Indonesia Water Supply and Sanitation Magazine. 'PERCIK' Vol 3 February 2004

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  • 1. ContentInformation Media for Water Supply and Environmental Sanitation From Editor 1 Advisor: Director General for Urban and Your Voice 2 Rural Development, Ministry of Settlement Main Feature and Regional Infrastructure Water Supply and Sanitation Achievement in the Millennium Board of Head: Development Goals: New Target Classical Issue 3 Director of Human Settlement and Housing, Important Questions in Relation to Millennium National Development Planning Agency Development Goals 8 Republic of Indonesia Director of Water and Sanitation, Erna Witoelar: No Excuse 2015 11 Ministry of Health Interview Director of Urban and Rural Eastern Region, Dr. R. Hening Darpito: Water has an initiating power 12 Ministry of Settlement and Regional Infrastructure Ir. Basah Hernowo, MA: Empowerment is the key 13 Director of Natural Resources and Appropriate DR. Agus Prabowo: Insufficient Socialization 15 Technology, Director General on Village and Community Empowerment, Article Ministry of Home Affairs Bantar Gebang: Potrait of a poor solid waste Director for Facilitation of Special Planning management in Jakarta 17 Environment Management, Ministry of Home Affairs Children Manifesto 19 Feature Chief Editor: When public toilet is desire 20 Oswar Mungkasa Reportage Board of Editor: The Community of Kureksari, Sidoarjo Hartoyo, Johan Susmono, Indar Parawansa, is waiting for water supply 22 Poedjastanto Field Visit Editor: Fund request procedure is not yet simplified 23 Maraita Listyasari, Rewang Budiyana, Rheidda Pramudhy, Joko Wartono, Essy Asiah, Mujiyanto Technology choice cannot be made uniform 24 Counterpart fund is a problem 24 Design: WASPOLA Rudi Kosasih Workshop for development of national policy for Production: community based water supply and environmental Machrudin sanitation implementation strategy 25 Distribution: Water supply and sanitation facility ownership Anggie Rifki within the community 26 Workshop for vision formulation for water supply Address: Jl. Cianjur No. 4, Menteng, Jakarta Pusat and environmental sanitation sector development Phone: (021) 31904113 in Indonesia 28 e-mail: redaksipercik@yahoo.com redaksi@ampl.or.id Water supply and sanitation policy formulation and oswar@bappenas.go.id action planning (WASPOLA) phase 2 29 Workshop on achievement of Millennium Development Goals 32 Unsolicited article or opinion items are welcome. Book Info 33 Please send to our address or e-mail. Website Info 35 Dont forget to be brief and accompanied by identity. Agenda 36
  • 2. F ROM THE EDITOR U nconsciously, time goes by Asia and the Pacific) in a MDGs WSES Working Group Work Plan for and it is now that we visit you Workshop conducted by WASPOLA in 2004 and several activities during again. The present edition collaboration with WSES Working 2003 and beginning of 2004 are also comes to you late. Many things have Group. Other matters such as MDGs in the focus. We plan to present the been taken as the cause, among others targets, linkage between WSES and activities made by projects such as the hectic schedule at the beginning of other MDGs targets are also included WSLIC-2, ProAir, CWSH in each edi- the year. But in the future we will try in order to broaden our vision. It is tion. the best we can to have Percik come our hope that Percik might become a To make it easier for the reader, regularly. The present edition brings means for MDGs socialization. the entire Percik edition can be acces- to you the theme of Millennium In this edition we also include arti- sed from WSES Working Group web- Development Goals (MDGs). This op- cles related to environmental sanitati- site (www.ampl.or.id) and we can also tion is in response to the strong wish- on, such as the widely-discussed Ban- send electronic file to your address. es from the WSES Working Group to tar Gebang. In special report we are Article, comments and suggestion can disseminate MDGs to all WSES stake- presenting you public toilets in big ci- holders. ties, and the experience of Yayasan also be sent through the above ad- In the main feature, the discussion SEHAT in assisting the community to dress. The variety of articles contain- is focused on the MDGs related as- solve drinking water and sanitation ed in Percik is also because of the va- pects especially target 10 water supply problem. riety of contribution of articles we re- and sanitation. In relation to this, we Beginning from this edition we ceive. For all of those we wish to also present to you the summary of a will regularly present the activities do- thank all of you. We are still waiting paper presented by Ms. Erna Witoelar ne by WSES Working Group and for more articles, comments and sug- (UN Special Ambassador for MDGs in WASPOLA. The WASPOLA and gestion from you. 100 hose People in the village of Garut distric share water from reservoir directly with hose to the house. From technical side this kind is wrong but peo- ple choose it. Source: WASPOLA 1 Percik Vol. 3 /February 2004
  • 3. Y OUR VOICE Reference Material dan Demokrasi gerial board of Partai Amanat Nasional Jl. Sultan Salahuddin No. 17 herewith expresses its appreciation and Mataram, Lombok thankfulness for your kind attention. Firstly we wish to congratulate you Telp./Fax: 0370-624232 for the publication of WSES related in- We hope that Percik could be valuable Email: mitra@mataram. formation media. The information con- and serve as an input to PAN in the ful- wasantara.net.id tained in Percik is very valuable as refe- fillment of reform mandate. rence material to Mitra Samya. Mitra Samya has received August Thank you for the enthusiastic res- Machnun Husein 2003 edition. We are waiting for the ponse from our partners in the regions, Executive Secretary following editions because Mitra Samya especially Mitra Samya. We hope is quite concerned about issues related Partai Amanat Nasional Percik can always be used as a refer- DPP Secretariate to WSES development, especially those ence material and at the same time implemented in MPA/PHAST appro- also as means to sharing information ach. among various WSES related stake- Mitra samya has a lot of experience holders We are very pleased if our We are quite thankful if Percik co- in conducting participatory studies partners and friends could share the uld serve as a reference material for since WSLIC-1, WSLIC-2 and presently information contained in this media. every component of the community, es- we are supporting ProAir in the applica- We are waiting your article. (Editor) pecially the political party. In this way tion of MPA/PHAST Methodology. As we could expect the WSES program time goes by, we are preparing article will get a bigger public attention both for your publication. Thank you. As Input to PAN by the decision makers and the com- I Nyoman Oka We would acknowledge receipt of munity. The participation of political Director, Mitra Samya your letter No. 5956/Dt.6.3/12/2003 parties will enhance the acceleration of Lembaga Studi Partisipasi attached to a copy of Percik. The mana- MDGs targets achievement. (Editor) Photos Gallery Source: Ministry of Health 2 Percik Vol. 3 /February 2004
  • 4. MAIN FEATURE Water Supply and Sanitation Achievement Millennium in the Millennium Development Goals: Development Goals New Target Goal 1: Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger Target 1: Reduction by half, between Classical Issue 1990-2015, the proportion of population with an income less than $1 per day. Target 2: Reduction by half, between A glimpse of Millennium Deve- lopment Goals (MDGs) MDGs represent an agreement of de- inequity, infant mortality rate, health care for mother and child, environmental degradation. The abovementioned pro- 1990-2015, the proportion of population suffering from hunger. velopment goals summarized from vari- blems cannot be solved alone by the deve- Goal 2: Achieve universal primary ous world level conferences and meetings loping nations which most of their re- during the decade of 1990, all of which venues are spent for loan repayment. It is education converge into the resolution of Millen- necessary to build some kind of mutually nium Declaration in September 2000. beneficial cooperation between develo- Target 3: Assurance that by 2015 all Taking the declaration as point of de- ping and developed nations. This un- male and female children can finish pri- parture the UNDP (United Nations Deve- derstanding that forms the base underly- mary education. lopment Programme) in collaboration ing MDGs declaration, and it is expected with other UN departments, the World to become a tool for the unification of Goal 3: Promote gender equity and Bank, IMF (International Monetary world nations in fighting the basic pro- Fund), and OECD (Organization for Eco- blems of humanity. Human problems of empower women nomic Cooperation and Development) the world must be solved together with- took the initiative in developing the goals, out discrimination between developing Target 4: Elimination of gender inequity targets and measurable indicators to me- and developed nations. This is the basic at primary and middle education levels asure the progress. All of which is later idea. by 2005 and at all levels of education by known as Millennium Development Go- 2015. als consisting of 8 goals, 18 targets, and Water Supply and Environmental over 40 indicators. Then in Johannes- Sanitation Related Targets and burg Summit in 2002 the world leaders Goals Goal 4: Reduce child mortality expressed their agreement to the goals From 8 goals and 18 targets WSES is and main targets of MDGs. The goals to directly related to Goal 7 Ensure Environ- Target 5: Reduction by two thirds, be achieved within the 1990-2015 time mental Sustainability and Target 10 halve between 1990-2015, mortality rate of span are: by 2015 the proportion of people without children below the age of 5. sustainable access to safe drinking water Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger and basic sanitation. The achievement of Goal 5: Improve maternal health Achieve universal primary education drinking water and sanitation target is Promote gender equity and empower grossly influential to welfare improve- Target 6: Reduction by three fourths, women ment of world population. This is eviden- between 1990-2015, mortality rate of Reduce child mortality ced from the fact that there are currently Improve maternal health mothers at delivery. 1,1 billion or 1/6 of total world population Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria, and other are without access to drinking water sys- diseases tem and 2,4 billion or 2/5 of total world Goal 6: Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria Ensure environment sustainability population without access to acceptable and other diseases Develop a global partnership for deve- sanitation system. lopment. Reduction half of these figures will, of Target 7: Reduce growth rate by 2015, course, increase health condition, pro- and begin reducing the spread of Why MDGs are Important? ductivity, poverty level, and eventually HIV/AIDS. It is understood that many of the even world economic growth. It is clearly problems faced by the world developing seen that the role of water and sanitation Target 8: Reduce growth rate by 2015, nations are still geared in the area of basic is significantly influential to the achieve- and begin reducing the spread of malaria human needs. For an example, poverty, ment of other targets. illiteracy, lack of education, gender and other diseases. 3 Percik Vol. 3 /February 2004
  • 5. MA I N F E A T U R E The Preparedness of Other Coun- data from National Action Plan for Goal 7: Ensure environmental sus- tries Drinking Water sector published by tainability As time goes by, it is understood that Ministry of Settlement and Regional In- not every nation will be able to achieve frastructure drinking water service cove- Target 9: Integrate the principle of sus- the target as set forth without any strate- rage in year 2000 can be categorized as tainable development into country policies gic step being prepared. It is estimated (i) piped system, in urban areas 39% and that approximately half of the nations in the rural areas only 8%; (ii) protected and programs and reverse the losses of will not be able achieve the target by non piped system, in urban areas 51% environmental resources. 2015. Based on the currently foreseeable and in rural areas 57%. Total coverage of trend there will be only 20% are certain piped system for urban and rural 20% in Target 10: Halve by 2015 the proportion of to achieve. Global achievement may hap- piped system, and 53% in protected non people without sustainable access to safe pen only because the developed nations piped system. drinking water and basic sanitation. are included in the calculation. Based on the calculation from the Based on a rough estimate, if the tar- above action plan, in year 2015 the get for drinking water is to be achieved coverage target of piped urban drinking Target 11: Have achieved by 2020 a signi- there must be an additional access to at water service is 70%, while protected non ficant improvement in the lives of at least least 250 thousand people per day from piped system is 25%. The coverage for 100 million slum dwellers. now on through year 2015. The achieve- rural areas is 54% in piped system and ment of basic sanitation is even more dif- that for protected non piped system 29%. Goal 8: Develop a global partnership ficult considering the increasing urbani- Based on National Action Plan for Sa- for development zation rate, which means there will be an nitation the condition in Indonesia in increased land scarcity in towns and 2000 can be classified as the following: cities. It is estimated that additional ac- a. Access of population to wastewater Target 12: Establishment of open financial cess to sanitation must reach at least 300 treatment system is approximately and trade system, based on regulation and thousand people per day. 50,35%, consisting of: (i) access to treat- non-discriminative. Up to now (2003) there are 29 nati- ment system for wastewater originating ons recorded to have produced MDGs from toilet (pit latrine, pit type with sep- Target 13: Priority attention be given to country report. South East Asia is repre- tic tank and infiltration, communal was- the need of developing nations. sented by Cambodia, Vietnam, and the tewater installation and small bored se- Philippines. Indonesia is still preparing wer) is estimated at 30,67%, (ii) access to the report. wastewater treatment using server, night Target 14: Priority attention be given to Based on the official report and re- soil processing, oxydation pond. is esti- nations without sea and small island sults of monitoring, the UN Secretary mated at 2,21%, (iii) access to treatment nations. General prepares his annual report. In of waste water originating from non toilet 2003 annual report there are several facility is estimated at 17,47%. Target 15: Comprehensive efforts for sol- important findings, (i) attention to achie- b. Access to wastewater recycling sys- ving the loans of developing nations vement of MDGs has made a meaningful tem such as biogas, irrigation system, through national and international discus- progress, both politically and financially, water culture, manure is not known for (ii) several trends indicate that several certain but it is estimated that the sions towards provision of sustainable long parts of the world will have difficulty in amount is small. term loan program. achieving the MDGs, (iii) it is necessary c. Considering the availability of pub- to renew commitment from the world le- lic toilets, the access of population to ba- Target 16: Cooperation with developing aders to provide opportunity for an in- sic sanitation system is estimated at nations to develop a strategy to create an creased assistance and abolition of fore- 74,03%. appropriate and productive employment ign loans in order to give more opportu- Following the calculation made in the opportunity for child laborer. nity for the developing nations to reduce action plan the target in year 2015 for sa- poverty. nitation will reach 75% of the total popu- lation covering 80% of the urban and Target 17: Cooperation with pharmaceuti- How About Indonesia? 70% of the rural. It should be noted, ho- cal industries to provide access to accept- Although not as poor as it is in some wever, that the figures presented herein able basic medicines for the developing African countries the status of WSES cannot be considered as official because nations. condition in Indonesia cannot be classi- there are still a number of disagreements fied as satisfactory. Based on the avail- concerning the baseline data being used, Target 18: Cooperation with private sector able data (see table) that show a wide including using year 2000 instead of variation both in terms of structure and 1990. in creating new and effective technologies definition, the status of WSES in Indone- According to a study made by especially in information and communica- sia varies widely. UNSFIR (2003) Indonesia can only re- tion As an illustration, if we are using the ach the target of reduction half of the po- 4 Percik Vol. 3 /February 2004
  • 6. MAIN FEATURE drinking water and basic sanitation as Global Facts mentioned in the MDGs. Based on agree- ment with MDGs Working Group, drink- There are 1,2 billion people with a capital income less than $1 per day, and 153 million undernourished children. ing water is (i) water that can readily be Even in the Sub Saharan Africa half of the population are living in poor condition. consumed; and (ii) water that is taken There are 114 million children are without schooling, this means 1 out of 5 children does from a protected source. not go to school. Besides, the weakness of the available Nearly 11 million children below the age of 5 die each year. data lies with the disregard of the quality There are 500 thousand mothers die at childbirth each year. of the facility, therefore the data basically HIV/AIDS is the first cause of death toll in Sub Saharan Africa. Approximately 2,4 billion population are without access to basic sanitation and around do not reflect the service coverage. Espe- 1,2 billion are without access to drinking water system. cially the consideration of sustainability Developing nations do not have sufficient access to market and information as well as of facility in Indonesia, particularly in technology while their loan repayment burden consumes most of their revenue. connection with sanitation in rural areas, the validity of service coverage becomes questionable. pulation without To t a l Po p u l a t i o n W i t h o u t A c c e s s Along with regional autonomy, the access to water responsibility for water supply and sani- supply in year t o Wo r l d D r i n k i n g Wa t e r Ye a r 2 0 0 0 tation development is relinquished to the 2040. Whereas it regional government. A study conducted is estimated that by JICA reveals that fund allocated for in 2015 there are Arabian Countries human settlement and housing sector is 24 provinces will only 3-5% of the whole budget. Whereas fail to reach their Latin America water supply and sanitation is only one targets. component of the sector. From the amo- South Asia unt of budget one could assume that there Important is a lack of attention from the regional go- issues vernment. PDAM as a potential instituti- Sub Saharan Africa Water supply on for provision of drinking water supply and sanitation is now being interlaced with problems in- condition in Indo- Pasific & East Asia cluding repayment of loans. From a total nesia has not been of 293 PDAMs, 201 are indebted to loans properly recorded at a total of USD 300 millions. This bur- yet. There are a number (millions) den represents a hindrance to improve- number of reasons ment including extension of service cove- (ii) water supply and sanitation develop- underlying it, among others (i) no agree- rage. ment is undertaken by several instituti- ment in data structure, definition of ope- Involvement of public sector in water ons, therefore the data produced are not rational, and detailed components of da- supply development has not shown a well coordinated; (iii) no effort has been ta. As an illustration, there is a variation good prospect both in terms of number of made to regularly update the data, by the in what service coverage means, thus the interested private company as well as the respective institutions. To improve the related data also vary widely (see table), performance of the company itself. Take condition, this year the as an example, the performance of a Proportion of Population Without Access WSES Working Group private company in Jakarta is below the will organize a work- expectation of the majority of the com- to World Drinking WaterYear 2000 shop seminar to for- munity. mulate WSES data Degradation of environmental condi- Arabian Countries 3% structure for use by the tion affects the water source. The availa- stakeholders. Then in bility of raw water in Java is nearing a Latin America 7% cooperation with WAS- critical condition. The availability of raw POLA the Working water source poses difficulty to regions Pacific & Group will try to fol- South Asia 21% East Asia without such a source. low-up the result of the Whereas river as the potential source 43% seminar. indicates a pollution rate almost reaching In relation to the the upper limit of tolerance. Consequen- availability of data as tly, management cost is considerably in- Sub Saharan Africa mentioned above, it is creased. 26% necessary to first agree on what is meant by 5 Percik Vol. 3 /February 2004
  • 7. M AIN FEATURE Ta r g e t Number of Provinces Year when Indonesia will reach that will fail to reach MDGs target MDGs target Reduction half of poverty rate All children finish elementary school Free from illiteracy Abolition of gender inequity in primary and secondary schools Reduction 2/3 of children mortality rate Reduction ¾ of mortality rate of mothers at childbirth Reduction half of the proportion of population without access to safe drinking water supply Source: UNSFIR More Achievement Effect The better quality of human prosperous nation of Water Supply and resource Reduce Sanitation to the poverty The better other Target education Economizing of nation budget Economizing of Daughter must The girl healthy cost continue the study to higher school Children have time for Free from diarrhea school Access to and water diseases Access to sanitation water supply based Reduce load of women Reduce of The better Deceive the environment children women mortality Care of baby, The better Reduce birth of the better nutrition baby under nutrition normally weight Source: MDG’s Achievement workshop Jakarta, February, 17, 2004 6 Percik Vol. 3 /February 2004
  • 8. MAIN FEATURE Access to Water Supply In Indonesia (%) in criteria then our status is not that bad. Source Urban Rural Total Similarly with basic sanitation, if what we 1990 2000 1990 2000 1990 2000 mean is a simple latrine and not a mo- UNICEFand WHO UNICEF and WHO 90 91 60 65 69 76 dern wastewater disposal system, then National Social Economy Survey SUSENAS (2002) N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 89 PERPAMSIof Indonesia Drinking Water Companies Association (2001) N/A 39 N/A N/A N/A N/A again we do not have to worry too much. National Action Plan, Water Supply Sector National Action Plan, Water Supply Sector N/A 90 N/A 65 N/A 71 Of course MDGs target can only be KIMPRASWIL (2003) and Regional Infrastucture Ministry of Settlement achieved through hard work and straigh- WASPOLA WASPOLA N/A 15 N/A N/A N/A N/A tening up problems intertwining water N/A = not available supply and environmental sanitation sec- Access to Basic Sanitation Service (%) tor. Several preliminary steps must be ta- Source Urban Urban Rural Total Total ken such as the ones brought forward by 1990 2000 1990 2000 1990 2000 Agus Prabowo (Chairman of MDGs UNICEF and WHO (2000) UNICEF and WHO (2000) 76 67 44 52 54 66 Working Group V) that socialization SUSENAS (2002) and ProsperityProsperity Statistic (2003) National Social Economy Survey (2002) and Statistic (2003) N/A 88,5 N/A 64,1 N/A 68 activity has not been fully undertaken to National Action Waste Sector, Sector, KIMPRASWIL National Action Plan, Plan, Waste N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 50 (2003) of Settlement and Regional Infrastructure (2003) Ministry make all the stakeholders sufficiently in- formed. Besides, we havent fully explo- red the potentials within the community. ACCES TO WATER SUPPLY IN THE WORLD It is the duty of the government to provi- Pessimistic or Optimistic? de facilitation in order to have the po- Oceania To answer the above question one tentials exploited effectively and efficien- should first look back to the statement tly, says Basah Hernowo, Director of Hu- South East man Settlement and Housing, Bappenas. Asia made by Erna Witoelar during the MDGs R E G I O N S We should be able to take the benefit Workshop in Jakarta on 17 February East Asia of MDGs momentum as a starting point 2004 with her motto saying "No Excuse to iron out problems in water supply and Latin America 2015" all the targets must be reached. Er- environmental sanitation sector. MDGs na added that we do not have to worry be- is actually the commitment of industriali- Sub Saharan Africa cause the targets initially came from us. zed nations to help the developing coun- North Africa This is also reflected in the MDGs Indo- tries solve the basic human needs. We nesia Country Report which is being pre- should have captured the momentum. If pared by the MDGs Working Group we only treat MDGs as a routine, MDGs Proportion with acces to water supply which states that drinking water does not will only become a means to decide a new Urban 1990 Urban 2000 only include water that is readily drink- target without any instigation. If so, then Rural 1990 Rural 2000 able but also water that is taken from a MDGs is just like a new target in a clas- protected source. If we see it from this sical issue. ACCES TO WATER SUPPLY IN SOUTH-EAST ASIA (1990, 2000, 2015) INTERESTING FACTS RELATED TO WSES 1 Lack of access to drinking water, sanitation and improper hygiene condition have caused Singapore the death of 3 million children of developing nations. 2. 200 million of world population is suffering from schistosomiasis. Scientific studies sug- gest that reduction of rate of incidence by 77% can be reached through improvement in C O U N T R Y Philippine quality of and access to water supply and sanitation 3. During the last 10 years diarrhea disease killed more children than the total death toll of Thailand World War II 4. In China, India and Indonesia the number of people die from diarrhea is double that from Vietnam HIV/AIDS 5. In 1998 there were 308 thousand people died as war victims in Africa, but more than 2 Indonesia million died from diarrhea disease 6. A study in Karachi indicates that population living in an area without sufficient sanitation and they lack the knowledge in hygienic life has to spend 6 times more money for medicare than those living in areas with sufficient sanitation facility Proportion with acces to water supply 7. Women of Africa and Asia walk 6 km to take water from a source. They carry 20 kg of water on their heads 8. Per liter water tariff charged to population living in slum area of Kibeira, Kenya is 5 times higher than an average American citizen has to pay 7 Percik Vol. 3 /February 2004
  • 9. MA I N F E A T U R E Important Questions in Relation to Millennium Development Goals 1. What is Millennium Development on poverty trend during the decade 1990 achieved yet there is a likeliness the target Goals (MDGs)? indicates that we would be able to reduce will not be reached, except when there is MDGs represent an agreement of poverty rate by 2015 in compliance with a fourfold acceleration. development goals summarized from the target. But in reality in each indivi- In 1990 the progress in reducing the various world level conferences and dual nation, many are still in the stage of rate of infant mortality, mothers death at meetings during the decade of 1990, all of increasing poverty rate. The total poor childbirth, malnutrition, and access to which converge into the resolution of population in Sub Sahara, South Asia and water supply and sanitation is relatively Millennium Declaration in September Latin America has increased by 10 million lower than it was in the earlier decade. 2000. since 1990. Many countries experience a The emergence of epidemic AIDS, mala- Taking the declaration as point of de- twofold decrease in community welfare ria and failure of government to provide parture the UNDP (United Nations De- during the last two decades. the necessary health services have been velopment Programme) in collaboration There are currently 1,2 billion people attributable to the unfavorable condition with other UN departments, the World live with less than $1 income per day. No in the decade 1990. Bank, IMF, and OECD (Organization for meaningful improvement from the last Economic Cooperation and Develop- decade. The progress in other targets 3. Whether the goals in MDGs can ment) took an initiative to develope goals, varies widely. In 1990, a target in educa- be achieved? targets and measurable indicators to tion for all was set forth to be reached by Yes, in terms of financial as well as measure the progress. All of which is la- 2000. Favorable result is obtained from technical. However, some nations may ter known as Millennium Development reduction by half gender inequity in edu- need assistance in technical, policy Goals consisting of 8 goals, 18 targets, cation, but unfortunately the overall tar- adjustment, and institutional empower- and over 40 indicators. Then in Johan- get achievement is merely one tenth. As a ment. It is a miracle if a poor nation can nesburg Summit in 2002 the world lead- consequence, the target is moved back to achieve the targets without international ers expressed their agreement to the goals 2015. Although some progress may be assistance. and main targets of MDGs. The goals to be achieved within the 1990-2015 time 4. Are the goals of MDGs based on span are: economic consideration? Eradicate extreme poverty and The rate of return of human resources hunger Human resources investment in the developing nations is Achieve universal primary investment can speed very high. Many of the nations are en- education tangled in poverty mesh because of poor Promote gender equity and up MDGs achievement health condition, insufficient nutrition, empower women and also improve eco- low education, limited access to water Reduce child mortality supply and sanitation, and even high po- Improve maternal health nomic growth, creation pulation growth. In addition, geogra- Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria, phical condition also influences poverty, and other diseases of employment such as remoteness of region, changes in Ensure environment opportunity, improved climatic condition, environmental degra- sustainability dation, tropical diseases. This condition Develop a global partnership productivity, and represent the logical explanation for for development. being less favorable to investment. increased revenue that Human resources investment can 2. What is our (world) status in eventually lead to speed up MDGs achievement and also terms of the condition for achieving improve economic growth, creation of MDGs in 2015? macro economic employment opportunity, improved pro- In general the target can only be stability. ductivity, and increased revenue that achieved through serious commitment eventually lead to macro economic sta- and hard work. Simple calculation based bility. 8 Percik Vol. 3 /February 2004
  • 10. M AIN FEATURE Participants of Workshop on MDG Achievement through Action Plans for WSES sector in Jakarta 17-19 February 2004. 5. Can the financing gap be over- 7. Why a global campaign is need- come? ed? Based on estimate made by UNICEF, For developing Global campaign is needed to bridge World Bank and WHO to achieve the up the targets to be achieved with the MDGs targets it will need a budget of countries, the complication of problems at the real approximately $50 billion a year. This re- campaign is focused on world level. The campaign is expected to presents additional fund on top of the improve and then maintain world atten- currently being set aside. This means do- domestic resources tion and action focused to MDGs targets. uble the present requirement. For developed nations, the campaign Though in terms of amount this looks mobilization, streng- is focused on assistance and reduction of big but only represent one fifth per cent of thening human rights, loan repayment based on the actual reve- the income of the developing nations. nue, assurance that assistance is allocated democracy and good to respective sector in MDGs, and cre- 6. What is meant by MDGs report? ation of market for the products from UNDP is supporting the preparation governance in accor- developing nations, especially the poor of progress report in MDGs achievement dance with the countries. of each country. The assumption is that For developing countries, the cam- each country report will help in speeding Millennium paign is focused on domestic resources up target achievement, as well as dissemi- Declaration. mobilization, strengthening human nation of MDGs from international to rights, democracy and good governance national level. in accordance with the Millennium The purpose of MDGs report is to help Declaration. Each of these objectives are increase public attention, stimulate dis- adjusted with objective condition in each cussion related to challenges in develop- the existing reports such as Common nation and target group. The format of ment, renewal of political commitment, Country Assessments, Poverty Reduction campaign is also adjusted with the local and help the developing nations and Strategy Papers, or National Human condition. donor countries create a detailed and bet- Development Reports, in order to mini- A sustained campaign program can ter budget framework based on the prin- mize burden to each of the nations. help to make MDGs as a priority, and cre- ciple of mutual confidence. Up to now (2003) there are 29 coun- ation of a realistic planning. A campaign The report is targeted to mass media ties already completed MDGs report.Five that involves political debate, public poli- and the general public. MDGs report others, including Indonesia are still cy debate, academic debate, using facts should be concise, easily understandable preparing it. It was planned that in 2004 and detailed figures about MDGs will so that the message could easily be all countries have completed each of their speed up attention toward MDGs. absorbed. It should follow the format of reports 9 Percik Vol. 3 /February 2004
  • 11. M AIN FEATURE Result of Studies and Empirical Observations related to MDGs targets for WSES development Research initiated by the World Bank in 43 countries reveals that (i) access to piped water supply service is main key to the reduction infant mortality rate. This explains why there is approximately 25% infant mortality, and 37% children mortality rate difference between the rich and the poor nations; (ii) lack of acceptable sanitation system and improper pit well condition: contribute 10% and 20% difference in malnutrition between the rich and the poor nations Goal 1 → Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger Infrastructure and housing influence poverty through (i) economic growth; (ii) reduce weakness due to health condition; (iii) increase family income Goal 2 → Guarantee education for all Water and sanitation influence school attendance and mark in examination Lack of water reduces attendance to class by 2-17% in Africa Improvement in ownership of pit wells and public taps increase number of schoolchildren school children by 20% in rural areas of India Water and sanitation increases attendance by 15% in Bangladesh Better water supply and sanitation is related to reduction in rate of absence in Tanzania and Nigeria. Indonesia represents a country in SE Asia with the lowest number of children enrolled to school (UNESCO Education Statistics, 2003) Goal 3 Promote gender equity Infrastructure like water supply, sanitation, housing, electricity based on MDGs strategy represents one of three intervention tools in improving gender equity and empowerment of women Access to water supply and basic sanitation will strengthen the role of women through a better Access on waterown life and basic energy, privacy and pride, the role of women through a better control to their supply (time and sanitation will strengthen employment opportunity) control on waterown life system and environmental sanitation in schools improves girl attendance Access to their supply (time and energy, privacy and pride, employment opportunity) during puberty reduces gender inequity in secondary schools Access to water supply system and environmental sanitation in schools improves girl attendance during puberty → reduces gender inequity in secondary schools Goals 4 and 5 → Improve maternal and children health Water and sanitation reduces infant and children mortality rate Access to clean water reduces children mortality rate by 55% (42 studies) Women in the rural Africa and Asia walk 6 km a day carrying 20 kg of water on their heads. Pregnant women doing this may give birth to baby with less than normal weight, and risk complication during delivery 10 Percik Vol. 3 /February 2004
  • 12. M AIN FEATURE Erna Witoelar (UN Special Ambassador for MDGs in Asia and the Pacific) N o E x c u s e 2 0 1 5 I n the opening of MDGs achieve- ment workshop on through WSES Action Plans in Indonesia held on 17 February 2004 Erna Witoelar takes the opportunity to explain about Millennium Development Goals focusing on Drinking Water and Sanitation in Indonesia. Economic crisis in Indonesia has caused a slowdown in the achievement of community access to water supply and sanitation service. However, it is esti- mated that Indonesia will achieve most of the MDGs in year 2015, though poverty enclosures will still be found in some provinces. Quoting the data from Susenas (National census) 2002, the in achieving MDGs targets. First, it access to benefit. Drinking water is the households with acceptable water supply might be necessary to link water and right for everyone, it is not a commodity system with an access level reaching 80% sanitation target with other issues of the for trading. Fourth, it is necessary to are only in Jakarta, Bali, Yogyakarta, East Millennium Declaration, e.g. human increase funding for water supply and Java, Banten, North Sulawesi, Central rights, good governance, and peace and sanitation system from various sources. Java, West Java. Other regions like security. Second, National policy and Fifth, women are highly affected with Central Kalimantan, North Maluku and regulatory framework for an integrated water insufficiency. Therefore, they Papua are standing below 50%. Access to water resources management is deemed should be the ones to play the leading sanitation indicates an even worse situa- required in order to enhance drinking role. Sixth, sustainable water and sanita- tion. Only Jakarta, Yogyakarta and water service mechanism through parti- tion for urban poor should be integrated Lampung reach 80% access. cipatory approaches in all phases of the with improvement program for city Water supply and sanitation is closely development, enhance the level of ser- slums, including guarantee for ownership linked to other MDGs goals, namely vice, and focuses be placed on the com- to slum inhabitants. The local govern- poverty (goal 1), education (goal 2), gen- munity based facility. Third, attention ment should wage a war to "local mafia." der (goal 3) children mortality (goal 4), should be focused at improvement of Seventh, implementation of water supply mothers mortality (goal 5) and eradica- Proportion of Households having access to Water Supply and sanitation project is conducted at the tion of diseases. The following facts may Service, per province, 2002 kabupaten/kota level, while the monitor- suffice to explain the linkage. Sufficient Papua (2001) ing and technical assistance by the water may become one way in poverty West Kalimantan provincial level government. Jambi reduction, through reducing the time Erna Witoelar wrapped up her pres- Gorontalo needed to take water, and reducing fami- East Kalimantan entation by saying that we must achieve ly expenditure for buying water. Water South-east Sulawesi the MDGs goals. We have no excuse. We insufficiency and lack of sanitation ser- INDONESIA proposed the targets ourselves after con- vice discourage qualified teachers to Central Java sidering to what we have in hands. Our work in villages. A long queue mostly of East Java nation has the resources, technology, and Jakarta women and children to get water dismiss knowledge that are needed to provide the opportunity for girls to attend their Percentage (%) water supply and sanitation service for Proportion of Households having access to Basic Sanitation, everyone. The problems lies with how class. More than 3 million mostly infant per province, 2002 and children below the age of 5 die each water can be used wisely, improve water Maluku year because of water borne disease like Central Sulawesi supply and sanitation service and in- diarrhea. West Kalimantan volvement of the stakeholders. Water and sanitation become the ini- South-East Sulawesi tial point to gain acceleration for achiev- Central Java Source: Presentation made by Erna INDONESIA Witoelar in the Opening Ceremony of ing the other MDGs goals. Global part- East Nusa Tenggara nership may enhance this achievement Workshop on Millennium Development Goals East Kalimantan process through the principle of good Riau Achievement Through Action Plans for governance in water and sanitation sys- Jakarta Drinking Water and Sanitation Sector tem development. Erna Witoelar ex- Jakarta February 17, 2004 Percentage (%) pressed a number of policy implications Table: BPS 2002. 11 Percik Vol. 3 /February 2004
  • 13. I NTERVIEWDr. R. Hening DarpitoDirector of Hygienic Water and Sanitation, Department of Health “Water has an initiating power”W hat is health sector doing to sup- port achievement of target 10? It seems that MDGs have been What is the linkage between MDGs program with the existing projects? We have been appointed as the exe- What would be done to make MDGs targets achieved? The most important is establishmentabsorbed by Indonesian government. cuting agency for community-based pro- of good governance. Government, pri-Now are being translated into action jects. We implement the projects in col- vate sector, community must work to-plans. In water supply and sanitation laboration with the regional govern- gether toward that direction. For thissector we actually have started it in 1980- ments. This represents the application of purpose it is necessary to organize large90 in response to the water and sanita- the policy formulated by WASPOLA scale public campaign. The key is in twotion decade. At that time the government (Water Supply & Sanitation Policy For- factors, professionalism and transparen-prepared an extensive plan through mulation & Action Planning). It seems cy.Inpres Samijaga (drinking water and that the policy is in agreement with thehousehold toilet). During the 10-year pe- targets contained in MDGs.riod the facilities constructed are stan-dardized. But because community invol- How would the lack of communityvement was quite minimum the facilities interest be dealt with?are not maintained. After 1997, the target Awareness is not an indepen-changed. After 2000 as a consequence to dent factor by itself. It is inhe-decentralization the leading role is given rent within program implemen-to the regional governments. But the le- tation. That is why we have tovel of interest vary from region to region. start with the reasons behind it.Some are highly interested while othersare almost entirely ignorant. After the How can water supply andsigning of MDGs, particularly for drink- sanitation projects be madeing water and sanitation, we rely more to as the spearhead in achiev-Bappenas to coordinate the planning ing MDGs?aspect. Water has a initiating power so that other problems can also beWhat action plans are proposed? solved. Toilet, for instance. If water This is how it looks. Water and sani- is available and one will begin totation is not solely a health related issue. think of having a toilet. I thinkIt is very difficult to work out an indepen- what is contained in MDGs aredent action plan because this is the res- in line with the target of ourponsibility of the government as a whole. Indonesia Healthy Program inAll the related agencies must sit together 2010.and prepare the plan. What is most im-portant is executive and legislative com-mitment. If there is a political will fromthe executive from the central to theregional level, and the legislative from thecentral to the regional level, the privatesector and the community can be per-suaded to move. Political will cannot beupheld by one agency alone but as a com-bined action by all sectors. The most im-portant is that the action plan mustbelong to and respected by everyone. Thenext would be, how the action plan could bedisseminated to the regions and then to theprivate sector in order to create a favor-able atmosphere for investment. 12 Percik Vol. 3 /February 2004
  • 14. I NTERVIEW Ir. Basah Hernowo, MA Director of Human Settlement and Housing, National Development Planning Agency “Empowerment is the key”W hat is the linkage between MDGs with the national policyfor water supply and environmen- Whether the MDGs momentum give tints to the formulation of national policy for institutionally PDAMs with big coverage are heavily indebted. This is a case that happens now and might happen again in the future.tal sanitation? based WSES development? We have made a rule to prevent PDAM MDGs consist of many targets, drink- More than just that. This is related to indebted again. Then we improve theing water and sanitation being one of the service provided for by a kabupaten management performance and finallythem. The community based develop- and kota level corporate body (PDAM). introduction of new technology in waterment policy represents our effort to over- Considering the inefficient service we will supply and sanitation system. Such ascome the low government budget. It is make the PDAM improve its efficiency, solid waste, if we maintain sanitary land-very difficult if we were to rely only on then we stimulate them to serve the con- fill technology which need hundredsgovernment budget. If in 2015 the popu- sumers. If a PDAM serve less than hectares of land, how can this idea belation reach 240 million level, there will 10.000 homes why not dissolve it and maintained in a big city like Jakarta?be at least 48 million households each turn it into a local government service so Therefore we have to look to a more envi-requires $40-60 for drinking water only, that it can be subsidized by the go- ronmentally friendly technology.the amount of budget is 40 times 48 mil- vernment. It would be bet-lion in US dollars. Considering govern- ter than an expensive Could you elaborate on the termi-ment and legislative attention in water investment in a poor nology drinking water and sanita-supply and sanitation sector is very low repayment rate. tion in MDGs?we have no choice but community But if a plant has MDGs do not include solid waste.empowerment. We provide them with a promising po- Environmental sanitation shouldstimulant. Provide facilitation to the tential we will also cover the problems of liquidhuman resources. Thus MDGs are close- help it to grow. waste, solid waste and drainage.ly related to the National Policy for At this moment MDGs is focused at wastewater.Community-Based Water Supply and most of big I think all those are closely related.Environmental Sanitation Development 13 Percik 2004 Vol. 3 /February
  • 15. I NTERVIEWIt is impossible for us to deal only withwastewater while the garbage anddrainage are left unattended. I think withregard MDGs we should not set our atten- It is impossible to being a single sectortion to terminology per se but rather wealso pay attention to other problems and achieve its own goals.related to it. It might happen that onetown is free from wastewater problem but All sectors must work in synergy with othersits garbage disposal system is a mess.This becomes a challenge, whether we in order to be efficient.will deal with wastewater only or toinclude also its related components.How was target 10 determined andwhat year is taken as the baseline? loan? only a public servant, not a bureaucrat Actually we used baseline data of There is always possibility. The ques- nor an authority.1990. But the question is, whether the tion is, whether we are ready? The do-assets of 14 years ago are still in record? nors are always ready because they will What is your opinion regardingIt is difficult to find it. The global data make benefit if we borrow. We are trying pessimistic attitude in achievingmay be OK, but what about the details. to create a condition where foreign loan is MDGs targets?Data inaccuracy may lead to inefficient not the main source of financing. I think It is quite natural. They are pes-service. If we used 1990 data the level our community is capable if we can simistic because they know the budgetmay be lower. What we could do was to mobilize it. allocation for water supply and sanitationmake our calculation based on the exist- is extremely low. Less than one per centing data. If population in 2003 is 210 Is there problem in inter-sector of gross domestic revenue. The point ismillion and the service coverage of piped coordination? now how to motivate those who are pes-system is 39-40%, this means that the Up to this time inter-sector coordina- simistic to learn that the community hastarget for 2015 which half of the present- tion has made some improvement. It is an unexploited potential. It is our jobly without access is approximately 30%. impossible to being a single sector and now to unearth the potential. The duty ofTherefore the total service coverage in achieve its own goals. All sectors must the government is to facilitate it. That isthat year is 70%. For sanitation, in 2003 work in synergy with others in order to be why, do not be pessimistic now. Let us bethe figure reads 8%. Those without efficient. We have to realize that we are together to work things out.access are 92%. In 2015 the total house-holds who have access to sanitation sys-tem is 8% plus 46% equals 54%.Does it mean there must be a strate-gic step to achieve the target? We have to strengthen the communi-ty. Without strengthening (empower-ment) it will be difficult to reach the tar-gets because government budget is verylow. An annual budget of Rp1,2 trillionfor human settlement and housing sectoris far from sufficient because we actuallyneed three to four times that amount.Such an amount of money, where can weget it from? It is here that communityempowerment is inevitable.The phases for achieving the target,have they been developed? Not yet. It should be ideal if the avail-able fund were sufficient.Is there possibility for a foreign 14 Percik Vol. 3 /February 2004
  • 16. I NTERVIEW DR. AGUS PRABOWO Director of Natural Resources and Environment Control, National Development Planning Agency Insufficient SocializationCould you elaborate how Pokja known yet. Because not much has been No campaign being conducted yet?MDGs Working Group was initially done for its socialization yet. The know- Not yet. But at national level we haveorganized? ledge is still limited within the circle of an ambassador, Ibu Erna Witoelar. I This began when Mr. Syahrial Luthan, those directly involved. The others are think it is the job of Ibu Erna to organizeDirector of Multilateral Foreign Finan- alien to it. the campaign.cing, National Development PlanningAgency attended the MDGs meeting. He How is Indonesias preparedness forwas given a mandate to organize a pokja achieving targets by 2015?(kelompok kerja, working group). A I can explain this through my ownmeeting in Bappenas was held in 2003 to working group in dealing with target 9.form the pokja. Later there are 5 working There are three components, first is inte-groups organized, though without a for- gration of sustainable development prin-mal Letter of decision. This is based on ciples into the national policy, andpartnership, not top down relationship. replenishment of the missing environ-The members represent the need of each mental resources. I am optimistic thispokja. target can be reached. As this is a sus- tainable development, everything has Why is it that MDGs echo is been included in the Propenas (Nationalnot as loud as it is with Development Program). Second, halveother programs? by 2015 the proportion of people with- I guess youre right. out access to safe drinking water andMDGs arent well basic sanitation. I have some doubt in this. This is drinking water, whereas what we have in Indonesia right now is only clean water. Is it possi- ble that by 2015 we can make it into half? 15 Percik Vol. 3 /February 2004
  • 17. I NTERVIEWThe third, to arrive at a meaningfulimprovement to welfare condition of 100million population in 2020. The possibi-lity is fifty-fifty.It seems difficult to reach it. Thenwhy are those being decided as indi-cators? This is an international level commonagreement which is not based on scienti-fic calculation, or analysis of facts. This isbased merely on common determination.As we see it, this program is acooperation of the rich and thepoor nations. How does it look likein reality? It is a long story. MDGs represent aglobal agreement which started since1978 in Commission on EnvironmentDevelopment in Stockholm. In that timethere arose a common awareness bet-ween the developed and the developingnations. The common awareness rolls oninto a meeting in Rio in 1992. Then inJohannesburg in 2002. This all comesfrom common awareness. The developednations admit they have done degrada-tion to environment. On the other side usually flatterers. The more so is Ame- What is the recent status of reportthe south nations are poor but they have rica, the most flattering nation of all. preparation?natural resources reserve. The common All working groups have completed.awareness is one alone cannot be rich Does the program pose any a new Draft has been translated into English.while others around him are still poor. burden to Indonesian government? Indonesian version is already in final .The following idea is that each developed No. With or without MDGs Indonesianation set aside 0,1% of their gross must do as what is contained in MDGs. What does the report contain?national income to help the developing Thus MDGs is a reminder that we are All targets.countries. But the developed nations will being monitored by international com-not help just for the sake of helping. They munity. Of all the targets what percentage iswant to know the targets to be achieved. within the optimistic rate?One way of doing this is through compila- This means, before there were It is difficult to estimate.tion into the MDGs. In other words, MDGs targets we already have stepsMDGs is an agreement among the poor toward this direction? In water supply and sanitation, fornations. Yes, of course. The Repelita (Annual example? Plan) documents contain just those. With drinking water it is more difficult,What are the formats of the assis- but with sanitation relatively easier. Fortance? The targets are internationally example, per capita emission. The Americans Assistance can come in various diffe- agreed. How if there were a drastic are 200 times higher than we Indonesians.rent forms. The assistance is called ODA change in a specific country?(Official Development Assistance), some This is a very good question? If there What consequence will a poorare loan funded, others in grant fund. For were a drastic change the result will be country suffer if she fails to reachenvironment it is specially grant fund. If influenced. Take for instance, poverty. the target?it is a loan the interest rate is very low. In 1997 our poverty figure is 11%. But The consequence is the ODAThe essence is the developed nations shortly after monetary crisis it rose tohelping the developing countries. The to- 22%. After 5 years we start to recover, What are the barriers in achievingtal amount of fund is 0,1% of gross now it is 18%. This means we suffer from the MDGs targets?incomes of those countries. But the fact is setback. The goals in MDGs are set forth I think it is the mental attitude, socialsmaller than that. The rich nations are based on normal condition. and collective responsibility. 16 Percik Vol. 3 /February 2004
  • 18. A RTICLE Bantar Gebang: A portrait of a poor solid waste management in Jakarta A public facility is one that is Handling solid waste at its needed by all and used by all. By: Dwityo A. Soeranto source But sometimes its existence An expert in solid waste management causes a feeling of repugnance social and economical) methods for its says "Mixed waste is waste, but separated because it disturbs esthetical taste, and is disposal. It is but natural, that the most waste is resources." That is why, minimi- detrimental to health and environment. important thing to do following the com- zing the amount of waste, separation A solid waste disposal area located at pletion of the master plan is to purchase a through 3R (Reduce, Reuse, and Recycle) Bantar Gebang is one example. This arti- land area where all the facility will be con- approach must start from the source po- cle tries to provide the readers with a pic- structed, be it a transfer station, final dis- int and settlement area. In several kelura- ture how poorly a public facility, especial- posal ground, compost processing plant, han of Jakarta some NGO has started ly waste material disposal, is managed in or other processing forms as recommend- toward this direction. This effort could Jakarta and how complicated is the tech- ed. This is exactly what the city govern- reduce transportation cost and prolong nical approach in waste material ment of Jakarta fails to undertake. At last the effective age of a final disposal area. handling that the city government should the city government falls into mounting Organic wastes are separated from be responsible of. Waste material mana- difficulty because price of land keeps on inorganic material. Organic waste can be gement must, indeed, be seen from va- increasing. The city of Surabaya, for ins- used to produce compost in a small-scale rious aspects, among others, institutio- tance, directly purchased a piece of land plant, inorganic material can be sold to nal, financial, legal, and involvement and for final disposal at Benowo, when the used material collector. On the other side education for the local community as well master plan was completed in 1992, so the effort must be supported with a fee as the private sector. This article will, that when Keputih disposal area was in collection based on the amount of waste however, be dealing with the aspect of trouble much the same with Bantar from each source, and a progressive tariff handling technology, beginning from the Gebang was in 2000, and their incinera- system if the waste exceeds the pre- source point where waste material is pro- tor did not work properly, the govern- scribed average amount. duced down to the final disposal area. ment of Surabaya city has had a substi- tute solid waste dumping ground. Collection and transportation of The importance of a master plan solid waste Population growth in Jakarta is fol- The efficiency of individual as well as lowed with an increasing amount of solid communal solid waste material collection waste. The growth rate of waste produc- using wheeled cart can be improved tion is estimated at 4% annually with a through provision of transfer depot mo- more complex composition. On the del which was introduced by Department other hand there is a demand for a bet- of civil work years ago in Kelurahan ter service. The city government is Kayumanis, Central Jakarta. This demanded to improve performance model can reduce the time for out of the existing resources. That transferring from cart into truck so is why, without a systematic that the number of truck routes planning, development, and for transport to transfer station evaluation Jakarta will not be could be increased. With a able to reach its environmental transfer depot solid waste mate- development objectives. rial from a cart can be directly In 1987 Jakarta has had a loaded into truck without un- master plan and feasibility loading it first to the floor. Besi- study for solid waste manage- des, the container combined ment system which was prepa- with arm roller truck can make red by the central government operation faster, as long as the and Japanese Government (thro- community put their waste into the ugh JICA). The Master Plan conta- container, not littering all over the ins the existing condition, problem place. identification, alternatives of processing technology, as well as a selection of suit- Solid Waste processing able and appropriate (technological, Since Bantar Gebang is located far 17 Percik Vol. 3 /February 2004
  • 19. A RTICLE from the city proper, it has been recom- obtain some sort of assurance for a mar- fuel, as Agency for Assesment and Appli- mended to take benefit from a transfer ket outlet for the compost produced. cation Technology (BPPT) study in Cakung station where the solid waste are com- Small scale compost production has been abattoir is also worthy of consideration and pacted to allow more garbage transported started since 1990 through Recycling and support as a community level plant, though in one haul. In Bantar Gebang this sys- Compost Production Project in more than in practice it might difficult because it tem has been operated by a private com- 10 kelurahan in Jakarta but several of the depends on the number of animals slaugh- pany, PT. Wira Gulfindo Sarana, and in plants have cease production because of tered in an abattoir. However, this is a real- Sunter by the Jakarta city government. marketing difficulty. However, this kind ly good effort to reduce the amount of litters With this transfer station waste materials of effort must somehow be continued. and how to make benefit of it from several trucks each containing 4-8 m3 are compacted to a 40 m3 bulk so that Final disposal the transport is more convenient and The master plan mentions that more efficient. Because the 100 ha site Jakarta should have two disposal areas, planned in Tangerang has not been mate- As for the present each covering an area of approx. 100 ha, rialized the corresponding transfer sta- and are operated with sanitary landfill tion in Srengseng which is intended to condition, whether you method. This method is selected because process waste from West and South it is suitable for Jakarta condition (tech- Jakarta has not been constructed either. want to or not, Jakarta nological, economical as well as social) On the other hand, the Jakarta city government must be able and is environmentally safe if it is opera- government is planning to operate an ted in accordance with standard opera- integrated solid waste processing plant at to find a new land area tion and procedure. Based on its geogra- Jonggol, Kab. Bogor. If the economic and for final disposal in phical condition the solid waste collected environmental feasibility studies are from N. Jakarta, C. Jakarta and E. Jakar- made correctly and the implementation is compliance with Jakarta ta are to be dumped at Bantar Gebang, done strictly following the standard ope- while those collected from W. and S. Ja- ration and procedure (SOP) as recom- City Spatial Plan. karta are sent to a disposal point in Ta- mended, this effort is worthy of support ngerang. In 1989 the Bantar Gebang site as an alternative to a garbage handling in was purchased by Jakarta government, Jakarta. Especially because there are pri- while the Tangerang site was not yet ma- vate companies interested in this busi- de available because at that time Jakarta ness. Through compaction less land area The proposal raised by several mem- was still using two community owned is needed to hold the waste materials. bers of DPRD Jakarta to install incinera- sites at Kapuk Kamal and Cilincing, each However, a sufficient area is needed beca- tor at each kelurahan needs be recon- of them was 10 ha in size. As both sites use the leachate from its compaction sidered. Based on the master plan and became full all Jakarta waste materials must be previously treated before send- report of a feasibility study Jakarta, waste are transported to Bantar Gebang. What ing it to the nearest drainage system. For materials are not suitable for incineration makes things worse is that Bantar Gebang the sake of efficiency, an integrated waste because of high moisture content, incine- is not operated in accordance with sanitary materials processing plant which is loca- ration becomes incomplete therefore the landfill standard procedures and operation, ted far away from the cleaning service operational costs is high. Besides, the for which it is designed, so that it turned to area can make use the existing transfer costs for operating incinerators is much be a major polluter to its environment, station. higher than sanitary landfill, especially degradation of ground water, gaseous Besides, currently an effort is on- investment for air pollution prevention. smoke, odourous and swarming flies to going to process organic solid waste into In an incinerator this equipment takes areas within 5 km radius compost so reduce the release of approxi- the major portion of the investment cost. mately 12 million m3 of methane and car- Without this equipment we are just mo- Policy re-formulation bon dioxide to the atmosphere. This ving the problem from land to air, Looking at the solid waste handling World Bank funded project is implemen- because gases like NOx, SOx, HCl, CO currently practiced which deviates from ted by Western Java Environmental and dioxine generated from the burning the scenario as set forth in the master Management Project (WJEMP) covering materials will certainly pollute the atmos- plan and the initial feasibility study, it the areas of West Java, Jakarta and phere of Jakarta. The failure of the 200 might be necessary to update the existing Banten and is capable of producing 6.000 tons capacity per day incinerator in master plan, such as being planned in tons compost annually. This of course Surabaya which was bought for Rp30 bil- West Java under WJEMP program. The will considerably reduce the amount of lion 10 years ago should be taken into activity should begin from review of data litters and will contribute to minimizing mind, since after 1999 the plant cease on demography, quality and quantity of greenhouse effect. It should be remin- operation. solid waste production, alternatives of ded, however, the management must The production of methane gas as technology proposed, priority in activity 18 Percik Vol. 3 /February 2004
  • 20. A RTICLE and implementation strategy. The effort As for the present condition, whether this zone which is estimated to amount at of Jakarta government to handle solid you want to or not, Jakarta government 4 million m3, is mined separate the waste problem by way of Baling Method must be able to find a new land area for organic material, chopped and screened (in mass media it is frequently called Bala final disposal in compliance with Jakarta to produce natural compost. This com- Press) at integrated solid waste processing City Spatial Plan. Another effort is to post can be used as soil conditioner in re- plant Bojong (Kab. Bogor) must be resume negotiation with government of planting activity or soil cover for a former accommodated in the reformed policy for the city of Bekasi to continue using the mining land area. This process can ex- holistic garbage management, and finally land for the correct operation method tend the effective age of a Final Disposal to be linked with transport and final dis- and extending the effective age through Area. posal. The more so currently Ministry of mining the completely decomposed solid Settlement Regional Infrastructure toge- waste for 10 years if sanitary landfill is The author is Section Chief, ther with related agencies is preparing an used (through semi-aerobic method). Programming at the Directorate of Central Region Urban and Rural Affairs, DG City Action Plan for Solid Waste Management, Zone 1 (of 5 zones in Bantar Gebang) cov- and Rural Planning, Dept. of Housing & the policy and strategy of which can be ering an area of 23 ha which is used since Regional Infrastructure. This paper is the referred to in the achievement of MDGs 1990, can be used for this purpose. The authors personal opinion and does not rep- later in 2015. materials which is already decomposed in resent the policy of the agency where the Childrens Water Manifesto I t seems that up to now water is the sified water use for boys, girls, parents affairs of the adult. We never reali- and community leaders. ze that our children are also water Support children and young peoples users. Aware of this condition, projects and activities related to water children all over the world agree to and the environment that affect the declare a statement known as Childrens access to potable water and sanitation. water Manifesto that was made known in Childrens World Water Forum in Kyoto, We as children and young peo- March 2003. The complete manifesto ple pledge to: reads as follows: Establish action groups, clubs, organ- izations, and networks of children and Childrens Water Manifesto young people for activities on water, san- On behalf of love, peace, and harmo- itation and hygiene - locally, nationally ny, we, 109 children representing 32 and internationally. countries, seek assurance from decision Be responsible for peer to peer educa- makers related to child, water, sanitation tion as young facilitators and child to and hygiene. We hope the decision ma- adult education on conservation of water, kers guarantee the participation of child sanitation and hygiene. and youth, in accordance with the media to strengthen school program and Develop and use child-friendly Convention on the Rights of the Child, to child friendly facilities. resource materials and use peer educa- ascertain the participation, protection, Encourage free exchange and sharing tion methods like drama, poetry, draw- safety, and development of child and information, technology, and experiences ing, websites, etc. to create more aware- youth through the promotion of safe envi- across developed and developing nations, ness on environment, water and sanita- ronment. We hereby state that: specific to safe water supply. tion issues. The governments are obliged to: Take preparatory measures towards To work with decision makers to pro- Ensure that children and young peo- strengthening the infrastructure and mote better water and sanitation facilities ple are involved in the decision making basic services and train children and at schools in rural and urban areas and in and policy making processes beginning young people to exchange ideas and sup- the community so that girls do not drop from the planning through implementa- port during emergencies. out of schools or face abuse. tion and evaluation of household water Respect children and young peoples Be involved in designing, implement- related program/issues, including access, opinions and different cultures in relation ing and evaluating child managed water safety, conservation, and use of water. to water use and sanitation, as well as and sanitation projects and other initia- Improve water and sanitation facili- provide safe water areas for children and tives. ties and cooperate with children and young peoples play. Form a Global Children and Young young people with NGOs, government, Promote strong environmental child- Peoples Alliance on water, sanitation and municipalities, private companies, and friendly education issues related to diver- hygiene. 19 Percik Vol. 3 /February 2004
  • 21. F EATURE When a public toilet i s d e s i r e"I t is a shame, brother", said a toi- public toilet. Otherwise, we women will lect Rp50.000 a day minus rental for the let user when asked why not just be in trouble looking for one." place, salary for labourer and tax. A high- piss at an open corner. "Now The need for a toilet in public has er income may be collected by owner of athere isnt any place where public wont been monitored by the business sector. It permanent toilet in the same location. Itsee you. In a toilet it is closed from pub- is not too difficult to find a public toilet in is used by more than one hundred pas-lic and there is water to rinse", said a man most places in Jakarta and other big sers-by every day. The number of visitorswho wants to keep himself anonymous. cities. Some are permanently built like in increases if the toilet is strategically loca-This is the reason why he always looks for train station, shopping centers, and bus ted like near an entrance and there is aa toilet when he wants to urinate or defe- terminals. Some are mobile facility that mushalla close by. "Usually when one iscate, though he has to pay for it. emerges where a crowd gathers. Both going to pray one has to clean himself Toilet in public area is a must. The types can be found for instance in Blok M first".community need a toilet for different rea- terminal, Jakarta. The mobile type con- Enthusiasm of the community to usesons. For practical reason, Febrin Anas- sists of a boxlike fiber glass construction public toilet may be an indication of cul-tasia, an employee of a telecommunicati- resembling a public telephone box, 1.5 tural change has been happening. Inon company chooses a toilet near a mu- m2 base and 2,5 m height. Water is fed 1970s an American anthropologist Clif-shalla (small mosque). "Just like in a tra- into with a hose. Each user is charged ford Geertz, in his research in a village inin station a toilet is always connected Rp500 each time using it. On average a E. Java once met with a woman wearingwith a mushalla. Cleansing and then toilet is visited by 100 users per day, men Javanese clothing on her way to the mar-praying". She added: " Though the facili- and women. Though income fluctuates ket carrying a basket of vegetables tied toty in it is still limited, but we do need a but on average a toilet operator can col- her waist with a cloth. In a wink of an eye 20 Percik Vol. 3 /February 2004
  • 22. F EATUREhe noticed something unusual the womanwent to the side of the road near a clusterof bush. She stood there for some time,and what the anthropologist noticed wasthe woman was urinating there whilestanding at the side of the road. In hisanthropological research Geertz men-tions this as a cultural ethic of a commu-nity. It may be as simple as someone uri-nating in a public space, but it has animpact to social and cultural issue of acommunity. Therefore, urinating and defecating isone of human basic needs just as eatingand drinking. From the basic comes out ahabit, which in the community is knownas ethic. It is not surprising then, there isa stereotype saying toilet, WC, latrine orany other form of waste disposal facilityreflects the character of its owner interms of cleanliness, politeness andhealth. paper always available, non odorous, no let is not too much of a problem, but it Today, household toilet ownership for litter, and no stagnant water," she says. will be different with women. "The com-town community has been widely pro- The public toilet she expects to see is one partment is too small, nauseating urinegressing that it is not a major issue any that is clean and also convenient. smell, but water is flowing sufficiently.more, neither cleanliness, politeness nor "Comfort is also important because we For men it is no problem, but for womenhealth. Even a toilet may be used as an need to be relaxed when in a toilet. it is quite uncomfortable," says Heri, whoindicator of economic or social status of a Imagine if you dont feel comfortable and is working for an NGO at Mampangfamily by looking at the facility and its always worry should anyone is peeping or Prapatan, Jakarta.furnishing. carefully operate a hidden camera, things According to Febrin, from her experi- like that may happen in a public facility." ence using public toilet the most annoy-Still uncomfortable From her experience in foreign countries, ing problem is related to cleanliness and Contrary to household or private toi- Yani, thats how Handayani is called, on comfort. Toilets in shopping malls, hotelslet, a public facility is basically less atten- average public toilets in Asian countries and office buildings are usually cleaner,ded, from cleanliness to hygienic aspect. are free of charge, while in Europe one dry and well provided with tissue paper.Take a look for instance, at toilet facility has to pay for using a toilet, such as one in While in other public places, they justin economy and business class train in train station, airport, or public park. "In build the facility with a very minimumIndonesia, it looks dirty, odorous, tissue Germany, we have to insert a coin to open furnishing.papers scattered all over the place, water the toilet door. In other place a coin is Syukur Nugroho, 29 had a differentnot flowing, and walls full of squiggles. needed for a tissue. I think it is quite experience with mobile toilet. AccordingEven, in some specific season, such as proper if we have to pay for the mainte- to the movie cameraman, a public toiletduring lebaran (Islamic holiday) or new nance of a facility that actually belongs to should be kept properly, its cleanlinessyear holidays when train as public trans- us" she said. and comfort. "We dont mind paying forport is fully packed, its toilet is not func- For a convenient and safe and clean the service, provided it is well kept, clean,tioning at all. If it is, water and tissue is toilet Yani has no objection to pay enough water, tissue and hand drier".not provided for as it should be. In some Rp2.000 for using it. "Take for instance For Nugroho considers that the ser-other place like in the street or a park in Mal Senayan the facility is well kept vice fee for using public toilet should bepublic toilet is not available. and clean, I have no problem paying for no more than Rp500. "Parking fee which According to Primastuti Handayani, its service, though actually it is free of entails a bigger management responsibi-36 yrs, editor of one foreign language charge in there. Most of the malls in lity is only Rp1.000, toilet service shouldnewspaper in Jakarta, public toilet in Jakarta have good toilets. But in other be lower than that".Indonesia does not meet cleanliness and places, such in a train, station, or other What is certain that, in whatever con-hygienic criteria. "Speaking of cleanliness public places the toilets are less comfort- dition it may appear the communitymeans that we are also speaking of able". needs a toilet. Now it is left to us who willhealth. Especially for women, we need a Heri Sucipto, 31, a toilet user at Blok initiate to grasp the opportunity, with ofclean toilet, free from filthiness, tissue M says that for men the condition of a toi- course offering a better service. 21 Percik Vol. 3 /February 2004
  • 23. R EPORTAGE The community of Kureksari, Sidoarjo is waiting for water supplyC ak Solekan says, a promise is easy but what about the reali- ty". Why the community of RT001/04 of Kureksari villageWaru. Sidoarjo, West Java say so because"we have become fed up with such kind ofpromise, many times since long ago wewere promised a PDAM (local govern-ment owned company) connection, but inreality only a big ZERO, then anothertime a toilet system but again no reality". What Cak Solekan say was an expres-sion of disappointment and at the sametime a long felt yearning how comfortableit would be for a community to haveaccess to water supply and sanitation sys-tem. Cak Solekans feeling was addressedto Pak Sutrisno Hadi sanitation programspecialist of Yayasan SEHAT Indonesia, Public toilet with poor conditionand his group when visiting the commu-nity upon the invitation of Pak Wardi, one ply is made worse with the constructionof the community leaders, who is aware of of a soda plant about 100 m from the pub-the difficulty for the community in having lic latrine. A well which formerly wasaccess to water supply and household toi- good as drinking water source now is pol-let. luted. Its water smells bad and foamy. Still according to Cak Solekan, once before the soda plant constructed a waterLack of water supply and sanitation supply facility with a water collector as afacility compensation for the community. The RW 04 of Kureksari village is located tank is built near the public toilet, butonly about 200 m from a luxury housing now the facility is not functioning anycomplex of Deltasari. It is not surprising more. It is said that the compensation isif this community use to dream of a water now changed into cash amounting tosupply service and a convenient toilet sys- Rp600.000 a month. But still, the com-tem, the comparison is like the earth and munity has to buy water for Rp750 per 20the sky. It seems the expression is not liter can.quite excessive. The real fact shows how Aware of this situation, the Yayasandifficult the community obtain water and offers a toilet program with informed lopment effort and employing an effectivesanitation service they need. technology options to be chosen by the strategy to invite community participa- According to Cak Solekan there are community. tion.400 families live in RW 04, but only less The opportunity for a communitythan 100 have a household toilet. This Important note sponsored water supply and sanitationRW has only one public latrine built on For the community of RW 04 in Ku- service seems promising. This is proventhe river and one public toilet with 3 clo- reksari water supply and sanitation sys- from the fact that the community is will-sets. The closets are also fixed close to the tem is a long time demand. Land space is ing to buy water though at a more expen-riverbank so that the wastewater may quite limited, it is nor feasible for the sive cost.easier be flushed down into the main community to build household toilet. The role of an outside facilitator iswater body. This is done because they Water collector donated by the soda important in order to build communitysonly have very limited land space. What plant, now not functioning anymore confidence through a realistic and com-is feasible for them is public toilet. The disappointment of the communi- monly beneficial program. ty with previous water supply and sanita-Pollution by soda plant tion program is a threat and at the same (Reported by Subari Observer on The difficulty for obtaining water sup- time an opportunity in initiating a deve- Human Settlement and Housing) 22 Percik Vol. 3 /February 2004
  • 24. F IELD VISIT Fund request procedure is not yet simplified I n 2003 there were 156 villages in W. Sumatra joining WSLIC-2 pro- ject. 36 of them have completed construction. While 101 were in construction phase consisting of 36 vil- lages in term three, 23 in term two and 42 in term one. The remaining 19 vil- lages were still preparing work plan and waiting for initial term fund. In connection to project implementa- tion there is something worthy of note. There is one proposal for water supply system that cost more than Rp200 mil- lion ceiling. This system is to supply water to 4 village communities: Mulyo- rejo, Solok, Solok Selatan and Karang Rejo all in Kabupaten Pasaman Barat. This is a consequence of merging the villages into nagari. The World Bank wanted this clarified and asked if the cei- ling could be increase to Rp250 million. Besides, the emergence of new kabu- patens as a result of the split of the exist- ing, Pasaman and W. Pasaman, Solok Water is Life is the slogan for the party held by local community and Solok Selatan, Sawahlunto Sijunjung and Damas Raya. This split implies the village location and the counterpart But the problem is, price increase can budget. In 2004 the new kabupaten In 2003 there were make the budget short. That is why, the have to coordinate with their respective 156 villages in W. Sumatra Director of Human Settlement and parents because of difficulty in human Housing, Bappenas suggests that a con- resources, fund and capacity. The role of joining WSLIC-2 project. tingency fund be made available to cover provincial coordination team is very 36 of them have the shortage. important to bridge the inter-kabupaten completed construction. It is quite a pleasure to learn that the coordination. interest of the community in sanitation Special attention must be paid that While 101 were in is increasing sharply. Unfortunately this pursuant to Keppres 42/2002 which construction phase consisting of is not supported with sufficient budget stipulates that counterpart budget is 36 villages in term three, allocation. To overcome this it is sug- appropriated on yearly basis, the provin- gested that the kabupaten government cial coordination team is expected to do 23 in term two and 42 in term set aside some budget for a rolling fund its best to simplify the fund disburse- one. The remaining 19 villages program in the community. Finally, it is ment process. Project delay because of were still preparing work plan necessary to conduct a regular water complication in fund disbursement is a quality test. And not the least important recurrent sickness. To overcome this and waiting is natural conservation measure in the difficulty it might be advisable to prepare for initial term fund. surrounding area of a water source. the construction plan one year ahead. (ML) 23 Percik Vol. 3 /February 2004
  • 25. F IELD VISIT Technology choice cannot be made uniform family has objection to have facility built near his house. On the average it takes 8 months from socialization at the provin- cial level till completion of construction. The time required for preparation of san- itation service management team is not known yet because the process is just beginning in January 2004. The learning process obtained from this project is the technology applied at the community level cannot be made uni- form. The choice of sanitation technolo- gy is based on the community perception and the local culture. Take for instance the city of Pasuruan, its community rejects communal toilet because it is considered as a dirty place and cannot be built before the public eyes. The community actually needs sa- nitation but they do not know what a hygienic sanitation looks like. Up to now sanitation development is not accompa- nied with explanation of the principles of hygienic sanitation. One reason why T he SANIMAS project has been on- drainage with anaerobic pond method; in SANIMAS is successful is because it is a going in East Java. The communi- Kediri, Mojokerto and Kabupaten Sido- sanitation development program through ty makes its own technology arjo the communal with anaerobic treat- improvement of the existing facility and choice. In the cities of Pasuruan and ment. The town of Pamekasan is can- accompanied with socialization. Blitar the communities choose piped celled because at the last moment one (Muria Istamtiah) Counterpart fund is a problem S everal participating communities are so poor that it is impossible for them to make available 4% cash and 16% in- guidelines from CPMU also confusing the community. In Kabupaten Jember there are in total tives. This success is attributable to inter- village cooperation in using a water kind contribution as is required for join- 36 villages participating in WSLIC-2 project, source, the availability of initial baseline ing the project. This fact was revealed consisting of (a) 8 villages completed in data, the formulation of subsidy format during the World Bank visit to Kabupaten 2002, (b) 14 villages implementation on- for poor families, the piping network are Jember and Malang on 25-27 January going since 2003, (c) 14 implementation to constructed by the community after com- 2004. start in 2004 (6 villages) and in 2005 (8 vil- pletion of infrastructure construction, Besides, there remains some doubt lages). In this kabupaten the role of local from the community if this project will government is exemplary. The local govern- and activity recording well done. indeed work, this makes a relatively low ment is active in conducting dissemination What needs be taken into considera- community participation in the early through radio jingle, and puppet shows filled tion for the future is the ceiling amount of stage of the development. A prolonged with hygiene behavior messages. Rp200 million. This amount is insuffi- process makes the community feel sick The villages visited represent the suc- cient that causes several projects suffer and loose interest. The ever changing cessful ones in carrying WSLIC-2 objec- from an inferior quality. (OM) 24 Percik Vol. 3 /February 2004
  • 26. W ASPOLA W o r k sof the National for the Development hop Policy for Community Based Water Supply and Environmental Sanitation Implementation Strategy O n January 15, 2004 the Commu- nity Based Water Supply and Environmental Sanitation Wor- king Group (Pokja AMPL) held a seminar in JEW Marriott Hotel, Jakarta. The pur- pose of the workshop is to gather input and materials for the formulation of par- ticipatory reference for policy implemen- tation at regional level. Participants from the stakeholders consisting of representa- tives from Ministry of Health (Depkes), National Development Planning Agency (Bappenas), Ministry of Settlement & Regional Infrastructure (Kimpraswil), Ministry of Internal Affairs (Depdagri), Ministry of Finance (Depkeu) and Minis- try for Environmental Affairs were pre- sent. As is already known that WASPOLA (Water Supply and Sanitation Policy Formulation and Action Planning) pro- ject has succeeded in formulating the Na- and the tools needed. Realizing that the tional Policy for Community Based Water central governments limitation the Supply and Environmental Sanitation implementation will conducted gradu- development in Indonesia. At this mo- ally. In general, based on the discussion ment the policy has been agreed and This policy it is recommended that the site selection be based on the principle of area diversi- signed by Central Project Coordinating has been agreed for ty and distribution. The tools that need Committee consisting of echelon I offi- cials of Bappenas, Depkes, Kimpraswil, dissemination and be made available consists of among Depdagri, and Depkeu. other the document of the National Policy The follow-up action consists of implementation for Community Based Water Supply and bringing the policy into regional level throughout Environmental Sanitation development, implementation. The first field trial was facilitation manual for policy imple- already conducted in 4 kabupatens: the country. menters and published material related Solok, Musi Banyuasin, Subang and to policy implementation at regional Sumba Timur in November 2002 through level. April 2003. It was found out from the 2. In order to have the activity more field trial that the regions are receptive focused it is necessary to prepare a and willing to adopt the policy though the of kabupaten/kota level government it is detailed action plan for 2004. It is agreed quality of their adoption varies from place important that a nationwide strategy and that the activity will be directed to pro- to place. This policy has been agreed for action plans for the policy socialization motion, advocation, facilitation, consul- dissemination and implementation and dissemination be prepared. The in- ting and real implementation. The time throughout the country. puts obtained in the workshop are among scheduling must take into consideration Realizing that the responsibility for others: the national agenda, among others the regional implementation is in the hands 1. Application of site selection criteria national election. (ML) 25 Percik Vol. 3 /February 2004
  • 27. W ASPOLA Water Supply and Sanitation Facility Ownership within the Community T he ownership of water supply and Financial responsibility for Example Location sanitation system within the com- construction munity becomes an important 100% government Emergency for refugees Atambua issue that deserves special attention by Government and the community WSLIC-1 and WSLIC-2 W. Sumatra, Sumsel, Jabar, Sumbar, S. Sumatra, E. Java,, W. Nusatenggara,etc. Jatim, NTB, Bangka Belitung WSES related decision makers in 100% from outside the German Govt. funded drinking Watumbaka Indonesia. Many WSES projects were government water project Sumtim constructed for the community, but after Outside funding and the Env. Sanitation CIDA funded and Tulungagung community facilitated by Spektra, Surabaya completion one question remains unan- Government and outside party Emergency for refugee of swered, what about the sustainability? earthquake victims To whom does a facility belong after it is Government, outside party and Sulawesi Rural Development S. Sulawesi, Central Sulawesi, dan Sulsel, Sulteng, Sulut, community Project-CARE Indonesia N. Sulawesi, SE Sulawesi Sultra constructed? If one says it belongs to the 100% community self-reliantly SMAS (Swadaya Masyarakat Kebonagung, Pacitan, community, what is the reason behind it dan Sanitasi) facilitated by CARE Jawa Timur. East Java and what kind of legal protection does the Indonesia. Tlogo Mas, Malang community have? Agus Gunarto sewerage system Tlogo Mas, Malang, East Java project Frequently we find a situation where the community does not know what to do on the initiative of and using an asset paid How to apply legal protection to when a facility breaks down until the for by the community. ownership of WSES facility which is facility is totally damaged. The classical In this connection, WASPOLA made a subsidized by government and out- reason that there is no transfer from the study on ownership by the community as side assistance? project. On the other hand, we can also an input for the development of strategy In general the legal base regarding find a WSES project which is properly for the implementation of national policy public service is linked to Art. 33 of the sustained and the community knows for WSES development for the following Constitution and Law No. 25/2000 what to do in case of breakdown. The key purposes: (Propenas 2000-2004). Although basi- word to both cases is sense of belonging- 1) Obtaining the picture of how cally land, water and atmosphere is under ness. ownership by the community of a WSES the control of the state for the interest It might be possible that a sustainable facility built from the funds provided for and well being of the population but com- community managed WSES infrastruc- by the government and outside assistance munity participation in public service ture and facility is one of the viable can have a guarantee of a legal protection. becomes one of the development strategy income generating alternatives for the 2) Obtaining an experience in owner- in Indonesia. As is stipulated in Law No. regional government. This is because the ship by community of a government pro- 22/1999 art 10(1) the regional govern- regional government reserves the rights ject especially a WSES facility. ment reserves the power to control natu- to control the resources within their 3) Obtaining a picture of the sustain- ral resources including its conservation domain. This fact may also lead to a con- ability of legal protection to a WSES faci- through issuance of the respective regula- flict between the regional government lity owned by the community. tions or letter of decision. and the local community. Therefore it This study was conducted through a The format of protection or evidence becomes our common responsibility to bibliographical research of policy and of ownership of a WSES facility by a com- develop a regulation to wisely avoid regulatory accounts as well as experience munity varies between one project to losses any of both parties. A legal um- of the field gathered from Kabupaten another: brella or some kind of legal protection is Bandung, Subang, Malang and Kediri From the very beginning there has important. particularly in the application of legal pro- been a statement that the project belongs Speaking of community WSES based tection to WSES facility. A study at co- to the community and its included in a on source of funding especially for the mmunity level was carried out at Cibodas contract between the project and the construction there are several models as village, Kab. Bandung; Palasari village, Kab. community. the following: Subang; Mojo village, Kab. Kediri; After completion the project is Though in fact the facility is in the Kandangan village, Kab. Kediri; and kelura- handed over by the central/provincial hands of the community as initially han Ciptomulyo, City of Malang. government to regional and then the intended but legally -in absence of a law- From the study of bibliographical regional government follows this up ful evidence- the ownership is left hang- materials and field observations the fol- through an SK (Surat Keputusan, letter of ing except when the facility is developed lowing important notes are extracted: decision) . 26 Percik Vol. 3 /February 2004
  • 28. WASPOLA Organization Location Format of legal protection HIPPAM JawaJava East Timur from Village Headman Keputusan Kepala Desa In general from the very Lembaga Pengelola Ciptimulyo, Mergosono, SK Walikota Mayor’s Letter of decision beginning it is understood Prasarana Lingkungan Malang, East Java that the facility belongs (LPPL) Model Badan Pengelola Air Palasari Kab. Subang SK Kepala Desa Letter of decision from to the community and is Bersih (BPAB) West Java Village Headman formulated in the statute Model Badan Pengelola Air Cibodas, Lembang, Kab. SK Kepala Desa Letter of decision from and internal regulation Bersih dan Sanitasi Bandung , West Java Village Headman (BPABS) and some also through a Model Usaha Bersama Bandung , West Java Letter of decision from SK Kepala Desa notarial document. (UB) Tirta Sari Village Headman Model Kelompok Tani Bandung , West Java Cooperative Koperasi Kelembagaan Penghijauan Assalam From the very beginning the com- Model Badan Usaha Milik Trawas, Mojokerto Letter of decision from Keputusan Kepala Desa munity knows that the project belongs to Desa , East Java Village Headman the community, they contribute, enjoy the benefit and select the management sustainability? b. If using the legal body of a coopera- team from among themselves. From the field study several examples tive is used the coverage and jurisdiction are observed as the following: follows the details contained in the docu- How to apply legal protection to ment; it is more independent from the ownership of WSES facility which is Matters to consider village institution; built from community initiative? From the above examples we can say c. If using a notarial document the In general from the very beginning it that all choices of legal protection are coverage and jurisdiction follows its sti- is understood that the facility belongs to acceptable and valid, but there differen- pulation; it is broader and more inde- the community and is formulated in the ces in terms of jurisdiction and coverage: pendent from village institution; statute and internal regulation and some a. If Surat Keputusan Kepala Desa d. If using the Mayors letter of deci- also through a notarial document. (letter of decision from village headman) sion, the coverage and jurisdiction is limi- is used the jurisdiction is limited only ted to the kelurahan, or inter kelurahan. What does the ownership model within the village boundary (administra- look like and what guarantee for tive approach); Elimination of conflict Conflict related to natural resources particularly to WSES service is quite pos- sible if any or all the conflicting parties disregard their responsibility. With a cle- ar ownership status the possibility of con- flict can be greatly minimized. If any, the channel for seeking a solution is already clearly indicated. Consequence of ownership Through an ownership regulation there are consequences that must be ho- noured by all the parties involved, who is to facility maintenance, to whom the ser- vice is to be provided, and how the facili- ty is managed in order to effect in an equ- itable service. Eventually the facility can sustain the service to the community. (Summarized from report of study on community ownership WASPOLA 2004) 27 Percik Vol. 3 /February 2004
  • 29. W ASPOLA Workshop for Vision Formulation for Water Supply and Environmental Sanitation Sector Development in Indonesia O n 5-6 November 2003 the Water Supply and Environmental Sa- nitation Working Group (Pokja AMPL) held a workshop seminar to vision formulation in WSES development at Hilton Hotel, Jakarta. The purpose of the seminar is to help WASPOLA and other WSES related stakeholders to for- mulate the vision or general direction of WSES development in 10-15 years from now (including MDGs) and design the strategic and realistic steps to arrive at the destination. There were 23 partici- pants representing the agencies of the Pokja. In the opening , Mr Basah Hernowo, Director of Human Settlement and Housing, Bappenas delivers his directive and expectation to take into considera- tion several points as the following: Pertaining to drinking water continue to be higher The scarcity of source to take drinking Final disposal of waste materials will remain a problem in all cities, none of driven can make target service coverage water from fulfilled easier and faster. The implica- Increased demand due to population them is happy to have a dumping ground in its place. All wants a clean tion from the statement is that there is growth and improvement in per capi- still confusion in understanding the role ta income city, but none wants a disposal ground within its border. The principle "not of central government in national deve- The community and the private sector lopment particularly in relation to WSES reserve potential resources for WSES in my backyard" is a serious threat to the overall waste material manage- sector. system investment. Toward the end of the workshop a ment The approach in waste material man- common vision was formulated. The for- agement must be directed to an envi- mulation can be categorized into opti- Pertaining to sanitation mistic, neutral, and pessimistic. Optimis- ronmentally friendly and application The costs related to management of tic indicates a conviction that MDGs goals of 3R (reduce, reuse and recycle) prin- household wastes are still relatively and targets can be achieved, in contrast ciple. high with that of the pessimistic. The approach in waste water mana- It was also indicated about the debate The statement of the vision is just an gement is directed to neighborhood, at the central level in relation to the best initial idea, there will much improvement communal and citywide approach to be applied in the WSES needed especially in terms of wording. A In terms of quantity as well as quality development, one side suggests enhance- complete proceeding of the seminar is waste products are increasing, while ment of demand responsive approach, found in WSES website (http://www.- the proportion of inorganic waste will while the other considers that supply ampl.or.id). 28 Percik Vol. 3 /February 2004
  • 30. W ASPOLA Water Supply and Sanitation Policy Formulation and Action Planning (WASPOLA) Phase 2 W ater Supply and Sanitation out a planned programme. The sense of Policy Formulation and Action belongingness and responsibility also Planning (WASPOLA) project In board line the demands that the other partners to pro- in Indonesia started implementation activities of WASPOLA vide a wider room for WASPOLA activi- from 1998 through 2003. The 5-year ties. That is why since the final year of phase phase 2 covers 3 main project is implemented in partnership 1 the WSES Working Group has been active- between the Indonesian government, areas: policy implemen- ly involved in designing WASPOLA phase 2 , Australian government through AusAID tation, policy revision, and also active in the preparation of working and WSP-EAP/World Bank. In this part- plan , design of activities, and others related nership effort, the Australian government management of to WASPOLA main activities. provides funding which is channeled knowledge Other aspect worth mentioning is the through AusAID, WSP/EAP provides more intensive involvement of Working facilitation of the process for the benefit Group members in WSES related activities, and welfare of Indonesian people. product of WASPOLAs activities belongs either it is facilitated by WASPOLA or one After completion of the 5 year term to Indonesian government. As a conse- based on their own initiatives. In addition (phase 1) all partners agree to continue quence all who are involved are required more frequent meetings the number of ac- the activities for the second 5 year term to actively participate in the process. tive members is also increasing. If in the ini- (phase 2) which will be implemented Widespread misinterpretation often tial stage only Bappenas, Ministry of Health, from 2004 through 2008. In principle happens regarding the policy formulated. Ministry of Settlement and Regional Infra- phase 2 is a continuation of phase 1. As is Apparently the policy produced was bet- structure Ministry of Internal Affairs, and with phase 1 the second phase is focused ter known as WASPOLA policy. At an Ministry of Finance, are the member agen- to community based WSES system deve- early stage such a mistake may be forgi- cies, now Ministry of Environmental Affair- lopment. The difference is in its type of ven but later it must be straighten out, s is joining in. Hopefully more are coming. activity: in the first it was in policy formu- because as it was mentioned earlier lation while in the second is in translating WASPOLA is only a project with limited WASPOLA Phase 2 Work Plan the policy into actual operation. period of implementation, while the It should be known that the work plan As with policy formulation for institu- national policy is expected to be applied of WASPOLA is different from that of tionally based WSES development which nationwide and will last forever. This working group (Pokja AMPL), though in has been started since the last two years misinterpretation may be harmful to implementation both work hand in hand will also be continued. everyone, AusAID, WSP-EAP and the in order to produce the best result. In Indonesian government. One aspect that broad line the activities of WASPOLA Belongingness may cause adverse effect is lack of sense phase 2 covers 3 main areas: In the initial design WASPOLA was to of belongingness and respect to the poli- Policy Implementation become an instrument in formulation of a cy, and possibly also the emergence of a Translating the national policy into national policy for WSES development stigma to bind AusAID and WSP-EAP operable regional level community based and for this purpose it will be supported because of their funding and facilitation. WSES development. with a cross sectoral agencies. It was Policy Revision expected that the policy would be pro- Change toward improvement Improvement of the institutionally duced by the Indonesian government for In the last two years WSES Working based WSES development now already in the benefit of Indonesian people and by Group has allocated a significant amount the first draft. the Indonesians. In its progress however, of budget to support WASPOLA activi- Management of knowledge it took a considerable length of time to ties. This indicates a growing sense of Case studies and information dis- convince the Working Group (Pokja) the belongingness and responsibility to carry semination. 29 Percik Vol. 3 /February 2004
  • 31. WASPOLA 2 Workplan for 2004 30 Percik 2004 Vol. 3 /February
  • 32. WASPOLA Workshop on Achievement of Millennium Development Goals Through Water Supply and Environmental Sanitation Action Plans in Indonesia T he purpose of the workshop is to obtain a common understanding among the stakeholders about Millennium Development Goals particu- larly in water and sanitation and its link- age with other sectors. It is hoped that this workshop could produce action plans for water and sanitation sector which rep- resent an agreement by all stakeholders. The workshop lasted for 2½ days from 17 -19 February 2004 at Hotel Sheraton Bandara, Jakarta. The partici- pants consist of representatives from Departments or Ministry (Bappenas, Kimpraswil, Keuangan, Dalam Negeri, Lingkungan, Pengentasan Kemiskinan, Kehutanan, Sumberdaya Air, Pember- dayaan Wanita, and Kelautan); pro- fessional association/institution, iniversi- ties, regional governments, media associ- ation, donor agencies, NGOs and commu- and issues that might be influential to nity organization. The result produced MDGs target in particular water and sa- nitation. It is interesting that during the imple- in the workshop consists The result produced in the workshop mentation of this workshop is the appli- cation of participatory method, where of recommendation for consists of recommendation for indica- each participant is a resource person indicative strategy, tive strategy, solution and action plans therefore an active participation and con- related to theme and issues that may be tribution from everyone was called for. solution and action plans influential to water and sanitation target The first session started with a directive related to theme and in MDGs. The outcome is colored with from the Deputy for Facility and new information and knowledge brought Infrastructure, Bappenas. His speech issues that may be in by the related stakeholders, such as contains primarily of a statement that influential to water and from local governments, forestry sector, women empowerment, poverty reduc- although the principle of MDGs have sanitation target in MDGs. tion, human resources and environmen- been adopted by the related government agencies, yet a discussion by all stake- tal affairs, non government organiza- holders is needed in order to translate stressed later that MDGs achievement tions, donor agencies and media repre- and to agree to targets and realistic and needs an integrated effort with other sentative. It is hoped that such a dialogue operable national action plans. An inter- issues such as human rights, good gover- could be continued, so that MDGs targets esting presentation was also provided By nance, and security. particularly water and sanitation could be Ms. Erna Witoelar in her capacity as UN As is mentioned earlier that this achieved. Special Ambassador for MDGs in Asia workshop applies participatory approach (Summarized from workshop result and the Pacific stated that the target the following sessions consist of group Achievement of Millennium discussions. The discussions deal with Development Goals determination (in particular, water and Through Water Supply and sanitation) was made by each country in among others, the participants opinion Environmental Sanitation Action accordance with the condition of the about the possibility of achieving the Plans in Indonesia) respective country. This matter, she goals and targets in Indonesia, and theme 32 Percik Vol. 3 /February 2004
  • 33. B OOK INFO Integration of the interests for Winning Life A reference to the methodology for natural resources conflict management N atural resources management which is tinted with various interests may in the end lead to conflicts. Therefore, conflict manage- Authors: ment should become an inherent part in Ilya Moeliono, Larry Fischer, the long process of natural resources Stefan Wodicka, Suporahardjo management. While it is in our culture, Publisher: conflicts tend to be avoided or even neg- Studio Driya Media in cooperation lected. Realizing that conflict is an effec- with World Neighbors, tual phenomenon this book attempts to Consortium Pengembangan Nusa offer the steps to managing it. Tenggara with support from The This book is prepared from various Ford Foundation references and initiatives in many places, First Edition, 2003 which were alter combined into several Pages: xxxi + 242 pp concepts, principles and methodologies to help in natural resources management in Indonesia. The book is divided into 6 chapters beginning from the solution of non-confrontation type of conflict, dis- cussion on the meaning of conflict, con- conflict through mediation. In its link- flict solution including its strength and age with WSES development this book is weakness, and the guidelines to its solu- quite relevant especially with the begin- tion. ning of the emergence of conflict related The main strength of this book is in to water source management, including solution of non-confrontation type of WSES facility management. Infrastructures in Indonesia Before, During, and After the T his book attempts to con- Crisis tribute some ideas for a sus- tainable infrastructure deve- lopment program of the future espe- cially in the light of a strategically changing environment. The materi- Author: als presented here represent the over- Suyono Dikun (ed.) all picture of the conditions and Publisher: important factors governing infra- The Office of Bappenas structures in Indonesia, in the past, First Edition, 2003 today and in the future. The infra- Pages: structure covered includes transport, xxxiv + 566pp. energy, electricity, water resources and irrigation, drinking water and sanitation, telematic, housing, and related industry and service. 33 Percik Vol. 3 /February 2004
  • 34. B OOK INFO Ideas for Local Action in Water Management T his books attempts to disseminate tion, water quality improvement, and Authors: local initiatives in water manage- clean-ups. Besides, the discussion also Marten van Ittersum and Frank ment, by the local government, includes the importance of transparency van Steenbergen civil community, private sector. The fo- in water management. It is also inte- Publisher: cus of local activity is very important, resting this book provides a list of refe- Global water Partnership even for the big international organizati- renced materials such as books, websites, First Edition, 2003 on. The main strength of this book lies reports, even the addresses of institutions Pages: with the variety of examples of local ac- related to water supply management. 102 pp tivities under various different organiza- If one intends to learn about water tion and localities. The information pre- supply management this book proves sented in this book is useful for(a) profes- Campaigns." The materials presented itself as a valuable source of information. sionals, (b) local government, (c) contains the basic principles underlying If further information is needed there are cooperation organization. This book is small scale community water supply address to contact which can be accessed actually a continuation of a similar book management including examples which is through mail, internet, and telephone entitled "Ideas for Water Awareness divided into categories, water conserva- connection. 34 Percik Vol. 3 /February 2004
  • 35. WE B S I T E I N F O Websites related to Target 10 of MDGs Human Development Report 2003 Millennium Development because it provides detailed information Goals: A compact among about progress and anything done by nations to end human poverty each nation in achieving MDGs which are http://hdr.undp.org/ assembled into the Human Development Report (HDR) 2003. The document can T his is the official website be downloaded. There are many more featuring the Human interesting documents such as journals, Development Report. data, books which the most part can be This website becomes important downloaded. Millennium Project http://www.unmillenniumproject.org/html/about.shtm T he United nations launched 4 strategies in achieving MDGs, namely millennium project, millennium cam- paign, achievement monitoring in each nation, activity coordination in each nation. This website contains explanation of one of the strategies, i.e Millennium Project for the purpose of producing the best recommendation in achieving MDGs. Report of each MDGs target is also included here. Specifically for target 10 interim report (water and sanitation) can be accessed in Some interesting working papers are also presented here like http://www.inmillenniumproject.org/documents/tf/interim.pdf. Millennium Development Goals Needs Assessments. Statistics Division Other related websites The United Nations Millennium Assembly http://www.un.org/millennium/ United Nations Millennium Development Goals http://www.un.org/millenniumgoals/ United Nations Group (UNDG) http://www.undg.org/login.cfm http://unstats.un.org/unsd/mi/mi_goals.asp Millennium Development Goals Country Reports http://www.undp.org/mdg/countryreport.html United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) http://www.undp.org/mdg/ World Health Organization (WHO) http://www.who.int/mdg/en/ T his represents the website of the UN-HABITAT http://www.unhabitat.org/ Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) http://www.oecd.org Statistics Division of the United World Economic Forum http://www.weforum.org/ Nations, a section of which Paris21 Consortium http://www.paris21.org/netterworld/home.htm includes Millennium Indicators that con- Water and sanitation Program http://www.wsp.or/english/focus/mdg.html tains definitions of drinking water and sanitation, and the related data linked to Source UNDP MDGs of each nation. 35 Percik Vol. 3 /February 2004
  • 36. A GENDA Water Supply and Environmental Sanitation Working Group Action Plan 2004A fter several meetings held at the Pokja Secretariat the following action plan has been agreed. Inbroad line the plan comprises the follow-ing: 1. Support activities to foreign lo-an/grant funded projects such asWASPOLA, WSLIC-2, ProAir, CWSH,and others. The activities consist of mo-nitoring and supervision, coordinationmeeting, workshop, procurement of labo-ratory equipment. 2. Public campaign. Following up theagreement of National Policy forCommunity Based WSES Development,during this year the disseminationprocess to all provincial and kabupatengovernments will be undertaken, publicservice advertisement in national papers,talk show in national TV channels, train-ing for national and provincial level fa-cilitators, dissemination of the nationalpolicy through brochures, leaflets, andother media, article writing contest, web- technology which gather all available which will continue with construction ofsite development and maintenance, pub- technology each with detailed specifica- WSES infrastructure and facility.lication of Bulletin (Percik), and routine tion and construction cost. It is also real- 6. Improvement in working groupdiscussion forum. ized that village level WSES investment secretariat. With the increasing in inten- 3. Organizing baseline data. To follow need must be supported with village level sity and type of activities it becomes ne-up the WSES baseline data workshop in financial institution. For this purpose a cessary to have a capable secretariat to2003, it is planned to conduct field trial of study in financial institution arrange- support the activities. It is planned todata base WSES in 2 provinces. There ment for village level WSES is to be con- hire new professionals to support thewill be, in addition, a WSES investment ducted this year. daily routinesstudy be conducted. 5. Field trial of national policy for The working group will be supported 4. Preparation of guidelines and stan- community based WSES development. by government budget (APBN). An ac-dardization. Realizing the lack of guide- This year the field trial will be held in tivity conducted in collaboration withlines and standardization related to SANIMAS project sites as a replication to other party, WASPOLA, or the local go-WSES this year will start preparation of what the project has done in 2003, and vernment, the cost will be shared betweeninformed choice catalogue of sanitation another trial in the ex 2003 field trial area the partners. 36 Percik Vol. 3 /February 2004
  • 37. National Policy Development of Community- Managed Water Supply and Environmental Sanitation Facilities and Services1. Water as an Economic and Public Good2. Informed Choice as the Basis of Demand-Responsive Approach3. Environmental-Friendly Development4. Hygiene Education5. Poverty Focus6. Womens Role in Decision-Making7. Accountability of the Planning Process8. Governments Role as Facilitator for Empowerment9. Active Community Participation10. Optimal and Target-Oriented Service11. Improved Monitoring and Evaluation ProgramAGREEMENT FOR NATIONAL POLICY FOR DEVELOPMENT OF COMMUNITY-BASED WATER SUPPLY AND ENVIRONMENTAL SANITATION Ir. E. Suyono Dikun, Ph.D.IPM Deputy of Infrastructure, National Development Prof. Dr. Umar Fahmi Achmadi, MPH.Ph.D Planning Agency Directorate General of Communicable Disease Control & Enviromental Health, Ministry of Health Ir. Budiman Arief Drs. Seman Widjojo, Msi Directorate General of Urban and Rural Directorate General of Development Development, Ministry of Home AffairsMinistry of Settlement and Regional Infrastructure Dr. Ardi Partadinata, Msi Dr. Machfud Siddik, MSc Directorate General of Rural and Community Directorate General for Central and Local Fiscal Empowerment Balance, Ministry of Home Affairs Ministry of Finance