [http://www.surabaya.go.id/genteng_eng.php?page=gambaran] (last accessed 16 May 2008).Rolalisasi, A 2006, Community Participation in Slum Upgrading Programme. ITS. Surabaya, [www.hdm.lth.se/fileadmin/hdm/alumni/papers/sdd2006/sdd2006-05.pdf] (last accessed 3 February 2008).Sheuya, S 2004, Housing Transformations and Urban Livelihoods in Informal Settlements, The Case of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. SPRING Research Series No. 45, Universität Dortmund. Dortmund, pp. 35.Silas, J 1989, ‘Marginal Settlements in Surabaya, Indonesia: Problem or potential?’, Environment and Urbanization, Vol. 1 No.2, October 1989, IIED (International Institute for Environment and Development), [http://eau.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/1/2/60] (last accessed 22 January 2008).Surabaya Vision Plan (SVP) 2005-2025. [http://bappeko.surabaya.go.id/bappeko/index.php?section=VisionPlan] (last accessed: 14 May 2008).UNCHS (United Nations Centre for Human Settlements) (Habitat) 1997, Global Urban Observatory: Monitoring Human Settlements with Urban Indicators, UN Habitat, Nairobi.______2001, Cities in a Globalizing World: Global Report on Human Settlements 2001, UN Habitat, Earthscan, London._____ 2003, Challenge of Slum, Global Report on Human Settlements 2003, UN Habitat, Earthscan, London and Sterling.UNESCAP (United Nations Economic and Social Comission for Asia and the Pacific) 2003, Overview of the State of Implementation of Agenda 21 and JPOI in the Human Settlements in Asia and The Pacific, Regional Implementation Meeting for Asia and the Pacific, UN, Bangkok.Wibowo, N. M. G 2005, ‘Towards Sustainable Settlements Pattern: Spatial Changes in the Urban – Rural Relationship of Metropolitan City, Indonesian Case Study’, In Sustainable Development of Emerging Settlement Patterns, Technische Universität Berlin, Berlin.WHO (World Health Organization) 2008, People Living in Informal Settlements, [www.who.int/ceh/indicators/informalsettlements.pdf] (last accessed 16 February 2008).148
  • 157. [A-15] THE CONTRIBUTION OF HOUSING SECTOR TO ANTICIPATE THE INCREASED DEGRADATION OF URBAN AREAS: A CASE STUDY OF BANDUNG CITY Siti Z. KURDI1ABSTRACT: Bandung City, a big city in West Java Province, has been developed to be a tertiary urbanfunction. A proliferation of migrants in Bandung causes a sharp increase in number of informal traders,job seekers, homeless and slums, and insufficient urban services. One of the most severe problems is thegap between demand and supply as well as the ability to maintain existing house. The figures that arepresented annually by the housing institutions showed a deficit that is indicated that housingstakeholders’ efforts on housing are not able to meet the overall housing demand. It seems due to mostconstruction more based on number instead of social and environment matters and formal houses canonly be accessed by employees in the formal sector. Rental houses may be a partial answer to theproblem of urban housing. They are viewed as important solution not only for the urban poor but forpeople who are not ready to buy or build own house, are highly mobile, and prefer easy and cheapprocedure. Tax revenues from the rental house are promising, but the records of the taxpayer are stillvery weak. This paper investigates possible changes that the provision of low-cost housing can beimplemented more efficiently and effectively in order to meet the government goal and people desires.Data discussed in this paper was collected through literature study from various resources. The methodused in this paper is to examine the facts and phenomena in the community and discuss the pros andcons of expert opinions and the housing rules that are derived from the study of literature. The findingsare expected to be an additional consideration in the housing sector, so that deprivation in urban areascan be minimized in order to support the existence of better living places.KEYWORDS: Low-cost-housing, slums, urban degradation, rental houses.1 INTRODUCTIONCities continue to attract people because of their vitality, excitement and economic opportunity. Everycity has a characteristic of built environment, consisting of building, roads, bridges and otherstructures. People built cities to fulfill certain purposes, and once they are built they influence howpeople live in them. Cities are center for consumption with all manner of restaurants, shoppingarcades, bookstores, antique stores and peddlers’ stalls. Cities tend to be large when they have a broadeconomic base.Nowadays, the process of urbanization in the world is growing rapidly. Migration to the city, eithercircular or permanent, is based on desire of the actors to get jobs and better incomes, and decliningemployment opportunities in rural areas as a result of the narrowing of both agricultural land and as aresult of the development of agricultural technologies that reduce dependence on humans. Theoverpopulation in the inner city that is predicted to reach 59 per cent in 2030 (UNHABITAT, 2011:3)has caused problems covering unemployment, environmental degradation, lack of urban services,overburdening of existing infrastructure and lack of access to land, finance and adequate shelter1 Researcher on housing and human settlements, Research Institute for Human Settlements, Ministry of Public Works, Indonesia 149
  • 158. [A-15](UNCHS, 2001). That urbanization makes the gap between the rich and the poor in urban areas quiteevident.The shelter shortage has been a serious issue in urban areas in most developing countries, and manyurban people will suffer serious deprivation. People arriving in already overstressed urban centers areforced to live in dangerous areas. Low-and middle-income people construct their own home ininformal settlement on floodplains, in swamp areas and on unstable hillsides, often with inadequate orcompletely lacking infrastructure and basic services to support human life, safety and development. Inaddition, land speculation and expensive house prices also make them unable to have a home. Anothersignificant impact of urbanization in developing countries is the movement of residential area locationto sub urban area in order to get cheaper land.Housing situation in Indonesia is still far from sufficient in number and quality. Conditions of mosthousing also do not meet the requirements. In major cities, housing shortage more pronounced becauseof the high increase of urbanization and the lack of available facilities or the means of housingdevelopment. Sub-standard of the quality of housing is not only found in rural areas but also in bigcities as slums. If the housing shortage is not addressed properly it will get worse in the future;because development in the housing sector should also keep abreast of the population.Bandung city is the densest city in West Java Province. This is reflected by the high increase ofpopulation that in 1990 was 2,058,122 people, in 2000 was 2,136,260 people, and in 2011 it was2,420,146 people or 605,037 household (Central Bureau of Statistics of Bandung City, 2012).Considering the population forecast for 2013, with the population growth rate 1.59% the city willaccommodate a population of 2,950,000 people, and the population will reach 5,000,000 by the year2025.The housing need in Bandung is escalating. Currently, the available house is about 579,566 units andthe backlog is 18,843 units (http://sembilannews.com/bandung-butuh-18-834-rumah, accessed 10thAugust 2012). The housing backlog however, seems to even get worse as reflected by the followingconditions: the increase in prices of 36m2 house by 26%, from IDR 70 million to IDR 88 million(Regulation of Ministry of Housing No.7/2012); the derease in capability of the government to providelow-cost housing by 20%, (Agency for Planning and National Department), about 80% of housingneed fulfilled with self-support housing of the informal sector, and the limited income of the urbanpoor to afford standardized house. Accordingly, the occurrence of dense housing all over the city isinevitable.In 1999, there were 16 slums spreading across the Bandung city (World Bank, 2002). Currently, theslums covered 11,641Ha and spread out in 44% of Bandung regions (Pikiran Rakyat News, 30thAugust 2012). Slums, squatters and number of people living in these regions will continue to increase.Living in slums is away from getting comfort but is guaranteed to live cheaply. Deprivation will nodoubt occur in the region. To these phenomena, a housing observer stated that slums are regarded as adisease that must be cured (Mapalus Manggala Engineering, 2004).In this discussion, deprivation is defined as a situation where people do not have the basic things theyneed to live comfortably (Macmillan Dictionary, http://www.macmillandictionary.com, accessed 16August 2012). Deprivation also implies a standard of living or quality of life below that of the majorityin a particular society to the extent that it involves hardship, inadequate access to resources andunderprivileged (Herbert, 1975). An urban deprivation community has a mixture of rich livingalongside poor people and the gap is visible in terms of housing conditions as well as employmentopportunities (https://plus.google.com/101117901945776883599, accessed 15 August 2012).Referring to above definitions, lack of houses is part of urban deprivation. It relates with what wasstated by Spicker that many of the key issues in deprivation are housing issues150
  • 159. [A-15](http://www2.rgu.ac.uk/publicpolicy/introduction/housing.htm). Further, Sulistyani in Hamonangan(2010) explained that urban poverty can be understood as a condition of deprivation on resources ofneed fulfillment and low access to facilities on the development of economic, political, social andcultural. Urban communities should live in harmony with the environment, and there should be noostracism of the urban poor. This is also supported by the statement in the Act of Housing No.1/2011and Law of Human Rights No.39/1999, which stipulates that every citizen has the right to reside andinhabit homes and life he/she deserves.The question that arises based on the facts is how to facilitate residential urban migrants who havelimited capacity but high fighting spirit of live. This paper investigates possible changes that theprovision of low-cost housing can be implemented more efficiently and effectively in order to meetthe government goal and people desires. Data discussed in this paper was collected through literaturestudy from various resources. The method used in this paper is to examine the facts and phenomena inthe community and to discuss the pros and cons of expert opinions and the housing rules that arederived from the study of literature.2 DEVELOPMENT OF BANDUNG CITYBandung is located in West Java Province, Indonesia (see Figure 1). It is the capital of the provincethat is categorized as metropolitan city. The city has an area of 16,721 Ha consisting of 27 districts and142 sub-districts. In 1997, it has established to be a big city whose functions are governmental centre,higher education, trade, industry, culture and tourism. The functions have developed so that they ledthe city to be metropolitan with over one million populations. Bandung city was populated by2,420,146 people in 2011, and will reach 2,950,000 people by 2013. As capital city, Bandung hasmany facilities and activities to support and makes people feel comfortable to live. Those situationsattract people to move from other places to Bandung. a) West Java Province b) Bandung city Figure 1. Location of Bandung CityStarting in 2005 the city of Bandung was growing rapidly since the operation of toll road that connectsJakarta (capital of Indonesia) and Bandung which is about 180 km in a travel time of about 2.5 hours.The growth is even faster when the authority opened direct flights from Bandung to neighboringcountries. Good access to Bandung affected the development of shopping and eating places centres,education facilities, working opportunities mainly informally. The significant effect was trafficcongestions in the lanes where the services were available.Bandung has attracted the migrants because of the facilities and infrastructure, industrial zones whichabsorb skilled workers, expansion of physical development and economic growth, especially the realsector and services from a variety of sectors that do not require skilled and educated workers. A bulk 151
  • 160. [A-15]of migrants from surrounding the city came for trying their luck to make a better living. People have tolive where they can; so they have to live in unfit accommodation, and they may have to acceptovercrowding. Accommodation covering various grades of hotels, lodges and inns, and various typesof home and simple shelter were also flourishing. This development was anticipated by themunicipality to make the city of Bandung a city service. Bandung city can also serve as a centre ofeconomic activity around West Java.3 HOUSING DEVELOPMENTHousing is necessities of human life besides food and clothing, and is one element of welfare. Besidesbeing a requirement, condition of housing also has an influence on the formation of character andpersonality as well as an important factor to ones work productivity. Urban housing continuouslychanges in terms of function and population structure. Thus good housing can support thedevelopment of economy, social and culture, and environment. However, the ability to provideadequate urban housing depends on the existence of growth and economic development.Socio-economic level of a city can shape the character and quality of life of the residents. Cities withlow socio-economic level tend to generate squalor. Conversely, the city with high socio-economiclevel tends to be more organized. However, this statement can not be happening in the city ofBandung. Even though the city’s economy has developed, housing shortage was not just in the citiesbut also in rural areas.Efforts on housing provision had been made by private developers and the government. However, thebacklog and slums persisted. It indicated that the housing schemes only met limited social strata of thecommunity. The condition gets even worse since the government budget is limited for housingprovision for urban poor. The imbalance between housing supply and demand is showed in Table 1and Table 2. (Ilhamdaniah, 2005). The total construction of new housings only covered about 40% ofthe needs. Table 1. The growth of land and house needs in the city of Bandung. Type of house 2000 2010 2020 Total Simple 366.072 470.000 602.204 1.771.588 Medium 183.036 235.000 301.102 885.794 Luxury 61.012 78.333 100.367 295.264 Total 610.120 783.333 1.003.673 2.952.646 Source: Hilfan, 2005 Table 2. Formally housing provision by the developer in Bandung Type of house 2000 2010 2020 Total Simple 146.429 188.000 240.882 708.635 Medium 73.214 94.000 120.441 354.318 Luxury 24.405 31.333 40.147 118.106 Total 244.408 313.333 401.469 1.181.058 Source: Hilfan, 2005In the inner city, most houses in commercial areas were converted into buildings suitable for economicactivities. This is an attempt to optimize the use of the land and to deal with the high property tax. Thegrowth in trade and services sectors which dominates urban land leads to higher land prices, and theoccurrence of gentrification is inevitable. People moved from the inner city to suburbs. The migrantswere also driven to the outskirts of town to get cheaper accommodation, and develop their place to bethe center of residential, commercial and new industries. A major portion of land area assigned for152
  • 161. [A-15]housing development was converted from agricultural bare land and rice fields. The rapid growth ofBandung has been causing a massive urban sprawl effect to the regions surrounding it.People who came from the city to the suburbs generally had good socio-economic conditions so thatthey were able to stay with a controlled growth of their settlement, and will develop it well. Oncontrary, migrants from rural to urban areas generally had socio-economic conditions which were lesswell, so that the settlements were likely to grow out of control, lack of facilities and infrastructure, andtend to become slums (Setiawan, 2010). Then slums grow in both inner city and fringe areas.In 2008, the available houses occupied 55.5 % of the residential area. In line with the on goingmigration, housing will occupy more than 60% of the total housing area of Bandung by 2013(National Land Agency of Bandung City, 2008), while green areas will be very few. It has become theinternational agreement about the importance of keeping the earth from the damage. The internationalcommunity has put the environmental commitment in the strategy of sustainable development. As aconsequence, all aspects of development in Indonesia should also be concerned with sustainableenvironment. The Law No. 26/2007 on Spatial Planning and the Ministry DecreeNo.403/KPTS/M/2002 on Technical Guideline of Construction of Low Cost Housing are tworegulations that relate to the provision of green open space in housing areas. According to the Law No.26 Year 2007, a city must have a green open space covering 30% of the total area of the city. Then, thecity of Bandung must totally allocate about 5,000Ha for open green area.4 BETWEEN OWNING OR RENTING A HOMEPeople migrate to Bandung for a purpose other than working in the informal sector, such as studying,doing business, working in the formal sector, trading, etc. The data recorded by the Regional PlanningBoard of Bandung showed that during 2004-2011 about 200,000 new urbanist had arrived in Bandung.Other data showed that at each end of the month of Ramadhan (Muslim calendar), residents ofBandung certainly increased by 2%. In the daytime the population was even bigger because 0.5million people came to Bandung as commuter. As a result, the city has a heavier load and might beover capacity.A good city is a city that is able to serve the needs of the population. Then one of the responsibilitiesof the local government of Bandung is to provide habitation that fits for permanent and temporaryresidents. Attempting to overcome housing shortage, the government has launched programs toprovide low-cost housing. National Housing Urban Development Corporation (NHUDC), a stateowned company, together with government institutions were responsible for the construction of rentaland owned low-cost flats. The NHUDC together with Ministry of Housing was targeting to build 196flats spread over 182 locations throughout the cities in Indonesia. The NHUDC itself planned toconstruct 200,000 low-cost housing in 50 districts allocated for government officials. While privatedevelopers have contributed on the construction of ownership landed housing.All built houses however, can only be accessed by employees in the formal sector. This is becauseinformal sector workers are not recognized by the housing schemes. Research indicated that 90% ofinformal sector workers could not afford housing with the market rates (Suhaeni et al, 2001). Becausehousing operates in a market, the people who are most likely to be left out will be those who have leastresources. These conditions make the ability of people having a permanent home become smaller. Themigrants other than informal sector workers are also experiencing the same problem. They had toprovide their own through house options other than owned house. They need a temporary place to live,and a place that suits their needs is a rental house or a boardinghouse. Rental houses can be in a formof apartments, row houses, or single houses with various shapes and sizes. Rental house can be a partof the house occupied by homeowners. In any city, rental housing is an important element in thehousing market for the rich and poor citizens (ESCAP & UNHABITAT, 2008). 153
  • 162. [A-15]When the houses were built, while the number of housing needs is not reduced, this may indicate thatthe provision of houses did not respond significantly to housing issues. This might due to the facts thatmost construction is more based on number instead of social and environment matters; livable homeownership is more pronounced than the ability of people to occupy the habitable house; and the policyhas always focused on home ownership instead of on rental houses that develop largely. In Jakarta, the number of "owned house" was almost equal to the amount of "non-owned houses" thatwere 45% and 40%, respectively (Census data, 2010). In this case rental houses were assumed toinclude non-owned houses. In Bandung, the number of house ownership was 53.73%. It was assumedthat the rest 46.27% included rental houses. Since the migrants who came to Bandung increased everyyear, the percentage of owned homes was predicted to decline compared to the percentage of rentalhouses. For the city government, the benefits that can be obtained from the high percentage ofmigrants are in terms of local income tax. This has been responded by the local government throughthe issuance of the Law No 32/2000 on Regional Taxes and Levies. The Government urged landlordsto register the rental house. Within 2004-2008, about 157 had been registered. On the one hand, taxrevenues from the rental house are promising, on the other hand the records of the taxpayer is still veryweak. The tax revenue collected from them was significant as presented in Table 3. Bandung TaxRevenue of Rental House and/or Building Year 2004-2008. Table 3. Bandung Tax Revenue of Rental House and/or Building Year 2004-2008 (Target) (Realization) Revenue Fiscal Year Tax of rental house Tax of rental house (IDR) (IDR) (IDR) 2004 62,450,000 76,340,000 356,316,833,809 2005 80,290,000 88,570,700 416,004,953,913 2006 95,600,000 105,187,000 461,383,466,762 2007 110,890,000 125,344,500 489,977,564,350 2008 133,324,000 162,986,650 508,632,781,255 Source: DIPENDA BandungThis table shows the increment of revenue received by the local authority. By comparing the level ofrevenue in column (2) and (3), the revenue realization was greater than the revenue target. This caseillustrated that the number of rental homes in the field was greater about 22.25% than the number ofrecorded rental houses. Thus during 2004-2008, tax revenue in Bandung city from rental house