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Indonesia Water Supply and Sanitation Magazine 'PERCIK' vol. 8 May 2005
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Indonesia Water Supply and Sanitation Magazine 'PERCIK' vol. 8 May 2005



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  • 1. Information Media for Water Supply and Environmental Sanitation Published by: Working Group for Water Supply and Sanitation From the Editor 1 Your Voice 2 Advisor: Director General for Urban and Main FeatureRural Development, Department of Public Works Aceh Emergency, Disaster Emergency 3 Board of Trustee: Standard Operational Procedure for Disaster Emergency 7 Director of Human Settlement and Housing, National Development Planning Agency Tsunami 8 Republic of Indonesia Imagining the Face of the Veranda of Mecca 9 Director of Water and Sanitation, Ministry of Health Interview Director of Urban and Rural Eastern Region, The Community Must to Be Resettled 13 Department of Public WorksDirector of Natural Resources and Appropriate "Our Surveilance is Functioning" 14 Technology, Director General on Village and Community Empowerment, TPA Must Be Enlarged 16 Department of Home Affairs Fulfillment of Basic Infrastructure and Provision of Access 17 Director for Facilitation of Special Planning Environment Management, Meeting the Minimum Level of Service 20 Department of Home Affairs Telescope Chief Editor: PDAM Banda Aceh, Your Story Today 21 Oswar Mungkasa To Take Care of the Survival 22 Board of Editor: Book Info 23 Ismail, Johan Susmono, Indar Parawansa, Poedjastanto Website Info 24 IATPI Clinic 25 Editor:Maraita Listyasari, Rewang Budiyana, Rheidda Reportase Pramudhy, Joko Wartono, Essy Asiah, Mujiyanto, Andre Kuncoroyekti At ZERO POINT 26 Insight Design/Illustrator: Rudi Kosasih Tragic Story at Lewigajah. Are We Learning a Lesson? 30 Waste Material Management in the Town of Luwuk 33 Production: Machrudin Community Empowerment Model in Water Supply and Sanitation Management Distribution: for Settlement Area 35 Meiza Aprizya, Agus Syuhada Clean Beach and Blue Sea Through GBPL 38 Address: About WASPOLA 39 Jl. Cianjur No. 4, Menteng, Jakarta Pusat About WSS 45 Phone/Fax.: 62-21-31904113 http://www.ampl.or.id Agenda 52 e-mail: redaksipercik@yahoo.com redaksi@ampl.or.id Glossary 53 oswar@bappenas.go.id Unsolicited article or opinion items are welcome. Please send to our addressor e-mail. Dont forget to be brief and accom- panied by identity. Cover by RUDI KOSASIH
  • 2. F ROM EDITORDear readers, SOURCE: FANY WEDAHUDITAMA It seems we are not really aware that ithas been four months we did not see eachother. There is, of course, a feeling oflongingness to be able to greet you onceagain. Thanks God, in this opportunitywe are able to visit your drawing room. Please be informed, that the presenceof Pecik is inseparable from governmentsupport. Therefore, Perciks life dependson the liquidity of budget support. As youknow, APBN budget is liquid in April sothat Percik has to adjust with it. Onceagain, please be informed and pardon usfor the delay, until someday when Percikhas become financially independent. Readers, this time we present you inthe main feature a discussion aboutearthquake and tsunami that devastateda major portion of Nanggroe Aceh Da-russalam and a small part of NorthSumatra. Though a bit late, some newdata especially related to water supply Pokja AMPL is welcoming the visit of Ede Jorge Ijjasz-Vasquez, Manager of Water andand environmental sanition may hopeful- Sanitation Program (second from right) to see what the Pokja is doing.ly be useful. This is our sincere participa-tion in the on going process there. Compared with the previous edition,the main feature is somewhat longer. As usual, we still present to you the lished in English. When the members ofThis is related to the magnitude of the old coloumns. Such as insight, kaleidos- Working Group attended Water Weekdisaster that involved damage to property cope, reportase, info, bibliography, about 2005 in the United States, last February,and invaluable loss of human lives. WSS, around WASPOLA, agenda, and so an attempt was made to introduce PercikBecause of the size and the extent of the forth. The contents of these columns are to the Water Week participants. Thedisaster, we cannot present you all the emphasized on subjects related to tsuna- result, it sold well. A few hundred copiessectors that were damaged and how to mi and its impact. We also keep in mind were distributed. Favourable responserehabilitate them. Whereas, this is actu- to insert an article about Lewigajah case was flowing in. This of course means a lotally a very important matter for all of us in Bandung. This is important consider- to us.to be informed about. ing its significance in the dynamics of Altough it is getting more and more Our discussion is limited on WSS sector waste material management in Indonesia welknown, we never cease to promoteconsisting of drinking water, solid waste, so that it could be used as a reflection for Percik. One of them is through Appro-severage, and drainage. Our objective is TPA (final solid waste disposal site) man- priate Technology exhibition in thethat the readers have a better knowledge agement and that all the basic require- framework of World Water Day com-about the condition of this sector during the ments for a TPA should be met. memoration, held last end of April. Percikemergency response and able to imagine Dear readers, there is a pleasing infor- is also present in WSS related events atwhat it will look like after the rehabilitation mation for us. Percik is gaining more the national and regional levels.and reconstruction. To support the presen- acceptance from day to day even to those At the least, with the presence oftation, we present to you our interviews who are newly acquainted to it. This is Percik, water and sanitation relatedwith the individuals involved in the ma- not only within this country but also from issues are continuously brought to ournagement during the emergency response abroad. For your information, beside in attention. Lets hope for the best.and after that. Indonesian language Percik is also pub- Best regards. Percik 1 May 2005
  • 3. Y OUR VOICE Sanitation Coverage should elaborate the Rating Data with the magazine. Thank you. Rating Data more specified information about sa- nitation facility types and the condi- Wisnu H Wibowo Ive been observing Percik from tion of those facilities. We will revise Lecturer time to time. Percik have always pre- the Rating Data as soon as we able to Department of Environmental senting issues regarding water and sa- gather the necessary data from the Engineering, Diponegoro University nitation. These issues are very compli- involved parties. (Editor) Semarang cated due to the decreasing of our envi- ronmental quality as an impact of Request for Percik humans irresponsible act. Percik subscription is free of charge Ive read Percik December 2004 The UPTD Laboratorium Kese- because this magazine is funded by the edition and I like to comment on the hatan Daerah (Local Health Labo- APBN (National Budget). If you like to Cities Sanitation Coverage Rating Data ratory) of Sawahluto/Sijunjung Mu- receive Percik regularly, send us your 2002. Firstly, we are tend to give our nicipality is responsible for water and complete address via postal mail or attention more on the quantity rather environmental quality monitoring in email. Regarding to CDs that you ask than the quality. In Metro City, more Sawahluto/Sijunjung. Issues covered for, we have a limited stock of it. If there than 90% of the population consume in Percik are relevant with our scope are any CDs left in our stock, we will water from deep wells, but according to of work. We hope that the publisher send it to you. (Editor) our study, most of those wells are po- continues to send us Percik periodi- lluted with faecal coli. cally. Thank You Secondly, the type of sanitation facilities is unclear as there are various Asrul, SKM Hereby we like to thank you for types of sanitation facilities (water su- Head Of UPTD Laboratorium Percik 8th edition that you sent us. We pply facility, sewerage system, latrine, Kesehatan Daerah of Sawahluto/Sijunjung hope that Percik continue to grow to be solid waste disposal location). In fact, Municipality more reliable in quality and published there are some cases where the water regularly. supply coverage is higher than the The publisher also received same latrine service coverage. Thus, the requests from Sujoto SH, MM (Head of Ir. Agus Slamet MSc. Rating Data should be elaborated with Environmental Agency, Sragen Muni- Head of Environmental Engineering more specified information about sani- cipality) and Riau Province Legislative Institut Teknologi Sepuluh November tation facility types and their condition. Board Secretariat. (Editor) Surabaya Arvianda Jaya AR Subscription Inquiry Thank you for your comment. We Staff of Environmental Health Section also receive the same comments from Health Agency, Metro City, I received Percik on a seminar in Head of General Affairs and Human Lampung Yogyakarta. I found the content inte- Resource Bureau Ministry of Environ- resting. I like to subscribe for this ma- ment and Regional and City Panning Thank you for the comments. That gazine. How much do I have to pay? I Program Department of Planology is a good suggestion of yours that we also like to receive CDs that covered in Trisakti University. 2 Percik May 2005
  • 4. M AIN REPORTSOURCE: BAMBANG PURWANTO/TANWIR S unday. The time indicated 07.58 were trapped within the falling debris. The tsunami happened as a conse- WIB. When most of the people A few minutes later another surprise quence of an earthquake at the Indian were enjoying holiday, morning followed. Mountains of water came Ocean. Precisely on the west coast of gym, or a sip of hot coffee in the plundering the coastal areas. The peak Sumatra. The earthquake occured at warungs, playing on the beach, and might be as high as a coconut tree. Mo- the Indo-Australian fragment that enjoying the day with family, all of a ving at a speed of more than 900 km/hr. caused slabs of earth crust below the sea sudden the earth of Aceh and an island Thats what people came to know as slide as far as 10 metres. This is what off the coast of West Sumatra were sha- tsunami. The sudden "attack" crushed trigers the appearance of tsunami. ken with an earthquake at 9.0 on the down anything on its way. Everything Based on the existing record this tsuna- Richter scale. Buildings collapsed. indiscriminately. Buildings, vehicles, mi was the fourth biggest since 1900 and People were fleeing their houses for people, animals, all were unable to with- the first in the last 40 years. Not only in safety. Some were unable, though. They stand it. All seemed to be nothing. Sumatra, this huge tidal waves also hit Percik 3 May 2005
  • 5. M AIN REPORT Thailand, Srilanka, India and several 2. There are no direct accesses from earthquakes or tidal waves. countries of the eastern coast of Africa. which people could reach higher It is not known exactly how many places without hindrance; Damage to Infrastructure people lost their lives in the disaster. It is 3. People were trapped in bottleneck be- Massive destruction hit the coastal estimated 200 thousand died and anoth- cause road pattern and networks were areas. These areas suffer from double di- er 1,5 million had to take refuge. The not designed for evacuation function; saster, earthquake and tsunami, while biggest number is in Indonesia. The la- 4. Struck by boulders or pieces of bro- other places suffered from infrastructure test data record 115.000 died, and more ken construction, equipment, vehi- damages caused by earthquake only. The that 100.000 wounded. Refugees are cles, trees, and so on that were car- infrastructure damage has caused a dras- scattereed in 21 kabupatens/kotas of ried over by the current; tic decline of service both in Aceh and the Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam, and some 5. Collapsing buildings because they island of Nias. The damage covered vari- areas in Sumatra Utara. were not designed to withstand ous sectors including transport, energy The total economic loss, and telecommunication, wa- according to World Bank Table 1 ter resources, drinking water, estimate, is USD 4-5 billion Total Number of Buildings sanitation and drainage, ho- (40-50 trillion rupiahs). Based on the Type of Repair and Construction using, and other infrastruc- Some even mentioned that tures and facilities. This pa- the total loss might reach 7 Number of houses per attempts to discuss spe- billion dollars. This condi- NO REGION cifically about issues related New tion may reduce Indonesian Repair to drinking water and sanita- Building economic growth by 0,1 - 0,4 tion service. percent. Those figures do not I Province of NAD include invaluable loss of Drinking Water 1 Kabupaten Simeuleu 1.863 4.968 lives and human sufferings. The dreadful disaster not 2 Kabupaten Aceh Selatan 3.005 1.440 Based on data presented only wiped down houses and 3 Kabupaten Aceh Timur 2.426 5.077 in "Indonesia: Preliminary other buildings, but it also ca- 4 Kabupaten Aceh Barat 3.191 9.835 Damage and Loss Assess- used severe damages to water 5 Kabupaten Aceh Besar 6.780 30.344 ment - the December 26, supply facility and infra- 6 Kabupaten Pidie 7.368 15.217 2004 National Disaster, Ja- structures that belongs to 7 Kabupaten Bireuen 5.319 5.319 karta. 19 January" and "Indo- PDAM (local water enterpri- 8 Kabupaten Aceh Utara 8.414 17.340 nesia: Notes on Recon- se) as well as the communi- 9 Kabupaten Nagan Raya 2.500 3.994 struction - the December 26, tys. In general the damages 10 Kabupaten Aceh Jaya 2.642 8.714 2004 National Disaster, Ja- to PDAM installations happe- 11 Kabupaten Aceh Singkil 2.804 1.384 karta. 19 January" more than ned in the intake facility, wa- 12 Kota Banda Aceh 20.448 3.934 1.000 villages and cities were ter processing unit, and dis- 13 Kota Sabang 947 3.099 affected by the disaster im- tribution network. The da- 14 Kota Lhokseumawe 2.147 1.058 pact and approximately mage level varies between 10- 15 Kabupaten Aceh Barat Daya 2.849 2.849 100.000 houses were totally 90 percent. PDAM also suf- 16 Kota Langsa 700 1.000 damaged. It was estimated fers from financial problem Sub Total 77.903 119.072 that the total loss to Aceh and especially in overcoming the North Sumatra was Rp 13,4 running costs. The financial II Province of Sumatra Utara trillion (USD 1,4 billion). loss due to inactivated facility 1 Kabupaten Nias 7.890 23.670 Based on field observa- has reached Rp 29 billion. 2 Kabupaten Nias Selatan 4.365 13.096 tion and identification, there Before the disaster PDAM Sub Total 12.255 36.766 are several factors that cau- production in the Province of sed so many casualties: Aceh varied from 20 to 425 TOTAL 90.158 155.838 1. There are no highlands l/sec. The biggest production for the people to run for Source: was by PDAM Banda Aceh, safety; Directorate of Settlement and Housing, Bappenas, 2005 PDAM Sabang and PDAM 4 Percik May 2005
  • 6. M AIN REPORT Lhok Seumawe. Other PDAMs were rela- desinfectant such as alum, chlorine, and main distribution system for areas with tively small, varying from 20-60 l/sec. In assistance for operational costs. piping network through replacement of the provinve of Sumatra Utara only UNICEF representatives in Banda the broken pipes and isolation of the PDAM Sibolga had relatively big produc- Aceh took an initiative to form "Watsan" severely damaged areas in order to save tion. team (Water and Sanitation), cosisting of water pressure on the main pipeline. Shortly after the disaster, drinking domestic as well as foreign organi- water service was in real mess. It was zation/institution/NGO to help NAD Garbage Handling because many of the employees fell victim community especially in water supply The tsunami left behind a huge or members of their families were either and sanitation service. The Watsan team amount of city solid waste. Debris from dead or lost. It was difficult to move will discuss, evaluate, and exchange shattered buildings mixed with plant them to serve the community. As a way information related to water supply and wastes and dead bodies. With such a out, Perpamsi (Association of Indonesian sanitation. big amount of wastes, it was impossible Drinking Water Suppliers) mobilised per- With the multiple parties lending help for the ordinary city cleaning agency to sonnel from outside Aceh, particularly in water and sanitation has helped to handle all of it. There must be other from Medan, even as far as Jakarta, to keep the refugees in a relatively sound parties to take part in handling this. help the situation. SOURCE: BAMBANG PURWANTO "We made inventory taking what the refugees needed most and we coordinat- ed with the extraordinary personnel. And a number of 1 litre capacity water purifi- cation equipment was sent to several refugee camps. We sent technicians to Banda Aceh because we were certain that the installation must be out of order," said Drs. Godman Ambarita, Perpamsi Executive Director. In addition, Perpamsi also immedi- ately sought help for simple water treat- ment facility for the refugees. At the sa- me time, foreign as well as domestic vo- lunteers spontaneously began to make drinking water ready for the refugees. A group of volunteers from Solo for instance, dug water wells to pump up groundwater for the refugee camps. While the Australian army brought in mobile water treatment facility at 20.000 l/hr capacity producing potable water for the city of Banda Aceh. UNICEF handed health condition. During the emergency Moreover, the garbage could not be over 4 units of water treatment facility at phase there has never been any extraordi- handled in the usual way, it needed 15 m3/hr (4 l/sec) cap. to help easing up nary outbreak of disease. One of the rea- heavy machineries. water shortages in the towns of Calang, sons was the relatively good water supply Saefuddin, the Head of City Cleaning Tenom, and Kuala on the west coast, and condition. Agency revealed, that his agency can only the towns of Pidie, Pantai Raya, and In general, the emergency response deal with ordinary domestic waste mate- Peudada on the east coast. Siliwangi consisted of efforts to recover and reacti- rials. Even then, it has been brought to a Army Command operated Mobile Water vate the existing installations and some very limited scale because most of the Treatment Unit at 2,3 l/sec capacity limited repairworks. This was to fill the garbage fleet was broken down. "There is loaned by LAPI ITB. Beside water treat- water tanks for emergency need of the no problem with labourers, though," he ment units, there was also aid in the form tsunami victims especially in the refugee said of chemicals for water purification and camps. Besides, emergency repairs to The removal of the debris was han- Percik 5 May 2005
  • 7. M AIN REPORT Illustrative Garbage Handling Condition dled by the armed forces together with other agencies and institutions. "They Location of TPA Kampung Jawa (3 km from the centre of city of Banda Aceh Space area 12 ha (combined with wastewater treatment installation) are cleaning the debris and at the same Management Technology Controlled Landfill locating dead bodies buried under the Manpower 353 people, consisting of: devastated construction," he explained. 1) 300 field workers The method proved very effective because 2) 45 casual workers the whole area was divided in zones of 3) 8 government employees 4) 40 persons missing operation. But because of its size the Contribution No payment for household, commercial/stores Rp operation itself took a long time to finish. 75.000 per year One month after the disaster the garbage Transport Facility cleaning was still unfinished, all because Bulldozer 3 ea. severely damaged of the extent of the area. Dump Truck 14 ea. severely damaged, 3 ea.slightly damaged Pick up 16 ea. - 13 ea. lost; 3 ea. slightly damaged The debris from various parts of the Armroll Truck 6 ea. all are severely damaged city was dumped at a final disposal Container 40 ea. in bad shape ground (TPA). Because of the amount it Service coverage The entire city took a large space. The TPA which ope- Source: Aceh Natural Disaster Rehabilitation Progress Report rates under open dumping technology D. G. Kotdes, Dept Publ. Works, 23 Febr. 2005 could not hold all the garbage sent into it. This happened with TPA Kampung Jawa, Before the disaster the access to sani- the toilets and septic tanks were Banda Aceh. Besides being too small, the tation and septic tank was relatively satis- destroyed. In urban areas with waste- TPA was also hit by the tsunami. The factory. Based on provincial record, the water treatment installations had these workshop and heavy equipment to sup- access of urban citizens to household toi- facilities inactivated. port the operation were severely dama- let is 76,68 percent. In the city of Banda This condition necessitates construction ged. "It is estimated 10-20 ha of additio- Aceh 95,50 percent of the population in of emergency toilets in refugee camps. nal space is needed for this TPA," said 89 kelurahans has household toilets, 2 Helps came in the form of knocked down Saefuddin. kelurahans have public toilets and 2 other toilets and waste truck. These facilities were During the emergency response the kelurahans are without toilets. donated by the government and some Banda Aceh City Cleaning Agency main- The damage to kabupatens/kotas that donor volunteers. The establishment of tained three garbage handling priorities. used to have no wastewater treatment these toilets have been instrumental to the First, the refugee concentration camps facility has caused the houses including prevention of diseases that are common in where most of the population were tem- any disaster stricken area, particularly porarily dwelling. Second, the market cholera and diarrhoea. place. Third, expatriate housing area. This is to make the guests live relatively City Drainage conveniently. To handle the vast amop- During the emergency The tsunami has made vast areas of unt of waste materials the employees of the city under stagnant water. City the Cleaning Agency had to work long response money was no drainage ditches are disfuctioned because hours in shifts. problem because finan- they are clogged with sediment, sand or During the emergency response cial assistance kept flow- debris. Some drainage network is even money was no problem because financial damaged beyond recovery. This condi- assistance kept flowing in. The fund ca- ing in. The fund came tion has made 90 percent of the drainage me from UNICEF and UNDP. But that from UNICEF and UNDP. ditches of Banda Aceh and Meulaboh are was only during the emergency response. But that was only during out of function. The question is what will happen after To prevent damage to land and out- that. "What is certain is, our job is in- the emergency response. break of diseases the government and creasing with the new duty cleaning The question is what will volunteers dried up inundated areas and drainage gutters around the settlement happen after that river estuaries. This activity became part areas," Saefuddin firmly said. of evacuation of victims from rivers and cleaning river body from sand brought in Wastewater by the tsunami. (mujiyanto) 6 Percik May 2005
  • 8. M AIN REPORT Disaster Emergency Standard Operational Procedure Base Standard Garbage Handling Clean Water : Minimum Supply to Keep Alive 7 litres/person/day in Emergency Condition Minimum Supply to Maintanance 15-20 litres/person/day There are 4 steps in garbage handling: Food : Minimum Energy Needed 2.100 kkal/person/day 1. Preliminary EvaluationAt this stage it is necessary to map out the types Well Cleaning and Desinfection Household Scale Emergency of waste and their influence to the in Emergency Condition Dinking Water Treatment community, including the system There are 5 steps in dip well clean- 1. Coarse screening A piece of clean ing and desinfection after a disas- cloth may be used. It inludes ter. The steps are illustrated in the aeration process. following sketch: 2. Quick Response (1 month)Gathering together scattered litters and managing domestic and 1. Inventory taking of recoverable market wastes. Digging disposal pit wells 2. Storage and Sediment Settling for household with extra land space, This process can kill 50 percent of or construction of a community scale bacteria in one day temporary disposal ground 2. Cleaning the wells from debris and other pollutants, using pumps, and other tools. At this stage it is 3. Filtration, i.e. passing the water necessary to examine the turbidity through a porous medium such as 3. Medium Response sand, charcoal, and ceramic (6 months)Collection and construction level. Whether it has reached 5 NTU of final disposal facility and its m (normal turbidity unit). If not, the operating system. Including the trans- well must be recleaned. If yes, then portation arrangement, manpower, we may enter the following step. space area and community education 4. DesinfectionIt funtions to kill in waste management right form its pathogens such as virus, spores and source of origin. fungi. This can be done through adding chlorine or exposing the water under UV light (Sodis), or treatment with other types of chemical 4. Long term solution 3. Water desinfection using 1 litre of 0,02 percent chlorine for 100 litres of well water Service and Infrastructure Sanitarian and medical personnel Requirement for Refugee Camp for 10-20 thousand refugees: 1 toilet for one family (6-10 persons) Community Health: 10-20 4. Draining 1 tap for one community (80-100 Nurse: 1 persons) Doctor/Medical Asst.: 1-3 1 health centre for one camp Lab technician: 1 (20.000 people) Sanitarian : 2-4 5. Control of chlorine content. If the water still contains more than 1 hospital for more than 200.000 Traditional Midewife: 6-10 0,5 mg/l the well must be people Midewife: 3-4 re-drained. If less, the well 1 school for 5 thousand people Pharmacist: 1 is ready for use. 2 garbage bins for one community Asst Sanitation: 20 (80-100 people) Source: WHO Tenaga kesehatan dan sanitasi Percik 7 May 2005
  • 9. M AIN REPORT Tsunami T SOURCE: WIKIPEDIA.COM sunami is a word bor- ple of minutes to several hours, and rowed from the Ja- the wavelength may extend up to panese. Tsu means har- hundreds of kilometres. However, bour and nami means wave. fishermen while in the sea may not The expression was created by feel anything because the height is Japanese fishermen who re- less than one metre. The waves are turned to harbour and found the under the surface with a mighty area around the harbour was force that will manifest itself as it damaged, although they did not hits a land. feel the waves while in the open The velocity of the waves varies sea. from 500 - 1.000 km/hr. The waves Tsunami is a natural phe- will be piling up when they approach nomenon consisting a series of shallow waters/beach lip producing waves when sea or lake water big waves at certain height and de- moves swiftly at a devastating vastating energy. This explains why speed. Earthquake, sliding of the damage was so severe. earth slab, volcano eruption, Tsunami cannot be defeated. and the impact of a meteoric What we can do is mitigation of its may cause tsunami. The dama- damage. In Japan, the government ge caused by tsunami ranges builds a 45 m high retaining wall to from inconspicuous up to major protect a densely populated coastal devastation. area. However, this still is no guaran- Most tsnunamis are gene- tee because sometimes the waves may rated by an earthquake below reach as high as 30 m like the one hap- the ocean bottom. But such an pening in Hokkaido. While to protect earthquake is too small to cause Protection wall against Tsunami in Japan human lives, there is a need for an an effect to the surface unless it early warning system. On the west is followed with a movement of the earth appears, the initial causes may be earth- coast of America, for instance, there is a crust. When the crust moves, it causes quake, or suboceanic volcanic eruption. warning that provides guidance to the pop- tsunami waves. Actually, through the In the open seas tsunami may last for ulation to run away when tsunami is about earth crust movement that a tsunami a considerable length of time, from a cou- to come. Source: Wikipedia.com Normal Situation Disturbance Coastal flooding Overlapping pri- mary waves Ebbing tide Speed reduction Fault Sinking Earthquake epicenter 1 3 5 Disturbance Propagation Flood tide Note: The forming of tsunami wave. Raising Earthquake epicenter 2 4 Source: Wikipedia.com 8 Percik May 2005
  • 10. M AIN REPORT Imagining the Face of the Veranda of Mecca SOURCE: EXCLUSIVE Y unus is planning to rebuild his tsunami damaged home. The 50- year old man does not pay too much attention to the Aceh rehabilitation and reconstruction master plan. "For whatever it costs I must get back, that is where we used to live," says Yunus. He does not even care about similar disaster that may come at any time. "We live for and because of Allah, why should be afraid. When the time comes, we can die anywhere," he says further in his thick Acehnese dialect. Far away from Yunus refugee camp in Darussalam, Aceh Besar, men are busy formulating a master plan. In Jakarta there is a Nangroe Aceh Darussalam and Sumatra Utara Rehabilitation and Re- construction Planning Team (R3MAS). In Aceh alone a similar team was also established. They worked hard to have the job done within a three month period, right after the disaster. And it was right, at the end of March 2005, the Aceh reha- bilitation and reconstruction master plan Emergency toilets: To protect environmental sanitation, the government built emergency toilets was finalised and signed in spite of many who substantively disagree with it. ture that could immediately enhance b. Provision of assistance and prepara- The master plan is a product of a team Aceh and Nias community recovery tory activities related to rehabilita- working under the coordination by process; tion and reconstruction of housing Bappenas. The membership consisted of 2. Provision of basic infrastructure that and its basic support infrastructure agencies directly and indirectly related could effectively and efficiently sup- and facility for the victims of the dis- and is competent in the respective sectors port the social life and economic aster. such as BPPT and LIPI. The rehabilita- progress and capable of generating Tri Nugroho Utomo, Secretary Gene- tion is scheduled from this year right after the feeling of security from the threat ral of the Association of Indonesian the three month emergency response and of natural disaster. Sanitation and Environmental Engineers, will last till the end of 2006. This will be The policy to be applied will be: says that on average the damage areas are followed by the reconstruction period a. Priority is given to infrastructure and located 2 km from the coastline. The level which is estimated to last until the end of facility related to basic need and of damage graduates. "Some are totally 2009. As far as activity segmentation is logistic mobility. For this purpose damaged, some might be recovered for concerned, everything will be implement- the priority development will be settlement, on some precondition, of ed simultaneously depending on the placed on housing, drinking water, course. For istance, there must be some urgency and readiness. waste water management, garbage cleaning works to be done especially the According to the master plan the pur- handling, and rehabilitation of access surrounding areas, and there must be a pose of the housing and infrastructure to entry points such as strategically drinking water and sanitation facility rehabilitation and reconstruction are: located sea- and airports together because the tertiary pipe networks have Provision of housing and infrastruc- with their corollary road networks. been totally damaged and the water wells Percik 9 May 2005
  • 11. M AIN REPORT SOURCE: MUJIYANTO are out of use," he said. Therefore, according to him, Aceh recovery will need to be based on a grand strategy. With this strategy in place it is possible for the community to develop its own site plan. "The principle is, infra- structure and facility development must involve the community. For as long as the communitys wishes comply with the grand strategy, there is no problem for the micro aspect to follow the community willingness. This will be superior and minimize conflict," he explained further. Strategy for WSS Sector Water supply and sanitation sector is not standing by itself. This sector is an integral part of the general infrastructure development. Spatial plan becomes sig- nificant in the rearrangement of WSS infrastructure and facility development in NAD. Drinking Water Taking Water: Refugees at Camp TVRI of Mata Ie are taking water supplied by PU The strategy for reconstruction of WSS infrastrucutre and facility is insepa- rable from housing and macro planning chosen. First, contracting system, consi- Godman, several donor countries are will- as stated in the spatial plan. For reloca- dering the large size of work to be done. ing to help in the operation of several tion of settlement areas, water supply Second, scattered system, for villages PDAMs. But only on temporary basis. facility must be made available prior to where the works are relatively smaller, "We will support them to get back to life construction of houses. One of the rea- applying community approach. and provide services to the community." sons is to make the place attractive to the The question is, how will the drinking relocated community. water infrastructure and facility develop- Garbage Handling For urban areas, the initial priority ment be financed? Up to now there is no Garbage problem in Aceh is not quite must be placed on rehabilitation and definite source of fund. There is a consi- different from other areas of Indonesia. reactivating the water treatment facility deration to provide O&M subsidy for the Beside the voluminous amount of domes- and its main distribution network, suffi- first year, because the demand for such a tic wastes, the tsunami disaster brought cient supply for the refugee concentra- cost cannot immediately be borne by a with it a gigantic amount of debris. Thats tion, and continued supply to areas not tariff structure. why its handling strategy is actually not hit by the disaster. The Executive Director of Perpamsi, too far different from waste material in Besides, the development will have to Drs. Godman Ambarita, Msi, said that he general. be based on community demand appro- will try to organize all donors, domestic as The handling method will be empha- ach, except for new resettlement areas well as foreign, to reactivate PDAM in sized on community participation where infrastructure development is laid Aceh. "I think it is about time for Aceh to approach, i.e. management effort starting down before houses are built following revive. You know that water service in from its source of origin through 3R the site plan. Aceh is extremely low because of internal (reduce, reuse and recycle) program. The As far as repairwork or construction is crisis. I think we have to take lessons community is directed towards capability concerned, there are two approaches to be from it," he concluded. According to and willingness to separate, process, re- 10 Percik May 2005
  • 12. MA I N R E P O R T use, and collect the wastes. This process ten/Kota budget, grant and soft loan from is expected to generate additional income international organizations and donor and employment opportunity. Consi- countries, public companies (national as dering the relatively large scale of works well as regional), private sector and the involved the transport and final process- The estimated budget for community. ing activity will have to be done by a con- WSS, covering drinking In general the financial allocation po- tractor or conducted by the Cleaning licy is prioritized to rehabilitation. This is Agency. water, sanitation, garbage based on consideration that the benefit is With regard procurement of materi- handling and mikro already known from the very beginning als, there must be a specific policy for and it does not need any intricate procurement, distribution, construction draininage system reha- preparatory step. It is also assumed that and operation of materials and equip- bilitation and rehabilitation will not face land and envi- ment (heavy machinery, geo-textile, ronmental problem because the work and incinerator, etc.) especially when it must resonstruction is some- activity are located on the very place it be imported from other countries. where around used to be. According to record from the field, In terms of objectives, the drinking garbage handling costs will increase com- Rp 1,53 trillion. water and sanitation program is divided pared to it was before the disaster. In the The target beneficiaries into two categories. First, recovery activ- city of Banda Aceh for instance, the ities to the former level of service (i.e. regional Cleaning Agency is preparing are 366.323families before the tsunami), and secondly, itself to procure additional land area at of the cities and villages expansion of the service through upgra- Kampung Jawa TPA because the increas- ding of the facility or adding new con- ing amount of waste materials flowing in. struction. At the initial sage, the costs will be borne by by the central government as subsidy. Constraints Later on the community will participate The existing master plan was develo- through contribution of service fee for be paid from payment of tariff by those ped in a hurry. In less than 3 months. garbage cleaning. who benefit from the service. Admittedly or not, the base data and information used for the formulation Wastewater City Drainage were not sufficiently reliable to produce Wastewater management of resettle- The strategy for the rehabilitation and an academically and publicly accountable ment areas (with or without relocation) reconstruction works will be reactivating and integrated planning product. As an will be done through best practice, such the primary and secondary canals infrastructure planning norm requires, as city or communal scale wastewater through repairworks and reconstruction the preliminary field survey at a certain piping system. According to Nugroho, of the entirely damaged canals. Also, spe- level of accuracy as basis for decision this is high time to build an offside sani- cial attention will be paid on the integrity making, was not met. tation system. of city drainage with other flood control It is of no surprise, therefore, the Just like drinking water, the develop- systems. planners of the master plan took freedom ment approach should as far as possible to call the document as an indicative be conducted through community de- Financing planning. Thats why, decision making mand approach except in new resettle- The estimated budget for WSS, co- must be based on actual and more ment areas where infrastructure develop- vering drinking water, sanitation, detailed field data and information and at ment takes place before the houses are garbage handling and mikro draininage a sufficient coverage though balancing built. Community demand approach can system rehabilitation and resonstruction the demand dynamism and availability of be applied in villages. Whereas in urban is somewhere around Rp 1,53 trillion. resources. It should be reminded that areas the construction works are accom- The target beneficiaries are 366.323 fam- one should not act blindly following plished through contractual arrange- ilies of the cities and villages. The source something simply because the document ment. In the beginning the running cost of fund will be from APBN (national is called "master plan". Aceh does not is covered by a subsidy but later on it will budget), provincial budget, Kabupa- need fatamorgana! (mujiyanto) Percik 11 May 2005
  • 13. ESTIMATED BUDGET REQUIREMENT FOR REHABILITATION AND RECONSTRUCTION WORKS IN ACEH AND NIAS Water supply : Rp 16.929.696.000 Water supply : Rp 192.128.911.000 Water supply : Rp 77.027.568.000 Sanitation : Rp 29.244.376.000 12 Sanitation : Rp 37.742.620.000 Sanitation : Rp 133.057.508.000 Wastewater : Rp 4.453.610.000 Wastewater : Rp 12.572.767.000 Wastewater : Rp Drainage : Rp 4.777.418.000 Drainage : Rp 14.277.508.000 Drainage : Rp 21.736.534.000 Sabang Total : Rp 55.405.100.000 Total : Rp 256.721.806.000 Total : Rp 252.084.865.000 Water supply : Rp 127.561.301.000 Water supply : Rp 108.261.696.000 Water supply : Rp 155.857.611.000 Sanitation : Rp 37.742.620.000 Sanitation : Rp 187.011.376.000 Sanitation : Rp 46.114.884.000 Banda Aceh Wastewater : Rp 12.572.767.000 Wastewater : Rp 28.479.860.000 Wastewater : Rp 15.361.724.000 Drainage : Rp 14.277.508.000 Water supply : Rp 187.603.022.000 Drainage : Rp 30.550.543.000May 2005 Aceh Besar Total : Rp Drainage : Rp 17.444.619.000 Total : Rp 354.303.475.000 Sanitation : Rp 55.507.662.000 Total : Rp 234.778.838.000Percik Wastewater : Rp 18.490.632.000 Drainage : Rp 20.997.776.000 M AIN REPORT Kota Total : Rp 282.599.092.000 Pidie Bireuen Lhokseumawe Water supply : Rp Aceh Utara Water supply : Rp Sanitation : Rp 4.367.875.000 Sanitation : Rp 43.528.476.000 Wastewater : Rp 4.960.114.000 Aceh Jaya Wastewater : Rp 14.500.143.000 Drainage : Rp 66.755.823.000 Drainage : Rp 16.466.217.000 Total : Rp 89.195.884.000 Hener Meriah Aceh Total : Rp 221.610.988.000 Timur Water supply : Rp 69.531.176.000 Water supply : Rp 21.490.544.000 Aceh Barat Sanitation : Rp Sanitation : Rp 7.158.899.000 Wastewater : Rp Kodya Langsa Wastewater : Rp 8.129.574.000 Aceh Tengah Drainage : Rp 19.621.115.000 Drainage : Rp 109.412.071.000 Total : Rp 227.551.741.000 Total : Rp Nagan Aceh Aceh Tambang Water supply : Rp Sanitation : Rp 19.859.392.000 Wastewater : Rp 6.615.532.000 Gayo Laues Drainage : Rp 7.512.532.000 Aceh Total : Rp 101.107.594.000 Barat Daya Water supply : Rp 59.725.948.000 Sanitation : Rp 17.411.112.000 Wastewater : Rp 5.799.965.000 Drainage : Rp 6.586.381.000 Total : Rp 89.523.406.000 Aceh Aceh Tenggara Water supply : Rp 32.576.557.000 Selatan Sanitation : Rp 9.638.696.000 Wastewater : Rp 3.210.829.000 Drainage : Rp 3.646.185.000 Water supply : Rp Total : Rp Sanitation : Rp 25.474.558.000 Water supply : Rp 72.260.630.000 Wastewater : Rp 8.486.048.000 Sanitation : Rp 21.380.352.000 Drainage : Rp 9.636.671.000 Wastewater : Rp Total : Rp 129.695.372.000 Drainage : Rp 8.087.890.000 Simeulue Total : Rp 108.851.064.000 Nias Water supply : Rp 199.713.360.000 Aceh Sanitasi : Rp 67.703.672.000 Singkil Wastewater : Rp 22.553.350.000 Drainage : Rp 25.611.357.000 Total : Rp 315.581.738.000 Water supply : Rp 134.347.808.000 Sanitasi : Rp 41.375.078.000 Source: BAPPENAS Nias Selatan Wastewater : Rp 13.782.806.000 Drainage : Rp 15.651.616.000 Total : Rp 205.157.309.000
  • 14. I NTERVIEW Dr. Ir. Patana Rantetoding, MSc, FIHT Director General for Urban Planning and Rural Planning, Dept. of Public Works “The People must be Resettled”Wsasters? hat is the government plan to anticipate the recent di- I think the government is commited to reconstruct and rehabilitate Aceh. This of course includes the funding. I think there is a special governmentistitution reponsible for handling the after- Can you give the number of fundmath of a disaster. Department of Public that is needed to develop water sup-Works (PU), especially Directorate of Urban ply and sanitation facility?Planning and Rural Planning (TPTP) will If I say it now, it is too early. But theand always actively participate. The most result of survey, investigation and designprominent is usually the damage of water from consultants will describe in detail Dr. Ir. Patana Rantetoding, MSc., FIHTsupply facilities and infrastructures. Water the real demand of the redevelopment.is the most needed immediately after thedisaster. Thats why it must be dealt imme- the field in water supply and sani- What kind of breakthrough thatdiately. Then followed by actions to deal tation development? had been done to overcome the li-with refugees, sanitation, wastewater, and The difficulty is only in the repairment mitations?solid wastes. Those are the rolls of PU. works. There is a lack of local capable man- Specifically for drinking water there are power in the area that we can mobilise. We several donor countries or international Does PU already have a guideline have to hire from somewhere else. institutions willing to help us. For example,to overcome an emergency situation? the Netherlands and Germany. I think the The government already distributes the Plan for the future, what does it government and the people of Indonesiatasks. There is the so called emergency res- look like? Is there any special policy? and other countries are deeply interested toponse. Who is to be foremost in emergency The policy is, the community must be rebuild Aceh. This is the most importantresponse, who is taking lead in rehabilita- resettled and together with it they will be factor in rehabilitating Aceh.tion and reconstruction, and so on. I think provided with water supply facility. Thisthis standard has been established since means their new settlement will have If there is a constraint, for instan-several years ago. water supply facility. ce a fund constraint, is there any anticipation for it? What has been done in Aceh Is it already included in the I am optimistic that the government isduring the emergency response? existing master plan? capable to fulfil the demand. Especially During the emergency response, in Yes. It is included. Master plan descri- with the help from the international com-dealing with the refugees, we have dis- bes among others, where housings are loca- munity. The problem is how we could dotributed water tanks to refugee camps, we ted and provided with water supply facility. the activities in Aceh properly and trans-also sent sanitation trucks. This as far as parently. That is the most important.water supply and sanitation is concerned. Does this mean there is alreadyIn the meantime we reconstruct water su- the necessary input how water sup- Beside physical development,plly installations in Banda Aceh and Meu- ply will be managed? will the government be willing tolaboh. Now we are constructing barracks This means, the master plan will be provide another assistance to makecomplemented with water supply and used as basis for drinking water service the community capable of buildingsanitation facilities. The barracks are ex- development. We have sent consultant its own water supply facility?pected to be functional for two years. The over there. Though presently is still Affirmative. We are committed thatdrinking water may come from various emergency response phase, we have star- all water supply services outside PDAMsources. If they are near a PDAM instal- ted with plans for rehabilitation. are to be built and managed throughlation, we make direct connection, other- empowerment of the community. This iswise we dig wells and build a pumping Can we finance the water supply exactly what we are doing right now. Allsystem. and sanitation development by our are conducted through community em- What are the obstacles met in self? powerment. (MJ) Percik 13 May 2005
  • 15. I NTERVIEW DR. R.Hening Darpito, Director of Water Hygiene and Sanitation, Dept. of Health "Our Surveilance Is Operating"W hat has Depkes (Dept. of Health) been doing duringthe emergency response in Aceh? How can the ammonia problem be dealt with? The ammonia can be mini- Reducing the risk of extraordinary mized through nitrification.prevalence of contagious diseases,through provision of water supply and What more has beenimprovement of water quality. First we done?conducted rapid appraisal. Then provi- The agency for healthsion of water supply and application of has trained 30 sa-desinfectant. Also promotion and hygi- nitarians for Bandaene sanitation extension activities and Aceh and Kabu-water quality examination and control. paten Aceh Besar,Monitoring of water quality is conducted and trained 75by Department and Agency Health in col- cadres. Theylaboration with CARE. The problem with are present-it is the presence on nitrate, though still ly doingbelow the danger threshold. On averageis 14-15, while the standard quality is 50.Then nitrite, also below the standard. The SOURCE: MUJIYANTOfigure is 0,03-0,04 while the standard in 3mg/l. What is suprising is ammonia. It re-cords the highest mark. Ammonia is actual-ly a product of metabolism of agricultural andindustrial pollutants. Groundwater usuallycontains 0.2 mg/l of ammonia. It can reach 3mg/l in anaerobic condition. Over there in extension activities in the communities. back to their original quality.the disaster areas the groundwater contains 4 The extension is done by the cadres withmg/l ammonia. While the areas not affected backup from sanitarian and puskesmas. During the emergency responseby disaster the content is 1,2 mg/l. There has Soon the activities will be expanded to 21 there was no extraordinary situa-no reported toxicologic effect, though. kabupatens. Presently it is being done in tion. Why?Nevertheless, in the disaster areas the figure the refugee concentration camps invol- Our surveillance system is functi-exceeds the threshold of 1,5 mg/l. ving 10 sanitarians for each kabupaten. oning. Once there is a diarrhoea informa- There are also 1.000 cadres involved. tion, we take immediate action to localize Where does the ammonia come it, disinfection of the contaminationfrom? What lessons have been learned source, desinfection of the surroundings. It may come from the sea. Below the during the emergency response In the beginning we were worried aboutsurface it is anaerobic. regarding to matters that already the outbreak of several diseases such as undertaken? cholera, malaria, diarrhoea. But it didnt Will it diminish by itself or what? Water sources were wiped out, and in happen. I dont think it will completely dimi- a short time water was polluted. Waternish, because an unpolluted area also con- supply was provided by NGOs, our col- What are the constraints in deal-tains ammonia, but the content is below leagues from Kimpraswil (Settlement and ing with health during the emer-the threshold. For health it is not a pro- Regional Infrastructure), while we made gency response?blem. It is the community who brings it available desinfectant, that helped a lot. In the beginning the number of man-as an issue. And foreign aid. The existing water so- power was limited. In the first two weeks urces must be cleansed in order to bring it our colleagues from local government 14 Percik May 2005
  • 16. I NTERVIEWwere still unstable because they were suf- improve health status of village commu- government ?fering from trauma. Slowly they began to nities through access to acceptable drink- Since last month the central govern-recover. ing water service. For the beginning 12 ment personnel assigned to Banda Aceh months starting in mid 2005 we will do have been functioning as facilitator. In How was the financial situation rehabilation activities. Then the next the beginning, the duties included every-during the emergency response? three years will be reconstruction stage. thing from spraying and so on. It is be- The present months are the time without The rehabilitation will be focused to vil- coming more selective now, facilitatingmoney. In December, end of the year all the lages where the facility damage is still the provincial personnel to strengthenbudget has been accounted for. In January, repairable. Temporary refugee camed. them in planning and its implementation.February and March there is no new fund. As for the cities, the work will wait till the We have improved their self reliance.The fund is bridged over by the Dept. of spatial plan is completed. In this case we Then we made plans together. We pre-Health. We are lucky we have public owned have requested permission to Bappeda pared the figures. We sent the planningcompanies such as Biofarma, Kimia Farma, (Regional Development Planning Agen- documents to the donor and the centralIndofarma that help us to supply chemicals cy) to be exempted from this require- government. Then together we put theand medicines. ment. The target is villages, the commu- plans into implementation. We were only nity not too heavily affected. In the futu- facilitating them. Though it should be What is the level of awareness of re it includes the communities that were step by step. Including later with CWSH.NAD community in terms of sanita- not directly hit by the tsunami, but was Of course the stages are not as strict astion in general? suffering the effect. We can start with they are with WSLIC-2 project. We have Mostly they do not have sufficient planning without waiting for spatial shorten the process because this is a grantcare about water quality, such as polluted plan. The activity will be in conforma- fund and does not need a counter budget.water. They use whatever water is avail- tion with WASPOLA philosophy, i.eable for daily consumption, but for drink- community based, strengthening regio- What about the budget for reha-ing they boil it first. But speaking of nal health services infrastructures in bilitation and reconstruction?clealiness, drainage, stagnant water all the provincial and district level, also for The grant will be fully utilized. I doare beyond their attention. This will be Puskesmas (Community Helath Cen- not know the design yet, whether theythe focus of our activity. ters). In its implementation we will hire will contribute in cash or inkind. But facilitators, conduct roadshow to the based on WSLIC and WASPOLA the in What is the plan for the future? villages, we making participatory rapid cash is only 4 percent. But the inkind For the future we are planning for appraisal, improvement/rehabilitation must come from the community, such aswater quality control, because it has been of water sources, then promotion and labour. They can do the construction bydone only in Banda Aceh and Kabupaten extension activities for behavioural themselves.Aceh Besar. We are working together change.with UNICEF to expand the coverage of For the reconstruction stage begin- Looking into the disaster do wewater quality control. We have made a ning from the second year, we will build need an SOP?check at 60 control points. WSS facility in villages, both the villages This disaster was beyond our capacity directly hit by tsunami and also the new to deal with. The magnitude was so big During the rehabilitation and villages. All applying community based that made us shocked. Then came localreconstruction stage? approach. Tentatively the locations will and foreign aid. We began to gain con- For rehabilitation and reconstruction include Aceh Jaya, Pidie, Bireun, Aceh trol. In the beginning it was a real mess.stage of course Dept. of Health, Bappenas Utara, Nagan Raya, and Nias. Covering From the point of view of the victims(Ministry of National Development Plan- approximately 500 villages. The problem there was no bureaucracy. Everythingning), Dept. of Public Work and Dept. of is, the capacity of kabupaten administra- was quick. Probably that was the reasonHome Affairs will develop community tion. They will play the key role in the why the global community said that Indo-based water supply and sanitation sys- community based development. And, the nesia was successful in overcoming tsunamitem. There is a grant fund from the go- community facilitator. And the capacity victims. But from the administration side, itvernments of UK, Canada and the of the community institution. In villages was a real mess. From national dignity weNetherlands. The grant will be chanelled directly hit by the disaster the communi- were deeply hurt, they just came in withouttrough CWSH project. The total amount ty is heterogenous. Some are new to the proper permission. This must be anticipa-is USD 16,5 million for a project duration area, and so on. ted in the future. There must be an SOP.of four years. The purpose is to minimize What measures are taken to We have had for smaller scale such as forwater borne or water related diseases and anticipate the law capacity of local drought. (mujiyanto) Percik 15 May 2005
  • 17. I NTERVIEW Saefuddin, Chief of Banda Aceh Agency for Cleaning "TPA (Final Disposal Ground) Needs To Be Enlarged"H ow is the condition of post tsunami solid waste manage-ment in Banda Aceh? What is the condition of the TPA (Final Disposal Ground)? TPA in Kampung Jawa is now used as been quite established yet. Can the Cleaning Agency handle Immediately after the tsunami we tsunami waste disposal. Because of the big all the wastes with the enlargedwere faced with a large amount of waste amount of wastes we have a lot of difficulty. area?materials. There were two kinds of was- The TPA has to be expanded and comple- Actually we have sufficient number oftes, i.e. mud and debris from building mented with new support facilities because manpower. There are many who are will-wreckage. Specifically for these kind of the old ones were damaged. There are ing to work. The problem is lack of faci-wastes the handling was done by Waskita many countries and donor organizations lity and control. It is not difficult to hireKarya, Nindya karya and other public willing to help in enlargement of the TPA. casual labourers here. But, there are onlyompanies under the coordination of The problem is land procurement. We a few who can supervise themKodam (Army Division) Iskandar Muda. need 10-20 ha addditional area.The whole area was divided into How does the Cleaning SOURCE: EXCLUSIVEseveral zones. The priority was Agency function given theevacuation of the dead. Howe- existing limitations?ver, automatically they were Now we have to work ondoing cleaning job because ma- shifts. We have made survey tony of the dead were buried see which areas are producingunder the debris. Utilization of most wastes. There we are con-heavy machinery was inevita- centrating our activities.ble. At this point in time thetsunami debris cleaning opera- Is there any priority?tion is nearly completed. While Yes. We decided three prio-we from the Cleaning Agency of rities. First is refugee camp.Banda Aceh city is back to our The second is marketplace. Thenormal job i.e cleaning the third is the housing of expatria-domestic wastes. At this mo- tes.ment we are being helped byUNICEF and UNDP. The insti- What about financialtutions loaned us garbage condition?trucks because most of our facilities were How about domestic wastes? Thanks God, it is not quite a problemdamaged or lost during the disaster. Isnt it reduced because many fami- because UNICEF and UNDP came toFrom a fleet of 40 vehicles, there are only lies are now missing? help. The problem is after the help is ter-3 trucks left. The reduction is not too significant. minated. With the refugee camps we have a new Is the existing fleet sufficient to duty handling wastes of the camps. There How could TPA be enlarged?handle the wastes? are 22 new points scattered within the We have submitted request for addi- Not yet. What is happening right now city of Banda Aceh and Kabupaten Aceh tional fund on top of the regular budget.is we are spreading the wastes into the Besar. The amount is Rp 20 billion. But we arecity limits, such as Ulee Kareng. This pessimistic if the local government wouldoperation needs a larger fleet. Luckily Is there any cooperation with approve it. Our only hope is the centralthere was a kind attention from Istanbul Kabupaten Aceh Besar to handle government. Actually, land is available.(Turkey) Metropolitan City, that directly the wastes? The owner has made the offer. Butinvolved in handling wastes in the city Not yet. Everything is now handled because there is no money, we have tolimits. Even, finally they are going to by Cleaning Agency of the city of Banda postpone it. I think this is quite timely fordonate the vehicles they brought in to us. Aceh. As a matter of fact, in Kabupaten improvement on waste management in Aceh Besar the Cleaning Agency has not Banda Aceh. (MJ) 16 Percik May 2005
  • 18. I NTERVIEW Chairman of Infrastructure Working Group, Dr. Ir. Basuki Yusuf Iskandar, MA "Fulfilling Basic Need Infrastructures and Provision of Access" W for Aceh? hat is the background for the formation Working Group We went there, we asked the local work- ing group to finalise by working together. Not everything is infrastructure. Less for urban building infrastructure. This is more for public infrastructure such as electricity, Judging from the massive and What agencies are involved? telecommunication, sea--and airport, road, extraordinary destruction of Aceh and All those agencies involved in infrastruc- housing, drinking water, and drainage. Nias, the reconstruction needs a blue tures plus several others such as BPPT Including aquaculture irrigation, especially print to illustrate to the community at (Technology Assessment and Application its primary and secondary canals. Also early large what Aceh looks like. The damage Agency), LIPI (Indonesian Institute for warning system, as a means for safety. was not limited to physical, but also to Science), BMG (Meteorology and psychological, social and cultural aspects. Geophysics Agency). How to reconcile the infrastruc- Therefore it necessary to have pokjas to ture designs between the central take care of each of the various aspects of Especially with Infrastructure and local level? human life. There are ten pokjas. The Working Group, what are the man- I think they are in perfect agreement, all Working Group were established based date consist of? Are they of infrastruc- have been worked out together.We are quite on Presidential Decision. We were aware ture only? accomodative to the regional aspirations. that the pokjas must provide a propor- But we have to keep to the priciple of good tional opportunity to the Acehnese com- planning in order to keep to the spirit of good munity, thus similar working group are governance. For example, to build a new also established in the regions. The spi- facility we have to follow the right procedure rits are equal. Therefore within the infra- through conducting feasibility study. structure working group the ownership Another example, to build mid-island trans- is with the Acehnese. port system, there is a possibility that it will go through Leuser national park. It must be preceded with series of studies covering several aspects including econom- ical, technical, envi- ronmental, cultur- al, and even reli- gious. For ins- tance, an Is- lamic religious settlement, what does it look like? This must be studied in orderSOURCE: MUJIYANTO that the infrastructure reflects the highest valued by the Aceh community. Not to be built arbitrarily in order the problem in the future. Percik 17 May 2005
  • 19. I NTERVIEW Some time ago it was heard that From various sectors, which ment budgets, foreign assistance, grantseveral nations were ready with ones are priorities? or soft loan. All the fund sources will betheir blue print for Aceh. Do they Basic need infrastructures. This explored to make the objectives intohave any relation with what the includes housing, water supply, and san- reality.working group have produced? itation. This cannot wait, it should start I think the blue print was our own. immediately. Then access into Aceh so Do we have any other fund, suchMeaning it was produced by central and that everything could run smoothly. as shifting from a program outsideregional level working groups. I dont How could we start with development if Aceh?think there was any intervention. I think access is difficult. Strategic sea- and air- I havent heard anything like that. Iwe were independent. port and telecommunication must be dont think so. At the most is revision to rehabilitated. These two things must be the national budget. But I am certain this What is the connection between prioritized will not reduce the budget for any otherthe infrastructure development and province.economic growth? All the development needs fi- At least there are 4 objectives to be nancing. Do we have a special fund How far does the governmentachieved from the infrastructure develop- for it? accomodate foreign interest?ment. The first is to support the process There is an indication that fund Personally, I think as a professional.back to normal life. Hopefully, we can requirement is very large, somewhere There is no specific agenda contrary toachieve it in the first two years. Also, to around Rp 25 trillion. There is a variety the national interest. If the vision is sim-prepare an infrastructure base for the of fund sources. We have counted from ilar, i.e. for there habilitation and recon-growth and development of Aceh in the the private sector, community and struction of Aceh, I think it is OK.realm of unity nation of Indonesia. It regional/national public companies, na-means how we could put an intra- and in- tional, provincial and district govern- Does the infrastructure develop-ter-provincial communication and trans- SOURCE: MUJIYANTOport system and network and possiblydevelopment of an integrated railroadnetwork with North Sumatra and otherregions not only for an integrated eco-nomic development but also for socialand other aspects of life. The first objec-tive is to guarantee a satisfactory sociallife. This is achieved through properhousing, wastes management, drinkingwater, road, market. Second objective iseconomic growth. Energy, main seaportand airports for easy flow of goods andlowering of transaction cost. The eco-nomic objective is lowering the transac-tion cost of economic activities. The nextobjectives, infrastructure must guaranteethe community from the threat of naturaldisaster. We will develop flood controlsystem, we will develop early warningsystem. The fourth objective is area deve-lopment, because some parts of Aceh arestill remote and secluded. We will openthe areas to enable them to grow. Thoseare the four objectives we are going toachieve. Infrastruktur rusak: Sarana telekomunikasi ikut hancur diterjang gelombang tsunami. 18 Percik May 2005
  • 20. I NTERVIEWment employ security assump- There is the so called in cash and in How could early warning systemtions? kind assistance. There is a definite me- be operated? What is certain is we assume it safe. I chanism, not in form of money. Then We have established a cooperationthink there is a specific working group there will be counterpart support from with BMG (Agency for Meteorology andthat deals with it. My expectation is, eve- some other parties, including NGO. Geophysics) and TVRI (Official Govern-rything is safe and secure. We want eve- From there the principle of governance is ment Television Station). Our problem isrything in good order, dont we? withheld that money will turn into real now, the facility may be sophisticated and house. capable of detecting earthquake, flood, How far is Aceh community but how to transform the data and com-involved in the process? municate the information to the commu- It is fundamental, especially as it nity. That is why we connect it to therelates to housing. At this time it is not TVRI. Immediately after we receivepossible for them to build their house by information from BMG, directly blockingthemselves. It is the duty of the govern- to TVRI and then announced to the com-ment to help them have a house to live in. munity. This is what we are building. Our problem is now,We will provide a facility eaquals to Type This is where were weak all this time.36 houses. If the house is totally dama- the facility may beged, we will help them with an amount of sophisticated and Will there be construction ofRp 28 million. A less heavy damage at Rp protection wall (escape hill)?10 million. This is to guarantee that they capable of detecting This is only one of the means for safe-have a house to live in. Regarding to this, earthquake, flood, but ty. In such a tsunami what can we reallyit is fundamental that we get their parti- do? Safety through a well functioningcipation. Whether they would return to how to transform the early warning system. When the infor-the original place on not, we give them a data and communicate mation reaches the community, there isfree hand. But with a condition that the the information to the enough time time for them to make angovernment provides them with informa- escape. Thus, in case of tsunami, we cantion about the consequences if the want community. That is only provide means for safety and earlyto return to the original location. They why we connect it to information for the community to makehave the right to return. The governmnet an escape.must provide them with support. When the TVRIwe speak of returning to the original Could you illustrate infrastruc-place, a house does not only have a phy- ture development from emergencysical value, but it also has psychological response up to reconstruction?and social values as well as a long history Infrastructure in emergency stagebehind it. We cannot pull out the values consists entirely of cleaning the debrisjust like that. We have to honour them. and some real emergency costructionIn certain areas we have to provide them such as bailing bridge, cleaning the roads.with escape facilities. For those who How about the areas not suitable This is quite insufficient. At the finalchoose to move, we will prepare a place to for settlement? stage we hope we can provide the realmove in. Therefore it is not a compensa- An area suitable for settlement, what service. This has been achieved. Wetion, rather it is a national duty to provide does it look like? We have to discuss it could say that we have reached 80% offor the victims a place to live. and agree among ourselves. Sometimes, the normal. The next stage should be sutaible is an intellectual interpretation better. This means a sufficient reco- No compelling the community? that is not necessarily true. Oftentimes it very base that facilitates further None at all. The existing values must is too overreactive that we are more trau- growth. This is the process betweenbe honoured, not merely physical value. matic than the victims themselves 2005-2009. If in 2009 the level of ser- because they are more realistic. Some vice is still simlilar with what it is now, it Do we give money directly to the even says that an abcess does not grow at means we are stagnant.community to build their homes? the same place for the second time (mujiyanto) Percik 19 May 2005
  • 21. I NTERVIEW Vice Chairman of Infrastructure Working Group, Ir. Basah Hernowo, MA. "Meeting the Minimum Level of Service"C SOURCE:EXCLUSIVE ould you illustrate the steps concept so that the garbage arriving at the to be taken for water supply TPA is relatively pure. In this way we can and sanitation rehabilita- apply the sanitary landfill technology. Thetion and reconstruction in Aceh? problem is, the design is oftentimes sanitary Actually what we intend to achieve landfill but the real fact is open dumping.now is the recovery up to the minimum This needs a large sum of money. Does thelevel of service especially for water sup- community have the capacity to financeply, wastewater, and garbage handling. this? If it should be subsidized, who will vol-As for drainage, it is an integral part of a unteer to do so. Then the problem is thebigger problem such as flood control and Ir. Basah Hernowo, MA region is suffering from the disaster. Themacro drainage scheme. In the next regional government capacity has beenstage, about one or two years from now, would highly appreciate it if it will be fund- declining too. If it should be subsidized, howwe will increase the achievement level. If ed with grant fund. At least it will serve as long will it be? As for me, for as long as therepossible, up to 100 percent of community a pilot project for other cities. Though it is a subsidy, let the region establish a privatecoverage. But the financial situation does might be of a more hi-tec type. But whether firm or regional public company specializednot warrant it, therefore we set a target to you want to or not in the future Indonesia in cleaning works. So that after the subsidybe better than the condition before the must lead towards that direction. For is terminated the company is capable ofdisaster. That is our target for all urban Meulaboh we havent decided who will operating as a corporate body.towns that were affected by the disaster. come to the area. Because it wouldnt be cheap. How about the extremely difficult About financing, what does it What about the cities that did areas, we might take an interim measure, look like?not hit by the disaster? the communal system. It is impossible for APBN to cover We are also taking them into consi- everything. The budget is extremely low.deration. This is the governments commit- What approach is applied for We have tried to propose to several donorment to increase the development in NAD. WSS development? countries for help. Thanks God, they Water supply development cannot be have promised to help. But it was only Could you illustrate the propor- implemented in the way of private home promise. Not a formal agreement yet.tion of water supply development? constructed by the inhabitants through Up to now we do not have the exact community empowerment. Public water The foreign fund, is it grant ornumber. How many are actually da- supply through piping network cannot be loan?maged in Banda Aceh? What has been developed that way. That is why we have to Most of the rehabilitation and con-obvious is the network. But the number collaborate with PDAM as the operator. If struction budget will be paid from grantof subscribers is smaller because there PDAM is in short of fund, we will try to find fund. We from Bappenas wish it to beare many who died from the disaster. A alternative funding source for them. Such grant fund. Loan should be refrained asquestion left to be answered is whether as Unicef who has been helping us all this far as possible, because loan absorbingwe are going to repair the entire system or time, or bilateral agreement with capacity is quite low. There is indeed anbuild a new one. We havet come to the Switzerland, Germany, Spain, and Japan. offer for soft loan. But let it be the secondbest engineering solution. But we are The fund will be allocated in such a way as priority.going to establish contacts wth our co- to prevent funding overlap. This is of courselleagues in Banda Aceh, Meulaboh and cannot be developed through community Whether the community de-elsewhere. We know that in Meulaboh based, except in the villages. In the rural vil- mand on drinking water has beensome of the intakes are in disorder. What lages it will be community based and is inte- satisfied?does the design look like. We would be grated with housing development. Not yet. As an example, at this pointthankful if there is a better design. in time we are styill not able to guaratee What about waste materials? that water over there is drinkable, since What about wastewater? We have to be extremely careful in han- it was contaminated with waste materi- With regard wastewater, AusAID has dling waste material problem. As fas as pos- als brought in by the tidal waves. Weexpressed its intention to build a sewerage sible we should develop a new system such must first make an investigation forsystem for the city of Banda Aceh. We as application of 3R (reduce, reuse, recycle) that. (Mujiyanto) 20 Percik May 2005
  • 22. T ELESCOPE PDAM Banda Aceh Your story today………….T here is practically nothing that was One of them is repair of the damages. Up safe from the catastrophy left by For the community of the to this time the installation is back into the earthquake and tidal waves of municipality of Banda operation with at a capacity 43526 December 2004. Infrastructure was no Aceh, the government litres/second, but the pumps can onlyexception. The impact ranges from light to employs 11 water trucks operate at 250 l/sec. Water is distributedseverely damaged. The same is with consisting of 3 units as to the areas where the piping network isPDAM (Regional Drinking Water Com- relatively in good condition. subsidy from Departmentpany) of Banda Aceh. When the earth- For the community of the municipali-quake and tidal waves struck the city the of Public Works, ty of Banda Aceh, the governmentcompany stopped its operation. Its office 2 as a loan from PDAM employs 11 water trucks consisting of 3was damaged beyond repair. The person- Tirtanadi Medan. units as subsidy from Department ofnel took refugee to safety, but 28 out of a Public Works, 2 as a loan from PDAMtotal 173 employees are now missing. The company is now facing several Tirtanadi Medan, 2 units from Palyja, and Luckily, the PDAM water treatment facil- problems. At least it needs 5 water 4 units rented from PT Nindya Karya -ity suffered relatively small damage, i.e. on the trucks, chemicals and simple test kit to presently inactive. Water for distributionflocculator filter and crack on the pulsator and determine the residual chlorine content. comes from, among others, a mobile wa-mud disposal facility. As a result, backwash- Based on the test conducted by Swiss ter treatment facility donated by LAPIing must be done more often, that is once Volunteer Corps in almost entire distri- ITB (University-Industry Affiliation Ins-every six hours. Beside that, intake pump #2 bution network the residual is 0 ppm, titute, Bandung Institute of Technology)with 208 l/sec capacity was damaged, and while at the outlet the resudial is 0,6 ppm. in collaboration with Kodam (Army Com-three other emergency pumps were also out of Above all, PDAM does not have any cash mand) III Siliwangi at a capacity 2,3 l /secorder. As for the network, 75 percent of the money to pay its running cost. or 200 m3/day of potable water. The mo-network within the calamity area is in total bile facility is stationed at the intake indisfunction. The giant waves also submerged Emergency Measures Lambaro, Banda Aceh.5 water trucks, one minibus, and 2 pickups. The abovementioned fact must be Besides, the local community can getThis means that all the operational vehicles dealt with immediately, because water is potable water from a mobile water treat-are out of order. And above all, no more dri- a basic need and must be available at all ment facility donation from thevers to take care of the vehicles. times. Several measures have been taken. Australian government at a capacity of 20 thousand l/hr. This installation is run by WATER SUPPLY INFRASTRUCTURE AND FACILITY CONDITION IN BANDA ACEH 10 technicians and 5 medics of the Australian Army. This installation is sta- As built capacity, concrete facility = 450 l/sec = 38,9 million l/day tioned at the Pantai Pira Bridge (in front Production capacity, concrete facility = 435 l/sec = 37,6 million l/day Distribution capacity, concrete facility of Army Command HQ). Everyone may = 250 l/sec = 21,6 million l/day Capacity, packet facility = 20 l/sec = 1,7 million l/day get 5 litres ration. An installation of this Working hours = 24 hours/day kind is also stationed at the refugee camp Leakage level = 50 % Condition of distribution network near TVRI in Mata Ie. This is a donation = 25 % function Total employees = 172 people (142 after tsunami) from PSF France at a capacity of 10 thou- Total customers, connection = Rp. 1.000/m3 sand l/hr to serve the need of the refugees Total customeers, in function = 25.000 units Public hydrants, functioning and the surrounding community. = 8.000 units (after tsunami) Water truck in operation = 46 units Beyond the condition, there are many = 9 units (3 units from Dep. of Public Works, 2 units borrowed from things needed to be done if PDAM Banda PDAM Tirtanadi Medan, 4 units rented from PT Nindya Karya) Monthly O&M costs: Aceh is to be back to normal again. On i. Electricity = Rp.200 million the other hand, the demand for water ii. Chemicals = Rp.150 million cannot wait. One cannot depend on iii. Salary = Rp. 218 million iv. General administration PDAM to be in operation again. = Rp. 100 million Total = Rp. 668 million Therefore, everyone must care. Total revenue at normal condition = Rp. 800 million (with 25.000 customer/household connection) (mujianto, based on report by Dept. PW) Percik 21 May 2005
  • 23. T ELESCOPE Ir. Syamsul Bahri (CEO, PDAM Banda Aceh) "Taking Care of the Survivors" SOURCE: TANWIRWwaves? hat does the PDAM Banda Aceh look like after the tidal Our old equipment is out of order together with the We have requested fund from the regional government, some sort of emergency fund. Almost 75 percent of our pipe network totally broken wa- And the regional governmentis heavily damaged. The total customers rehouse. We are has forward it to Bakornaswere initially 25.000, now there are now working with (National Coordinating Body).8.000 left. And from the remaining num- make do tools and No response yet.ber we still are unable to send them any equipment.bill. The personnel that used to be 173 When should thenow there are only 145, the 28 are either What is the fund be available at thedead or missing. It should be noted, that budget needed for Ir. Syamsul Bahri latest?all of them are now working without pay, PDAM recovery? In March we hope thebecause we pay salary from the cus- Roughly more fund has been available. Totomers contribution. In spite of working than Rp 25 billion. First is, to repair the cover operating cost.without payment, they are doing their job distribution network, in many cases weto supply water demand for the popula- have to re-do it all over again. The second Back to the personnel who weretion and the refugees. We are distributing will be reconstruction of office. Currently missing, did PDAM pay any com-water to the refugee camps. we are operating PDAM from a tent. pensation to their families? Frankly speaking we are presently not in Where is water taken from? Is it possible to bill the survived any condition to pay any compensation. Thanks God, our treatment facility customers? What we had was a donation from retire-in Lambaro is still functioning to supply If we are speaking in the short run if ment fund foundation of PDAM in Jakarta.water to Banda Aceh and Aceh Besar. seems difficult, because those who are The families have been given something. ButOur service area has been expanded survived from the disaster may still suffer we are seriously looking forward toward thatbecause we have to also cover Aceh from a big shock because some member of direction (payment of compensation).Besar. their family are missing, etc. And this constrains us from working full capacity. Could you briefly explain, what As for water in stock, is it happened to you and your familyenough? But is the customers data are during the event of 26 December? The treatment installation has been still available? We were at home, because that wasrepaired as an emergency measure. It can The data are available in our database Sunday. We saved ourselves using anow operate at 90 percent capacity. We centre. Luckily our computers which are spring bed. My wife and two children -are quite relieved by aid from the General located in the second foor are still intact. We one of them was 9 moths old, were safe.Electric which provides us with 40 l/sec of have to recount the actual customers we have But two other children were missing.water. And a mobile installation provided at present. This is one of our priorities. They were then on the steps leading to theby LAPI ITB in collaboration with Kodam second floor. Swept by the gushing cur-(Army Command) III Siliwangi. Can the present production sa- rent they were nowhere to be found. tisfy the need of the community? What does PDAM do beside wa- The demand has not been satisfied. Does this psychologically influ-ter distribution? Because of the extent of the broken distri- ence you in performing your job? We are isolating out the areas that bution system, a big amount of water Very much. But I have one philoso-are now without customers. The pipes flows into unisolated areas. phy: we have to take care of the survival toare heavily damaged. But our main con- keep them alive. Otherwise, there will bestraint is we do not have budget to make What step would you think to no water and many more will join therepairs, including heavy machinery. cover the fund requirement? dead. (mujianto) 22 Percik May 2005
  • 24. B OOK INFO Mitigating the Impact of Tsunami T he tidal waves that swept across impact in the future; third, localize and Nangroe Aceh Darussalam and re-arrangement of new development in part of Sumatra Utara at the end tsunami area; fourth, design and con- of last year should be regarded as a mile- struct new buildings that could minimize stone in looking at the coastal areas, since tsunami impact; fifth, protect the existing Indonesia is a country with the longest buildings from possible losses through coastline in the world. No more will it be, reconstruction and land reutilization victims be let to fall only because of the plan; sixth, take special precautions in absence of early warning. placement and arrangement of critical This book may serve as a reference Title: infrastructures and facilities; and sev- how to manage our coastline and protect Designing for Tsunamis enth, evacuation plan. The principles are the people who live along the areas. The Author: - elaborated under an easily understood Publisher: book was originally intended for tsunami concept and the respective steps to be National Tsunami Hazard mitigation measures in the US. But from Mitigation Program taken. Some are illustrated in simple the sea charcteristics, it wont do us any Pages: drawings. harm if we take its contents and translat- 60 pp What is most important in the man- ed them into Indonesian setting, especial- agement of coastal community, according ly with the fact that this book was pre- to this book, is a clear and definite policy pared by experts from vatious institu- from the central as well as regional gov- tions, such as oceanographic, geology, knowledge about tsunami risk to the ernments. The policy must be compre- safety, and science. communites living on coasts; second, hensive involving all the related parties. There are seven principles for plan- preventing new development in tsunami The final objective is, no more victims ning, designing tsunami danger. First, areas in order to minimize tsunami from tsunami. (MJ) Avoiding Solid Waste Disaster R ecently, solid waste is becoming and as lip service project. an intricate problerm in In- The author quotes an opinion by Prof. donesia. The size of garbage pi- George Tchohanoglous, Prof. Frank les is growing from year to year, but the Title: Kreith, and Marcia E. William who sum- growth is not responded with compara- Solid Waste marized that the key to a successful waste tive increase in solid waste management Disaster material management depends on: 1) Author: capacity. The latest case was the collapse Bagong Suyoto credibility of the decision makers; 2) effi- of garbage pile at Lewigajah TPA (final Publisher: cient implementation mechanism includ- disposal site), in Cimahi, Jawa Barat tak- PIDUS ing incentive to market; 3) significant ing a death toll of not less than 100. (Solid Waste Recyling Industry Centre), attention to recycling market; 4) commu- Alliance for Civil Society for This book specifically dicusses nity participation; 5) sustainable commit- Democracy (YAPPIKA) garbage problems with special reference Pages: ment to high quality of all waste material to TPA Bantar Gebang, integrated waste 182 pp management facility operation; 6) effec- material mangement facility at Sumur tive evaluation of the strategy or selected Batu, and intergrated waste material dis- option. posal of Bojong. But the discussion could Not less important is solid waste ma- be made as reference for solid waste han- ground water, land and prevalence of sev- nagement needs a legal umbrella. Other- dling elsewhere. eral diseases to the surrounding commu- wise, the management will remain poor. According to this book, management nity. From field observation it was And this will lead to a horrible menacing is the main key. Poor management will revealed that, each case was responded in hazard. (MJ) result in pollution of air, surface and reactive manner, spontaneous, partial, Percik 23 May 2005
  • 25. W EBSITE INFO Tsunami Information Centre ous nations to help the victims, including Preparation in Facing a Danger UN-Habitat itself, in the hazardous coun- http:// www.prh.noaa.gov/itic/ tries either as emergency response or http://www.fema.gov/pdf/arey- recovery planning assistance. ouready/areyouready_full.pdf The website gives an illustration of what UN-Habitat would do in the mitiga- tion of the risk of similar disaster. Besides, there is a menu for donor who intends to donate his money for recovery measures. In general, in this emergency measure, UN-Habitat is focusing itself in emergency housing, repair of vital infra- structure especially water supply and sanitation, area cleaning and settlement recovery plan. Health Protection T his website is maintained by http://www.hpa.org.uk/infections/topics_ International Tsunami Infor- az/travel/current_items/tsunami_QAs.htm mation Center (ITIC), which was established in 1965 by Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission, an istitution under UNESCO. UNESCO always main- M ost Indonesians are not responsive to the surrounding environment. This is evidenced from lack of prepara- tains relationship with research institutes tion to any possible disaster that might and educational organizations, civil secu- befall himself, familiy and the surround- rity bureaux, and the general community ings. Even the government does not pro- for the mitigation of damages caused by vide any meaningful share in the effort to tsunami through increasing alertness of keep on guard against any danger. the Pacific countries. Through this website, the visitors may As an information website, the data read a book entitled "Are You Ready?" are sufficiently acceptable. The website published by U.S. Federal Emergency provides real time tsunami bulletin, Agency. It contains preparatory actions including earthquakes, which is updated to be taken by men in a speciifc environ- each time there is an incidence. The visi- ment against any danger that might hap- tors may obtain information about the strength, depth, and position. Some are complemented with post earthquake O ne important thing in emergency di- saster condition is health, especialy because of changes in natural condition. pen and what emergency measures if the danger did really happen. The book presents to the readers sev- tsunami information. The website which is maintained by eral types of danger such as flood, torna- Health Protection Agency presents sub- do, typhoon, earthquake, lanslide, tsuna- jects in connection with post tsunami dis- mi, fire, bforest fire, and other natural UN-Habitat Program eases and the respective handling mea- calamity. sures. The preparedness against a dfanger http://www.unhabitat.org/Tsunami The topic of discussion is arranged in must come from three parties, namely the alphabetical order. Easy to understand central government, regional govern- T his website is maintained by UN Settlement Program and is intended to respond to 26 December earthquake because it is presented in Q-A format. The visitors can learn the characteristics of several common diseases. ment, and the community. Each has its own responsibility. Therefore, this website is quite appropri- and tsunami hazard to the countries on This website is quite suitable for those ate for those who care about a danger, the coasts of the Indian Ocean. This web- who work in the field of community and of cource for the policy makers. Are site broadcasts aid programs from vari- health. you ready? (MJ) 24 Percik May 2005
  • 26. C LINIC Questions can be sent to the editor of Percik Magazine. Contributor : Ir. Winarko Hadi, Ir. Iwan Wangsaatmaja, Ir. Nugroho T Utomo Beginning from this edition PERCIK in collaboration with Association of Indonesian Sanitation and Environmental Engineers will open a Clinic. This column will deal with questions and answers on water supply and environmental sanitation. WATER WELLS IN THE DISASTER AREA tying it with a pail or centrifugal drain pump (the one commonly used for irrigation purpose), or a submerged Question: pump, if available, for 24 hours till the water becomes Considering the condition of water wells in the disaster strick- clear; en areas of Aceh are heavily polluted with sea water that rushed 3. Apply step 2 and so forth like a well hand pump or ashore during the tidal waves, do you think these wells can be engine driven pump. If the well bottom is filled with rehabilitated. What is the easiest and cheapest way to clean the mud, better dig a new well. Keep the distance btween wells so that they can be used hygienically? septic tank to a well between 10-25 metres. Take similar P. Sembiring in Medan steps as the above. In case you cannot do it all by yourselves, ask for help Answer: from volunteer corps, and any available expert especially in Of cource thay can be re-used, but after several practical water supply. steps have been taken: Best regards. Wells with hand pump/engine driven pump: 1. Remove the water by pumping it out continuously till it ENVIRONMENTAL MODULE FOR CHILDREN becomes clear. For an engine driven pump, switch it on for approximately 12 hours (stop the engine every 2-3 Question: hours till it cools down and switch on again) until the I am a kindergarten teacher in Yogya, how could I start with water is clear and colourless. environmental education to the youngsters? Whether IATPI has a 2. After it is clear, let it settle down for one day. Test it by module or anything related to environmental education for kinder- pumping again. If the water is still murky, repeat the garten? I would appreciate it if you could suggest anyone to con- pumping procedure to drain it. If the water is already tact to. Thank you. clear, make the following test before using it for drinking Sri in Yogya water: Answer: a. Colour: colourless, no trace of yellow or brown like tea, etc.; We had once facilitated introduction to subject about b. Smell: odourless; drinking water (PDAM) to schoolchildren. Perhaps this c. Taste: tasteless, no traces of salt, bitter, or brackish; model is also applicable for introduction of environmental, d. No oily layer or thin murky layer on top - test it with a waste materials and other related issues. glass of the water, let it stand for 24 hours, and see PDAM of the city of Bogor once had that program which what happens; was implemented through provision of brochure/leaflet e. In case of doubt, take a sample of the water and have it about water, of course with illustrations. As for the technical examined in a water laboratory available in your town implementation, please contact the PDAM Bogor Public (it could be a PDAM lab, POM lab of the Dept. of Relations Officer to set a schedule for a company visit by Health, water lab of the university, or Sucofindo lab) - young children. the fee varies between Rp 50 to 100.000 per water Another approach is through organizing a greening pro- sample. gram of the school compound. Put a tag to each plant with 3. It the water is already clear, add some clorine in order to name(s) of children who planted it. kill contagious bacteria before using the water for con- They are asked to maintain the the plants up to a cer- sumption. Put the water in a 1 - 2 m3 reservoir, add a tain period of time (in other countries this is called teaspoonful of chlorine. Stir to mix. Let it stand for 1 - "adopt a tree" program). Children are usually quite atten- 2 hours before using. tive and proud of each of their plants, so they would 4. Boil the water before consumption. maintain it carefully. The Office of BPHLD of Province Jawa Barat has devel- Pit well: oped environmental socialization modules for school chil- 1. Clean its surrounding from foreign materials, debris, dren from kindergarten, primary school, secondary school as etc. Then clean the pit. In case of a dead body, contact well as university students, NGO activists and government the volunteer corps, Red Cross, or Local Armed Forces employees. Command to deal with it. Do not clean dead body with Should you are interested please contact the said Office bare hands; at Jl. Naripan No. 25 Bandung 40111. 2. Once the well is free from foreign materials, start emp- Best regards. Percik 25 May 2005
  • 27. R EPORTAGE ously fighting H IS EYES WERE GLASSY. UNCON- among ourselves, go CIOUSLY TEARS FLOWED DOWN or not go. Finally it TO HIS CHEEKS. HE WAS STAND- was decided that we ING THERE BEWILDERED. BEFORE HIM would go. We agreed WAS A SPREAD OF DEBRIS FROM TSUNA- that whatever it were MI WRECKED BUILDINGS. "GOD INDEED we had to try." IS ALMIGHTY," SAID HANDY LEGOWO And the travel to the site began. Not by Questions were uproaring within his mind as to helicopter but by local why the disaster happen in Aceh? "What message is boat. The departure implied behind all this?" he muttered. The officer of was scheduled at 14.00 Department of Public Works (DPU) could not under- hrs. but later it was stand with the incident and still could not find the postponed till 17.00. answer up to now. "Human life does not mean any- The postponement thing, just like chicken and goat", he mused while made us worry again. remembering. Debates among us What is certain is what he saw has made mean- appeared again, go or ingful changes within himself. "All my life I have not go. Finally the skip- never been afraid. That is when I felt so afraid. And per decided to proceed. this drives me nearer to God Almighty," he The travel took 7 hours, the explained. boat finally berthed at the Handy was a member of 35 man DPU task force destination jetty around mid- unit. This team was assigned to build refugee camps night. "We were amazed knowing that the boatmen in 8 districts of Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam (NAD). in the harbour spoke about our arrival. But we did SOURCE: BAMBANG PURWANTO/TANWIR/EXCLUSIVE One of the construction sites was located in an isolat- not catch what they were talking about because they ed area. "When my supervisor said that one area was did so among themselves in Acehnese," said Handy. isolated and that he had selected men to be sent over Upon arrival at the lodging we came to know that there, suddenly it occurred to my mind that one of there area was in curfew. "Thanks God we arrived them had to be me," Handy remembered. safely, when we met with soldiers patrolling the It was true, he was chosen to go to Lamno togeth- street we just mentioned that we were from DPU, er with three others. They departed to Banda Aceh everything was clear and no problem." and had to continue the travel to the site. "While in As we arrived at the lodging we heard dogs howl- the lodging we were continu- ing for a long time. "It was quite unusual." said Handy. When we were about to sleep, new follow up earthquake shook us up. Practically we didi not sleep well that night. The following mornig we met with the security people. In the meeting we were notified that 10-15 soldiers would accompny us in our mission. "From there I came to know that the area was under GAMs (Aceh Freedom Movement) surveillance," Handy added. The work started. The team together with 150 carpenters and handymen began to put barracks into shape. The area is a valley surrounded with hills and was only 1,5 km within the safety line. "During all this time we had to be cautious and always ready to run for a cover in case GAM tried to attack on us." 26 Percik May 2005
  • 28. At last 17 February came. Thats the time for the team to go home after being in NAD since 26 January. They were not going to slip into a local boat any more. A Malaysian these central people were doing over there. They were helicopter worried these new bunch of people would replace their was made position. Later, however, the worry could be resolved ready for them. after some explanation. "As the helicopter took off, we felt At last, the first meeting took place. "We did it out- like being born again," Handy revealed his feeling. side of the building because the building was damagedAnd the assignment to Aceh has imprinted a deep mem- beyond repair. We asked the regional personnel to comeory in Handys mind. The travel made his blood tension in the make do condition. Some came just for sitting androse. That is why when asked if in the near future he chatting. Finally we agreed to start with operations cen-would be willing to return to Aceh his immediate answer: tre and a public kitchen, continued Johan."Better not this time." The process became the beginning of reactivating the governors office after it was left by Governor Abdullah Puteh to Jakarta for a legal proceeding. "Since that time Johan Susmono, an officer of Directorate General for we began with morning roll call. Some came withoutVillage Community Empowerment (PMD), Dept. Home shoes on, or with casual dress. No problem," he said.Affairs (Depdagri), had a similar experience. He was dis- He and his team continued with all the necessaryposed to the feeling of deep fright during his stay in NAD. arrangements to reactivate the government mechanism"We were always worried for being kidnapped and taken to as far down as kecamatan level. For that the team washostages. We were not too frightened to earthquake, but assisted by STPDN (College for Government Adminis-more to the irresponsible group of brigands," he tration) students from Bandung. Together with theexplained. The worry kept on haunting him while he was remaining government personnel the team collected datathere. on personnel and asset and facilitated the reactivation of Johan was assigned in Banda Aceh for nine days. He the government. "We were operating based on the Letterand the Depdagri team were mandated to reactivate the of Decision from the Ministry of Home Affairs. We asogovernment mechanism. In the beginning it was for the assisted in preparing financial planning -because APBDprovince, but later it was found that the Banda Aceh (Local Government Budget) was not yet approved--for sixmunicipal government was also inactive, the job was month period," Johan said.enlarged. "The entry point was we conducted the first Johan admitted that he found there somethingpost disaster morning roll call," he said improper. But he is reluctant to mention it. What is cer- The attempt was made through an approach with the tain is, according to him, we have to help the Acehnese.Regional Secretary, because the mayor was taken as a toll "If not we who will help them," he said definitely.by the disaster. It turned out that the job was not an easything to do. Johan described further that in the begin-ning the regional government hesitated seeing what Another story was told by Bambang Purwanto, Percik 27 May 2005
  • 29. R EPORTAGE another officer of Department of look at drinking water condition at Public Works (DPU) who never the Mental Hospital. It was said that thought he would be sent for an there had been no water for 5 days. THE COMPLEX WAS ALMOST assignment in Aceh. When having "It was indeed in a very bad shape, COVERED WITH MUD, BATHROOMS dinner with his family he received an the complex was almost covered AND TOILETS WERE CLOGGED, STAG- SMS message that he was to depart NANT WATER ALL OVER THE PLACE, with mud, bathrooms and toilets for Aceh. And he did leave for Aceh THE ONLY RESERVIOR FOR THE were clogged, stagnant water all over on 2 January 2005. With a feeling HOSIPTAL WAS ALMOST EMPTY. the place, the only reservoir for the that he would find difficulty finding AFTER A MORE TECHNICAL OBSERVA- hosiptal was almost empty. After what he would need, he left Jakarta TION AN EMERGENCY ACTION WAS more technical observation an emer- with a sufficient provision. TAKEN BY SENDING TWO EA. 3.000 L gency action was taken by sending DPU staves departed to Medan. CAP. PUBLIC HYDRANTS TO THE two public hydrants, with 3000 l Then on land with three vehicles. “In AREA AND THE NEXT DAY A REPAIR capasity each to the area and the TEAM WAS SENT TO TAKE CARE OF Medan we had dinner at a restau- next day a repair team was sent to THE PIPE AND PUMPING SYSTEM AND rant. We thought it might be the last take care of the pipe and pumping ITS HIDROFOR. good food for us. This made us feel system and its hidrofor." bad,” Bambang continued his story. After finished with the prelimi- Along the road we met many nary repair Bambang was asked to guardposts. There are appoximately take a look around the hospital. 80 such posts from the border of which is Rp 400.000 a day on ave- Suddenly, "I love you, Mister. I love North Sumatera to Banda Aceh. rage. In Banda Aceh the team you," some of the mental patients Everyone must produce ID card or collected data on water service said. Besides, there were several any formal identity if one wants his installations and support infrastruc- other funny stories about the hospi- journey smooth. Thanks God, we tures for sanitation. tal and its patients. Quite enter- were succesful in passing this ‘barri- One day, on the way home from taining to remember. "There was er’. inspecting Water Treatment Plant at also someone who called us with Mr. At nightfall we arrived at Lhok Lambaro, Bambang received an Radinal Mukhtar (formerly a Seumawe. "Not much we could do SMS message telling him to take a Minister of Public Works) because over here. We took a look at refugee camps in the Hiraq field and they looked relatively nice with sanitation facility, and enough provision, this was probably because the areas on the east coast consisting of Aceh Tamiang, Aceh Timur, Aceh Utara, Bireun and Lhok Seumawe were not too severely damaged. The govern- ment administration was proceeding as usual, in contrast to Aceh Besar and the Banda Aceh that were severely hit by the earthquake and tidal waves." Bambang and his team had a pleasure to take a little rest in Banda Aceh. They were billeted to a lod- ging belonging to a Public Company. Slept on a cot. For mobility the team rode on a rental vehicle at Rp 1 mil- lion a day, far above the Jakarta rate 28 Percik May 2005
  • 30. R EPORTAGE heli up above the clouds as high as it could climb over the blue sea and turned to the coastline into Banda Aceh. Frankly speaking, it was frightening. Luckily our pilot was an expert in his job," Bambang told his story. While in Aceh Bambang had had close contact with foreign volun- teers. Almost every day there was a meeting with them. The communi ty was named WATSAN (water and sanitation). The meetings dis- cussed matters related to drinking water and environmental sanitation in connection to aid planning, aid mobilization, and other urgent and important matters. "Beside WAT- they saw the Dept. of Public Works SAN during the early stage of the symbol on our caps", he continued emergency we also established his story. Water Tanker Group to take care of IT MIGHT BE THAT ALL THIS Bambang admitted that he had water distribution and its manage- TIME ONLY THE FULLY to be cautious when he was there. ment." The meetings, according to Rumors about kidnapping were EQUIPPED FOREIGN VOLUN- Bambang, were becoming less fre- always in the air. "This was what TEERS WERE HIGHLIGHTED quent as the infrastructres were made us always cautious especially BY TV CAMERA OR MAIN FEA- recovered and the regional govern- when someone we did not know was TURE IN MASS MEDIA. THE ment became functioning. approaching and tried to be nice," NATIONAL VOLUNTEERS, he said. But this did not prevent INCLUDING GOVERNMENT him to move around to all corners of OFFICERS, WERE SELDOM IN Several interesting experiences the city. "This does not mean bold- THE NEWS. WHEREAS, IN happened during his stay in NAD. ness or simply careless but its SPITE OF A VARIETY OF LIMI- There were many, many volunteers because we didnt really know what came over here, to the Zero Point. TATIONS, THEY HAVE PROVEN was going on." International as well as national CAPABILITY OF CONTRIBUT- Bambang and his team also visited volunteers. Their contributions ING AN EXTRAORDINARILY Meulaboh, on the west coast, on a hel- could not be underestimated. It icopter. We saw Lhok Nga city from EXCELLENT PERFORMANCE might be that all this time only the the air. "It was really bad, deeply fully eqipped foreign volunteers touching seeing the devastated plain were highlighted by TV camera or along the coastline, roads peeled off its helicopter. Because of bad weather main feature in mass media. The paving and bridges broken by the the pilot chose to land on the beach national volunteers, including go- mighty force of the waves, but a queer close to wooded hill near Lamno. vernment workers, were seldom in enough scene was a number of Upon landing everybody was to take the news. Whereas, in spite of a mosques were fully intact as if they position with weapons ready on variety of limitations, they have were safely guarded against the disas- guard around the copter. Not long proven capability of contributing ter," he explained. afterwards there was a sign of men an extraordinarily excellent per- One thing Bambang could not moving closer, and considering the formance. Actually we are capable, forget happened on the way home situation it was decided to be back if we could work together hand in from Calang to Banda Aceh on a into the air, and the pilot took the hand! (mujiyanto) Percik 29 May 2005
  • 31. A RTICLE Tragic Story of TPA Lewigajah. Are We Learning A Lesson? B efore we calm down from the the nearest distance from a settle- By: Endang Setyaningrum*) shock caused by tidal waves that ment area is 500 m, it is not located devastated Aceh, now we are on a productive land, and so on. again startled with the collapsing of TPA here or somewhere else. It should be - The TPA is not sufficiently suppor- (final disposal site) Lewigajah, remembered that waste material man- ted with sanitary landfill technology, Kabupaten Bandung that took a death toll agement is not a trivial matter and it is drainage system, such as contruc- of more than 140 lives. This was perharps timely to put it at the same priority rate as tion of cell system, drainage canal, the biggest tragedy that ever happened in with other sectors, like drinking water, collector network and leachate (it the history of waste material manage- road building, etc. was there in the beginning, but was ment in the world. Are we learning a les- later buried under by materials son from this accident? Root of Problem falling down), gas vents and collec- This shameful mishap for environ- The problems of the TPA can be tor network, retaining wall, etc. mental engineering and solid waste ma- viewed from several anglles namely: - The landfill was operated by way of nagement world is perhaps not limited open dumping without compaction, only with Lewigajah but also with other Technical Aspect neither soil cover and was made TPAs especially of big cities where TPA - The TPA is located too near to a set- worsen by scavenging activity which management is run quite so poorly. tlement area, too near to water sour- in itself is an intricate and dilem- The collapse in TPA Lewigajah was ces (a spring, a river), and is adja- matic problem. Besides, the exces- actually the result of an accumulated of cent to a rice growing area, all are in sive height of pile on a steep slope mistakes that have been done for years. contrary to the requirements for a (the ideal slope is 30 degrees) may At the time of the accident the height of TPA (SNI No. 03-3241-1994 on the lead to explosion and collapse. the garbage pile has reached 40 - 60 m Procedure in Selection of PTA Site). - Explosion which is then followed without sufficient safety facility. The standard requires that the mini- with collapse is perhaps caused by Sometime ago the TPA was also sliding mum distance from a river is 100 m, high gas pressure entrapped within down, but it did not take any human life. The 15 ha disposal site was officially built SOURCE: LIPUTAN6.COM through BUDP project since 1982/83 and started operation in 1987. This is a regional type TPA because it is used col- lectively by the city of Bandung, Kabupaten Bandung and city of Cimahi. The emergency measure taken by the provincial government of Jawa Barat was closing down the TPA and application of hi-tec solid waste management. But the question is whether the action solves the problem and whether TPA is no longer needed? Other basic question is whether this accident was solely because of techni- cal error or was it accompanied with poor management? The discussion below does not intend to name a scapegoat nor put a blame on somebody, rather it serves as material for contemplation for all of us in order to revent similar occurrence happen again Evacuation of the dead: An excavator is digging the garbage pile to locate dead bodies 30 Percik May 2005
  • 32. A RTICLE SOURCE: LIPUTAN6.COM - The community as the prime waste producer is not given the propor- tional role in reducing the amount of wastes or payment of service fee based on cost recovery principle, and as a result, the wastes dumped in TPA leads to environmental po- llution. Recommendation Learning from the bad experience in waste material management up to now and to prevent the occurrence of similar mishap as did happen in Lewigajah, it is compulsory for the stakeholders to seri- ously improve the professional waste material management system through: Short Term Refugee: Survivors at a refugee camp. 1. Rehabilitation to problematic TPAs such as TPA Lewigajah, TPA Lembang the ventless pile (minimum gas pro- set at Rp 5.000/m3 whereas a prop- and others in reference to the result of duction is 2 - 5 m3 for each ton of erly done landfill operation needs at studies by experts (at the present time waste per year or in TPA Bantar least Rp 10.000/m3. there is a TPA care team at Lewigajah, Gebang 25.000 m3/ha/year, the - Service fee for waste material han- chaired by Prof. Dr. Ir. Enri Daman- weight of solid waste without reta- dling does not meet the manage- huri of ITB). ining wall, and the high moisture ment cost. The low income was 2. Relocate TPA with compliance with content within the pile (no drainage because the calculation is unclear. technical site selection criteria (SNI canal to get rid of rainwater out of As an example, in Jakarta the com- No. 03-3241-1994 on the Procedure in the pile). munity is charged a high rate of Rp Selection of PTA Site). - Leachate with high BOD (usually 5.000 per household for garbage 3. Prepare a new TPA DED accurately above 5.000 ppm) rate can flow collection up to transfer station-- complemented with detailed drawing, freely into water canal/river without managed by RT/RW (neighbour- technical specification, and accept- prior treatment and thus pollutes hood level administration) with a able SOP. In case of landfill gas the environment. rate varies from Rp 5.000 to Rp extraction, beside prevention of ex- - There is no buffer zone, thus the 20.000), but for transport and dis- plosion and greenhouse effect, the gas negative effect of TPA activities posal at TPA the budget is only Rp can be used for power generation. directly hits the environment or the 1.000 to Rp 2.000. Whereas the 4. Prepare a feasibility study for a hi-tec nearest settlement area. proportional cost component waste material processing as an alter- between collection : transport : dis- native to reduce the amount of wasteManagement Aspect posal is 30% : 40% : 30%. dumped at a TPA. - As is common with TPAs in Indo- - Weakness in enforcement of the nesia, the management is not run existing regulations (regional regu- Long Term professionally, the responsibility is lation, SNI, and NSPM) and weak- 1. The application of waste material given to personnel without specific ness in inter-agency and inter- development paradigm that is no expertise, even as far as truck drivers regional coordination. Besides, con- more pivoted against end of the pipe decide by themselves where to dump trol mechanism and sanction for system, where TPA is the sole waste their loads from day to day. deviation in solid waste or TPA ma- dumping a ground, but rather a si- - Budget limitation. Budget allocation nagement implementation never multaneously with other environ- for TPA Lewigajah management was existed. mentally friendly approaches such Percik 31 May 2005
  • 33. A RTICLE as utilizing waste as source of ener- and fee (managed by a management gy, garbage handling at the nearest institution for transport and final possible place from its sources, and Rearrangement of solid dumping), in order to avoid a double application of sanitary landfill at the waste management is not a tariff image. final processing in the right manner. 11. A regulatory support and enforce- 2. A well placed TPA site (conforms to too difficult and impossible ment of sanction including control SNI No. 3-3241-1994) should be matter, but it is deter- mechanism for any deviation in complemented with a buffer zone mined by the willingness of waste material management, espe- and application of prohibition for all involved parties includ- cially with regard TPA. domicile within a radius of at least 12. Improvement of community aware- 500 m from the site (stipulated by a ing the community as the ness for habit in waste material con- regional regulation). primary solid waste pro- trol since early age through suffi- 3. TPA facility must be adjusted with ducer and the political cient extension program and inclu- the topographical condition, at least support from the head of sion of solid waste subject in curri- there must be a retaining wall (as culum of formal education. necessary), a drainage canal around regional administration. the facility, gas vent, leachate treat- Conclusion ment, heavy machinery, and dirt Rearrangement of solid waste manage- cover (daily, regularly). ment is not a too difficult and impossible 4. The operation of a TPA (sanitary 9. The availability of sufficient finan- matter, but it is determined by the willing- landfill/controlled landfill) on cell cial backup for investment and run- ness of all involved parties including the system basis must conform to SOP ning cost and application of tariff community as the primary waste material (Standard Operation and Pro- system that, step by step, leads to producer and the political support from the cedure). full cost recovery. head of regional administration. With all the 5. For big/metropolitan cities where 10. Establishment of a definite regula- serious willingness from the stakeholders land space is quite limited, serious tion on the mechanism and amount and learning from the experience, bad as effort must be exerted to find an of contribution (managed by the well as good, let all the bad cease with the alternative method such as hi-tec community for garbage collection) TPA Lewigajah tragedy. solid waste processing in accordance with the characteristics of the wastes SOURCE: LIPUTAN6.COM (must be preceded with a feasibiliy study). 6. It is necessary to develop a national level scenario for a regional TPA in order to avoid inter-regional con- flict. 7. Promote 3R principle step by step through separation and processing of wastes right at its place of origin by way of development of environ- mental fora (similar to the one in Banjar Sari, Jakarta Selatan, initiat- ed by Mrs. Bambang) and must be integrated with its collection and transport. 8. Establishment of a support from an institution with sufficient authority and manpower capacity in waste material management. Unmanaged: As an impact of Leuwigajah tragedy. 32 Percik May 2005
  • 34. A RTICLE Solid Waste Management in the Town of Luwuk By: Ir. I Wayan Sugita, M.Si.1 ) Suranto Saida, ST, MT.2) ABSTRACT section. For this purpose the Agency The solid waste management policy in the municipality of Luwuk should take some improvement mea- of today and in the future must change, considering the physical and non-physical sures, such as: environment changes, characteristic of the pollutant, and improvement of welfare - Improve coordination with other of the community.This is in line with Kabupaten Banggai Strategy Plan 2001-2005 related agencies such as Public Works, PLN (state owned electricity which stresses the need for a quality and sustainable environmental company)/PDAM (local govern- management program.In looking forward to the changes as they relate ment owned-water company), to regional autonomy and development of industrial area in Kabupaten Banggai, LKMD (village level community the changes will be oriented to organization and management, organization) and private sector, as operating system, funding, regulation and rule, and necessary. community participation - Improvement of human resources capacity. Put them into trainingIntroduction community service through additional courses that could improve theirT he municipality of Luwuk is the fleet and personnel. Once this kind of performance. capital town of Kabupaten (dis- effort resulted the municipality won - Extension program and training to trict level administration) Bang- Adipura Award in 1997. But the condi- the community particularly on howgai, province of Sulawesi Tengah. The tion did not last, the abrupt change in to go about with their waste materi-province is located at 122°23² - 125°30² development priority has caused the poli- al, in best manner as possible.East and 0°30² - 3²20² South. The town cy on waste material management neglec-is built on a narrow strip of plain close to ted. Now, we can easily find piles of gar- Operating Sytemthe seashore. It is natuarlly a beautiful bage unattended. Garbage containment by the commu-place, especially during the night. The The problem of waste material man- nity is still limited, transport fleet is notmunicipality commands an area of agement in Luwuk is identical with other enough, limited number of transfer sta-399,60 km2 and is divided into 18 kelura- towns and cities in Indonesia, notably tions, and service capacity. From thehans (village level administration). In increasing amount of garbage, insuffi- total of 18 kelurahans in Luwuk only 9 of2004 it has a total population of 70.144 cient transport fleet, insufficient number them are covered by the service.with an annual growth rate at 1,84 per- of transfer stations, difficulty to collectcent. It is estimated that by 2010 the total waste that are piling in narrow alleys, and 1. ContainmentLuwuk population will become 77.367. lack of community awareness to pay con- - Garbage container must be made of If we assume that each household tribution. There are several aspects that durable material, e.g. used car tyre;consists of 5 heads, then there are more call for improvement if Luwuk is to pro- - It must be nicely designed to add tothen 14 thousand households. Suppose perly manage its waste material, namely environmental beauty;that in one day each person disposes 2,5 organization and management, technical - It should be properly covered tolitres of waste material into the environ- operation, financing, law and regulation, prevent spreading of diseases;ment, then 175 m3 of household waste is and community participation. - For easy transport, the waste mate-produced each day in Luwuk. Together rial should be separated the wetwith other sources the total waste pro- Organization and Management from the dry. This also makes itduction of the municipality comes up to The Regional Agency for Settlement easier for those who re-cycle the240 m3 per day. Of this amount the man- and Urban Planning of Kabupaten material, such as the compostagement could handle only up to 42 per- Banggai is the responsible agency for industry.cent. waste material management puts the This condition has urged the govern- actual implementation to one section. 2. Collection and Transportment to look for other ways for improving This is too big a task for that particular The total number of personnel at 93 is Percik 33 May 2005
  • 35. A RTICLE Table 1 tion. This level must also be reconsidered facility, not into river/drainage; Waste Material Handling Equipement taking into account the increase of fuel - Giving more responsibility to RT/RW and Facility Requirement, 2004 price and other line items of the opera- (neighbourhood level administration) Equipment Capacity (m3) Quantity tional cost. institution in planning implementa- 0,04 10.220 Buah tion of waste material handling inGarbage Bin Law and Regulation their respective territory;Hauling Cart 1 240 Buah Bupati (mayor of Kabupaten) Decree - Improvement of community aware-Transfer Station, Type A 3 48 Buah No. 54/2000 on solid waste management ness that management fee collectedTransfer Station, Type B 2 32 Buah fee has not been properly put into effect. from them will go back to them in theContainer 6 7 Unit The tariff levied to the community is form of a better cleaning service.Dump Truck 6 6 Unit below the amount stated in RegionalPick up 3 6 Unit Government Regulation No. 5/2000 and ConclusionArm Roll Truck 6 1 Unit Budget Plan 2004. - The measures to be taken to improve The tariff and sanction for deviation waste material management performance The list does not include bulldozer for the from the government regulation should in the municipaility of Luwuk consist of final disposal ground be solved by revision of the respective the following: articles of the said regulation. Pending 1. Integrating management programconsidered sufficient. But the fleet which con- the issuance of the revision, a letter of of the Regional Agency forsists of 1 pickup, 7 dump trucks and 6 conta- decision from the Bupati could serve the Settlement and Urban Managementiners is not enough. The ideal number of purpose in the meantime. with other related agencies;equipment required is listed in table 1 below. 2. Revision to Regional Regulation No. Community Participation 5/2000. The tariff should be deter-3. Final Disposal There are still many who dispose of mined commensurate to current Municipality of Luwuk has built a con- their waste carelessly, littering all over the realistic operational cost;trolled landfill disposal ground at the vi- place like an empty lot, river, drainage, 3. Budget allocation for waste materalllage of Bubung. Sice the facility is built and the beaches. And additionally, they management should be increased toon calcareous soil a leachate drainage has are neglectful in paying their obligation an ideal level. This is necessary for:been laid in order to prevent the liquid for cleaning and waste material manage- - additional transport facilityfrom entering the porous soil and pollu- ment fee. - more transport rounds pervehi-ting the surrounding groundwater, parti- Community participation can be cle (consequently also more labour-cularly during rainy weather. A control increased through: ers).pit has also been prepared for sample ta- - Extension program to build awareness 4. Placement of temporary stationsking periodically once in 3 months. and habit of placing waste in a specific and final disposal ground in consideration of efficiencyFinancing SOURCE: INDOMEDIA.COM and radius of service area; The financing of waste material 5. Improvement of communitymanagement is obtained from go- participatiin through involve-vernment subsidy amounted to 5-10 ment of RT/RW istitution inpercent of the total APBD (regional planning, implementationgovernment budget). But in the real and supervision.fact is the subsidy is only 1 percent of Section Chief, Physical 1)the APBD. The outcome is com- and Infrastructuremunity contribution does not meet Development, Bappedathe target and the management is Kabupaten Banggai,always in shortage of running cost. In Central of Sulawesithe meantime, there is no alternative 2) Staff, Bappeda Kabupatensource of income. Therefore the serv- Banggai, Central ofice fee must be levied in compliance Sulawesiwith the regional government regula- Citys garbage: City garbage is still a problem. 34 Percik May 2005
  • 36. A RTICLE Community Empowerment Model in Water Supply and Sanitation Management for Settlement Area D rinking water and healthy envi- By: Hariman areas and also in villages, there are seve- ronment are basic needs for hu- ral models being offered: man being. Without water it is Winner II, article writing competition on impossible for human being to live and do Water Supply and Sanitation Management A. Participatory Model his daily activity. Drinking water is a so- This model is developed on a premise urce of energy for man and other living management for the rural and urban that without participation of those in- creatures. Beside water, man also needs community are conducted in different volved, any problem faced by the commu- healthy environment. Without hygienic approaches, depending on the roots of nity will eventually meet with a barrier environment, man will suffer from illness the problem. Community empowerment while a solution is being sought. This mo- physically, and even mentally, such as effort towards healthy settlement area is del is very instrumental in solving a com- mental stress due to garbage piling up the best effort to be undertaken in order mon problem because of its highly demo- and polluted groundwater. to develop a community who cares to cratic approach, taking into account the Considering the importance of drink- environment. Awareness to the impor- differences in individual capacity and ing water and healthy environment to tance of environment is athe strategic interests, so there is a mutual compensa- human life. phase that must be developed in a well tion among each other. A mutually Many attempts have been made by planned, focused, systematic, sustainable agreed vision and mission is developed the community and the government to and comprehensive manner. through a discussion to reach a meeting maintain it, quantitatively and qualita- Education for building awareness of minds about the real problem being tively. In the meantime, a sustainable must start from the lowest group. faced. In so doing, any destructive activi- pleasant environment is advantageous to Building a common comprehension that ty by a member of the community can be the sustainability of water supply. environment belongs to everyone and prevented through a previously deter- To guarantee water supply and envi- everyone needs it. A need that must be mined agreement about one specific case, ronment sanitation service it is necessary fulfilled through a common effort. and thus it could be anticipated before to in invite the participation of the whole Based on the above discussion, the anyone started an action. How could we community. The community as consu- author attempts to present the readers apply this model for drinking water and mers, is morally obliged to sustain the with Community Empowerment Model in environmental sanitation management? availability of drinking water service Water Supply and Sanitation Manage- First, we have to invite all the involved maintain the support of environmental ment for Settlement Area. This article is parties into a discussion to discuss issues sanitation system. The community re- written based on the authors opinion and and problems that might develop from serves the right to get drinking water personal observation in the field about poor drinking water and environmental therefore it is obliged to keep and main- management of issues related to drinking sanitation in a settlement area. Begin- tain it in the best manner possible. water and environmental sanitation. ning from the smallest unit, or RT/RW Similarly with healthy environment, the (neighbourhood level administration) of community has the right to inhale fresh Community Empowerment Models a village. As far as possible all the respon- air and take drinkable water. Drinking water and environmental sible authorities invited to the meeting. Although the community knows for sanitation management should be appro- The meeting discusses in detail all the sure that drinking water and healthy ached through empowerment of the com- priority problems related to drinking environment are basic needs, they do not munity, the so called empowerment water and environmental sanitation. The directly take the initiative to do the best model. This model is understood as an conclusion wraps-up the deliberation into to prevent pollution to water resources. imitation or abstraction of an extremely a clearly stated and specified problem for- Therefore, the community must be complex reality in order to understand mulation. strengthened and awakened its con- and simplify a specific systematic. Consi- Second, problem solution through a science. dering the extent and intricacy of issues common effort. If a certain housing com- The strategy for empowerment of involved in water supply and environ- plex has no drinking water facility the drinking water and heathy environment mental sanitation, especially in urban community must work together to build Percik 35 May 2005
  • 37. A RTICLEit. Contribution of materials and labour interested parties. gram. There is a strong relationship bet-as well as collection of common fund for Second, special training on drinking ween hygiene behaviour with economicconstructing a reservoir. The community water and environmental sanitation. condition. Poor community spend moretakes turns in the operation and mainte- Informal training and education is direct- time to earn a living than improving theirnance. In case the fund is not enough, the ed to improve the community knowledge home condition. Poverty makes man in-community can work together with other and capacity in developing and maintain- different to hygiene behaviour.community, or if necessary to submit a ing water supply and environment sanita- Third, integration and harmonizing ofrequest to the government. But this is tion. The training can be undertaken step social and cultural development. Any cul-done as the last recourse. This is to imply by step, group by group and followed turally related activity can be used as athat the community must work hard in immediately with field application. means to communicate the need for afulfilling its own need without depending Third, monitoring, evaluation and healthy home environment. For instance,too much on the government. promotion of hygienic life. Monitoring rowing competition for those who live Third, sustain a good habit and take and evaluation is the logical follow-up to near a river.initiative. The habit of finding solution to see how big is the influence of extension, Fourth, integration of communitya common problem such as poor water information dissemination, education health and environmental sanitation pro-supply and environmental sanitation and training upon change of behaviour. grams. Health program and eradicationmust be sustained in order to create a This activity is a slightly coercive aware- of enviromentally related diseases, suchstrong self-initiative from within each ness building format. as malaria, diarrhoea, cholera, infectionindividual. It could be realized through Fourth, strengthening the water sup- to upper respiratory track, TBC, etc. cangiving example one another, and make ply and environmental sanitation man- be conducted as an integral part withappreciation to a famility with an ever agement institution. This step is taken to environmental sanitation, through a com-clean home, garden and environment. complement other awareness develop- munity campaign to drain, bury and coverInternal communication and extension ment steps. The institution can be estab- program and garbage cleaning.activities by its leader, community figure, lished with members consisting of com- Fifth, increased woman involvement.head of RT/RW, village headman, camat munity leaders, and other capable indi- Empowerment of women is inseparablemust be undertaken as a regular agenda. viduals to run the management of a water from the effort to solve water supply and supply and environmental sanitation enironmental sanitation problem. Wo-B. Awareness and Capacity Building facility. men must be actively involved becauseModels they are the ones who are directly related Awareness model in another strategic C. Systemic Model to water supply and environmerntal sani-step beside participatory. Awareness will Water supply and environmental sa- tation problem.motivate the community to take a definite nitation cannot always be solved solely byaction to solve its problem. Problems like the inhabitants. Many other parties may Phases and Steps in Communitypoor environment, non hygienic water have to get involved. In this connection Empowermentsupply, and disregarding environmental the following should be taken into serious Community empowerment must bedisease all come from lack of awareness. consideration: conducted in phases, well planned sys-To grow awareness and strengthen the First, regional infrastructure and set- tematic and sustainable, since the com-community needs the following efforts: tlement systems development policy and munity is dynamically changing that First, extensive extension and infor- regional spatial planning. The emergence influences their inter-relationship pat-mation dissemination. The community of problem related to settlement area is tern. Togetherness is a basic capital thatmust be educated on the importance of inseparable from the effect of inconsistent must be grown for empowerment pur-drinking water and environmental sanita- policy between the guidelines and field pose.tion through direct extension activity and implementation. Therefore, each time In an urban settlement consisting ofdissemination of information, oral and there is a housing development and rear- individuals with varied background,written as well as audio visual media. The rangement of the settlement there is a social status, income level, educationextension activity can be organized in need to strictly enforcement of environ- level, ethnic group, religion and so on,integrated manner by regional agency for mentally feasible standard combined with community empowerment must be plan-health, puskesmas (community health regional spatial planning. ned after taking a close observation andcentre), camat (head of subdistrict admi- Second, integration of economic em- analysis of the actual need. A consolida-nistration), village headman, and other powerment sanitation development pro- ted social relationship through various 36 Percik May 2005
  • 38. A RTICLEformal and informal activities can help in condition sustains, self motivated withoutthe reconcilement of idea with action any external pressure, persuasion, re-toward fulfillment of their common need. monstration let alone instruction. There While the rural community consists of A consolidated social are several things that should be observedmore or less homogenous population, relationship through during this phase:water supply and environmental sanita- - Regular and prioritized program/tion management is relatively easier. This various formal and activityis supported by the fact that there is a informal activities - Self financingthicker togetherness among the inhabi- can help in - Prohibition to litteringtants because the communal work tradi- the reconcilement of - Placement of notice board/bill-tion is still sticking within every indi- board containing suggestion tovidual. idea with action toward maintain clean environment. fulfillment of theirA. Empowerment Phases common need. B. Steps in Community Empower-1. Preparatory ment The steps in the preparation phase The steps in community empower-consist of: ment in the context of drinking water and - Extension activity through RT, line. In this phase we will find out the we- environmental sanitation management RW, and neighbourhood akness and the strength of the implemen- consist of: - Household level community tation for further correction as necessary. 1) Communal action in solving prob- health education lems related to drinking water and - Information dissemination by va- 4. Consolidation environmental sanitation; rious involved parties: Puskesmas, This point consists of corrective meas- 2) Mobilize all available resources, con- Dinas Kesehatan (Health agency), ures for any deviation or improvement to sisting of fund, material, land area, Dinas Kebersihan (Cleaning agen- what has been going well. The communi- labour, and knowledge in solving cy), Dinas Permukiman (Settle- ty has realized the importance of healthy poor environmental condition; ment agency), Developer and drinking water and begins to manage the 3) Maintaining togetherness through PDAM environment that should be supported strenthening the function and role - Self initiated environmental edu- with several other factors in order to con- of social institution; cation and training solodate the path towards hygiene beha- 4) Maintaining the habit of discussi- - Neighbourhood level discussion viour. These factors are: on for finding solution to common meeting - Formulation of norms/rules to be problem; - Film show, etc. observed by all inhabitants 5) Improve the responsibility and awa- - Government policy that allocates reness on the importance of drinking2. Implementation fund for drinking water and envi- water supply and environmental At this point the knowledge/skill learned ronmental sanitation management sanitation to a sttlement area;from the preparatory stage is brought into - Provision and maintenance of sup- 6) Improvement toward a focused, sys-action and the empowerment action plan is port facilities tematic, well planned, integrated andput into reality. The activity in this phase - Availability of special institution, sustainable drinking water and envi-consists of among others, communal work in such as youth group, to handle the ronmental sanitation manageent.cleaning the environment, construction of jobfinal garbage disposal facility, clean river - Regular agenda, such as clean Recommendationcompetition. Fridays or clean Sundays Community empowerment in the - Maintenance of the existing facili- management of drinking water and envi-3. Evaluation, Supervision and ties. ronmental sanitation should be under-Control taken through a participatory model sup- This is an important phase to see if the 5. Cultivation ported by awareness education and ca-empowerment follows the predetermined Cultivation is an effort to make the pacity building and systemic model. Percik 37 May 2005
  • 39. A CTICLE Clean Beach and Sea *) through GBPL S ea pollution is the most common Recycle and Replant) method, separating detrimental act, it spreads easi- By Rennisca Ray Damanti**) organic from inorganic waste since the ly, and it also dangerous. Sea very source of emergence, especially in pollution (coastal waters) is defined as partnership program in dealing with sea relation to waste product, solid or liquid. detrimental impact (dangerous effect) pollution in Indonesia, The fourth objective is to integrate all the to biotic life, resources, and marine activities/programs from the different ecosystem pleasantness and human GBPL Objectives institutions that are directed to control health and other benefit of sea ecosys- GBPL which was initiated by DMF sea pollution, especially in evironmental tem as a direct or indirect cause dis- contains a long and a short term objec- management, both in terms of infrastruc- posal of materials or waste products tives. In the long run is to stimulate the ture and legal basis for the sea pollution from human activity, including energy community to maintain "blue sea and control. into the sea. GBPL was launched at the national Today, sea pollution in Indonesia has level on 21 September 2004 by the reached a worrying level. As we all know, Minister of Marine and Fishery almost 60% of Indonesian population Resources, Rokhmin Dahuri, at Kenjeran lives in coastal areas. This condition Today, sea pollution beach, Surabaya. The event at Kenjeran greatly influences the quality of coastal in Indonesia has reached involved more than 8.000 people con- and marine resources. This does not sisted of schoolchildren, university stu- include on land activitiy from which a a worrying level. dents, youth groups, boy scouts, coastal great deal of wastes, organic as well in- As we all know, almost 60% community, professional associations, organic, which eventually would be intro- of Indonesian population lives government agencies, NGOs, mass media duced to the coast and the sea. If this and the general community. condition continues, the pollution will in coastal areas. A few months later, on 18 April 2004, adversely affect the sustainability and This condition greatly GBPL was conducted on the beach of perpetuality of coastal and marine influences the quality Tanjung Pasir, Kabupaten Tangerang, resources. Banten. The activities consisted of As an effort to control sea pollution, it of coastal and garbage cleaning at the fish auction faci- is necessary to have a comprehensive pro- marine resources lity, training on integrated waste material gram and activity through effective management, mangrove tree planting, actions and applied technologies, such as releasing fish fingerlings, interactive dia- community education about the danger logue, a quizz on environmental issues, of pollution, teach them how to make use roving library, bird watching for school- of waste materials, construction of waste eternally clean beach". The short term children, and an exhbition. material disposal and processing facility, objectives consist of, firt, awareness edu- Then on 12 December 2004 Freddy and so on. Department of Marine and cation for the community about the dan- Numberi, Minister of Marine and Fishery Fishery (DMF) Resources through the ger of sea pollution; second, to simulate Resources, announced the launching of Directorate General for Coast and Small the community to practice hygiene the National Movement Clean Beach and Islands, beginning from 2003, launched a behaviour in order to sustain the environ- Sea in the fishermen village of Kalibaru "beach clean up" program. In the begin- mental function, starting from familiy cir- Cilicing, Jakarta. ning this program was aimed at awake- cle and primary school. The third objec- *) GBPL = National Movement for ning the care of the Indonesian commu- tive is to stimulate the community to par- Clean Beach and Sea nity, especially the involved institutions, ticipate in sea pollution control, especial- **) Community Information Service government, private sector, NGO and ly through application of efficient life Centre, Dept. of Marine and Fishery others to cooperate with DMF to launch a parttern, known as 4R (Reduce, Reuse, Resources 38 Percik May 2005
  • 40. A BOUT WASPOLA The Netherlands Provides US$22 Million In Grants To Support Water And Sanitation Programs In IndonesiaJ SOURCE: OSWAR MUNGKASA akarta, March 23, 2005 ? The Govern- nitation sector development. The po- ment of the Netherlands has made avail- tential for change lies in the hands of allable a US$22 million (EUR 18.26 million) stakeholders. The resolve of the newgrant to support Indonesias efforts to government and the opportunities cre-address the structural problems in the water ated by the implementation of the 2001and sanitation sector and assist government decentralization agenda mean that theprogress towards the Millennium Deve- sector is at a turning point.lopment Goals (MDGs). This substantial This trust fund will support sanita-grant aims to strengthen the institutions tion development, improvement inresponsible for service delivery, and to urban water supply institutions andthereby increase the levels of water and san- strengthening water resource manage-itation services for all, especially the poor. ment institutions. The grant will also This US$22 million Dutch Water and finance the design of longer term invest- The memorandum of understandingSanitation Trust Fund being launched today ment in sanitation. It will also provide a signed by Ruud Treffers (Dutch Ambassa-has been established to support govern- facility for immediate technical assistance to dor for Republic of Indonesia) and Andrewment and other stakeholders address the government, and a funding window that can Steer (World Bank Representative for In-structural deficiencies of the water and san- be used to support the reconstruction of donesia) and witnessed by Suyono Dikunitation sector. It provides a springboard for water and sanitation services in Aceh and (Deputy for Infrastructure, National Deve-the new, revitalized course of water and sa- Nias. lopment Planning Agency). Communication Strategy Development WorkshopI n anticipation to the challenges in communication strategy in the dissemina- tinguished between executive and legisla- the future WASPOLA together with tion of the community--as well as the institu- tive, and between decision makers and WSS Working Group organized a tionally--based national policies. implementors. To be specific, the target ofworkshop on Communication Strategy The deliberation was made in group policy communication consists of the go-Development held in Surabaya on 17 discussions. There were 2 discussion gro- vernment ministers related to WSS devel-February 2005. The workshop is a part of ups. Through comparison with commer- opment, the governor, bupati (mayor ofthe series of workshops on the cial product, the participants discussed Kabupaten), DPRD (local legislative board),"Implementation of the National Policy the topic "Policy Communication" to de- BPD (regional development bank), NGO,for Community Based WSS Develop- termine the target audience, purpose of and universities.ment", which was held at the same place The purpose of the communication is to SOURCE: OSWAR MUNGKASAthe day before. provide information, knowledge, and com- The workshop was attended by 30 par- prehension about National Policy for WSSticipants representing central level WSS Development to all stakeholders, improve-Working Group, provincial--and district level ment of care to WSS related issues and sus-WSS Working Groups, Bappeda of the tainability of the development, behaviouralMunicipality of Surabaya, Provincial change and dissemination of the basic poli-Bappeda (Regional Development Planning cy principles.Agency) of Jawa Timur, PDAM Surabaya, The comments expected from the tar-WSP-EAP, and WASPOLA. This was also a get audience consists of commitment tocontinuation of the previous workhops held apply the national policy, care about WSSin Jakarta November 2004 and January sector as a development priority, budget2005. communication and response expected allocation for WSS development and The event was officially opened by Oswar from the audience. The outcome, the tar- regional level policy adoption. The resultMungkasa of Bappenas (National Deve- get expected covers central, provincial of the workshop will be used as materiallopment Planning Agency). In his opening and district level governments, and the for formulation of communication planspeech he emphasized the importance of community. Each of the levels must be dis- and selection of media. (Lina) Percik 39 May 2005
  • 41. A BOUT WASPOLA Workshop on the Regional Level Implementation of National Policy for Community Based WSS DevelopmentF or the intention of gathering les- development. And besides, the provincial cussion the following points of agreement sons learned from the implemen- Working Group is the leading actor, there- have been reached: (i) a region that is tation of National Policy for fore it should be sufficiently supported with interested in joining the program isCommunity Based WSS Development the necessary resources. Province is conduc- required to submit a letter of request; (ii)which took place in 2004, WASPOLA ting coordination with central level WSS provincial Working Group to play majorheld a workshop in Surabaya on 15-17 Working Group and WASPOLA Secretariat. role in facilitating implementation activi-February 2005. The workshop was atten- This fact requires commitment from Bappe- ty at the kabupaten level; (iii) technicalded by representatives from provincial, da (Regional Development Planning Agen- assistance is provided according to thekabupaten and central level Working cy) to coordinate the implementation and need of the region.Groups, WASPOLA, WSP-EAP, and the application of the Policy basic principles into During the course of the woorkshop aprovinces of NTT (Nusa Tenggara Timur) the regional level WSS development plan- presentation was also made aboutand Sulawesi Tenggara as new participant ning and programming. The role division National Policy for Institutionally Basedprovinces. Beside as a means for sharing of among the different levels are as the fo- WSS Development, currently in draft andexperience, this workshop was also inten- llowing: is being submitted to the echelon I offi-ded for identifying of the needs in the imple-mentation of the Policy in 2005 and to agreein site selection criteria. WASPOLA WSS WORKING GROUP The workshop was officially opened Preparation of consultant team Coordinator at implemetation levelby Basah Hernowo, Director of Housingand Settlement, Bappenas (National Facilitation to strengthen Working (kabupaten, provincial, central)Development Planning Agency). He re- Group capacity As resource personvealed that water supply service coverage Financial assistance to TA in per- Monitoring and supervisionin Indonesia is still at 55,2 percent and forming dissemination Limited financial supportbasic sanitation at 63,5 percent. To Preparation of facilitation guideline Information serviceincrease the level of coverage of the two Documentation and reportservices a development policy was formu- As resource personlated. The policy has been put into imple-mentation in four kabupatens in2002/2003, and 7 kabupatens in seven PROVINCE DISTRICTprovinces in 2004. Preparation of implementation Preparation of implemenmtation Based on experience obtained from team teamthe implementation, according to Basah,the implementation strategy in 2005 will Coordinator and liaison with legisla- Coordinator and liaison with legsla-consist of: a) strengthening the capacity of tive, university, NGO and other tive, university, NGO and otherWSS Working Groups through a series of related parties related partiestraining/workshops; b) expansion in the Preparation for budget allocation Preparation for budget allocationnumber of facilitators; c) expansion of areas Provincial level facilitator Kabupaten level facilitatorfor implementation through partnershipwith other involved parties; d) facilitation ofvarious different types in accordance withoutput and the choice of the region. This workshop agenda was filled with cials of the involved government depart- He stressed again, that this activity is sharing of experience among the different ments for approval. It is expected thepurely technical assistance, it does not regions in implementing the community approval will be realized in March-Aprilimply in any way a subsidy for a physical based development policy. From the dis- 2005. (MJ) 40 Percik May 2005
  • 42. A BOUT WASPOLA Sharing of Experience in the Implementation of the National Policy for Community Based WSS Development at the Regional Level in 2004 Excerpts from National Workshop on Implementation of the National Policy for Community Based WSS Development at the Regional Level, Surabaya 15-17 February 2005. SOURCE: OSWAR MUNGKASAW SS Policy implementation at the regional level in 7 kabu- patens (districs) of 7 provinceswas conducted from June till December2004. In order to know what responsesthe regions have made to the policy facil-itation, in the form of the result it hasproduced, the problems it entails and thefollow-up plan for 2005, WASPOLA con-ducted National Workshop on Imple-mentation of the National Policy for Com-munity Based WSS Development at theRegional Level held in Surabaya on 15-17February 2005. This event was attendedby reperesentaives of all kabupatens andprovinces to which the facilitation wasgiven plus two other kabupatens whichhad similar facilitation in 2002/2003. The result of the worshop will be usedby WASPOLA and WSS Working Group Road show to the regional chiefs of relates to WSS developmentas an input in developing policy imple- administration and the related agen- Establishment of exemplary villagementation workplan 2005. The discus- cies in relation to SANIMAS (Communi-sions that took place during the course of Workhop for building comprehen- ty Based Sanitation) project imple-the workshop revealed the general pic- sion on the basic policy principles mentation in Subangture of policy implementation in the fol- Workshop for identification of prob- Dissemination meeting to introducelowing regions: lems and issues related to WSS the Community Based Policy to all development in the regions kabupatens (Sumatra Barat, Jawa PROVINCE DISTRICT Workshop for formulation of WSS Tengah and Sulawesi Selatan). West Sumatera SL Sijunjung development strategy in the regions Babel South Bangka In the meantime, several activities along Products Banten Lebak this line were taking place in the kabu- From a series of operational plan Central Java Kebumen patens and some of the provinces: development there are a number prod- NTB West Lombok Cooperation with mass media in ucts beneficial to the regions, they are: South Sulawesi Pangkep conducting interactive dialogue on Establishment of real support from Gorontalo Gorontalo WSS development: NTB (Nusa the chief of regional administration Subang Tenggara Barat), Lombok Barat, Ke- Establishment of official kabupaten Solok bumen (local TV), Gorontalo (radio) level WSS Working Group (Pokja Testimony on the success and failure Kabupaten) through a letter of deci-Activities in WSS management in Kebumen sion issued by the Bupati In general the activities that took Partnership with NTB provincial level Funding support for Pokja Ka-place in kabupaten and provinical levels Development Forum in conducting bupaten operation and budget allo-consisted of: dialgue on conservation issue as it cation for 2005 Percik 41 May 2005
  • 43. A BOUT WASPOLA Workplan/policy framework has important lessons: sanitation education in Gorontalo. Through the participatory facilitation At the provincial level, it has been been formulated process the regions have in general understood that this level will play an Stakeholders enthusiasm in partici- important role in the kabupaten level begun to catch the essence of the poli- patory process dissemination of the policy along with cy operational plan in the context of The regional stakeholders are begin- sustainable WSS development for its position in the overall national ning to comprehend the basic policy their respective areas. development. principles and capable of formulat- WSS development sustainability has In therems implementation the ing sustainability concept based on been given a serious attention and provincial and kabupaten working duly translated into regional action groups still need capacity strengthen- the study on factors determining the plans. ing in knowledge, comprehension and success and failure of WSS develop- technical skill in the policy implemen- Innovation by each kabupaten has ment project. tation facilitation. produced a regional specific outcome the reflects the demand characteristic Both the provinces and the kabu-Regional Follow-up Action Plans of the respective region, such as the patens consider that political support In 2005 the kabupatens are still utilization of nagari institution in (legislative and executive), inter- preparing their respective strategy Sumatra Barat, academic draft of Re- agency coordination, and support gional Regulation in Bangka Selatan, from other related parties, are impor- plan which will be finalized into a innovation in drinking water service tant for the implementation of the regional legal basis for implementa- community based WSS development delivery in Pangkep, cooperation with tion of community based WSS devel- policy. Department of Religious Affairs in opment. For this purpose all the kabupatens have allocated the neces- REGIONAL LEVEL WSS POLICY OPERATIONAL PLAN IN 2004 say budget. At the provincial level in 2005 there will be a continuation of operational plan and policy dissemination through implementation facilitation at kabupaten level. And all the provinces have allocated the neces- sary counterpart budget for the said activity.Problems With the limited comprehension about ht policy during the early stages of the implementation, most of the regions had a wrong percep- tion, policy implementation was understood as central government plan to provide a physical develop- Pendampingan Lapangan = field assistance AMPL = Compreheding substance, general policy, and sustainabil- ment project, although the essence Pemahaman kebijakan = policy comprehension ity aspects Kajian dan dialog keberlanjutan AMPL = WSS sustainability study Daftar permasalahan dan potensi pembangunan AMPL di daerah = of the policy implementation had and dialogue List of problems and potentials of WSS developement at regional Penyusunan rencana program strategis AMPL daerah = level been repeatedly explained. Formulation of regional WSS development strategic program Prioritas masalah yang perlu ditangani daerah dan dukungan Rencana Pembangunan AMPL Daerah = Regional WSS yang diperlukan = Priority problems to be handled and the sup- Difficulty in allocation of counter- Development Plan port required Operasionalisasi kebijakan oleh Propinsi = Operational plan Pengalaman nyata faktor keberlanjutan dan kegagalan proyek part budget especially at the provin- development by province AMPL di masyarakat = Actual experience in factors determining Lokakarya Nasional = National WS success and failure of community based WSS development cial level, therefore the activity could Disseminasi dan sosiAlisasi rencana pelaksanaan kebijakan di Masukan semua pihak terhadap program keberlanjutan AMPL = not proceed at an optimum rate. daerah = Dissemination and socialization of regional level imple- input contributed by all involved parties for sustainable WSS mentation plan development Menyepakai kriteria pemilihan daerah = Agrrement on site selec- Pelajaran penting pelaksanaan kebijakan tahun 2004 = important tion criteria lessons learned from policy implementaion in 2004Important Lessons Learned Pemilihan daerah = Site selection Kesepakatan kriteria pemilihan daerah tahun 2005 = Agreement 7 propinsi dan 7 kabupaten terpilih = 7 provinces and 7 kabu- in site selection criteria 2005 From the sharing of experience patens selected Rencana pelaksanaan kebijakan tahun 2005 = policy implementa- Pemahanan substansi, kebijakan umum dan aspek keberlanjutan tion plan 2005process we could pick the following 42 Percik May 2005
  • 44. A BOUT WASPOLA Implementation of National Policy for WSS Development in December 2004I n general, the tight schedule of the PROVINCE ACTIVITY DATE regions with the preparation of workplan 2005, Christmas holidays West Sumatera Workshop on "Formulation of provincial WSS program" December 18and New Year 2005 heavily influenced South Sulawesi Workshop on "Policy Dissemination" December 13the facilitation of implementation opera- Discussion of WSS data collection December 17-22tional plan of the Community Based WSS Workshop for formulation of strategic plan December 30 Central of Java Workshop on "Policy Dissemination"Workshop on December 7-9Developemnt Plan during December "Formulation of WSS Sector Activity Planning" December 292004. Bangka Belitung Workshop on "Formulation of Policy Operational Plan The policy facilitation is focused on Adoption Planning" December 18capacity improvement. This is intended Gorontalo Workshop on "Formulation of Community Based WSSto improve the capacity of the regional Strategic Program" December 18 Discussion to sharpen Provincial Pokja Workplan 2005WSS Working Groups (Pokjas) in the Workshop for studyng cross sectoral and inter-provincial December 30preparation of WSS development activi- Nusa Tenggara Barat policies within the framwork of water resources manage-ties that meet the standard quality of a ment December 28strategic plan. Banten Provincial Pokja regular meetingsWorkshop December 7 and 30 The format of the activities came as Workshop December 7workshop for "Formulation of WSSStrategic Planning for Regional Level vities in accordance with their respective The structural position (Division Chief,Working Groups" held on 30 November - 3 characteristics and have been able to pre- Section Chief) in Pokja membership of pare a draft of workplan for adopting the Sumatra Barat, has a signifiant mean-December 2004 at Hotel Sheraton the WSS development policy and program ing and influence in the policy imple-Bandara, Jakarta. The WASPOLA facilitat- and the profile of facilitation result of each mentation. The provincial Pokja hased workshop was attended by 18 partici- of the region. The report of the achieve- managed to prepare a training plan forpants. The result was a draft of WSS ment will be included in the provincial and WSS management team and willDevelopment Stategic Plan which will be kabupaten completon reports, scheduled to undertake policy dissemination withinused as a base document for the final work- be finalised in January 2004. the government agencies and isshop the respective regions. involved in selection of kabupatens for Important Issues policy implementation in 2005. At the time of the provincial activities, In Province Nusa Tenggara Barat (NTB) In Sulawesi Selatan WSS sector isthe kabupatens site of policy implementa- there is strong desire to include "Clean placed ninth out of ten developmenttion were also conducting similar activities Yourself and Clean the Environment" priorities. Follow-up action of policystarting from discussion, workshop, up to campaign into Water Resources master- implementation for 2005 is hangingformulation of draft of policy and strategic plan presently being prepared by pending a confirmed support fromplan for the respective kabupaten (district Participation Action Research Rinjani WASPOLA and Central Pokja.level administration). The kabupatens we- (PAR Rinjani) Project. All of the provincial Pokja members The issue of water resources pollution were involved in the formulation ofre Lebak, Gorontalo, Bangka Selatan, Pang- caused by illegal mining by the com- WSS development budget 2005 takingkep, Kebumen, Lombok Barat, and Sawah- munity and low hygiene behaviour of into account the SWASH project inter-lunto Sijunjung. the general community, represent two vention plan in Kapbupatens Bolemo In general, all the regions have complet- most important problems in Bangka and Bonebolango. There is a commit-ed the policy operational planning activities Belitung. ment from kabupaten Pokjas concern-in accordance with the characteristics of the The active role of Dinas Kesehatan ing clarity and transparency in WSSregions and have had a draft of work plan for (Regional level Agency for Health) and budget formulation. Bapedalda in the membership has con- The role of provincial Pokja in Policyadopting the WSS policy and program and tributed a lot in policy facilitation in implementation in Jawa Tengah isits facilitation achievement result. The Banten. Kabupaten Lebak, facilitated by quite important especially in terms ofachivement reports will be compiled into a WASPOLA, was able to develop a WSS its capacity in facilitating. Kabu-provincial and kabupaten final reports strategic plan taking into consideration patens of Banyumas and Wonogirischeduled for completion in January 2005. the geographical condition which divid- are considered as good and suitable In general, all the regions have com- ed the region into 4 zones each with its locations for WSS development im-pleted the policy operational planning acti- specific characters. plementation. (MJ) Percik 43 May 2005
  • 45. A BOUT WASPOLA Implementation of National Policy for WSS Development in January 2005T he activities of January 2005 were The agreement and summary of the cooperation is intended to speed up poli- focused on finalising of field discussion consisted of, among others, cy implementation through project activ- reports and documentation of alternative approaches in the community ities, which will then be taken over andactivities in 2004 and preparation of based policy facilitation, as illustrated in developed by the regional government.Community Based WSS Development Tabble 1. In the facilitation alternatives, WASPOLA, WSS Working Group, andPolicy implementation for 2005. Several there are cases where WASPOLA facilita- CWSH project will hold a meeting toactivities conducted during the time were tor does not fully involve in field activi- build a common perception and claritycoordination with the WSS Working ties, rather he will only appear in certain about about each others role in theGroup (Pokja), meeting/discussion with workshop or meeting as a limited facilita- implementation of Community BasedCWSH and WSLIC-2 projects for the tion. Policy.preparation of cooperation in policy The selection of provinces (site of In general it has been approved thatimplementation and preparation of 2004 activities) as sites for facilitation in the policy implementation strategy con-national workshop in Surabaya. 2005 and their facilitation type (type A or sists of strengthening of capacity and B, Table 1) was conducted based on crite- facilitation in the regional WSS workplanPreparation of Workplan ria developed in the national workshop development formulation process. The preparation for Community on 15-17 February 2005 in Surabaya. WASPOLA will facilitate in conductingBased Policy implementation for 2005 workshops at the national, provincial andwas conducted through a series of meet- Preparation of Policy Imple- kabupaten levels.ings and coordination with WSS Pokja. mentation Plan in CWSH ProjectSeveral important subjects discussed WASPOLA and WSS Working Group Preparation of Policy Imple-included the outcomes and type of activi- will work together with CWSH project to mentation Plan in WSLIC-2 Projectties, facilitation strategy, the necessary put the policy into implemention in four Similar to CWSH, WSLIC-2 projectsupport from WASPOLA as well as from provinces (Jambi, Bengkulu, Kalimantan will also cooperate with WSS Workingcentral level Pokja. Barat, and Kalimantan Tengah). This Group in the accreleration of the policy application. WSLIC-2 will develop an activity in the framework of project com- Table 1 - Facilitation Design Alternatives pletion process. WSS Working GroupTYPE FACILITATOR FOCUS OF FACILITATION SITE/TARGET GROUP will play more significant role than WASPOLA. WASPOLAs role will be lim- A WASPOLA, facilitator was Strengthening provincial and kabupaten teams Selected from the 7 provinces that has assigned in the site for the Facilitation of policy operation (follow-up of received facilitation in 2004. Provinces ited in facilitation process through provi- duration of the process workplan) that was produced during the earlier that opt to have a limited facilitation are sion of provincial facilitator in Sumatra facilitation treated as type B. Support to the province in facilitating the Barat, Bangka Belitung, NTB and kabupaten Sulawesi Selatan. B Present in the site (work- Strengthening provincial and kabupaten teams CWSH, WSLIC projects and old provinves Preparation of National Workshop shop or coordination meet- about policy and its operational plan· that opt to have a limited facilitation ing) based on prescribed Monitoring and supervision of policy operational in Surabaya schedule process Upon completion of facilitation C Directly by WASPOLA Secre- Communication network development through CARE International, Plan Interna process at the regional level it has been tariat previously agreed meeting agendas tional, Islamic Relief International agreed to have a national meeting to con- Policy control and its operational plan Development of partnership concept in policy solidate the result of facilitation in 2004 implementation for the followitn year and for formulation of workplan for faci- litation in 2005. For that purpose, based on mutual agreement with Central level D Directly by WASPOLA Secre- Introduction of community based WSS develop- Prov. Sulawesi Tenggara tariat ment policy through a national workshop Prov. NTT Pokja a workshop is scheduled to be held Inclusion of technical staff in training together Solok, Musi Banyuasin, Subang and in Surabaya on 15-17 February 2005. with other regions Sumba Timur Demand analysis for policy implementation for (MJ) the following year 44 Percik May 2005
  • 46. A BOUT WSS Infrastructure SummitT he Infrastructure Summit was SOURCE: OSWAR MUNGKASA held at the Jakarta Convention Centre on 18-19 January 2005.This meeting was facilitated by theIndonesian Chamber of Commerce tobridge a meeting of minds among thegovernment, donor countries, multilater-al institutions, private sector to discussthe possibility for cooperation in infra-structure development in Indonesia. Several important matters that sur-faced during the course of discussionswere:Fact and Issue Only 40% of urban population (approximately 33 million) has access to piped water distribution system, and only 8% of the total vil- lage population, or around 10 mil- lion, has the same privilege. Production capacity is at 95.540 l/sec (based on basic assumption: capable of meeting the demand of 95 Production capacity is at 95.540 l/sec million people). National average of leakage is at 40%. (based on basic assumption: capable of Government-private sector partner- meeting the demand of 95 million people). ship is on-going in 20 systems, con- sisting of 10 BOT, 6 BOO, 3 conces- National average of leakage is at 40%. sions, and 1 joint operation. Aproximately 90% of PDAMs (Local Government Owned Water Compa- ny) are not feasible of operation, for one or several of the following rea- sons: cause of too strong government The principle of good corporate Major loss (cumulative PDAM intervention especially since the governance is not applicable. debt has reached Rp 5,2 trillion); regional autonomy era. Tender process is obscure. Not enough fund for investment, Insufficient regulation. As an Absence of independent regulato- nor even for O&M cost; example, Law No 5/1962 which is ry body. Low human resources capacity. now out of date. No guarantee to raw water source. Not attractive to investor: From the economic of scale, it is Sanitation management does not Tariff level does not meet the insufficient. After the regional work properly because it is han- requirement for full cost recovery autonomy each region built its dled separately from water supply. so that financial sustainability is own PDAM. Therefore most of Insufficient government fund (it is out of question. them are too small, less than estimated that up to 2015 the Lack of financial autonomy be- 10.000 customers. budget requirement is approxi- Percik 45 May 2005
  • 47. A ABOUT WSS mately USD 5 billion), therefore it Mobilization of alternative domes- is necessary to find other financing tic as well as foreign sources of schemes, such as private sector, funding including introduction of partnership government-private Medium Term Planning alternative funding schemes. sector, including foreign loan. Regulation reform is manifested to (i) (2005-09) Formulation of a new Law on RegionalProposal from Private Sector Drinking Water and Public Company in place of Law No. Human resources capacity develop- Wastewater policy as 5/1962 on the same subject that is ment. presently in effect; (ii) Finalizing Improvement of investment man- contained in the Medium Government Regulation on Drinking agement and strategy. Term Development Plan water and Sanitation; (iii) formulation Improvement of financial autonomy. of National Strategy and Action Plan; Guarantee for accountability, cove- consists of provision of (iv) application of the priciples of ring the overall administrative and quality, efficient and transparency, democracy and decen- management aspects. tralization; (v) establishment of sustainable drinking The private sector needs a consistent Drinking Water and Sanitation regulation, netral, and clear. Inclu- and waste water sevices Regulatory Body; (vi) introduction of ding clear definition of subsidy poli- at a affordable the principle "One River One Plan One cy. Management" and "Polluters Pay"; Guarantee in sustainability of raw price and (vii) minimizing drinking water water. leakage. Improvement of monitoring mechanism. Department of Public Works offers Improvement the relationship with projects in 20 locations at a total cost the customers. of USD 385,3 million in the forms of Private investment for big scale, thus Policy of Technical Department (Pu- concession and BOT. the smaller PDAMs should merge blic Works) Partnership direction for drinking together. The government guaratees the com- water (i) establishement of new serv- Sanitation management should be munity rights to access to water as a ice areas; (ii) improvement and opera- integrated with water supply. PDAM basic need. tion of the existing facilities; (iii) full should be prepared to enable to Investment requirement till 2009 concession. Similarly with sanitation, manage sanitation. amounts to Rp 19,2 trillion. (i) development; (ii) operation and Investment from 2009-15 (linked to maintenance; (iii) service contract.Government Policy and Action MDGs) is Rp 26,1 trillion. Medium Term Planning (2005-09) Drinking Water Development Strategy Conclusion of Discussion Drinking Water and Wastewater po- 2005-15 PDAM merger. licy as contained in the Medium Term Institutional and regulation Improvement of PDAM operational Development Plan consists of provi- reform (application of good gover- and financial performance. sion of quality, efficient and sustain- nance principle). Application of full cost recovery tariff. able drinking and waste water sevices Improved service, qualitatively as Establishment of regulatory body. at a affordable price through (i) well as quantitatively, through Long term funding instrument is improvement of the awareness and involvement of private sector, needed. particiaption of the stakeholders; (ii) cooperative, and community. Project size to commensurate with creation of favourable climate for pri- Water resources conservation. Use economy of scale in order to attract vate sector involvement; (iii) stimula- water efficiently, re-arrangement investor. tion for the development of service of wastewater and waste material Procurement process (tendering) regions; (iv) improvement of manage- management. must be transparent. ment capacity; (v) improvement of Improvement of equity in service. Introduction of government-private human resources capacity; (vi) mini- Formulation and implementation sector partnership to the regonal go- mizing leakage. of minimum service standard. vernments. (OM) 46 Percik May 2005
  • 48. A BOUT WSS Commemoration of World Water Day "Water for Life" W ater condition of the world is been succesfull building household toilets Wasmiati, a teacher of Kertasari Public getting worse from time to and washbasins through the application School 04 told another story. Because of the time. Therefore, the world of PHAST methodology. PHAST approach, her school and two others community must treat water carefully. Suhendi, a representive from the com- (Kertasari 02 and Kertasari 03) were able to "We have to use water economically, effi- munity of Kampung Tambun, village of build washbasin facilities. "We started with ciently, and effectively", said Ir. Kusnaeni, Kertasari, expressed his happiness a gathering. There were teachers, school Chairman of Committee for World Water because the stimulant fund and Dept. of committees, parents respresentatives, and Day (WWD) Commemoration that took Health assistance had help to incresse the several pupils discussing issues and prob- place on 22 March at the Hall of Keca- number of household toilets in the kam- lems under the direction of a facilitator. We matan Pebayuran, Kabupaten Bekasi. pung. "A stimulant fund at the amount of came to a conclusion to build water taps and The theme of the thirteenth World Water Rp 13,5 million was distributed to build washbasins." Day commemoration was "Water for 74 toilets worth Rp 48 million. Approxi- For that purpose, continued Wasmi- Life". The committee, in collaboration mately Rp 35 million was the community ati, they wrote a proposal to Dept. of with the Directorate of Water Hygiene contribution," he said firmly. Health. The budget was Rp 2 million. and Sanitation (WHS) of the Department He described that the toilets were And it was approved. "It turned out that of Health organized a community activity built following a community enlighten- the actual cost was Rp 2,8 million. The for the protection of water source against ment process based on PHAST methodo- balance was covered from collection pollution from domestic wastes through logy. In the beginning, the community from among ourselves and the school application of Participatory Hygiene and were stimulated to form discussion committee." Sanitation Transpformation (PHAST) forum. There were a number of propo- The pupils were very happy with the methodology. The pilot project was con- sals, such as garbage bin, drainage canal, washbasins. They are not only for washing struction of household toilets and wash and household toilet. "Finally we came to hands, but also for washing hair and clean- basins in the village of Kertasari, Keca- a common agreement that household to- ing their feet. "On rainy days, many of us matan Penayuran, Kabupaten Bekasi. ilets were the facility we were going to have to wash our feet, the ground here is During the occasion, Director of WHS, build," he said. He sincerely hopes that muddy." One pupil said that everyday she Hening Darpito, described the importance the community will begin to learn the uses the facility. Why? "According to our of water for health. He explained that 70% importance of sanitation so that they will teacher, handwashing can protect our of human body consists of water, so that if not do open defecation any more. health," she said shyly. (MJ) water intake is poor then the metabolism SOURCE: MUJIYANTO system will be disturbed. Therefore, pro- tecting water source is inevitable. He also explained the pattern of ap- proach applied by the government in facilitating the community to develop the- ir water supply and sanitation facility. The government no longer applies project supply method, rather it is exercising empowerment approach. "The spirit is, we give the community full responsibility to initiate their own development effort," he said while mentioning that stimulant fund will be transferred directly to the community bank account. The commemoration which was at- tended by 20 village chief also invited representatives of communities that had Explanation: Suhendi of Kampung Tambun explains about the project Percik 47 May 2005
  • 49. A BOUT WSS Water Week, March 2005 Water Security: Policies and InvestmentW ater Week, just like any other DANIDA, USAID, etc) 9%. of the most important points in Law No. global meeting, such as For three days the external partici- 7/2004. Several crucial problems to Agenda 21, World Summit for pants attended 40 sessions in 5 meeting water use in Indonesia relates to theSustainable Development (WSSD), Water halls, to discuss approximately 95 work- rights of the farmers, unclear regulationForum, et cetera, was a forum for sharing ing papers. If mathematically calculated. and administration system, weakness inof experience in water supply and envi- each presentation was attended by 21 institutional mechanism in dealing withronment. The difference is that the World participants, and each paper was conflicts and weakness of formal mecha-Bank sponsored Water Week (WW) was reviewed by 9 reviewers nism in water allocation. Azumi bringsemphasized on sharing of the donor forward at least 6 issues to be born in(World Bank) experiences in the client What happens with Indonesia? mind, they are development of legalcountries and at the same time as a Information about water and sanita- aspects, tranparant and equitable watermeans for sharing of experiences among tion in Indonesia seems to be an inte- regulation, improvement of the role of thethe clients. It was also an opportu- community, upholding and con- SOURCE: DORMARINGANnity for a fair and transparant dia- flict management mechanism,logue between the donor and the river pollution control, and regu-clients. For instance, whereas the lation about groundwater todonor demands that the clients be guarantee a sustainable availabi-more transparant, accountable, lity of underground water source.clear policy, equity in gender, propoverty, community involvement, Reduced loan throughand so on the clients on the other qualified manpowerhands demand that funding com- That is probably the mostmitment from donor, consistent suitable statement to illustratesupport, adaptation to local condi- the condition of water servicetion, adjustment with clients poli- institution in Indonesia. Iancy, et cetera. Drozdh and Aldo Baietti, consult- ants to the World Bank, ex-Water Week 2005 From L to R: Bambang Guritno (PU), Salusra plained the viability of water ser- Widya (Bappenas), and the author The Water Week 2005 (WW-05) took vice institutions in Indonesia and theplace on 1-3 March and carried a theme resting topic for discusson at the global drugs that have been taken to improveWater Securities: Policy andInvestment, level. At least there were seven sessions their health condition in two differentwas organized to balance the issues rela- that discussed about Indonesia, especial- working papers. In session Managingted to policy and financing in water secu- ly in water use rights, the capacity of Water Utilities under Economic Stress,rity. Up to this time the issues seem water services institution and the role of the two experts explained the steps forunbalanced, limping. The three day con- community in project monitoring. improvements that have been taken byference, attended by not less than 850 PDAMs. Ian, who presented Case Studyparticipants from 5 continents, consisted Water Use Right, to whom does it of Indonesia Water Utilities: PDAMof internal of the World Bank, and exter- belong? Jambi and PDAM Surakarta, believesnal (participants who were invited to rep- Hatsuya Azumi, a Japanese, caught that Financial Recovery and Action Planresent the nations, institutions, etc.). this most crucial water rights manage- (FRAP) is an effective medicine to cureFrom the snapshot of the external, most ment in Indonesia, especially after the PDAM sickness. While Aldo, through hisparticipants were North Americans (US enactment of Law No. 7/2004. In the paper Turning Around Public Waterand Canada) 22%, followed by Africa session Implementing Water Use Rights Utilities in Financial Stress, explains19%, Asia-Pacific 17%, Europe 13% and Azumi discussed this problem in his about the fact that through the PDAMLatin American 13%. The remainder paper Water Use in Indonesia. He rescue program there has been a changewere representatives of international brought forward water use right (WUR) in paradigm at the regional level, butinstitutions, (such as CARE, CIDA, and water exploitation right (WER), two PDAM is unable to solve the problem 48 Percik May 2005
  • 50. A BOUT WSSalone by itself, loan rescheduling alone is Unicef in a presentation on Water andnot enough, it needs PDAM loan write off Environmental Sanitation, Indian Oceanand an improvement of capacity at the Emergency Response. The WW-05 wascentral level. also used as an opportunity for fund rais- The problem low quality PDAM per- ing through auction of photo collection bysonnel has also become Perpamsi atten- the World Bank, the proceeds will betion, they are not only capable of doing a donated to the victims of the disaster.construction, they must also be able tosell water. The session on Building is Lessons learnedEasy, Maintaining is Not became quite fit As an event, WW-05 might carry ain illustrating this condition. It was then number of vested interests or even someconsidered to establish cooperation with mistakes. Upon arrival in Jakarta, a dis-the World Bank Institute (WBI) for cussion was held about WW-05, especial-implementation in April 2005. "Because ly on topic about Indonesia, by the PokjaPerpamsi has the capacity to disseminate AMPL (WSS Working Group). Severalthe result of the improved personnel comments came forward. In the presen- A Water Week participant is reading Englishcapacity to all PDAMs. Also to facilitate a version of Percik tation by Hatsuya Azumi for instance, themeeting between the regional govern- WSS development operators considerment and PDAM with the wider stake- they were involved then what? That was that Water Use Right issues was not suff-holders to improve dialogue," says exactly what has been discussed in the icently brought to surface, whereas this isGodman Ambarita, Executive Dorector of session on So What Did We Get Out of a crucial issue for us and is widely dis-Perpamsi, in his working paper Twinning This: M&E in WSS? The fact is the com- cussed. Also in FRAP program, it wasProgram Capacity Building Component munity is capable, and that capacity was considered that what is discussed is thefor NRW Reduction to explain the back- brought forward by Hening Darpito and realm of what has been successfullyground of the cooperation with WBI. The Nila Mukherjee in a presentation on implemented.result, is to make the PDAM capable of Monitoring for Quality in Implemen- Anyhow, whatever it looks like, theimproving its performance especially in tation, the WSLIC Approach, Indonesia. fact that Indonesia has provided impor-helping itself, says Werner Bremen in The outcome is, the community has its tant information to everyone and otherCapacity Building in NRW Reduction, own data on WSS in its own area, the countries on how to go about managingBenchmarking to Improve Performance. implementation process, and a more water services facility belonging to the transparant monitoring for use by every- regions. Indonesia has been known as a The community knew it already one, the facility constructed based on nation with an extensive area, complex There are still many parties who argue demand that guarantees sustainability bureaucracy, indefinite regulations soabout the community capacity in moni- and effectiveness of use. And it seems that any success of a program deserves atoring WSS facility development. And if WSLIC can prove this. specific attention, and perhaps this was what the WW-05 participants from other Lembaga Disaster and all the attention countries had in mind. 10% Asia- Tsunami disaster, December 2004, On the contrary, as a country withAm.Latin Pasifik was one of the reasons why Indonesia was extensive area, and varied geographical 14% 18% so well-known in WW-05 and everybody characteristics a vast amount of lessons seems to know the magnitude of the from other countries especially in water impact and the people suffering. It was resources management, flood control etc. Afrika natural this topic was discussed in the could be derived and inspire Indonesia, Amerika ssession on Relief and Construction in particularly the decision makers. 20% Utara Tsunami Affected Areas. Water supply That is perhaps one of WW-05 merits, 24% and sanitation is a basic demand that this sharing of experiences provides an Eropa 14% must be solved, together with housing opportunity for a dialogue among nations and protection. Several things that have in dealing with common issues and learn Composition of Water Week participants been done were brought forward by together. (dormaringan hs/waspola) Percik 49 May 2005
  • 51. A BOUT WSS Preliminary Meeting on CLTSI n preparing the field trial of SOURCE: OSWAR MUNGKASA Community Led Total Sanitation (CLTS) in Indonesia, a workshopwas held in Jakarta on 24 February. Theworkshop was intended to prepare inwhat way Indonesia would adopt the con-cept. The workshop produced an agree-ment about steps to be taken for applica-tion of CLTS concept in WSLIC-2 projectsite. The workshop was attended by repre-sentatives of the involved agencies at thecentral level plus participants from CPMUand DPMU of WSLIC-2, donor institu-tions, NGOs, WASPOLA and WSP-EAP.The event was opened by Basah Hernowo, CLTS concept contains three objectives, ly with the problem. The objective of thisDirector of Housing and Settlement namely (i) behaviourial change and impro- process is to make the community to reali-Systems, Bappenas. In his welcoming vement of community awareness towards ze that all this time they did not liveaddress he stressed that CLTS is one alter- hygiene; (ii) community empowerment; (iii) hygienically. The next objective is thenative in sanitation development in to reduce open defecation habit. CLTS was community begins to ask how the condi-Indonesia. As a new idea, according to able to change behaviour and improve com- tion could be changed. It means that thehim, the concept needs adjustments with munity awareness in a relatively short time initial CLTS process for behaviouralthe actual condition in Indonesia. He also compared to other concepts. change and improvement of awarenesshopes the program does not stop at the The initial process consists of identifi- grow right from grass root level and in afield trial. cation of condition and facts about com- relatively short time. Prior to the workshop, a group of munity health (especialy that of open defe- The community awareness is then fol-Indonesian representatives visited Bang- cation habit) in the respective village. lowed-up with provision of simple infor-ladesh and India -two nations that have Then the community is persuaded to dis- mation about things the community canbeen succcessful in applying the concept-- cuss about the facts and condition. At that do to overcome the health condition ofin 2004. time the community is confronted direct- their neighbourhood. (FW/MJ) Socialization of WSLIC-2 Project in Kabupaten BojonegoroS ocialization of WSLIC-2 (Water "Clean water can reduce the prevalence of through community oriented approach. and Sanitation for Low Income water borne diseases such as diarrhoea, "For that purpose the community must Communities Phase 2) Project cholera, skin diseases and others,” he said. know in advance about what and how thetook place in Angling Darmo Room, the He considered WSLIC-2 socialization WSLIC project is all about," he said.office of Bojonegoro regional government is important as an effort to obtain clear Thefore, he continued, the government ison 22 February. The event was opened by information to determine the steps to obliged to disseminate the informationHM Santoso, Bupati (mayor of Kabupaten) support the project. Therefore he asked about the project to all villages throughof Bojonegoro and was attended by camats, the attendants to take notice the informa- socialization at the kabupaten, kecamatanheads of Puskesmas, head of Agency for tion in order to be able to disseminate it to and village levels.Education, PMD section chief, Chief of KUA, the community. Chief of the Agency for He described the objective of WSLICchairmen of PKK motivator, and all the relat- Health in his report mentioned that the project is to increase health condition,ed regional agencies of Bojonegoro. In his socialization is an initial step to the productivity and quality of life of lowwelcoming speech the Bupati mentioned that process of village selection for participa- income communities of the villagesdrinking water is one of basic human needs. ting in the project. The selection is done (sukohadiwidodo) 50 Percik May 2005
  • 52. A BOUT WSS WSS Working Group (Pokja AMPL) from 2004 to 2005W SOURCE:EXCLUSIVE ater Supply and Sa- (1) Based Policy is conducted nitation Working Gro- through seceral activities. up (Pokja AMPL) has Coordination of Communitywalked the path of 2004 with Based Policy implementa-activities focused on supporting tion with Program Partners.the implementation of National The purpose of this activityPolicy for Community Based is to establish cooperationWSS Development that com- with WSS projects andpleted formulation and was NGOs in the application ofapprovwed for implementation the National Policy forthe year before. In this connec- (2) Community Based WSStion, the Pokja AMPL workplan Development.was divided into into three cate- Limited Financial Supportgories, (i) Field trial and stimu- in the implementation oflant subsidy; (ii) study and for- Community Based Policy inmulation of guidance; (iii) pub- the regions. This is intendedlic campaign. campaign is to increase the comprehen- to improve the capacity of regional The field trial and stimulant subsidy sion, care and involvement of all the level Pokjas in 21 kabupatenswas implemented through SANIMAS development stakeholders in the efforts through a limited financial support(Sanitation by the Community) project in to improve the WSS sector performance. as central government contribution7 kabupatens/kotas of Jawa Timur and Several of the public campaign activities in the operational planning of theBali provinces; and provision of laborato- that have been done consisted of WSS community based policy.ry equipment for Kabupaten Lombok Development Promotion through printed (3) WorkshopBarat (ProAir Project). media (public service advertisement), In general this activity is intended to The study and formulation of gui- Talkshow in TV and radio stations, article improve the WSS sector stake-dance consisted of (1) Formulation of writing competition on the National holders comprehension about Na-institutional development concept for Policy for Community Based WSS tional Policy for the Communityfinancing community based WSS facility; Development, and press conference for Based WSS Developemt and its oper-(2) Formulation of Management Imple- the dissemination of the national policy ational planning at the regional level.mentation Guidelines and Village Level for community based WSS development; (4) TrainingTechnical Guidelines for CWSH Project; policy dissemination; exhibition, distri- Activity is intended to improve the(3) Formulation of Guidelines for ProAir bution of brochures, publication of technical as well as managerialProject Monitoring; (4) Study for the Percik magazine, maintenance of web- capacity of WSS development practi-Formulation of WSS Database; (5) Study site and WSS newsletter, and production tioners at the central as well asfor the Formulation of Medium Term of newsclip. regional levels in supporting the po-WSS Development Program, 2005-2010; licy operational planning.(6) Study for the Formulation of Module Plan for 2005 The operational planning is conductedfor Small Scale Wastewater Management The focus of Pokja AMPL Workplan in collaboration with WASPOLA. OtherSystem; (7) WSLIC-2 Gender Profile for 2005 has changed. In this year the collaborative activities consist of finalizingSurvey; (8) Evaluation of the Implemen- focus is set on public campaign, opera- the National Policy for Institutionallytation of UPS-KPS AMPL Audit tional planning of Community Based Based WSS Development, field trial in theGuidelines; (9) Formulation of Academic Policy and completion of the Insti- application of CLTS (Community Led TotalDraft of National Policy for Community tutionally Based WSS Development Sanitation) concept. In the meantine, pub-Based WSS Development. Policy. lic campain is conducted as a continuation In broad line the purpose of public Operational planning of Community from last year. (Andre) Percik 51 May 2005
  • 53. A GENDADate Month Activity7 January Workshop on Draft Final Report WSS Technical Audit WSLIC-2 Project10 January Meeting in World bank on Tsunami Disaster in Aceh11 January Pokja AMPL Meeting: Evaluation of Implementation and Preparaton of Workplan 200512 January Preparatory Meeting for WSS Analytical Study in the Kabupaten during the Era of Decentralization14 January Pokja AMPL Meeting: Preparation of Workplan 200517-18 January Infrastructure Seminar: Solution to Infrastructure Development in Indonesia, Regulatory Reform And Investment Opportunities19 January Meeting on Waste Materials20 January Meeting to Review Communication Network24 January Presentation of Survey Report of Hydroconseil Consultant on Small Scale Water Providers Study Meeting on Pokja AMPL Budget 200525 January Follow-up Meeting on Communication Strategy Pokja AMPL Meeting on CLTS Application in Indonesia26 January Meeting on Final Draft of Medium Term WSS Development 2005-2010 and Final Draft of Clean Water Database Meeting on WSS Program 2005 Technical Control27 January Meeting for WASPOLA Workplan 200528 January Review of Proposal for PKPS BBM Village Infrastructure31 January Coordinated Planning for Rehabiliation and Reconstruction of Aceh/Sumut, for Infrastructure2 February Review of Concept for Formulation of Community Level Financial Institution for WSS Development3 February Preparation Of Kick Off Meeting7 February Kick Off Meeting Report of Visit and Assessment of CLTS Field Trial in Indonesia8 February Consultative Meeting on Implementation of WSS Analytical Study at the Kabupaten during the Decentralization Era15-17 February National Workshop on Implementation of National Policy for Community Based WSS Development17-18 February Workshop on Communication Strategy Development21 February Pokja AMPL Regular Meeting: Preparation of Workshop CLTS Kick Off22 February Evaluation of Implementation and Review of Activities for 200524 February CLTS Kick Off Meeting1-3 March World Water Week: "Water Security: Policies and Investment"1 March Meeting on Preparation of Regional Assessment and TOT for Community Based Policy Operational Planning3 March Follow-up Meeting of CLTS Kick Workshop7 March Meeting for Detailed Discussion of Preparation of Regional Assessment and Implementation of TOT for Regional Level Policy Operational Planning9-11 March Consignment of NAD and Sumatra Utara Rehabilitation and Reconstruction, Infrastructure Division21 March Pokja AMPL Regular Meeting: Preparation for 2005 activities22 March World Water Day23 March Official Dedication of Sanimas in Mojokerto National Seminar: The Role of Composting in Waste Material Treatment and Exhibition of Products fro Recycling Process24 March Dedication of Communal Sanitation of Sanimas II in Bali28 March Pokja AMPL Regular Meeting29-31 March Indowater 2005 - Expo and Forum29 March Review Meeting of National Polci for Institutionally Based WSS Development Draft Document30 March Pokja AMPL Meeting: Evaluation and Review of Regional Selection Assessment4-6 April WSP-EAP Conference at Guilin, Guanxi, China5 April Official Opening of Communnal Sanitation Sanimas II in Pasuruan11-14 April MDGs Dissemination Seminar: Water Supply and Environmental Sanitation13 April Official Opening of Sanimas II in Blitar14 April Pokja AMPL Meeting: Preparation for CLTS Field Trial22 April Earth Day27-28 April National Conference: Poverty Reducion and Achievement of MDGs "Better Services for the Poor"27-29 April Appropriate technology Exhibition28-29 April Sanitation Workshop: Framework for Municipal Sanitation Services 52 Percik May 2005
  • 54. GLOSSARYEcologyA science that deals with interdependent relationship of living organisms and their environmentEcosystemA system consisting of plants, animals, and other organisms and all non living environmental components.EffluentFluid that flows out as a result of a process. Also called flow from an outlet.Elevated ReservoirA reservoir built at a certain elevation higher than the ground surface in order to produce a hydraulic pressure (head) enough to cause a gravi-tational flow to the service area.EnvironmentA unit of space with all materials -living and non living-, energy, condition, habit that influences or is influenced by the life of human being andother living creatures.Equalization TankWastewater pre-treatment unit, consisting of a tank (usually with a stirrer) to mix wastewater from various sources and properties in order tomake it homogenous before being subjected to further treatment.Facultative PondIt is also called aerobic-anaerobic stabilization pond, is a wastewater stabilization pond using aerobic and anaerobic bacteria.FaucetWater faucet installed at the end of a plumbing, as a means for control in flushing/draining.FiltrationScreening water to separate the remaining flocs or other water carried solid materials, by passing it horizontally (slow), or vertically (fast) orwith pressure (faster) through a filter media. In water treatment plant, this process takes place after sedimentation to make the filtration worklighter.FlushingWashing off or splashing off to remove dirt.GarbageOrganic waste material such as plant residue, paper that decomposes relatively easily if kept in a moist condition under an optimum tempera-ture (20 - 65°C)Gate ValveA valve that controls the discharge or closes the flow for repairwork to be done and maintenance of the lower end of a network. Constructed ina branch, beginning or end of a network or each km along a through line.Gravity System DistributionClean water distribution system wherein a flow is effected solely from the difference in elevation between water source and service area, orrelying only on gravity force.Grey Water/SullageWastewater originating from bathroom, kitchen, washing floor, and so on other than hospital, abatoir or wastewater with high organic mattercontent.GroundwaterWater that is found below ground surface in rock cavities and permeable layer at atmospheric or increased pressure (artesian)HeadThe amount of pressure stated in additional energy per mass unit of water flow. Quoted from Dictionary of Technical Terms & Foreign Abbreviations in Environmental and Sanitation Engineering, Univ. Trisakti Press. Percik 53 May 2005