Indonesia Water Supply and Sanitation Magazine. 'PERCIK' Vol 3 February 2004


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Indonesia Water Supply and Sanitation Magazine. 'PERCIK' Vol 3 February 2004

  1. 1. ContentInformation Media for Water Supply and Environmental Sanitation From Editor 1 Advisor: Director General for Urban and Your Voice 2 Rural Development, Ministry of Settlement Main Feature and Regional Infrastructure Water Supply and Sanitation Achievement in the Millennium Board of Head: Development Goals: New Target Classical Issue 3 Director of Human Settlement and Housing, Important Questions in Relation to Millennium National Development Planning Agency Development Goals 8 Republic of Indonesia Director of Water and Sanitation, Erna Witoelar: No Excuse 2015 11 Ministry of Health Interview Director of Urban and Rural Eastern Region, Dr. R. Hening Darpito: Water has an initiating power 12 Ministry of Settlement and Regional Infrastructure Ir. Basah Hernowo, MA: Empowerment is the key 13 Director of Natural Resources and Appropriate DR. Agus Prabowo: Insufficient Socialization 15 Technology, Director General on Village and Community Empowerment, Article Ministry of Home Affairs Bantar Gebang: Potrait of a poor solid waste Director for Facilitation of Special Planning management in Jakarta 17 Environment Management, Ministry of Home Affairs Children Manifesto 19 Feature Chief Editor: When public toilet is desire 20 Oswar Mungkasa Reportage Board of Editor: The Community of Kureksari, Sidoarjo Hartoyo, Johan Susmono, Indar Parawansa, is waiting for water supply 22 Poedjastanto Field Visit Editor: Fund request procedure is not yet simplified 23 Maraita Listyasari, Rewang Budiyana, Rheidda Pramudhy, Joko Wartono, Essy Asiah, Mujiyanto Technology choice cannot be made uniform 24 Counterpart fund is a problem 24 Design: WASPOLA Rudi Kosasih Workshop for development of national policy for Production: community based water supply and environmental Machrudin sanitation implementation strategy 25 Distribution: Water supply and sanitation facility ownership Anggie Rifki within the community 26 Workshop for vision formulation for water supply Address: Jl. Cianjur No. 4, Menteng, Jakarta Pusat and environmental sanitation sector development Phone: (021) 31904113 in Indonesia 28 e-mail: Water supply and sanitation policy formulation and action planning (WASPOLA) phase 2 29 Workshop on achievement of Millennium Development Goals 32 Unsolicited article or opinion items are welcome. Book Info 33 Please send to our address or e-mail. Website Info 35 Dont forget to be brief and accompanied by identity. Agenda 36
  2. 2. F ROM THE EDITOR U nconsciously, time goes by Asia and the Pacific) in a MDGs WSES Working Group Work Plan for and it is now that we visit you Workshop conducted by WASPOLA in 2004 and several activities during again. The present edition collaboration with WSES Working 2003 and beginning of 2004 are also comes to you late. Many things have Group. Other matters such as MDGs in the focus. We plan to present the been taken as the cause, among others targets, linkage between WSES and activities made by projects such as the hectic schedule at the beginning of other MDGs targets are also included WSLIC-2, ProAir, CWSH in each edi- the year. But in the future we will try in order to broaden our vision. It is tion. the best we can to have Percik come our hope that Percik might become a To make it easier for the reader, regularly. The present edition brings means for MDGs socialization. the entire Percik edition can be acces- to you the theme of Millennium In this edition we also include arti- sed from WSES Working Group web- Development Goals (MDGs). This op- cles related to environmental sanitati- site ( and we can also tion is in response to the strong wish- on, such as the widely-discussed Ban- send electronic file to your address. es from the WSES Working Group to tar Gebang. In special report we are Article, comments and suggestion can disseminate MDGs to all WSES stake- presenting you public toilets in big ci- holders. ties, and the experience of Yayasan also be sent through the above ad- In the main feature, the discussion SEHAT in assisting the community to dress. The variety of articles contain- is focused on the MDGs related as- solve drinking water and sanitation ed in Percik is also because of the va- pects especially target 10 water supply problem. riety of contribution of articles we re- and sanitation. In relation to this, we Beginning from this edition we ceive. For all of those we wish to also present to you the summary of a will regularly present the activities do- thank all of you. We are still waiting paper presented by Ms. Erna Witoelar ne by WSES Working Group and for more articles, comments and sug- (UN Special Ambassador for MDGs in WASPOLA. The WASPOLA and gestion from you. 100 hose People in the village of Garut distric share water from reservoir directly with hose to the house. From technical side this kind is wrong but peo- ple choose it. Source: WASPOLA 1 Percik Vol. 3 /February 2004
  3. 3. Y OUR VOICE Reference Material dan Demokrasi gerial board of Partai Amanat Nasional Jl. Sultan Salahuddin No. 17 herewith expresses its appreciation and Mataram, Lombok thankfulness for your kind attention. Firstly we wish to congratulate you Telp./Fax: 0370-624232 for the publication of WSES related in- We hope that Percik could be valuable Email: mitra@mataram. formation media. The information con- and serve as an input to PAN in the ful- tained in Percik is very valuable as refe- fillment of reform mandate. rence material to Mitra Samya. Mitra Samya has received August Thank you for the enthusiastic res- Machnun Husein 2003 edition. We are waiting for the ponse from our partners in the regions, Executive Secretary following editions because Mitra Samya especially Mitra Samya. We hope is quite concerned about issues related Partai Amanat Nasional Percik can always be used as a refer- DPP Secretariate to WSES development, especially those ence material and at the same time implemented in MPA/PHAST appro- also as means to sharing information ach. among various WSES related stake- Mitra samya has a lot of experience holders We are very pleased if our We are quite thankful if Percik co- in conducting participatory studies partners and friends could share the uld serve as a reference material for since WSLIC-1, WSLIC-2 and presently information contained in this media. every component of the community, es- we are supporting ProAir in the applica- We are waiting your article. (Editor) pecially the political party. In this way tion of MPA/PHAST Methodology. As we could expect the WSES program time goes by, we are preparing article will get a bigger public attention both for your publication. Thank you. As Input to PAN by the decision makers and the com- I Nyoman Oka We would acknowledge receipt of munity. The participation of political Director, Mitra Samya your letter No. 5956/Dt.6.3/12/2003 parties will enhance the acceleration of Lembaga Studi Partisipasi attached to a copy of Percik. The mana- MDGs targets achievement. (Editor) Photos Gallery Source: Ministry of Health 2 Percik Vol. 3 /February 2004
  4. 4. MAIN FEATURE Water Supply and Sanitation Achievement Millennium in the Millennium Development Goals: Development Goals New Target Goal 1: Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger Target 1: Reduction by half, between Classical Issue 1990-2015, the proportion of population with an income less than $1 per day. Target 2: Reduction by half, between A glimpse of Millennium Deve- lopment Goals (MDGs) MDGs represent an agreement of de- inequity, infant mortality rate, health care for mother and child, environmental degradation. The abovementioned pro- 1990-2015, the proportion of population suffering from hunger. velopment goals summarized from vari- blems cannot be solved alone by the deve- Goal 2: Achieve universal primary ous world level conferences and meetings loping nations which most of their re- during the decade of 1990, all of which venues are spent for loan repayment. It is education converge into the resolution of Millen- necessary to build some kind of mutually nium Declaration in September 2000. beneficial cooperation between develo- Target 3: Assurance that by 2015 all Taking the declaration as point of de- ping and developed nations. This un- male and female children can finish pri- parture the UNDP (United Nations Deve- derstanding that forms the base underly- mary education. lopment Programme) in collaboration ing MDGs declaration, and it is expected with other UN departments, the World to become a tool for the unification of Goal 3: Promote gender equity and Bank, IMF (International Monetary world nations in fighting the basic pro- Fund), and OECD (Organization for Eco- blems of humanity. Human problems of empower women nomic Cooperation and Development) the world must be solved together with- took the initiative in developing the goals, out discrimination between developing Target 4: Elimination of gender inequity targets and measurable indicators to me- and developed nations. This is the basic at primary and middle education levels asure the progress. All of which is later idea. by 2005 and at all levels of education by known as Millennium Development Go- 2015. als consisting of 8 goals, 18 targets, and Water Supply and Environmental over 40 indicators. Then in Johannes- Sanitation Related Targets and burg Summit in 2002 the world leaders Goals Goal 4: Reduce child mortality expressed their agreement to the goals From 8 goals and 18 targets WSES is and main targets of MDGs. The goals to directly related to Goal 7 Ensure Environ- Target 5: Reduction by two thirds, be achieved within the 1990-2015 time mental Sustainability and Target 10 halve between 1990-2015, mortality rate of span are: by 2015 the proportion of people without children below the age of 5. sustainable access to safe drinking water Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger and basic sanitation. The achievement of Goal 5: Improve maternal health Achieve universal primary education drinking water and sanitation target is Promote gender equity and empower grossly influential to welfare improve- Target 6: Reduction by three fourths, women ment of world population. This is eviden- between 1990-2015, mortality rate of Reduce child mortality ced from the fact that there are currently Improve maternal health mothers at delivery. 1,1 billion or 1/6 of total world population Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria, and other are without access to drinking water sys- diseases tem and 2,4 billion or 2/5 of total world Goal 6: Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria Ensure environment sustainability population without access to acceptable and other diseases Develop a global partnership for deve- sanitation system. lopment. Reduction half of these figures will, of Target 7: Reduce growth rate by 2015, course, increase health condition, pro- and begin reducing the spread of Why MDGs are Important? ductivity, poverty level, and eventually HIV/AIDS. It is understood that many of the even world economic growth. It is clearly problems faced by the world developing seen that the role of water and sanitation Target 8: Reduce growth rate by 2015, nations are still geared in the area of basic is significantly influential to the achieve- and begin reducing the spread of malaria human needs. For an example, poverty, ment of other targets. illiteracy, lack of education, gender and other diseases. 3 Percik Vol. 3 /February 2004
  5. 5. MA I N F E A T U R E The Preparedness of Other Coun- data from National Action Plan for Goal 7: Ensure environmental sus- tries Drinking Water sector published by tainability As time goes by, it is understood that Ministry of Settlement and Regional In- not every nation will be able to achieve frastructure drinking water service cove- Target 9: Integrate the principle of sus- the target as set forth without any strate- rage in year 2000 can be categorized as tainable development into country policies gic step being prepared. It is estimated (i) piped system, in urban areas 39% and that approximately half of the nations in the rural areas only 8%; (ii) protected and programs and reverse the losses of will not be able achieve the target by non piped system, in urban areas 51% environmental resources. 2015. Based on the currently foreseeable and in rural areas 57%. Total coverage of trend there will be only 20% are certain piped system for urban and rural 20% in Target 10: Halve by 2015 the proportion of to achieve. Global achievement may hap- piped system, and 53% in protected non people without sustainable access to safe pen only because the developed nations piped system. drinking water and basic sanitation. are included in the calculation. Based on the calculation from the Based on a rough estimate, if the tar- above action plan, in year 2015 the get for drinking water is to be achieved coverage target of piped urban drinking Target 11: Have achieved by 2020 a signi- there must be an additional access to at water service is 70%, while protected non ficant improvement in the lives of at least least 250 thousand people per day from piped system is 25%. The coverage for 100 million slum dwellers. now on through year 2015. The achieve- rural areas is 54% in piped system and ment of basic sanitation is even more dif- that for protected non piped system 29%. Goal 8: Develop a global partnership ficult considering the increasing urbani- Based on National Action Plan for Sa- for development zation rate, which means there will be an nitation the condition in Indonesia in increased land scarcity in towns and 2000 can be classified as the following: cities. It is estimated that additional ac- a. Access of population to wastewater Target 12: Establishment of open financial cess to sanitation must reach at least 300 treatment system is approximately and trade system, based on regulation and thousand people per day. 50,35%, consisting of: (i) access to treat- non-discriminative. Up to now (2003) there are 29 nati- ment system for wastewater originating ons recorded to have produced MDGs from toilet (pit latrine, pit type with sep- Target 13: Priority attention be given to country report. South East Asia is repre- tic tank and infiltration, communal was- the need of developing nations. sented by Cambodia, Vietnam, and the tewater installation and small bored se- Philippines. Indonesia is still preparing wer) is estimated at 30,67%, (ii) access to the report. wastewater treatment using server, night Target 14: Priority attention be given to Based on the official report and re- soil processing, oxydation pond. is esti- nations without sea and small island sults of monitoring, the UN Secretary mated at 2,21%, (iii) access to treatment nations. General prepares his annual report. In of waste water originating from non toilet 2003 annual report there are several facility is estimated at 17,47%. Target 15: Comprehensive efforts for sol- important findings, (i) attention to achie- b. Access to wastewater recycling sys- ving the loans of developing nations vement of MDGs has made a meaningful tem such as biogas, irrigation system, through national and international discus- progress, both politically and financially, water culture, manure is not known for (ii) several trends indicate that several certain but it is estimated that the sions towards provision of sustainable long parts of the world will have difficulty in amount is small. term loan program. achieving the MDGs, (iii) it is necessary c. Considering the availability of pub- to renew commitment from the world le- lic toilets, the access of population to ba- Target 16: Cooperation with developing aders to provide opportunity for an in- sic sanitation system is estimated at nations to develop a strategy to create an creased assistance and abolition of fore- 74,03%. appropriate and productive employment ign loans in order to give more opportu- Following the calculation made in the opportunity for child laborer. nity for the developing nations to reduce action plan the target in year 2015 for sa- poverty. nitation will reach 75% of the total popu- lation covering 80% of the urban and Target 17: Cooperation with pharmaceuti- How About Indonesia? 70% of the rural. It should be noted, ho- cal industries to provide access to accept- Although not as poor as it is in some wever, that the figures presented herein able basic medicines for the developing African countries the status of WSES cannot be considered as official because nations. condition in Indonesia cannot be classi- there are still a number of disagreements fied as satisfactory. Based on the avail- concerning the baseline data being used, Target 18: Cooperation with private sector able data (see table) that show a wide including using year 2000 instead of variation both in terms of structure and 1990. in creating new and effective technologies definition, the status of WSES in Indone- According to a study made by especially in information and communica- sia varies widely. UNSFIR (2003) Indonesia can only re- tion As an illustration, if we are using the ach the target of reduction half of the po- 4 Percik Vol. 3 /February 2004
  6. 6. MAIN FEATURE drinking water and basic sanitation as Global Facts mentioned in the MDGs. Based on agree- ment with MDGs Working Group, drink- There are 1,2 billion people with a capital income less than $1 per day, and 153 million undernourished children. ing water is (i) water that can readily be Even in the Sub Saharan Africa half of the population are living in poor condition. consumed; and (ii) water that is taken There are 114 million children are without schooling, this means 1 out of 5 children does from a protected source. not go to school. Besides, the weakness of the available Nearly 11 million children below the age of 5 die each year. data lies with the disregard of the quality There are 500 thousand mothers die at childbirth each year. of the facility, therefore the data basically HIV/AIDS is the first cause of death toll in Sub Saharan Africa. Approximately 2,4 billion population are without access to basic sanitation and around do not reflect the service coverage. Espe- 1,2 billion are without access to drinking water system. cially the consideration of sustainability Developing nations do not have sufficient access to market and information as well as of facility in Indonesia, particularly in technology while their loan repayment burden consumes most of their revenue. connection with sanitation in rural areas, the validity of service coverage becomes questionable. pulation without To t a l Po p u l a t i o n W i t h o u t A c c e s s Along with regional autonomy, the access to water responsibility for water supply and sani- supply in year t o Wo r l d D r i n k i n g Wa t e r Ye a r 2 0 0 0 tation development is relinquished to the 2040. Whereas it regional government. A study conducted is estimated that by JICA reveals that fund allocated for in 2015 there are Arabian Countries human settlement and housing sector is 24 provinces will only 3-5% of the whole budget. Whereas fail to reach their Latin America water supply and sanitation is only one targets. component of the sector. From the amo- South Asia unt of budget one could assume that there Important is a lack of attention from the regional go- issues vernment. PDAM as a potential instituti- Sub Saharan Africa Water supply on for provision of drinking water supply and sanitation is now being interlaced with problems in- condition in Indo- Pasific & East Asia cluding repayment of loans. From a total nesia has not been of 293 PDAMs, 201 are indebted to loans properly recorded at a total of USD 300 millions. This bur- yet. There are a number (millions) den represents a hindrance to improve- number of reasons ment including extension of service cove- (ii) water supply and sanitation develop- underlying it, among others (i) no agree- rage. ment is undertaken by several instituti- ment in data structure, definition of ope- Involvement of public sector in water ons, therefore the data produced are not rational, and detailed components of da- supply development has not shown a well coordinated; (iii) no effort has been ta. As an illustration, there is a variation good prospect both in terms of number of made to regularly update the data, by the in what service coverage means, thus the interested private company as well as the respective institutions. To improve the related data also vary widely (see table), performance of the company itself. Take condition, this year the as an example, the performance of a Proportion of Population Without Access WSES Working Group private company in Jakarta is below the will organize a work- expectation of the majority of the com- to World Drinking WaterYear 2000 shop seminar to for- munity. mulate WSES data Degradation of environmental condi- Arabian Countries 3% structure for use by the tion affects the water source. The availa- stakeholders. Then in bility of raw water in Java is nearing a Latin America 7% cooperation with WAS- critical condition. The availability of raw POLA the Working water source poses difficulty to regions Pacific & Group will try to fol- South Asia 21% East Asia without such a source. low-up the result of the Whereas river as the potential source 43% seminar. indicates a pollution rate almost reaching In relation to the the upper limit of tolerance. Consequen- availability of data as tly, management cost is considerably in- Sub Saharan Africa mentioned above, it is creased. 26% necessary to first agree on what is meant by 5 Percik Vol. 3 /February 2004
  7. 7. M AIN FEATURE Ta r g e t Number of Provinces Year when Indonesia will reach that will fail to reach MDGs target MDGs target Reduction half of poverty rate All children finish elementary school Free from illiteracy Abolition of gender inequity in primary and secondary schools Reduction 2/3 of children mortality rate Reduction ¾ of mortality rate of mothers at childbirth Reduction half of the proportion of population without access to safe drinking water supply Source: UNSFIR More Achievement Effect The better quality of human prosperous nation of Water Supply and resource Reduce Sanitation to the poverty The better other Target education Economizing of nation budget Economizing of Daughter must The girl healthy cost continue the study to higher school Children have time for Free from diarrhea school Access to and water diseases Access to sanitation water supply based Reduce load of women Reduce of The better Deceive the environment children women mortality Care of baby, The better Reduce birth of the better nutrition baby under nutrition normally weight Source: MDG’s Achievement workshop Jakarta, February, 17, 2004 6 Percik Vol. 3 /February 2004
  8. 8. MAIN FEATURE Access to Water Supply In Indonesia (%) in criteria then our status is not that bad. Source Urban Rural Total Similarly with basic sanitation, if what we 1990 2000 1990 2000 1990 2000 mean is a simple latrine and not a mo- UNICEFand WHO UNICEF and WHO 90 91 60 65 69 76 dern wastewater disposal system, then National Social Economy Survey SUSENAS (2002) N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 89 PERPAMSIof Indonesia Drinking Water Companies Association (2001) N/A 39 N/A N/A N/A N/A again we do not have to worry too much. National Action Plan, Water Supply Sector National Action Plan, Water Supply Sector N/A 90 N/A 65 N/A 71 Of course MDGs target can only be KIMPRASWIL (2003) and Regional Infrastucture Ministry of Settlement achieved through hard work and straigh- WASPOLA WASPOLA N/A 15 N/A N/A N/A N/A tening up problems intertwining water N/A = not available supply and environmental sanitation sec- Access to Basic Sanitation Service (%) tor. Several preliminary steps must be ta- Source Urban Urban Rural Total Total ken such as the ones brought forward by 1990 2000 1990 2000 1990 2000 Agus Prabowo (Chairman of MDGs UNICEF and WHO (2000) UNICEF and WHO (2000) 76 67 44 52 54 66 Working Group V) that socialization SUSENAS (2002) and ProsperityProsperity Statistic (2003) National Social Economy Survey (2002) and Statistic (2003) N/A 88,5 N/A 64,1 N/A 68 activity has not been fully undertaken to National Action Waste Sector, Sector, KIMPRASWIL National Action Plan, Plan, Waste N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 50 (2003) of Settlement and Regional Infrastructure (2003) Ministry make all the stakeholders sufficiently in- formed. Besides, we havent fully explo- red the potentials within the community. ACCES TO WATER SUPPLY IN THE WORLD It is the duty of the government to provi- Pessimistic or Optimistic? de facilitation in order to have the po- Oceania To answer the above question one tentials exploited effectively and efficien- should first look back to the statement tly, says Basah Hernowo, Director of Hu- South East man Settlement and Housing, Bappenas. Asia made by Erna Witoelar during the MDGs R E G I O N S We should be able to take the benefit Workshop in Jakarta on 17 February East Asia of MDGs momentum as a starting point 2004 with her motto saying "No Excuse to iron out problems in water supply and Latin America 2015" all the targets must be reached. Er- environmental sanitation sector. MDGs na added that we do not have to worry be- is actually the commitment of industriali- Sub Saharan Africa cause the targets initially came from us. zed nations to help the developing coun- North Africa This is also reflected in the MDGs Indo- tries solve the basic human needs. We nesia Country Report which is being pre- should have captured the momentum. If pared by the MDGs Working Group we only treat MDGs as a routine, MDGs Proportion with acces to water supply which states that drinking water does not will only become a means to decide a new Urban 1990 Urban 2000 only include water that is readily drink- target without any instigation. If so, then Rural 1990 Rural 2000 able but also water that is taken from a MDGs is just like a new target in a clas- protected source. If we see it from this sical issue. ACCES TO WATER SUPPLY IN SOUTH-EAST ASIA (1990, 2000, 2015) INTERESTING FACTS RELATED TO WSES 1 Lack of access to drinking water, sanitation and improper hygiene condition have caused Singapore the death of 3 million children of developing nations. 2. 200 million of world population is suffering from schistosomiasis. Scientific studies sug- gest that reduction of rate of incidence by 77% can be reached through improvement in C O U N T R Y Philippine quality of and access to water supply and sanitation 3. During the last 10 years diarrhea disease killed more children than the total death toll of Thailand World War II 4. In China, India and Indonesia the number of people die from diarrhea is double that from Vietnam HIV/AIDS 5. In 1998 there were 308 thousand people died as war victims in Africa, but more than 2 Indonesia million died from diarrhea disease 6. A study in Karachi indicates that population living in an area without sufficient sanitation and they lack the knowledge in hygienic life has to spend 6 times more money for medicare than those living in areas with sufficient sanitation facility Proportion with acces to water supply 7. Women of Africa and Asia walk 6 km to take water from a source. They carry 20 kg of water on their heads 8. Per liter water tariff charged to population living in slum area of Kibeira, Kenya is 5 times higher than an average American citizen has to pay 7 Percik Vol. 3 /February 2004
  9. 9. MA I N F E A T U R E Important Questions in Relation to Millennium Development Goals 1. What is Millennium Development on poverty trend during the decade 1990 achieved yet there is a likeliness the target Goals (MDGs)? indicates that we would be able to reduce will not be reached, except when there is MDGs represent an agreement of poverty rate by 2015 in compliance with a fourfold acceleration. development goals summarized from the target. But in reality in each indivi- In 1990 the progress in reducing the various world level conferences and dual nation, many are still in the stage of rate of infant mortality, mothers death at meetings during the decade of 1990, all of increasing poverty rate. The total poor childbirth, malnutrition, and access to which converge into the resolution of population in Sub Sahara, South Asia and water supply and sanitation is relatively Millennium Declaration in September Latin America has increased by 10 million lower than it was in the earlier decade. 2000. since 1990. Many countries experience a The emergence of epidemic AIDS, mala- Taking the declaration as point of de- twofold decrease in community welfare ria and failure of government to provide parture the UNDP (United Nations De- during the last two decades. the necessary health services have been velopment Programme) in collaboration There are currently 1,2 billion people attributable to the unfavorable condition with other UN departments, the World live with less than $1 income per day. No in the decade 1990. Bank, IMF, and OECD (Organization for meaningful improvement from the last Economic Cooperation and Develop- decade. The progress in other targets 3. Whether the goals in MDGs can ment) took an initiative to develope goals, varies widely. In 1990, a target in educa- be achieved? targets and measurable indicators to tion for all was set forth to be reached by Yes, in terms of financial as well as measure the progress. All of which is la- 2000. Favorable result is obtained from technical. However, some nations may ter known as Millennium Development reduction by half gender inequity in edu- need assistance in technical, policy Goals consisting of 8 goals, 18 targets, cation, but unfortunately the overall tar- adjustment, and institutional empower- and over 40 indicators. Then in Johan- get achievement is merely one tenth. As a ment. It is a miracle if a poor nation can nesburg Summit in 2002 the world lead- consequence, the target is moved back to achieve the targets without international ers expressed their agreement to the goals 2015. Although some progress may be assistance. and main targets of MDGs. The goals to be achieved within the 1990-2015 time 4. Are the goals of MDGs based on span are: economic consideration? Eradicate extreme poverty and The rate of return of human resources hunger Human resources investment in the developing nations is Achieve universal primary investment can speed very high. Many of the nations are en- education tangled in poverty mesh because of poor Promote gender equity and up MDGs achievement health condition, insufficient nutrition, empower women and also improve eco- low education, limited access to water Reduce child mortality supply and sanitation, and even high po- Improve maternal health nomic growth, creation pulation growth. In addition, geogra- Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria, phical condition also influences poverty, and other diseases of employment such as remoteness of region, changes in Ensure environment opportunity, improved climatic condition, environmental degra- sustainability dation, tropical diseases. This condition Develop a global partnership productivity, and represent the logical explanation for for development. being less favorable to investment. increased revenue that Human resources investment can 2. What is our (world) status in eventually lead to speed up MDGs achievement and also terms of the condition for achieving improve economic growth, creation of MDGs in 2015? macro economic employment opportunity, improved pro- In general the target can only be stability. ductivity, and increased revenue that achieved through serious commitment eventually lead to macro economic sta- and hard work. Simple calculation based bility. 8 Percik Vol. 3 /February 2004
  10. 10. M AIN FEATURE Participants of Workshop on MDG Achievement through Action Plans for WSES sector in Jakarta 17-19 February 2004. 5. Can the financing gap be over- 7. Why a global campaign is need- come? ed? Based on estimate made by UNICEF, For developing Global campaign is needed to bridge World Bank and WHO to achieve the up the targets to be achieved with the MDGs targets it will need a budget of countries, the complication of problems at the real approximately $50 billion a year. This re- campaign is focused on world level. The campaign is expected to presents additional fund on top of the improve and then maintain world atten- currently being set aside. This means do- domestic resources tion and action focused to MDGs targets. uble the present requirement. For developed nations, the campaign Though in terms of amount this looks mobilization, streng- is focused on assistance and reduction of big but only represent one fifth per cent of thening human rights, loan repayment based on the actual reve- the income of the developing nations. nue, assurance that assistance is allocated democracy and good to respective sector in MDGs, and cre- 6. What is meant by MDGs report? ation of market for the products from UNDP is supporting the preparation governance in accor- developing nations, especially the poor of progress report in MDGs achievement dance with the countries. of each country. The assumption is that For developing countries, the cam- each country report will help in speeding Millennium paign is focused on domestic resources up target achievement, as well as dissemi- Declaration. mobilization, strengthening human nation of MDGs from international to rights, democracy and good governance national level. in accordance with the Millennium The purpose of MDGs report is to help Declaration. Each of these objectives are increase public attention, stimulate dis- adjusted with objective condition in each cussion related to challenges in develop- the existing reports such as Common nation and target group. The format of ment, renewal of political commitment, Country Assessments, Poverty Reduction campaign is also adjusted with the local and help the developing nations and Strategy Papers, or National Human condition. donor countries create a detailed and bet- Development Reports, in order to mini- A sustained campaign program can ter budget framework based on the prin- mize burden to each of the nations. help to make MDGs as a priority, and cre- ciple of mutual confidence. Up to now (2003) there are 29 coun- ation of a realistic planning. A campaign The report is targeted to mass media ties already completed MDGs report.Five that involves political debate, public poli- and the general public. MDGs report others, including Indonesia are still cy debate, academic debate, using facts should be concise, easily understandable preparing it. It was planned that in 2004 and detailed figures about MDGs will so that the message could easily be all countries have completed each of their speed up attention toward MDGs. absorbed. It should follow the format of reports 9 Percik Vol. 3 /February 2004
  11. 11. M AIN FEATURE Result of Studies and Empirical Observations related to MDGs targets for WSES development Research initiated by the World Bank in 43 countries reveals that (i) access to piped water supply service is main key to the reduction infant mortality rate. This explains why there is approximately 25% infant mortality, and 37% children mortality rate difference between the rich and the poor nations; (ii) lack of acceptable sanitation system and improper pit well condition: contribute 10% and 20% difference in malnutrition between the rich and the poor nations Goal 1 → Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger Infrastructure and housing influence poverty through (i) economic growth; (ii) reduce weakness due to health condition; (iii) increase family income Goal 2 → Guarantee education for all Water and sanitation influence school attendance and mark in examination Lack of water reduces attendance to class by 2-17% in Africa Improvement in ownership of pit wells and public taps increase number of schoolchildren school children by 20% in rural areas of India Water and sanitation increases attendance by 15% in Bangladesh Better water supply and sanitation is related to reduction in rate of absence in Tanzania and Nigeria. Indonesia represents a country in SE Asia with the lowest number of children enrolled to school (UNESCO Education Statistics, 2003) Goal 3 Promote gender equity Infrastructure like water supply, sanitation, housing, electricity based on MDGs strategy represents one of three intervention tools in improving gender equity and empowerment of women Access to water supply and basic sanitation will strengthen the role of women through a better Access on waterown life and basic energy, privacy and pride, the role of women through a better control to their supply (time and sanitation will strengthen employment opportunity) control on waterown life system and environmental sanitation in schools improves girl attendance Access to their supply (time and energy, privacy and pride, employment opportunity) during puberty reduces gender inequity in secondary schools Access to water supply system and environmental sanitation in schools improves girl attendance during puberty → reduces gender inequity in secondary schools Goals 4 and 5 → Improve maternal and children health Water and sanitation reduces infant and children mortality rate Access to clean water reduces children mortality rate by 55% (42 studies) Women in the rural Africa and Asia walk 6 km a day carrying 20 kg of water on their heads. Pregnant women doing this may give birth to baby with less than normal weight, and risk complication during delivery 10 Percik Vol. 3 /February 2004
  12. 12. M AIN FEATURE Erna Witoelar (UN Special Ambassador for MDGs in Asia and the Pacific) N o E x c u s e 2 0 1 5 I n the opening of MDGs achieve- ment workshop on through WSES Action Plans in Indonesia held on 17 February 2004 Erna Witoelar takes the opportunity to explain about Millennium Development Goals focusing on Drinking Water and Sanitation in Indonesia. Economic crisis in Indonesia has caused a slowdown in the achievement of community access to water supply and sanitation service. However, it is esti- mated that Indonesia will achieve most of the MDGs in year 2015, though poverty enclosures will still be found in some provinces. Quoting the data from Susenas (National census) 2002, the in achieving MDGs targets. First, it access to benefit. Drinking water is the households with acceptable water supply might be necessary to link water and right for everyone, it is not a commodity system with an access level reaching 80% sanitation target with other issues of the for trading. Fourth, it is necessary to are only in Jakarta, Bali, Yogyakarta, East Millennium Declaration, e.g. human increase funding for water supply and Java, Banten, North Sulawesi, Central rights, good governance, and peace and sanitation system from various sources. Java, West Java. Other regions like security. Second, National policy and Fifth, women are highly affected with Central Kalimantan, North Maluku and regulatory framework for an integrated water insufficiency. Therefore, they Papua are standing below 50%. Access to water resources management is deemed should be the ones to play the leading sanitation indicates an even worse situa- required in order to enhance drinking role. Sixth, sustainable water and sanita- tion. Only Jakarta, Yogyakarta and water service mechanism through parti- tion for urban poor should be integrated Lampung reach 80% access. cipatory approaches in all phases of the with improvement program for city Water supply and sanitation is closely development, enhance the level of ser- slums, including guarantee for ownership linked to other MDGs goals, namely vice, and focuses be placed on the com- to slum inhabitants. The local govern- poverty (goal 1), education (goal 2), gen- munity based facility. Third, attention ment should wage a war to "local mafia." der (goal 3) children mortality (goal 4), should be focused at improvement of Seventh, implementation of water supply mothers mortality (goal 5) and eradica- Proportion of Households having access to Water Supply and sanitation project is conducted at the tion of diseases. The following facts may Service, per province, 2002 kabupaten/kota level, while the monitor- suffice to explain the linkage. Sufficient Papua (2001) ing and technical assistance by the water may become one way in poverty West Kalimantan provincial level government. Jambi reduction, through reducing the time Erna Witoelar wrapped up her pres- Gorontalo needed to take water, and reducing fami- East Kalimantan entation by saying that we must achieve ly expenditure for buying water. Water South-east Sulawesi the MDGs goals. We have no excuse. We insufficiency and lack of sanitation ser- INDONESIA proposed the targets ourselves after con- vice discourage qualified teachers to Central Java sidering to what we have in hands. Our work in villages. A long queue mostly of East Java nation has the resources, technology, and Jakarta women and children to get water dismiss knowledge that are needed to provide the opportunity for girls to attend their Percentage (%) water supply and sanitation service for Proportion of Households having access to Basic Sanitation, everyone. The problems lies with how class. More than 3 million mostly infant per province, 2002 and children below the age of 5 die each water can be used wisely, improve water Maluku year because of water borne disease like Central Sulawesi supply and sanitation service and in- diarrhea. West Kalimantan volvement of the stakeholders. Water and sanitation become the ini- South-East Sulawesi tial point to gain acceleration for achiev- Central Java Source: Presentation made by Erna INDONESIA Witoelar in the Opening Ceremony of ing the other MDGs goals. Global part- East Nusa Tenggara nership may enhance this achievement Workshop on Millennium Development Goals East Kalimantan process through the principle of good Riau Achievement Through Action Plans for governance in water and sanitation sys- Jakarta Drinking Water and Sanitation Sector tem development. Erna Witoelar ex- Jakarta February 17, 2004 Percentage (%) pressed a number of policy implications Table: BPS 2002. 11 Percik Vol. 3 /February 2004
  13. 13. I NTERVIEWDr. R. Hening DarpitoDirector of Hygienic Water and Sanitation, Department of Health “Water has an initiating power”W hat is health sector doing to sup- port achievement of target 10? It seems that MDGs have been What is the linkage between MDGs program with the existing projects? We have been appointed as the exe- What would be done to make MDGs targets achieved? The most important is establishmentabsorbed by Indonesian government. cuting agency for community-based pro- of good governance. Government, pri-Now are being translated into action jects. We implement the projects in col- vate sector, community must work to-plans. In water supply and sanitation laboration with the regional govern- gether toward that direction. For thissector we actually have started it in 1980- ments. This represents the application of purpose it is necessary to organize large90 in response to the water and sanita- the policy formulated by WASPOLA scale public campaign. The key is in twotion decade. At that time the government (Water Supply & Sanitation Policy For- factors, professionalism and transparen-prepared an extensive plan through mulation & Action Planning). It seems cy.Inpres Samijaga (drinking water and that the policy is in agreement with thehousehold toilet). During the 10-year pe- targets contained in MDGs.riod the facilities constructed are stan-dardized. But because community invol- How would the lack of communityvement was quite minimum the facilities interest be dealt with?are not maintained. After 1997, the target Awareness is not an indepen-changed. After 2000 as a consequence to dent factor by itself. It is inhe-decentralization the leading role is given rent within program implemen-to the regional governments. But the le- tation. That is why we have tovel of interest vary from region to region. start with the reasons behind it.Some are highly interested while othersare almost entirely ignorant. After the How can water supply andsigning of MDGs, particularly for drink- sanitation projects be madeing water and sanitation, we rely more to as the spearhead in achiev-Bappenas to coordinate the planning ing MDGs?aspect. Water has a initiating power so that other problems can also beWhat action plans are proposed? solved. Toilet, for instance. If water This is how it looks. Water and sani- is available and one will begin totation is not solely a health related issue. think of having a toilet. I thinkIt is very difficult to work out an indepen- what is contained in MDGs aredent action plan because this is the res- in line with the target of ourponsibility of the government as a whole. Indonesia Healthy Program inAll the related agencies must sit together 2010.and prepare the plan. What is most im-portant is executive and legislative com-mitment. If there is a political will fromthe executive from the central to theregional level, and the legislative from thecentral to the regional level, the privatesector and the community can be per-suaded to move. Political will cannot beupheld by one agency alone but as a com-bined action by all sectors. The most im-portant is that the action plan mustbelong to and respected by everyone. Thenext would be, how the action plan could bedisseminated to the regions and then to theprivate sector in order to create a favor-able atmosphere for investment. 12 Percik Vol. 3 /February 2004
  14. 14. I NTERVIEW Ir. Basah Hernowo, MA Director of Human Settlement and Housing, National Development Planning Agency “Empowerment is the key”W hat is the linkage between MDGs with the national policyfor water supply and environmen- Whether the MDGs momentum give tints to the formulation of national policy for institutionally PDAMs with big coverage are heavily indebted. This is a case that happens now and might happen again in the future.tal sanitation? based WSES development? We have made a rule to prevent PDAM MDGs consist of many targets, drink- More than just that. This is related to indebted again. Then we improve theing water and sanitation being one of the service provided for by a kabupaten management performance and finallythem. The community based develop- and kota level corporate body (PDAM). introduction of new technology in waterment policy represents our effort to over- Considering the inefficient service we will supply and sanitation system. Such ascome the low government budget. It is make the PDAM improve its efficiency, solid waste, if we maintain sanitary land-very difficult if we were to rely only on then we stimulate them to serve the con- fill technology which need hundredsgovernment budget. If in 2015 the popu- sumers. If a PDAM serve less than hectares of land, how can this idea belation reach 240 million level, there will 10.000 homes why not dissolve it and maintained in a big city like Jakarta?be at least 48 million households each turn it into a local government service so Therefore we have to look to a more envi-requires $40-60 for drinking water only, that it can be subsidized by the go- ronmentally friendly technology.the amount of budget is 40 times 48 mil- vernment. It would be bet-lion in US dollars. Considering govern- ter than an expensive Could you elaborate on the termi-ment and legislative attention in water investment in a poor nology drinking water and sanita-supply and sanitation sector is very low repayment rate. tion in MDGs?we have no choice but community But if a plant has MDGs do not include solid waste.empowerment. We provide them with a promising po- Environmental sanitation shouldstimulant. Provide facilitation to the tential we will also cover the problems of liquidhuman resources. Thus MDGs are close- help it to grow. waste, solid waste and related to the National Policy for At this moment MDGs is focused at wastewater.Community-Based Water Supply and most of big I think all those are closely related.Environmental Sanitation Development 13 Percik 2004 Vol. 3 /February
  15. 15. I NTERVIEWIt is impossible for us to deal only withwastewater while the garbage anddrainage are left unattended. I think withregard MDGs we should not set our atten- It is impossible to being a single sectortion to terminology per se but rather wealso pay attention to other problems and achieve its own goals.related to it. It might happen that onetown is free from wastewater problem but All sectors must work in synergy with othersits garbage disposal system is a mess.This becomes a challenge, whether we in order to be efficient.will deal with wastewater only or toinclude also its related components.How was target 10 determined andwhat year is taken as the baseline? loan? only a public servant, not a bureaucrat Actually we used baseline data of There is always possibility. The ques- nor an authority.1990. But the question is, whether the tion is, whether we are ready? The do-assets of 14 years ago are still in record? nors are always ready because they will What is your opinion regardingIt is difficult to find it. The global data make benefit if we borrow. We are trying pessimistic attitude in achievingmay be OK, but what about the details. to create a condition where foreign loan is MDGs targets?Data inaccuracy may lead to inefficient not the main source of financing. I think It is quite natural. They are pes-service. If we used 1990 data the level our community is capable if we can simistic because they know the budgetmay be lower. What we could do was to mobilize it. allocation for water supply and sanitationmake our calculation based on the exist- is extremely low. Less than one per centing data. If population in 2003 is 210 Is there problem in inter-sector of gross domestic revenue. The point ismillion and the service coverage of piped coordination? now how to motivate those who are pes-system is 39-40%, this means that the Up to this time inter-sector coordina- simistic to learn that the community hastarget for 2015 which half of the present- tion has made some improvement. It is an unexploited potential. It is our jobly without access is approximately 30%. impossible to being a single sector and now to unearth the potential. The duty ofTherefore the total service coverage in achieve its own goals. All sectors must the government is to facilitate it. That isthat year is 70%. For sanitation, in 2003 work in synergy with others in order to be why, do not be pessimistic now. Let us bethe figure reads 8%. Those without efficient. We have to realize that we are together to work things out.access are 92%. In 2015 the total house-holds who have access to sanitation sys-tem is 8% plus 46% equals 54%.Does it mean there must be a strate-gic step to achieve the target? We have to strengthen the communi-ty. Without strengthening (empower-ment) it will be difficult to reach the tar-gets because government budget is verylow. An annual budget of Rp1,2 trillionfor human settlement and housing sectoris far from sufficient because we actuallyneed three to four times that amount.Such an amount of money, where can weget it from? It is here that communityempowerment is inevitable.The phases for achieving the target,have they been developed? Not yet. It should be ideal if the avail-able fund were sufficient.Is there possibility for a foreign 14 Percik Vol. 3 /February 2004
  16. 16. I NTERVIEW DR. AGUS PRABOWO Director of Natural Resources and Environment Control, National Development Planning Agency Insufficient SocializationCould you elaborate how Pokja known yet. Because not much has been No campaign being conducted yet?MDGs Working Group was initially done for its socialization yet. The know- Not yet. But at national level we haveorganized? ledge is still limited within the circle of an ambassador, Ibu Erna Witoelar. I This began when Mr. Syahrial Luthan, those directly involved. The others are think it is the job of Ibu Erna to organizeDirector of Multilateral Foreign Finan- alien to it. the campaign.cing, National Development PlanningAgency attended the MDGs meeting. He How is Indonesias preparedness forwas given a mandate to organize a pokja achieving targets by 2015?(kelompok kerja, working group). A I can explain this through my ownmeeting in Bappenas was held in 2003 to working group in dealing with target 9.form the pokja. Later there are 5 working There are three components, first is inte-groups organized, though without a for- gration of sustainable development prin-mal Letter of decision. This is based on ciples into the national policy, andpartnership, not top down relationship. replenishment of the missing environ-The members represent the need of each mental resources. I am optimistic thispokja. target can be reached. As this is a sus- tainable development, everything has Why is it that MDGs echo is been included in the Propenas (Nationalnot as loud as it is with Development Program). Second, halveother programs? by 2015 the proportion of people with- I guess youre right. out access to safe drinking water andMDGs arent well basic sanitation. I have some doubt in this. This is drinking water, whereas what we have in Indonesia right now is only clean water. Is it possi- ble that by 2015 we can make it into half? 15 Percik Vol. 3 /February 2004
  17. 17. I NTERVIEWThe third, to arrive at a meaningfulimprovement to welfare condition of 100million population in 2020. The possibi-lity is fifty-fifty.It seems difficult to reach it. Thenwhy are those being decided as indi-cators? This is an international level commonagreement which is not based on scienti-fic calculation, or analysis of facts. This isbased merely on common determination.As we see it, this program is acooperation of the rich and thepoor nations. How does it look likein reality? It is a long story. MDGs represent aglobal agreement which started since1978 in Commission on EnvironmentDevelopment in Stockholm. In that timethere arose a common awareness bet-ween the developed and the developingnations. The common awareness rolls oninto a meeting in Rio in 1992. Then inJohannesburg in 2002. This all comesfrom common awareness. The developednations admit they have done degrada-tion to environment. On the other side usually flatterers. The more so is Ame- What is the recent status of reportthe south nations are poor but they have rica, the most flattering nation of all. preparation?natural resources reserve. The common All working groups have completed.awareness is one alone cannot be rich Does the program pose any a new Draft has been translated into English.while others around him are still poor. burden to Indonesian government? Indonesian version is already in final .The following idea is that each developed No. With or without MDGs Indonesianation set aside 0,1% of their gross must do as what is contained in MDGs. What does the report contain?national income to help the developing Thus MDGs is a reminder that we are All targets.countries. But the developed nations will being monitored by international com-not help just for the sake of helping. They munity. Of all the targets what percentage iswant to know the targets to be achieved. within the optimistic rate?One way of doing this is through compila- This means, before there were It is difficult to estimate.tion into the MDGs. In other words, MDGs targets we already have stepsMDGs is an agreement among the poor toward this direction? In water supply and sanitation, fornations. Yes, of course. The Repelita (Annual example? Plan) documents contain just those. With drinking water it is more difficult,What are the formats of the assis- but with sanitation relatively easier. Fortance? The targets are internationally example, per capita emission. The Americans Assistance can come in various diffe- agreed. How if there were a drastic are 200 times higher than we forms. The assistance is called ODA change in a specific country?(Official Development Assistance), some This is a very good question? If there What consequence will a poorare loan funded, others in grant fund. For were a drastic change the result will be country suffer if she fails to reachenvironment it is specially grant fund. If influenced. Take for instance, poverty. the target?it is a loan the interest rate is very low. In 1997 our poverty figure is 11%. But The consequence is the ODAThe essence is the developed nations shortly after monetary crisis it rose tohelping the developing countries. The to- 22%. After 5 years we start to recover, What are the barriers in achievingtal amount of fund is 0,1% of gross now it is 18%. This means we suffer from the MDGs targets?incomes of those countries. But the fact is setback. The goals in MDGs are set forth I think it is the mental attitude, socialsmaller than that. The rich nations are based on normal condition. and collective responsibility. 16 Percik Vol. 3 /February 2004