Information Media for Water Supply and        Environmental Sanitation                                                From...
F R O M T H E E D I TO R     Indonesia is located in the tropic with two seasons. Dry andwet. Each of the seasons comes al...
YOUR VOICE        Request for Percik                                       Sending                          understood by ...
M A I N F E AT U R E                    WHY NSC IS                    NECESSARY?         he National Sanitation Conference...
M A I N F E AT U R Ecuss pertinent issues including socialcampaign, funding, stakeholder involve-ment, technology choice, ...
M A I N F E AT U R ETechnology choice for sanitation provi-        development, supervision of waste dis-               si...
M A I N F E AT U R E   The necessary initial step to be takenis provision of clear understanding todecision makers about t...
M A I N F E AT U R E                                               THE TEAM                BEHIND THE CONFERENCE         o...
I N T E RV I E W           Deputy for Infrastructure Bappenas Dr. Ir. Dedy Supriadi Priatna, M.Sc             ITS BEEN GIV...
I N T E RV I E Wactivity to support the International Year     result of sanitation related diseases, par-       ADB, the ...
I N T E RV I E W   Other parties outside the government may also be  actively involved in the efforts. NGO, as institution...
R E G U L AT I O N              Government Regulation No. 38                  of 2007 on Division of              Administ...
R E G U L AT I O Nextended responsibilities to the regional level. Several govern-     The impact of the GR issuancement a...
INSIGHT                     S A N I TAT I O N                               AS A COMMON                              RESPO...
INSIGHT                                                                                              basic sanitation comb...
INSIGHT                   IN ANTICIPATION OF                 CONFERENCE ON CLIMATE                        CHANGE          ...
INSIGHTinconsistencies; increase of prevalences of water related diseases(Further please see box on Impact of Global Warmi...
INSIGHTtrading, this is a transaction between the          The Intergovernmental Panel for             If one ton is equiv...
INSIGHTtemperature in some big cities likeJakarta, Medan, Denpasar is increasingaround 0.2 to 3 degrees Celcius, (iii) hig...
National Sanitation Conference 2007. Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine. October 2007
National Sanitation Conference 2007. Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine. October 2007
National Sanitation Conference 2007. Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine. October 2007
National Sanitation Conference 2007. Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine. October 2007
National Sanitation Conference 2007. Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine. October 2007
National Sanitation Conference 2007. Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine. October 2007
National Sanitation Conference 2007. Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine. October 2007
National Sanitation Conference 2007. Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine. October 2007
National Sanitation Conference 2007. Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine. October 2007
National Sanitation Conference 2007. Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine. October 2007
National Sanitation Conference 2007. Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine. October 2007
National Sanitation Conference 2007. Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine. October 2007
National Sanitation Conference 2007. Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine. October 2007
National Sanitation Conference 2007. Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine. October 2007
National Sanitation Conference 2007. Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine. October 2007
National Sanitation Conference 2007. Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine. October 2007
National Sanitation Conference 2007. Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine. October 2007
National Sanitation Conference 2007. Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine. October 2007
National Sanitation Conference 2007. Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine. October 2007
National Sanitation Conference 2007. Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine. October 2007
National Sanitation Conference 2007. Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine. October 2007
National Sanitation Conference 2007. Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine. October 2007
National Sanitation Conference 2007. Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine. October 2007
National Sanitation Conference 2007. Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine. October 2007
National Sanitation Conference 2007. Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine. October 2007
National Sanitation Conference 2007. Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine. October 2007
National Sanitation Conference 2007. Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine. October 2007
National Sanitation Conference 2007. Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine. October 2007
National Sanitation Conference 2007. Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine. October 2007
National Sanitation Conference 2007. Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine. October 2007
National Sanitation Conference 2007. Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine. October 2007
National Sanitation Conference 2007. Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine. October 2007
National Sanitation Conference 2007. Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine. October 2007
National Sanitation Conference 2007. Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine. October 2007
National Sanitation Conference 2007. Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine. October 2007
National Sanitation Conference 2007. Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine. October 2007
National Sanitation Conference 2007. Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine. October 2007
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Published by Indonesia Water and Sanitation Working Group. First edition in August 2003

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National Sanitation Conference 2007. Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine. October 2007

  1. 1. Information Media for Water Supply and Environmental Sanitation From the Editor 1 Published by: Your Voice 2 Water Supply and Sanitation Working Group Main Feature Why NSC is necessary? 3 Advisor: Director General for Human Settlement, Interview Department of Public Works Deputy for Infrastructure Development Bappenas Board of Trustee: Dr. Ir. Dedy Supriadi Priatna 8 Director of Settlement and Housing, National Development Planning Agency Regulation Director of Water and Sanitation, Governmnet Regulation No. 38/2007 on Distribution of Government Ministry of Health Director of Water Supply Development, Affairs management between National, Provincial, and Department of Public Works Director of Natural Resources and Kabupaten/Kota Governments 11Appropriate Technology, Director General Insighton Village and Community Empowerment, Department of Home Affairs Sanitation as Common Responsibility 13Director for Facilitation of Special Planning In anticipation of Conference on Climate change 15 Environment Management, Department of Home Affairs Perspectives of WSS Network Management 19 Chief Editor: Lessons Learned from Water Supply and Household Oswar Mungkasa Latrine Development 22 Board of Editor: Our Guest Zaenal Nampira, H. Bambang Murtiyoso on Wayang Story 26 Indar Parawansa, Bambang Purwanto Reportase Editor: Learning a lesson from Tanjung Tiga Village 28 Maraita Listyasari, Rheidda Pramudhy, Water Supply management in two villages 30 Raymond Marpaung, Dyota Condrorini Mirror Design/Illustrator: WSS Developmnet in Kabupaten Boalemo 32 Rudi Kosasih Around WASPOLA 33 Production: Machrudin Around WSS 41 Program Distribution: Agus Syuhada Love Water Program 45 Abstract Address:Jl. Cianjur No. 4, Menteng, Jakarta Pusat Reducing Detergent Content using clay soil 47 Phone/Fax.: 62-21-31904113 http://www.ampl.or.id IATPI Clinic 48 e-mail: redaksipercik@yahoo.com CD Info 49 redaksi@ampl.or.id oswar@bappenas.go.id Book Info 50 Website Info 51 Unsolicited article or opinion itemsare welcome. Please send to our address WSS Bibliography 52 or e-mail. Dont forget to be brief and accompanied by identity. Agenda Percik magazine can be accessed through WSS website http://www.ampl.or.id
  2. 2. F R O M T H E E D I TO R Indonesia is located in the tropic with two seasons. Dry andwet. Each of the seasons comes alternately within a year everyyear. As a blessing from God men must be thankful to Him. It is quite unfortunate, though, that each of the two seasonsalways brings us disaster. Water scarcity in dry season. Waterseems to disappear from the earth surface. Men are in difficul-ty to find water source. In rainy season flood is almost a certainty. Floodwater iscontinuously lying in wait, it may come anytime. And Jakartais a place that cannot escape from the problem of flood. Flood occurs in all the places where such disaster comestime after time. It is also usual that land slide and strong windfollow the rainy days. Its not infrequent that this natural phe-nomenon also takes its tolls. All this happens because we never realize that we have tothank God for His blessing and behave ourselves. We fail toprotect water spring in anticipation of dry season and in thesame way we neglect environmental conservation in anticipa-tion of wet season. It seems that water is the source of disaster. Though essen-tially it is not water by itself that causes us to suffer, it is the The shallowing of Ciliwung river cause flood in rainy season.consequence of mans carelessness. Source: Bowo Leksono. After experiencing a relatively long dry season that causesdrought in many places, November is the time for rainy season. not yet a priority. The fact is, sanitation is given a very limitedFlood, landslide, and whirlwind take turn to threat us all. budget to allow a satisfactory development. On average the In addtion to raw water, which is in great demand regard- kabupaten and kota annual budget allocation for sanitationless of the season, another human basic demand is sanitation. varies between 0.5 - 1.5 percent of the total.The availability of good raw water source does not guarantee a While the community demand to sanitation access is realgood sanitation, or vice versa. and cannot wait. It is deemed necessary to guide the commu- Sanitation development, particularly domestic waste nitys initiative and self reliance. The Community Led Totalincluding human waste treatment system, is an effort that Sanitation (CLTS) and Sanimas are programs that are consid-needs involvement of many parties, government, community ered successful and have led the community to improvedand private sector. household sanitation system. It is for this purpose that a National Sanitation Conference It seems we have to learn something from the success made(NSC) 2007 is to take place. This major event is discussed in by Kabupaten Muara Enim in South Sumatra. One of the vil-Perciks main feature XX edition. This national conference is lages, namely Desa Tanjung Tiga has succeeded in motivatingscheduled for 19-20 November 2007 in Jakarta and will bear a the community to build household latrine without any subsidy.theme "Resources Mobilization for Sanitation Development Not less interesting as it is something entirely new that WSSAcceleration." issue is disseminated through shadow puppet show. This was National Sanitation Conference (NSC) 2007 is one of the initially mentioned during "Central Java Dalang Meeting 2007"government efforts to build the stakeholders cooperation and held by Centra Java Regional Office of Indonesia Dalangcommitment to sanitation sector development. Association in Semarang 27 October 2007. Dalang is the nar- In the eyes of the decision makers sanitation hopefully, will rator in a shadow puppet show. The relevant article is present-be a priority. NSC 2007 is Indonesian preparatory step in ed in a column Around WASPOLA.anticipation of International Year of Sanitation 2008. We are aware that what we present to you in this magazine In this edition Percik presents you an interview with Dr. Ir. is still far from being perfect. Therefore, your comments andDedy Supriadi Priatna, Deputy for Infrastructure Development, suggestions for improvement are most welcome. And we hopeBappenas particularly on the subject of NSC 2007. In his opi- this media will always become useful reference and informa-nion sanitation has attracted the government attention, but it is tion for all of us. Percik October 2007 1
  3. 3. YOUR VOICE Request for Percik Sending understood by the readers. At least two Back Edition article to Percik pages long or equivalent to 8,000 char- acters and of course discusses a subject Dear Editor, Assalamu alaikum wr. wb. matter within the realm of what the Id acknowledge with thanks receipt Once I read Percik in the Regional magazine is intended for. Itd be prefer-of Percik, which God willing will always Library. I find it quite valuable for refe- able if photographs are attached. Thebe very useful. I have previously received rence in the related subject. As usual, if I article can be sent by mail or e-mail.and kept earlier editions of Percik from read a magazine, what interest me most Please include your bank account. Theremeetings in Bappenas and Tarkim in are the articles. Interesting to read, will be compensation for a publishedJakarta. But when I brought them for study, and to contribute an article too. My article. Editordisplay in a Community Exhibition many question is, what are the criteria for anvisitors get so interested. If itd be possi- article in Percik? Irregularityble Id appreciate it once again that you Wassalambe kind enough to send me back edition Astrid Meutia I may say that I am one of the loyalof Percik for dissemination. Thank you Semarang Percik readers since its very beginning.in advance There is a lot of useful information Ria Ismaria Assalamu alaikum wr. wb derived from it. But how come that lately the arrival time table is irregular? Dear Ms Ria Ismaria, Dear Ms Astrid, Bintang We would also thank you for dissem- Thank you very much for your kind Perum Islamic, Tangeranginating the information contained in attention. Basically the criteria for anPercik. We will do our best, God willing, article for Percik are the same with the Dear Mr. Bintang,to send you some back numbers of general rule followed by any other mag- Thank you very much for your atten-Percik. Please send your mail address to azine. The content should not be too aca- tion. Please apologyze for the delay inus. Editor demical, meaning that it must be easily Percik mailing lately. There have been some technical difficulties in the print- ing. We hope that next time the mailing EditorialCartoon will become timely as usual. Editor Created by Rudi Kosasih How long? Just testing There arent many magazines that deal specifically with water supply and what’s it like environmental sanitation. It is undeni- able fact that there are lots we can obtain in 2010... from this magazine. But, how long will this publication last? Naniek Pangestuti Bogor rudiKOZ Dear Ms Naniek, CLIMATE Thank you very much for your thoughtful concern. We are happy and CHANGE proud that this magazine is useful to its readers. Lets pray this magazine will last a lifetime and beyond. Editor. Percik 2 October 2007
  4. 4. M A I N F E AT U R E WHY NSC IS NECESSARY? he National Sanitation Conference 2007 was initiatedT by the stakeholders who are deeply concerned about sanitation condition in Indonesia, especially as it relatesto MDGs 2015. While according to statistics of 2006 sanitationservice coverage has increased up to 69.34 percent, the numbersdo not tell us anything about the quality of the facility, whetherit is functioning well, or is being used accordingly, whether itmeets hygiene and technical standards, etc. There is a strongsignal that the real coverage is much lower than the data indi-cate. This is evidenced from the widespread prevalence of poorsanitation related diseases. Similar issue also occur in othersanitation service, i.e solid waste and drainage system of whichthe coverage is also way below satisfactory level. Several measures have been taken to answer this challenge.In spite of sanitation development, the impact is insignificat re-lative to the magnitude of the problem. Considering the bigdemand for sanitation and on the other hand there is only limit-ed resources available, it is deemed necessary to call for a com-mon effort involving the government and all the existing deve-lopment partners (community, private sector, NGO, and donorinstitution). Realizing the above fact, the government together with thestakeholders decided to take an important step toward accelera-tion of sanitation development. The step is the National Technology Choice in Sanitation Development. Source: ISSDP.Sanitation Conference 2007. It is hoped that this conference willserve as means for exchange of information, stakeholder conper- and Sanitation Development Working Group (WSS-WG). Afteration, and eventually synergy and strategic step toward sanita- a review by WSS Steering Committee, it was agreed thattion development in Indonesia. "Resources Mobilization for Acceleration of Sanitation Development" will promote the processes taking place duringResources Mobilization for acceleration of sanitation the conference to translate into efforts of improving the per-development formance of sanitation development in Indonesia. This subtitle will be the major theme of the conference. This In this connection, WSS-WG and consultant team ofsubject was summarized from a series of discussions and meet- Indonesia Sanitation Sector Development Program (ISSDP)ings involving all of the various components of Water Supply came to an agreement that the agenda of the conference will dis- Percik October 2007 3
  5. 5. M A I N F E AT U R Ecuss pertinent issues including socialcampaign, funding, stakeholder involve-ment, technology choice, and institution-al development. These are the issues gov-erning sanitation development inIndonesia and therefore agenda will focuson these matters. Finally, it is expectedthat the conference will come up with arecommendation that the decision mak-ers are willing to translate it into followup actions especially in the light ofimproving sanitation condition of thiscountry.Funding strategy For the last 6 years since the begin-ning of regional autonomy, the responsi-bility for sanitation development hasbeen in the hands of the region. Yet thebudget allocation remains very low,somewhere around 1 percent of the totalannual budget. In the meantime theurban development continuouslydemands for acceptable sanitation facili-ty. Therefore there is strong plea formore money invested to improve sanita-tion system to cope with the urban devel- Social campaign in sanitation development. Source: ISSDP.opment. The general issue faced by the region for Sanitation Development" the confer- waste management combined with low(especially kota) is the limited financial ence hopefully could come up with fresh technical capacity all are part of sanita-capacity for all development require- ideas in digging potential funding sources tion problem in Indonesia. Sanitation isments, including sanitation. For this it is for sanitation development in order to no longer the concern of individual, it is adeemed necessary to look for break- provide insight on funding sources for common issue involving the governmentthrough to investigate potential sources investment in sanitation in accordance (central as well as regional), NGO, privateof funding for sanitation development. with the demand of city development. sector, and the community. An empow-Pursuant to the existing rule and regula- More than that, from this discussion it is erment and facilitation scheme istion it is possible for inviting sanitation expected to produce outcome in the form required to improve participation anddevelopment cooperation with higher of fiancial models for sanitation develop- involvement of all stakeholders, particu-level of the government hierarchy, i.e ment planning in Indonesia. larly the community, in planning, opera-provincial government and central gov- tion, and O&M of sanitation facility.ernment. Technology choice Therefore, the regional government in Further, sanitation system develop- Sanitation service provision will not its capacity of development agent must bement may be condusted by the communi- immediately solve all the existing prob- able to develop sanitation based onty or the provate sector. Other prossible lems. Poor septic tanks, using drainage demand responsiveness approach by waysource is loan. Through conducting a ditch for both wastewater disposal and of change in development paradigm fromgroup discussion on "Strategy of Funding solid waste dumping pusposes, poor solid supply driven to demand driven. Percik 4 October 2007
  6. 6. M A I N F E AT U R ETechnology choice for sanitation provi- development, supervision of waste dis- sion. The regulatory function shall sticksion may vary widely, from the simplest posal system, health and social impact to with the involved department or agency.to the most sophisticated, conventional as the community, to the extent of the busi- While for operator it is necessary to namewell as inconventional. There is a close ness implication arising from its develop- the most suitable institution to run anlinkage between technology choice and ment. effective, efficient and productive for theinvestment with resources capacity par- Looking at the above presentation it is community. To answer the challengeticularly financial and human resources necessary to have a clear definition of related to the institutional issue a groupas well as the social economic condition each agencys role and responsibility, discussion will be held in NSC coveringof the community. Insufficient resources interagency coordination, institutional the following scope:tend to lead to on-site system develop- capacity building, and a definite decisionment, and as resources impprove the from the regional chief of administration. Social campaign in Sanitationdevelopment will gradually shift to off- To coordinate the various agencies Developmentsite system. responsible for sanitation service provi- Using river for defecation and waste An exchange of knowledge and infor- sion a WSS-WG has been established disposal, and at the same time also sourcemation in disucssion"Technology Choice from the central down to regional levels. of domestic water supply is common inand Sanititation Development" is expect- The establishment of this Working Group Indonesia. To make it even worse oneed to lead to a better understading toward has promoted a synergy in sanitation must also add the careless littering in theconcrete measures in mobilizing service development. It also instills each streets and public facility, so that all in allresources. This discussion is also expect- of the departments or agencies to commit indicates how poor it is our hygieneed to provide inputs for the formulation itself to the decision taken collectively. behaviour, especially within the lowof national policy for utilization of appro- In connection with the need for insti- income communities. To improvepriate technology in sanitation develop- tutional capacity building it would be hygiene bahaviour we need an effectivement. worth considering the role of regulator social campaign strategy beyond the mere Finally, it is expected to provide direc- and operator in sanitation service provi- slogans posted in public areas.tives for technology option in urban sani-tation planning (medium term plan, No. Sub Theme Scope ReferenceRKPD and APBD) in the light of commu-nity access to improved and sustainable 1. Separation of o Government mission in public service provi- o Law No.12/sanitation service. regulator from sion 2004 operator for o Types of sanitation service under the regio- o Government regional level nal govt responsibility RegulationInstitutional capacity building sanitation man- o Regl govt role and position in sanitation No. 16/2005 agement and management o Government Sanitation development in Indonesia development o The need for separation of sanitation service Regulationis a cross sectoral program which regulator from the operator No. 23/2005 o Political commitment needed for separationinvolves the central level agencies con- of regulator from operator o Summary and recommendationsisting of Bappenas, and theDepartments of Public Works, Health, 2. Effectiveness of o Ideal format of public service operator o GovernmentHome Affairs, Finance, Industry, and public service o Relationship between service operator and Re g u l a t i o nState Ministry for Environment. At the operator per- the regional government No. 16/2005 formance o Standard service of public service operator o Governmentregional level, due to lack of standard o Tariff level and service tax o Best practice of operators financial ma- Re g u l a t i o nformat of regional institutional structure, nagement No. 23/2005 o Operator accountability to regional govern-there are variations as to which agency is mentresponsible for sanitation development o Best practice in the regional government and the community control mechanism overand management. This of course the operators performance o Summary and recommendationrequires a good coordination becausesanitation service provision involves anumber of aspects, such as infrastructure Percik October 2007 5
  7. 7. M A I N F E AT U R E The necessary initial step to be takenis provision of clear understanding todecision makers about the importance ofsocial campaign in sanitation develop-ment. To start an effective public cam-paign for the stakeholders we must have aclear idea on the principles and factorsgoverning the social campaign. To this end, the NSC agenda includesa group discussion on "Social Campaignin Sanitation Development". Throughthis discussion an exchange of experiencebetween regional government, NGO, andother countries in sanitation manage-ment, especially in social campaign forbehavioural change, is expected to takeplace. The group discussion is alsointended to identify the roles expected Institutional development for sanitation. Source: ISSDP.from the central government and massmedia and the community participation and management; it calls for a better understanding andin sanitation management. Finally the low management capacity combined common perception about sanitationdiscussion is expected to generate public with uncertainty as to which agency development and management by stake-discourses that will lead to problem solu- is to hold the responsibility for the holders, either government, private sec-tion. management. tor or the community. The challenge being faced in sanita- One of the steps to answer the aboveStakeholder involvement tion development may be summarized challenge is to develop a communica- Sanitation should have been one of into how to better manage the develop- tion network and multistakeholderthe government priorities as an integral ment in order to arrive at: partnership. This network may includepart of hygienic settlement development. improved service quality and cover- water supply and sanitation whichIt is even closely linked with betterment age, for both solid and liquid wastes; hopefully will trigger the accelerationof living condition that promotes human reduction of prevalence and mortal- of improved sanitation development indevelopment index. ity rate from waterborne diseases, Indonesia. On the other side, there are several especially for children; The profound intention of this effortconstraints such as lack of knowledge, achievement of MDGs target by the is to generate concrete measures orientedlow priority, limited government finan- government, i.e provision of basic to problem solution and multistakeholdercial capacity all together become the sanitation service to half of the po- cooperation involving the civil society,prime cause to the poor sanitation per- pulation currently without access to public sector, corporate sector, massformance in Indonesia. such service by 2015; media, university, NGO and local govern- Some of the indications are as the fol- clean, healthy, pleasant and harmo- ment. In formulationg of concrete meas-lowing: nious environment extensively ures particularly in terms of mobilising high prevalence and mortality rate established. the available resources into multistake- from waterborne diseases; To face this challenge it is necessary to holder participation format, a discussion low sanitation (solid and liquid have a policy and strategy breakthrough on "Stakeholders Involvement in Sanita- waste) service coverage; involving the participation of the commu- tion Development Acceleration" is de- high community complain rate nity, community institution, private sec- cided as an agenda of this conference. aimed at poor sanitation handling tor and donor institution. To support it, ISSDP Team Percik 6 October 2007
  8. 8. M A I N F E AT U R E THE TEAM BEHIND THE CONFERENCE o make the national event into ble to make sure that this national event is To take care of the role this team haveT motion, a committee has been appointed to manage the activi-ties for the implementation of National attended by national and regional leaders to indicate the stakeholders attention to sanitation sector development. made several preparatory activities con- sisting of two press conferences and two talkshows in two different TV stations. InSanitation Conference (NSC) 2007. The The section dealing with subject mat- action, campaign and advocacy throughcommittee is one form of WSS-WG coop- ters for discussion serves as the process- printed matters on relevant sanitationeration with members coming from ing unit of this conference and is respon- related issues. These efforts hopefullyBappenas, and the Departments of Public sible for designing the agenda and prepa- have been able to awaken the communi-Works, Health, Home Affairs, Finance, ration of materials for review and discus- tys and the other stakeholders aware-Industry, and State Ministry for sion in the conference. The outcomes ness.Environment. from the conference depend to a great Reading a success story of a well ma- To make the preparation and imple- extent on the blending of materials pre- naged sanitation service will of coursementation of this conference easier the pared by this section. more meaningful if it is followed with acommittee is divided into 5 sections, pro- One of the parameters to measures the field visit. The presence of a section ta-tocol and invitation, subject matters for conferences success is improvement of king care of field visit in the conferencediscussion, campaign and advocacy, field sanitation profile in Indonesia. It is secretariate will facilitate the NSC partici-visit, and proceedings and documenta- where campaign and advocacy plays its pants eagerness to see for themselves andtion. Each of the committees has been important role. In addition to dissemi- to dig first hand information from thedoing its job in accordance with the tasks nating the information about National sites.of the respective section. Sanitation Conference, the team has to Through this event it is expected that The protocol and invitation has pre- provide the real truth that attracts the some inspirations and of course as a realpared a list of invitations and other papers communitys attention about sanitation example for the stakeholders that in reali-needed for the implementation of this and the decision makers could better ty sanitation can be managed well and isconference. This section is also responsi- understand and become aware of it. beneficial to the community. How big and important an event is, will be of no use if it is not properly docu- mented. Without proper documentation the event would only be in the memory of those who are present, but not an impor- tant happening for the general communi- ty to know about and take lessons from. Itd be more meaningful if the event is provided with a systematic reporting so that those who are interested would be easy to read and take benefit from the event. It is in this field the documentation and proceeding section plays its impor- tant role that is, to make the National Sanitation Conference 2007 and its out- come a reference for sanitation sector development in the future. ISSDP Team The team behind the NSC. Source: ISSDP Percik October 2007 7
  9. 9. I N T E RV I E W Deputy for Infrastructure Bappenas Dr. Ir. Dedy Supriadi Priatna, M.Sc ITS BEEN GIVEN ATTENTION BUT STILL WANT PRIORITY National Sanitation Conference, to unite all stakeholders related to sanitation The poor sanitation in Indonesia is development. Through this forum it is because there are many who consider hoped to generate an exchange of infor- that sanitation is the responsibility of mation, building commitment and coope- individual family, and the problem is con- ration among stakeholders. sidered over if a family has constructed a good sanitation facility. In fact, in daily What is the worlds attention to life the government, community as well sanitation? as other parties each has its share to the poor environmental sanitation condition. Globally, the international communi- For this, it is necessary to organize a tys attention is improving. Several sani- specifically designed conference for sani- tation related conferences have been held tation sector improvement. What does in various countries, at national and at the sanitation condition in Indonesia regional levels. The peak of international presently look like and what linkage has it with the National Sanitation attention is an agenda on International Conference (NSC) 2007? The following is an interview with Dr. Ir. Dedy Year of Sanitation 2008 by the UN. This Supriadi Priatna, MSc., Deputy for Infrastructure Bappenas. launching is based on deep concern of the international community from the slow quality improvement attempts regarding n general, the theme or material Indonesia belongs to those countries suf-I seleted for a conference is some-thing great of what is still "in". Why fering from setback in MDGs target achievement. The report places sanitation by many nations and therefore it is necessary to build commitment and real action by all nations, civil society,a sanitation conference? Indonesia together with Bangladesh, NGOs, and other international institu- Actually, the theme of this conference Laos, Mongolia, Myanmar, Pakistan, tions.is something extraordinary considering it Papua New Guinea, and Philippines. Theis directly related to the community well- challenge for Indonesia to reach target What about Indonesia?being. In addition, Indonesia is one of number 7 i.e. reducing by half in 2015 the In Indonesia, the efforts towardsthe nations committed to MDGs, and one number of population currently without improvement of service quality and cov-of the targets is provision of safe and access to water supply and basic sanita- erage have been tried. In addition toacceptable sanition to the community. tion, is extremely difficult. To catch up introduction of various sanitation deve-One of the main issues in this context is with this delay requires involvement of all lopment approaches, several activitiesMDGs target achievement. stakeholders including the government, which are essentially an advocacy to san- Based on a report entitled A Future private sector, community, donor institu- itation have also been tried. This NSCwithin Reach and Asia-Pacific MDGs tion, NGO and university. For this pur- 2007 is also part of these efforts. In addi-Report 2006 released by UNDP, pose it is necessary for a forum such as tion it is also intended as preparatory Percik 8 October 2007
  10. 10. I N T E RV I E Wactivity to support the International Year result of sanitation related diseases, par- ADB, the economic losses related to poorof Sanitation 2008. ticularly losses from the opportunity to sanitation is estimated at Rp42.3 trillion work. The daily workers absence means per year or somewhere around 2 percent What is the communitys and the he misses the days wage. For school chil- of GDP.decision makers opinion regarding dren it means reducing school attendancesanitation? for sickness. Is the government aware of the In general, the majority of the popula- The above condition also inflicts other problem or is it not?tion still think that sanitation is individ- kind of loss such as additional cost for the Actually the government is well awareual concern and quality of service does community to see a doctor for treatment. of this matter. Pursuant to Law No.not belong to something worth consider- A study summarizes that the rate of dis- 32/2004 on Regional Autonomy, articlesing. Many families have no latrine in ease prevalence from poor sanitation 13 and 14 mention that the regional gov-their home or defecation anywhere in the condition in Indonesia is very high. ernment is responsible for sanitationopen. They still do not see that poor sa- Thyphoid is 800 cases for every 100,000 service provision. But in reality the budg-nitation habit of only anyone in the com- people. This is the highest in Asia. et for this sector is extremely low. So inmunity will adversely affect the health of Diarrhoea 300 for every 1,000 people. essence this sector has been in the gov-others in the neighbourhood. How the Other losses relate to surface water ernments attention but unfortunately itdiarrhoea epidemic in Kecamatan contamination from organic materials. isnt a priority.Sepatan in Tangerang recently is a reflec- BOD content makes water smells bad.tion of this matter. The implication is higher water treatment What are the steps to be taken to While for the decision makers it is an costs. convince the community that sani-obvious fact that the knowledge about the The biggest loss is the declining tation is important?importance of sanitation is still needed in Indonesian reputation in the eyes of the Basically no one wants a problem.one way or the other. This is reflected world community. In addition to dirty Based on this fact, in promoting sanita-from the limited attention to sanitation city environment Indonesia is considered tion to the community the first thing to bedevelopment in terms of budget alloca- as a nation that pays no heed to healthy put forward is the disadvantages or pro-tion. On average, sanitation budget for living. As a whole, based on a study by blems to be faced if sanitation is in poorcities all over the country is between 0.5to 1.5 percent of the total annual budget. What must the community andthe decision makers do? The community as the service usermust be willing to be involved in thewhole development process. The com-munity must be willing to convey its aspi-ration and demand because this kind ofinformation is in great demand for plan-ning and designing sanitation develop-ment that meets the community demand.The community is expected to getinvolved in development phase and laterin sustaining the O&M of the facility. What are the consequences ofsanitation problem? Failure to properly manage sanitationleads to physical as well as non physical BRING WHAT To address sanitation the involument of issue all stakeholders are needed, as well as material. Don’t be afraid to give somethingconsequences. Physically it may come in You can Give wrong, everythink must be useful and don’t walt until someone start. Just go ahead and do it! Achieve the target of MGDsthe form of loss in opportunity cost as a Source: ISSDP Percik October 2007 9
  11. 11. I N T E RV I E W Other parties outside the government may also be actively involved in the efforts. NGO, as institution that is close to the community may become the BRING WHAT government partner in facilitating the community to adopt the appropriate approaches for sanitation You can Give development.condition. As it is with the community, the information aboutthe disadvantages must be presented in more detail to the deci-sion makers, the government and the legislative as well, to makethem fully understand about the importance of sanitation. The following step consists of building a linkage betweensanitation with other sectors development. Based on the exist-ing sanitation programs, domestic as well as overseas, there arelessons learned that improved access to sanitation is significant-ly correlated with improvement of economic well-being of thecommunities. What does it look in reality? Various advocacy efforts have been made through WSS Source: ISSDPdevelopment programs such as Sanimas (Sanitation by theCommunity), WSLIC (Water and Sanitation for Low Income community. The CSR (Corporate Social Responsibility) initiat-Communities), CLTS (Community Total Led Sanitation), Pro Air ed by the pivate sector has indicated that private companies areand others. In the implementation of these programs, advocacy willing to get involved in the improvement of community accessand community preparation to improve the awareness and to to sanitation.excite the demand for improved sanitation is conducted prior to The press can also be involved in sanitation program.physical development. Information dissemination through mass media (printed, TV and radio) is quite effective in improving community awareness What are the parties to be involved in resolving san- to the importance of sanitation.itation problem in Indonesia? The first party to be involved is the community. This is What does the NSC 2007 agenda consist of?because the poor sanitation directly influences their life so that The 3-day National Sanitation Conference will consist of thethe effort to improve sanitation condition must involve the following agenda:whole community. The other party is the government from the Full-day seminar, to discuss aspects in promoting sanita-central level down to the regions. The government plays facili- tion management and to formulate action plans related totating role, and must put a heavier weight to improvement of integrated efforts in sanitation management in Indonesia.community access to basic sanitation and reduce the rate of Field visit, to locations around Jakarta that have been suc-environmental pollution. However, the government role cannot cessful in dealing with neighbourhood scale sanitationbe separated from legislative intervention both at the central problem, in terms of solid or liquid waste.and regional levels, particularly in terms of budget allocation. Sanitation expo, this is a support activity, displaying va-This means that members of DPR/DPRD must also be involved rious innovation and environmental engineering, NGO andin solving sanitation problems in Indonesia. private sector as forum for training and information Other parties outside the government may also be actively exchange in communication, technology and best practicesinvolved in the efforts. NGO, as institution that is close to the related to sanitation. In addition, a declaration of stake-community may become the government partner in facilitating holders commitment to undertake efforts for speeding upthe community to adopt the appropriate approaches for sanita- community demand fulfillment in terms of acceptable sa-tion development. Beside that, the corporate sector may also be nitation and a plea to other stakeholders to join in theinvolved in facility development to bring the service closer to the acceleration efforts. Bowo Leksono10 Percik 2007 October
  12. 12. R E G U L AT I O N Government Regulation No. 38 of 2007 on Division of Administration Affairs between the Central, Provincial and District Government overnment Regulation (GR) is aG legal product of the lower order and is intended to provide tech-nical guidance to implement the law orany regulation of the higher order. Aftera Law is declared effective it does notreadily implementable without the helpof a technical guidance on how it shall beput into implementation. One of the long awaited implementa-tion guuidance is GR No. 38 on the divi-sion of administration affairs beween thecentral and regional (provincial andkabupaten/kota) governments. This GRprovides guidance for the implementa-tion of Law No. 32/2004 on RegionalGovernment Administration and Law No.25/2007 on Investment. Before theissuance of the present GR the implemen-tation of regional authority is based onGR No. 25/2000 the substance of whichis given in Law No. 22/1999. For more than 2 years since theissuance of Law No. 32/2004 which sub-stantively contains regional administra- Source: WASPOLAtion, yet the regional government is inshort of guidance to run the administra- With the issuance of the present GR it Implementation of regional auton-tion as it is required to do. Several ad- is hoped that the regions would be able omyministrative affairs overlap one another improve their public service perform- Basically, regional autonomy isand coordination between provincial and ance. What remains to be seen is whether intended to help to make the manage-kabupaten governments is difficult to this GR provides sufficient answers asked ment of government affairs simpler andestablish. by the regions to run regional autonomy? easier by distributing part of the over Percik October 2007 11
  13. 13. R E G U L AT I O Nextended responsibilities to the regional level. Several govern- The impact of the GR issuancement affairs that are directly related to community wellbeing With the issuance of the present GR it is obvious that it hasmust be relinquished to the region in order to produce an opti- some effect to the regions authority. I could be lighter and heav-mum result. Therefore, full decentralization (regional autono- ier, depending on the characteristics of an individual region.my) is made into effect to transfer part of the central govern- This GR provide centainty for the region to enforce its authority.ment authority into the hands of the region. The authority includes duties and responsibilities to run the The practice till recently was that decentralization was limit- public management. Article 2 (4) of the GR specifies that thereed to adiminstrative affairs. All affairs relinquished to the are 31 sectors which the central and the regional governmentsregions are part of central government resposnsibility for share the development responsibilites. The sharing is still inregions to finish and be accountable for. The implementation of preparation, pending issuance of more detailed technical guide-the various affairs must be undertaken based on a fixed norm, line from the ministerial/head of non department agency, andstandard, procedure and criteria. What the regions need to do is also the issuance of a regulation from the respective regionalto go ahead with the implementation based on what has been government.fixed. The same is true with financing, infrastructure andrecruitment of employees. Everything has been made available WSS related regulationby the central government. Everything will become a routine job Of the 31 sectors, several of them are related to water sup-of the region. ply and environmental sanitation, including health, housing, spatial plan, environment, woman empowerment and child protection, rural community development, forestry, and energy and mineral resources. While the regional govern- ment (provincial, kabupaten/kota) is authorized to issue re- gulations in accordance with the regional condition, such as provision of technical recommendation for deep well ground- water extraction, and water extraction and construction of wall protecvtion to a ground water basin. Also in determin- ing groundwater conservation area, water extraction quanti- ty, data and information management regarding groundwa- ter and mineral resources. In relations to environment the authority includes environ- mentasl impact control and natural resources conservation. Especially with environmental impact control, water quality control and pollution prevention, the regions have an extensive authority. This includes management and classification of water source, water quality monitoring, pollution control and preven- tion, supervision, etc. While in relations to Environmental Impact Assessments (AMDAL), includes AMDAL valuation in relations to the type of business based on the standard, norm, and procedure as determined by the government. While the region is authorized to undertake supervision of management and environment monitoring according type of business with AMDAL obligation. The extent of regional authority is also given in the sub-section on biodiversity resources conservation, including enforcement of law on environment. Bowo Leksono Sources: WASPOLA Percik12 October 2007
  14. 14. INSIGHT S A N I TAT I O N AS A COMMON RESPONSIBILITY By: Dilla Prameswari* he provision of acceptable sanita- people a year from diarrhoea around the It is now about halfway in the timeT tion to the community is pressing and cannot wait any longer.Sanitation problem may not be taken as globe, 90 percent of them are children below 5 years old. For Indonesia, according to table when we have to reach the MDGs 2015, yet water supply and sanitation condition in Indonesia is still far fromindividual problem and the government Demographic Survey in 2003 about 19 being satisfactory. UNDP report onmay stay clear of the responsibility. This percent or 100.000 children below 5 Human Development achievement inis because sanitation significantly relates years age died from diarrhoea. In 2006 it Indonesia is falling behind. By 2015 theto the prevalence of several diseases such is recorded that 423 out of 1,000 children Indonesian MDGs target is set at 69 per-as diarrhoea, infection of upper respirato- suffer from diarrhoea once or twice a cent of the population will have access tory tract, dengue fever, and tuberculosis. year. While in fact, according to WHO, water supply and 72.5 percent to accept-Mortality rate from these diseases is stag- 94 percent of diarrhoeal case can be pre- able basic sanitation. In reality it will begering. Poor access to water supply and vented by access to clean water, basic only at 58 percent and 65 percent respec-sanitation, poor hygiene behaviour are sanitation, hygiene behaviour and tively. Centralized waste treatment faci-responsible for the death of 1.8 million domestic scale water treatment. lity is present only in 10 cities, 62.29 per- cent of urban poopulation and 24.37 per- cent of the rural flush their exrement into septic tank. The number of household with acceptable drainage system stands only at 57.18 percent. This is one reason for the high frequency of diarrhoeal out- break and the occurrence of flood. Almost 80 percent of urban families use septic tank to contain human excre- ment. However, the tanks are built with- out considering the technical require- ments for healthy environment. As a result, millions of our population is always threatened by e. coli contamina- tion. Department of Health records indi- cate that diarrhoea is the second in the list of major infant mortality after preumonia. Poor water quality causes 300 diarrhoeal cases for 1,000 people. Poor sanitation is blamed for e.coli bacteria pollution in the community Source: ISSDP Percik October 2007 13
  15. 15. INSIGHT basic sanitation combined with hygiene behaviour comprise the preventive meas- ures against the threat of disease preva- lence. These preventive measures are a more effective avoidance system and at the same time reducing government expenditure for disease treatment pur- poses. As was stated by Zainal Nampira, Head of Subdirectorate of Hygiene Water Department of Health (Kompas 22 June 2007) infant mortality rate decreases by 3 to 4 percent if access to water supply increases by 10 percent. In the mean- time, a 10 percent increase in budget for Health sector will only decrease mortality rate by 1.5 percent. This means, preven- tive measure through environmental sa- nitation is the best way instead of waiting till someone else falls prey. Source: Reski DD Rather than spending the budget forwater supply. The presence of e.coli bac- vernment still considers that sanitation is building hospital, procurement of medi-teria is an indicator of pollution from the individual familys responsibility, not cines, hiring doctors and nurses, it wouldhuman excrement. City dwellers use a public investment. The effort to be better if we reduce the prevalence ofe.coli contaminated groundwater for increase sanitation budget at central go- disease through water supply system,their domestic consumption, while the vernment, such as in Public Workls is building of septic tank, and provision ofrivers where PDAM derives its raw water always cut short in favour of other priori- sufficient nourishment. This does notis also polluted with the same bacteria. ties, while the provincial and kabupat- mean denying the health facilities, but In Jakarta a study made by BPHLD en/kota put higher priority on road and calls for a change in the way health is(Regional Environment Management) water supply, then follows sanitation and defined.indicates that in 80 groundwater samples waste trailing behind. *) Student, Env. Engg. Div.,taken from 75 kelurahans (villages) con- Technical Facultytain e.coli and fecal bacteria above the Preventive measure Diponegoro University, Semarangsafe treshold value. And 78 percent of In reality the availability of acceptablerivers in Jakarta are also contaminated bye. coli.Low priority In the meantime, sanitation develop-ment is placed at a low priority by thedecision makers. This is evidenced fromthe minute amount of budget allocatedfor this sector. It is not a surprise there-fore that sanitation condition inIndonesia is poor. In 2002 budget forsanitation sector was 1.8 percent of thetotal nationa budget, while at regionallevel averages were 3.3 percent and 5.7percent for Province andKabupaten/Kota respectively. The go- Source: Exclusive14 Percik 2007 October
  16. 16. INSIGHT IN ANTICIPATION OF CONFERENCE ON CLIMATE CHANGE Denpasar, 3-14 December 2007 n a short while Indonesia will beI recorded in history to host a Conference on Climate Change.This article attempts to provide a briefpicture on the importance of climatechange issue and its connection to watersupply and environmental sanitation.The importance of Conference onClimate Change How important is the conference canbe seen from important guests, amongothers Al Gore the Nobel Laureate forPeace, Ban Kim Moon the UN SecretaryGeneral, and Kevin Rudd the AustralianPrime Minister. Their presence together Big industries contribute carbondioxide the cause of global warming.with 12,000 participants representing Source: www_8thfire_net189 nations of the world is motivated bythe fact that the world is being faced withincreasingly warmer temperature. I m p o r t a n t Fa c t sRecords indicate that within the last 100years the global temperature has 200 years ago CO2 content in the atmosphere was around 280 ppm, and today it has gone up to 383 ppm. If this condition continues, according to Tim Flannery inincreased by 0.7 degree Celcius and it is his book “We Are The Weather Makers” (2006) the CO2 content will reach 560 ppm.estimated that unless production and What will happen? Air temperature will increase up to 4.5 degrees Celcius. Seaconsumption acceleration could be level will increase up to 90 cm. Developed countries with about 15 percent of the total world population con-brought down by year 2100 world tem- tribute almost half of greenhouse emission (particularly CO2) into the atmos-perature will increase by 3 degrees phere. As a reflection, the foot path (CO2 emission produced from life style) of 19Celcius. This condition will influence million New York population) is bigger than the footpath left by 766 million people of fifty (50) less developed nations.world climate at various different conse- Inter Governmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) involving appoximately 2,500quences from sea level increase that will experts and 800 scientific authors confirm the reduction of snow and ice cap of thesubmerge land areas, islands and even world. In the northern hemisphere ice cap in spring is reduced by 2 percent by the decade of 1966. In the Arctic region, since 1978 the ice cap has been less 2.7 per-countries in the Pacific and the Atlantic; cent per decade.threat to food resilience due climatic Percik October 2007 15
  17. 17. INSIGHTinconsistencies; increase of prevalences of water related diseases(Further please see box on Impact of Global Warming). The Impact of Global Warming a. Climate change Increase of world temperatureCausal factor Heavier rainfall. Rainfall increases by 2-3 percent per Global warming takes place as a result of accumulation of annum and a shorter rainy season in Indonesia, increasingpollutant gases called green house gasses working as natural gas flood risks. Sahara and other deserts become drier. Hot waves happencover that at a certain concentration protects the earth and keep more frequently.it warm and comfortable to live in. The greenhouse gases are Winter becomes coldercarbondioxide (CO2), dinitroxide (N2O), methane (CH4), sul- b. Agriculture and forestryfurhexaflouride (SF6) and perflourocarbons (PFCs). However, Change in the pattern of precipitation, evaporation, spillwith the increase of CO2 gas as a result of burning of fossil fuel water, and soil moisture. Increase temperature, short rainyby industries, transport, forest fire and conversion of land use season, because rainfall intensity increases. Risk of explosion of plant pests and diseasespattern, global warming takes place. This condition is aggravat- Threat to food resilience. Decrease in productivity and pro-ed by thinning of ozone layer from excessive use of aerosols. The duction level due to disruption of water cycle brought by changes in precipitation pattern and increase in the anom-thinner ozone layer is the more the short wave solar radiation aly of extreme weather. Bappenas data (2004) estimateenters the earth. This produces green house effect. Earth that Indonesian agriculture productivity will decrease at abecomes warmer, sea level increases and changes of climatic rate equivalent to 6 billion US dollars per annum Forest fire. The air is dry, intense sunshine and wind blowpattern. causing forest fire.A long fought struggle c. Marine life o Increase of world average sea level estimated at 0.77 mm It was Svante Arrhenius, a Swedish scientist, who first per annum during the period 1991-2004 The impact of seaexpressed concern of global warming phenomenon in 1894. In level increase for Indonesia is the shrinking of fertile agri-essence he mentioned that CO2 is an important element in con- cultural lands along the coastal peneplain o Warmer sea water adversely affects marine biodiversity.trolling the earth temperature. Increase in CO2 content willincrease earth emperature. Excessive use of fossil fuel will cause d. Disease o Increase prevalence of water related vector disseminatedincrease in CO2 and increase of earth temperature. diseases This concern did not get sufficient response until UN o Global warming will disrupts the pattern of climate, one ofGeneral Assembly initiated establishment of Intergovernmental the impacts is flooding. During flood several diseases such as diarrhoea, leptospirosis will spread more extensivelyNegotiating Committee (INC) with task to negotiate a draft o Climate change causes dengue fever and malarial mosqui-material for Convention on Climate Change. The result was toes more dangerous. Their life cycle will be shortened.brought to UN Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro in 1992 and was Their population may easily explode.agreed to become UN Framework Covention on Climate Change. e. Animal lifeBeginning from 1995 it was for the first time Conference of the o Change of habitat. The extinction of coastal regions mayParties (COP) was held in Berlin. From then on the conference adversely affect biodiversity and population migration. o Reduction of amphibial population globallyis held every year until it is Indonesia to hold the 13th UNStakeholders Conference on Climate Change (or United Nations f. Fresh water crisisFramework Convention on Climate Change/UNFCCC) and at o Polar and high mountain ice caps thaw, seasonal cycle will drastically change, and the world will suffer from freshthe same time the third Stakeholders Meeting on Kyoto Protocol water shortage.(Meeting of Parties/MOP on Kyoto Protocol) at Nusa Dua, Bali13-14 December 2007. house emission called carbon trading. Developed nations thatKyoto Protocol are unable to fulfill their responsibility can buy carbon from Of the series of conferences the Kyoto Conference in 1997 another country. Carbon credit is cash money from the amountproduced the most important document called Kyoto Protocol. of carbon reduced. Indonesia signed the protocol in 1998 andThe document mentions clearly the direction for the implemen- ratified it in 2004.tation of Conference on Climate Change. And in addition, it also There are three (3) important steps within Kyoto Protocolintroduced new business practices through transaction of green- relate to reduction of greenhouse gas emission (i) emissions Percik16 October 2007
  18. 18. INSIGHTtrading, this is a transaction between the The Intergovernmental Panel for If one ton is equivalent to USD10 then theparty capable of reducing carbon emis- Climate Change (IPCC) offers a more exchange value for Bandung CO2 emis-sion with one that is unable to carry out effective recommendation reducing emis- sion equals Rp27 billion a year.the responsibility. This mechanism ope- sion. In energy sector, reducing fossil Reduction of methane gas emissionrates among developed nations. A devel- fuel subsidy, carbon tax for fossil fuel use, through burning the gas can also be con-oped nation unable to carry out the obligation to use renewable fuel and sub- verted into money through CDM scheme.responsibility can be exempted from the sidy incentive. In transport sector reduc- The way to do it is through natural fer-responsibility if it pays another developed tion of fossil fuel and replacing it with mentation i.e compaction of the waste.nation if the latter can cut an equal biofuel and non motorized transport sys- The methane gas so produced is thenamount of carbon emission, (ii) joint tem, using more mass transport system. burned out. Burning of methane gas isimplementation. A developed nations The Kyoto Protocol introduces three also producing carbondioxide, butthat is unable to meet the target of reduc- (3) mitigation schemes, i.e emissions methane is 23 times more dangerousing emission may initiate a cooperation trading, joint implementation, and clean than is carbondioxide. So that 1 cu.mwith other party in implementing indus- development mechanism. More recently methane is equivalent to 23 cu.m carbon-try at a reduced carbon emission, (iii) there is a new scheme emission mitiga- dioxide, or burning 1 cu. m methane willclean development mechanism (CDM). tion and land degradation. This scheme reduce 22 cu. m carbon gas emission.The opportunity for cooperation between offers reforestation and prevention of The reduction of carbon emission can bea developing nation free from the respon- deforestation as means for prevention of exchanged with Certified Emissionsibility of reducing carbon emission with global warming. Reduction (CER) that may be sold toa developed nation with obligation to car- developed nation. An industrializedbon emission. Panning for funds from Waste nation buying this certificate means that Management the respective nation is considered asHandling Strategy As it happens we werent quite aware having reduced her emission equivalent In general there are two strategies for that a waste hill is producing greenhouse to the value of the CER certificate.handling global warming problem as gases particularly CO2 and methane. As a Of course there is up to now a contro-agreed in the UN Framework Covention reflection the waste hill of Bandung pro- versy behind the use of waste for poweron Climate Change (UNFCCC), they are duces 300 thousand tons of CO2 per year generating plant. In the process, it pro-(i) mitigation consisting of finding ways (LPPM ITB). While the existing waste duces dioxin and acid gases from theto curb greenhouse emission rate; (ii) can be incinerated to produce electricity incineration. Both are dangerous to envi-adaptation consisting of ways to over- so that gas emission is zero. This is what ronment and to human health. However,come the consequences from climate later becomes an opportunity to obtain research indicates that dioxin is only pro-change through appropriate adaptation funding from CDM scheme. The amount duced at an incineration below 800measures to mitigate the adverse effects of CO2 emission reduction can be degrees Celcius. While acid gases can beor making use its beneficial effects. exchanged with a certain amount of cash. prevented by operating reactor circulat- ing fluidized bed (RCB). Indonesian condition Tips for Reducing Gas Emission According to Global Fluid Dynamics o Do not burn your waste in the yard around the house. The smoke contains CO2 and and Goddart International Space Study, it dioxin. is estimated that the temperature in o Put 3R (reduce, reuse, recycle) principle into practice so that waste produced is Indonesia will increase by 2 to 4.2 minimized. o Do not use plastic bag. In the world, from 500 billion plastic bags produced only degrees Celcius in 2050-2070. However, 3% is recycled. Use bags made from paper or recycleable material. there are presently several phenomena o Do no throw away tissue and used paper. This measure may reduce forest clearing indicating that Indonesia has been affect- for tissue and pulp industries. Each ton of recycled paper you save 19 tree stands. ed by the global warming. Among others (Source: Gatra) (i) thinning of snow cap covering Jayawijaya mountain in Papua, (ii) air Percik October 2007 17
  19. 19. INSIGHTtemperature in some big cities likeJakarta, Medan, Denpasar is increasingaround 0.2 to 3 degrees Celcius, (iii) high-er rainfall intensity combined with alonger dry season, (iv) there are approxi-mately 20 islands sunk below the surfacefrom sea level increase at a rate of 0.5 cmper annum, (v) water scarcity is begin-ning to take place. Surface runoff inCitarum river basin in West Java is theconsequence of warmer temperature andchanges in land use pattern. In the long run Indonesia will be facedwith critical condition such as increase ofsea level at the long stretches ofIndonesian coastline. It is feared thathundreds of islands may be buried under-water. Chaotic climatic pattern may Lapisan es di kutub mencair sebagai akibat meningkatnya perubahan iklim dunia.cause changes that lead to harvest failure Source: www_rcom_marum_deand hungry people. In urban areas, waste material pro- Indonesian government, both in terms of Dependency upon fossil fuel is duction is increasing the sources of car- central-region and central-central. As anincreasing in Indonesia. According to bondioxide and methane gas emission illustration, climate change should beprediction by International Energy due to lack of proper final disposal dealt with for instance through adoptionAgency (2007) Indonesian dependency ground. All TPAs are practicing open of cropping patern, diversification ofupon fossil fuel increases from 69% dumping technique. The 3R principle, crops and minimize dependency upon(2002) to 82% (2006). The effort to the potential method in bringing down water consuming lowland rice which atdevelop environmentally friendly sources waste production has not been given the the same time also a major contributor ofof energy is contraind by many factors attention from the regional governments. methane emission. On the other hand,and is given very minimum incentive. Inconsistent measures taken by the the government is allocating fund for rice field expansion including forest clearing. Climate change must not only be seen Carbon Emission in Indonesia in terms of environmental issue. Thiso Carbon emission in US 20.01 tonnes per capita per annum, Australia 19.36, Canada makes the adaptation is focused solely on 18.4, Japan 9.37, China 3.6, Brazil 1.83, Indonesia 1.4 (of which forest fire is the the environmental aspect. While in fact major contributor), India 1.02 and Bangladesh 0.27 global warming has a significant linkageo Research findings from Wetlands International and Defl Hydraulics (2007) with economic issue. The effort to main- Netherlands, places Indonesia as the third biggest contributor in carbon emission after US (6,300 MtCO2e) and China (5,000 MtCO2e). Indonesia contributes around streaming global warming into national 3,000 MtCO2e development has not been successful.o Indonesia contributes approximately one third of global emission from deforesta- Indonesian funding capacity is inade- tion. quate but the effort to getting fund fromo Sources of yearly greenhouse emission in Indonesia. Deforestation and land conversion contribute 85%. Forest clearing, degradation clean development mechanism (CDM) of peaty lands and forest fire being the biggest contributors scheme has not been tried. Indonesian Energy sector (industry, power plant, transport) contributes approximately 10%. CDM potential ranges from USD81,5 mil- Although the value is relatively small but its growth rate is quite significant. Agriculture, especially rice growing contributes 4% lion to USD126 million, yet up to now Waste material, though only 1% but it is the sixth world biggest emission contri- only 9 Indonesia CDM projects are listed butor from waste origin. in CDM Executive Office. OM from vari- ous sources Percik18 October 2007

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