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Pengarusutamaan Perubahan Iklim dalam Agenda Pembangunan Nasional
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Pengarusutamaan Perubahan Iklim dalam Agenda Pembangunan Nasional

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  • Notes: Input Documents consist of: 1. Indonesia Country Natural Resources and Environmental Assessments (CNREA); 2. Funding For Climate Change; 3. RAN-PI, 4. National Sector Strategy on Forestry and Energy, 5. First National Communication Bridging Documents consist of: 1. Strategic Natural Resources and Environmental Assessments (SNREA) and 2. Draft National Development Planning Response to Climate Change
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    • 1. Pengarusutamaan Perubahan Iklim dalam Agenda Pembangunan Nasional Oswar Mungkasa Direktorat Permukiman dan Perumahan Bappenas Dikutip dari presentasi resmi Bappenas dan Departemen Keuangan
    • 2. Struktur Presentasi: Menjawab Pertanyaan: 1. Dampak perubahan iklim terhadap Indonesia 2. Mengapa perubahan iklim mendapat perhatian lembaga pembangunan (development agencies) 3. Bagaimana institusi perencanaan pembangunan mengarusutamakan issu perubahan iklim kedalam agenda pembangunan 4. Kebijakan pembiayaan perubahan iklim dari lembaga pembangunan
    • 3. Dampak perubahan iklim terhadap Indonesia
    • 4. Dampak Perubahan Iklim Indonesia Pulau kecil tenggelamPermukaan lautmeningkat Intrusi air laut Berkurangnya hasil tangkapan lautPemanasan laut Hilangnya keanekaragaman hayatiSuhu meningkat Bertambahnya bahaya kebakaran Bertambahnya resiko penyebaran penyakitCurah hujan Banjir dan longsormeningkat Perubahan musim tanamPenguapan Kemarau dan ketahanan panganmeningkat Kendala transportasiBadai tropis Kelangkaan makanan dan airmeningkat
    • 5.  Terdapat lebih dari 1.400 bencana selama periode 2003-2005 dan sekitar 53% terkait hidro-meteorologi (34% banjir dan 16% longsor) Sepanjanga tahun El Nino (1994, 1997,2002, 2003, 2004 and 2006) terdapat 8 bendungan di jawa yang produksi listriknya dibawah normal Sepanjang El Nino 1997 telah menyebabkan masalah serius terhadap ekosistem karang pada kedalaman 25 meter Ketersediaan air tergantung pada iklim, sementara akses terhadap air belum memadai (hanya 37% penduduk kota dan 8% penduduk desa) menyebabkan penduduk menggunakan sumber lain diantaranya air tanah.
    • 6. Mengapa perubahan iklim mendapat perhatian lembaga pembangunan (development agencies)
    • 7. 1. Perubahan iklim mengancam:  Negara miskin dan kelompok miskin kemungkinan besar terkena dampak paling parah dikarenakan:  Bergantung pada kegiatan yang sensitif terhadap perubahan iklim seperti pertanian dan perikanan  Kurang dapat beradaptasi (kekurangan kapasitas SDM, institusi dan keuangan)  Pencapaian Millenium Development Goals (MDG) – lihat tabel
    • 8. Perubahan Iklim Dampak Dampak terhadap target MDG terhadap kemis- kinan dan target perencanaan pembangunan nasionalPeningkatan suhu Menurunkan 1. Pengurangan kelaparan dan kemiskinandan perubahan outpuit industri Ketahanan pangan terganggu, semakin banyakprecipitation dan produktifi- penyakit menyerang ternakmengurangi tas tenaga 2. Pendidikan dasar bagi semuasumber daya alam kerja, mening- Semakin banyak anak sekolah terpaksa bekerja;dan pertanian katkan kesen- bencana merusak fasilitas sekolah jangan, ber- 3. Mendukung kesetaraan gender danPerubahan laju dampak pada perdagangan, memberdayakan wanitapenguapan, run- pertumbuhan Penduduk miskin sebagian besar adalahoff dankeragamannya ekonomi makro perempuan dan paling rawan terkena dampakmengarah pada dan fiskal serta bencana. menghambat 4. Mengurangi kematian anak balitaberkurangnya penurunan lajurketersediaan air Anak lebih rentan terhadap penyakit yang kemiskinan dipengaruhi oleh perubahan iklim
    • 9. Perubahan Iklim Dampak Dampak terhadap target MDG terhadap kemis- kinan dan target perencanaan pembangunan nasional 1. Perbaikan kesehatan ibu hamilMeningkatnya Wanita hamil rentan terhadap malariakejadian bencana Strategi 3. Menangggulangi HIV/ AIDS, malaria andmengakibatkan penanggulanga penyakit lainnyakerusakan aset n kemiskinan Meningkatkan prevalensi penyakitdan infrastruktur menjadi kurang disebabkan oleh nyamuk efektif dan 5. Menjamin keberlanjutan lingkungan hidupSuhu, air dan penduduk miskin menjadi Perubahan iklim mendorong praktek tidaktumbuhan lebih rentan ramah lingkungan. Lebih banyak energi yangberubah dipergunakan.mengakibatkanpeningkatan 7. Mendorong kemitraan globalprevalensi Forum yang lebih luas sebaiknya menyadaripenyakit peran perubahan iklim terhadap target MDG.
    • 10. Bagaimana institusi perencanaanpembangunan mengarusutamakan issu perubahan iklim kedalam agenda pembangunan
    • 11. Memadukan Perubahan Iklim dalam Proses Perencanaan Pembangunan Nasional Dokumen INPUT Dokumen antara Strategic Nat. Res & Env. Assessment (SNREA) for 2010-2014 NMTDP 2010-2014 National Mid-Term Development Plan (NMDPT) NationalCommunication,National Sector Strategy, etc.
    • 12. Perencanaan dan Mekanisme PembiayaanProgram Perubahan Iklim RPJMN Draft RPJMN 2004-2009 2010-2014 ProgramPerubahan RKP RKP RKP RKP RKP RTKP RKP Iklim 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Pendanaan Masy.swa Peme- DEBT Pinjam-an Hibah sta/LSM/ CDM rintah SWAP CSR
    • 13. DETAIL PROGRAM INTERNATIONAL INDONESIA WORLD CLIMATE CHANGE NATIONAL ACTION PLAN LIVING DOCUMENT“NATIONAL ACTION PLAN NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT PLANNING AGENCY IN FACING CLIMATE BAPPENAS CHANGE” “NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT PLANNING RESPONSE TO IMPLEMENTATIONMINISTRY OF ENVIROMENT CLIMATE CHANGE” “The Strategy of Carbon 1. Agriculture Absorption Potential 2. Coastal and Small IslandImprovement and Strategy 3. Health of Carbon Emission 4. Transportation Reduction” MINISTRY OF SOCIAL 5. Public Works WELFARE 6. Human Settlements 7. Energy and Mining 8. Forestry 9. Environmental 10. Technology 11. Rehabilitation & Revilitation Peat Land 12. Mainstreaming Decentralized Disaster Risk Reduction
    • 14. Kebijakan pembiayaanperubahan iklim dari lembaga pembangunan
    • 15. Climate Change is CostlyMitigation Adaptation Adaptation cost estimate are less precise and will be wide spread, By 2030 the additional global cost of decentralized, and variable across mitigation (reducing greenhouse gas countries and regions. emissions) could be as much as USD  14 billion USD for agriculture, 210 billion (estimates cover energy forestry and fisheries supply, industry, building, transportation, waste, agriculture,  11 billion USD for water supply forestry and R&D). infrastructures;  5 billion $ for treating water borne disease and malaria;  11 billion for dykes and coastal measures; and 8-30 billion $,  8-130 billion to adapt new infrastructure vulnerable to climate change.  Some $28-67 billion of this amount will be needed in developing countries. Source : UNFCCC, 2007 15
    • 16. Indonesia Own Budget is limited: Indonesia is already responding to this challenge in anticipation of the future consequences. In 2007 and 2008, central government spending on environmental programs over 2006 levels to 6 trilion rupiah was doubled. At the regional level, we have also nearly doubled spending to 6 trillion Rupiah on reforestration and special funds for environment and conservation. Together, these funds amount to USD 1.4 billion spent on environment management, conservation and forest restoration. In 2005, Indonesia also instituted a large increase in fuel prices by reducing subsidies that will encourage energy efficiency , while protecting the poor. 16
    • 17. Pedanaan Luar Negeri: Program Indonesia Bersama Donor Perubaha (Country Strategy/ (RPJP, RPJM, n Iklim RKP) Program) Dukungan negara berkembang terhadap Program Perubahan Iklim di seluruh dunia seharusnya merupakan dukungan komitmen terhadap pencapaian MDG’s melalui ODA(0.7 % GNP) 17
    • 18. 3Financing Mechanisms Mitigation & AdaptationBilateral G-to-G Policy Re-orientationJBIC Bilateral Loan Climate-Proof Economy Multilateral GrantDFIDAusAID Awareness raisingDANIDA CC Trust Fund Community-Based ProgramsNetherlands Trust tee GoI hostEC Management TA & financialGTZ & Capacity BuildingNorway managementCIDA support Training/WorkshopsSwedenMultilateral Piloting CDMWolrd Bank Small-scale InvestmentADB Public-private partnershipUNDP Policy ImplementationOthersInt’l trust funds: GEF, Execution of Policy/StrategyAdaptation funds, CIFPrivate Sectors
    • 19. Mekanisme PembiayaanPerubahan Iklim di Indonesia: UNFCCC Convention  Article 11: grant and/or concession…  Prefer to have ODA+ Paris Declaration (Deklarasi Paris)  rasa memiliki (ownership), harmonisasi donor, kepemerintahan (governance),… Sejalan dengan kepentingan nasional dan regulasi pendanaan:  RPJMN  UU No. 17/2003 tentang Keuangan Negara dan Regulasi PHLN (PP No.2/2007)
    • 20. Funding Sources Opportunities for Climate Change: Non-UNFCCC mechanism:  Grant from Bilateral Countries or Multilateral Institutions (ODA and ODA+)  Foreign Loan (ODA and ODA+):  Program Loan: only for budget/fiscal deficit  Sectoral Loan: emphasizing co-benefit approach between development and climate change  Trust Fund (both International and national) UNFCCC mechanism:  Global Environmental Facility (GEF)  Special Climate Change Fund (SCCF)  Adaptation Fund (AF)  Up-coming Reduction Emission from Deforestation and Degradation (REDD) mechanism
    • 21. Funding Sources Opportunities for Climate Change: CDM investment through Bilateral, Multilateral and Unilateral sources PRIVATE SECTOR: We should also look to encourage greater levels of private sector involvement in mitigating and adapting strategies. Government can use fiscal instrument to encourage private sector to invest in environmental friendly technology
    • 22. Indonesia preference on fundingmechanism for Climate Change: Grant Debt swap Trust Fund Soft Loan - concession 22
    • 23. General Structures of Coordination/Dialogue with Donors Steering Committee/Ministers Policy Report Funding Program Steering Committee Multi Donor Trust Fund Chair: GoI (MOU GOI-Donors) Co-chair: Representative of Donor Sub Sub Sub Group/Issue Group/Issue Group/Issue: Climate Program Change Dialogue Ministries/Agencies/ Bilateral/ Local Governments/ Multilateral SOEs Donors 23
    • 24. Terima Kasih

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