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Indonesia Water Supply and Sanitation Magazine. 'PERCIK' 2nd Edition October 2003



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  • 1. Content Information Media for Water Supply and Environmental Sanitation Advisor: Director General for Urban andYour Voice 2 Rural Development, Ministry of Settlement and Regional InfrastructureFrom the Editor 3 Director of Human Settlement and Housing, National Development Planning AgencyMain Report Republic of Indonesia Director of Water and Sanitation, CWSH 6 Ministry of Health Director of Urban and Rural Eastern Region, ProAir 7 Ministry of Settlement and Regional Infrastructure SANIMAS 8 Director of Natural Resources and Appropriate Technology, Director General on Village and WSLIC-2 10 Community Empowerment, Ministry of Home AffairsPerspective Director for Facilitation of Special Planning Environment Management, Ministry of Home Affairs Empowerment without compelling 11 Chief Editor: Handwashing 13 Oswar MungkasaReflection Board of Editor: Hartoyo, Johan Susmono, Budi Susilo, MCK Jempiring not MCK Moerdiono 15 PoedjastantoLesson learned (best practises) Editor: Maraita Listyasari, Rewang Budiyana, Rheidda Pramudhy, Joko Wartono, Essy Asiah, Mujiyanto Local 17 Design: International 19 Rudi KosasihMiscellaneous Production: Machrudin Technology choice 21 Distribution:Book Info 23 Anggie RifkiWebsite Info 24 Address: Jl. Cianjur No. 4, Menteng, Jakarta Pusat Phone: 62-21-31904113 e-mail: Unsolicited article or opinion items are welcome. Please send to our address or e-mail. Dont forget to be brief and accompanied by identity.
  • 2. Y OUR VOICE Comment and Suggestion density of the area, and the economic of scale of investment. Second, it is not quite appropriate to state a discrimination Congratulations for the publication of Percik (meaning of clean water services between rural and urban areas. The sprinkle, splash) an information media on water supply and demand of rural and urban population are naturally different environmental sanitation. But for the sake of improvement I because their activities are also different. Drinking water would like to convey to you the following suggestions: requirement is about the same for everyone (and is 1. As soon as possible Percik should be registered and expressed in litre/person/day not litre per second because obtain an ISSN (International Standard Serial Number). litre per sec denotes the capacity of an investment plant). This can be obtained at PDII-LIPI (Indonesian Institute of There must be a distinction between drinking water and Science) clean water. 2. Table of contents should be attached with: 2. I would suggest that the follow-up in policy formula- a. Purpose of publication tion for water supply and sanitation also involve the academ- b. Target readers ic circle and the professional association related to water c. How to obtain supply and environmental sanitation, e.g. IATPI (Ikatan Ahli d. Source of funding Penyehatan Lingkungan). With regard to good governance, especially in relation to 3. Pursuant to the ethic in writing for media publication, transparency, participatory and accountability all the above it would be advisable to also note whether the statement rep- are important. resents solely that of the author or the institution to which 3. It is advisable to add an interactive column to the author belongs. enable the readers interact with the editor or among them- Dr. Rr. Peni Kusumastuti Lukito selves. Director of Urban and Rural Affairs, Bappenas Thank you. Dr. Sudjana Royat Response Director of Spatial Planning and Land Affairs, Bappenas 1. It should be made clear that what is being formulated is the National Policy for Development of Water Supply and Thank you very much for the suggestions. We will act Environmental Sanitation. While environmental sanitation immediately on the ISSN matter. includes basic sanitation, solid waste, waste water and The purpose of publication and target readers we have drainage system. noted it in the column From the Editor as a means of inter- a. With regard the management we are of the same opini- action at least among government agencies, universities, on that the format (institutionally-based, community-based, private sector, donor countries/organizations, and the com- a combination of both) is not determined simply by the type munity. In the initial stage we distributed it to the stake- of area but rather by other factors such as source of water holders we considered interested in water supply and envi- and economic of scale of the investment. ronmental sanitation. Of course we are pleased to send b. The statistical computation for per capita water Percik in hard copy or e-mail to others who are interested. requirement (including drinking water which is 4% of the Later on Percik could also be accessed through a website total water requirement) is important because this figure is which will be ready in the near future. Percik is funded by used as basis for calculating the amount of investment for the government and is managed by Water Supply and clean water supply. The government is, of course, trying to Environmental Sanitation Working Group. avoid over estimation in the provision but at the same time Beginning from edition II a new column is added and is also trying to keep the supply within the real demand level. called Suara Anda (Your Voice) that we think is an interac- 2. The formulation of The National Policy for Deve- tive column. Other than that, we are also welcome to con- lopment of Community-Based Water Supply and tribution from outside to enrich Percik. (Editor) Environmental Sanitation was compiled with involvement of all the stakeholders (at the national as well as regional lev- Clarification on the contents els), NGOs, donor agencies, professional organizations, aca- of interview demicians, and on-going projects in Indonesia. However, any suggestion and input for improvement from anyone is 1. With regard to the contents in the Interview, there are always welcome. several points that need straightening out because they Basah Hernowo relate to technical matters understanding of the sector. Director of Human Settlement and Housing, Bappenas First, the institutionally based or community based manage- ment formats for clean water and sanitation in urban and in In conformance with the column, Interview, we consider rural areas are not happening by chance as is expressed in that what is presented in the column represents the opinion the interview. Technically the management formats in of the Director of Human Settlement & Housing, Bappenas. urban and in rural areas depend on the characteristics differ- As for the measurement unit, it is entirely the Editors cleri- ences of water origin, the technology being used, population cal error. We apologyze for the inconvenience. (Editor) 2 Percik October 2003
  • 3. F ROM EDITOR T oday must be better than Unlike the earlier edition, this But the construction was not fully yesterday. Taking this spirit time Percik brings forward a column attended and finally broke down. as point of departure we are called Wawasan (Perspective) to This new MCK was built by the com- presenting to you Percik edi- replace Opini (Opinion). The con- munity based on an awareness to live tion number 2. Some improvement tents of this column does not relate a better life and hygienically. has been made among others in only to opinion or judgement but For the purpose of experience response to the input and suggestion also to new and interesting ideas. sharing, domestic as well as interna- from the readers. First, additional Under this new name we expect tional, we are also bringing forward number of pages are made to allow more contributors would send us Lessons Learned. In this column les- more information. Second, addition- their interesting articles. In this edi- sons learned from domestic are al columns such as Your Voice, tion Wawasan (insight) presents to extracted from evaluation of WSS Lesson Learned, and Technology you the MPA (Methodology for projects in Indonesia. Whereas les- Choice. Improvement will, of course Participatory Assessments), consist- sons from overseas are extracted be made continuously. ing of methods for community from international reports. Continuing the focus placed from empowerment and is applicability for We are trying our best to make the initial edition in this second edi- WSS system development. this media gain a widespread distri- tion we introduce several WSS proj- No less interesting is that bution. Internet becomes one of the ects that have adopted the principles Wawasan also brings forward to you means we are using. For this pur- contained in the national policy on a topic about Handwashing. To us it pose, starting from this edition we community based water supply and may seem too trivial, but based on a are also sending Percik through e- environmental sanitation. The pro- study it is proven that hand washing mail. This media will also be pre- jects are Water Supply for Low is highly significant influential to di- sented in full in a newly launched Income Communities-2 (WSLIC-2), sease contamination through contact Water Supply and Environmental Rural and Water Supply in Nusa with hand. sanitation website Tenggara Timur (ProAir), Sanitasi In the column Cermin Apart from all of the above effort oleh Masyarakat (SANIMAS), and (Reflection) we present to you the everything will return to you. Input, Community Water Service and initiative made by the community of comment, suggestion, and even con- Health (CWSH). We hope this pre- Gang Jempiring, Bali in building an tribution article become a certainty sentation could provide the readers MCK (public toilet). A few years ago for the life of this media. Finally, we with a clearer picture on the imple- this community had had an MCK wish you all the best and thank you. mentation of the national policy. built for them by the government. Photos Gallery Source: Ministry of Helath 3 Percik October 2003
  • 4. MAIN REPORT National Policy Implementation on Community-Based Water Supply and Environmental Sanitation Development T he national policy for the develop- ment of community-based water supply and environmental sanita- tion is intended to enhance the develop- ment, provisioning, maintenance of sus- tainable and reliable infrastructures and facilities. It took 5 years for the whole policy formulation process to complete and it culminated at the point when 5 echelon I officials representing 5 cross- sectoral agencies Bappenas, Ministry of Home Affairs, Ministry of Finance, Ministry of Health and Ministry of Settlement & Regional Infrastructure put their signature of agreement on the document. It is planned this document will be made official and effective nation- wide through a ministerial decision by the State Ministry of National Development/Chairman of Bappenas. There are 8 guiding principles that make up the policy, those are water as an economic and public good; informed choice as the basis of demand-responsive approach; environmental-friendly deve- sanitation projects. The result is, though others. lopment; hygiene education; poverty the agreement was just officiated recent- Soegeng Santoso, project leader of focus; womens role in decision-making; ly, but in reality the principles have been ProAir, said that the national policy is accountability of the planning process; long before adopted by the on-going WSS quite appropriate. "What we are doing is governments role as facilitator for empo- development projects, such as Water exactly the same with WASPOLAs sug- werment; active community participa- Supply for Low Income Community-2 gestions, therefore we are just dissemi- tion; optimal and target-oriented service; (WSLIC-2), Rural and Water Supply in nating the policy." According to Soe- improved monitoring and evaluation pro- Nusa Tenggara Timur (ProAir), Sanitasi geng, the key to success of a WSS project gram. oleh Masyarakat (SANIMAS), and several is in the hands of the community, not the As a policy the details contained others. The latest project to adopt the government. Therefore the community therein are not extracted only from in- principles is Community Water Services must be given a leading role in making house deliberations and discussions. The and Health (CWSH) which is currently in decision. "It is not a time for full govern- policy has gone through a long process of preparatory stage. ment intervention, now it is demand field trials directly and indirectly. This It becomes interesting to note what driven, not supply driven," he added. process was made possible because of and how a specific project is doing Similar statement was made by synergy among policy formulation and including comments from the project Hartoyo, CWSH project leader. policy implementation field teams management. In the implementation of According to him, the community plays through the on-going water supply and the principles, one project, of course, met the role of agent of change. "When the with a different experience from the community is capable of planning and 4 Percik October 2003
  • 5. M AIN REPORT be done wisely and carefully. Experience in the field indicates that community is too self reliant that they would disagree with a scientific argumentation provided for by consultant. "But, never mind. This is a process," he further says. Apart from synchronization of nation- al policy on water supply and environ- mental sanitation and other projects in the field, there are still other barriers to be dealt with in the future. Project-mind- edness seems still prevails within the pol- icy makers. "Often we are faced with conflicting situation: achieving a target or maintaining the process, Zainal conclud- ed. As an example he cited that at the initial stage WSLIC-2 project which is funded by the World Bank and the Australian government moved very slow- ly, therefore fund absorption was also very slow. It started to gain speed in the second to third year implementation. This situation cannot be separated from Source: OM the limited knowledge of the personnel to implementing a development by them- absorb the methods to be applied in the selves, this means the community is suc- project. So, in the beginning the priority cessful," he says. The government should Each sector must have was placed in human resources develop- only play the role of facilitator and moti- ment of the project related personnel. vator. It is the community who do all the the same acceleration. Besides, WSLIC-2 requires that fund is to planning and implementation of the pro- From experience, the be channeled directly to the community ject. This process will guarantee the sus- is in disagreement with the existing regu- tainability of the project result. community usually moves lation. Why the community? According to Hartoyo, they have many problems. Of faster than the others. This condition is made worse with the newly issued Keppres 42 which requires course, it is the community itself who The sectors must be able that project be audited each fiscal year. knows what the problems are and knows "There is a possibility that with the exactly the priority for solution. to catch up in order to issuance of the Keppres that project "Government assistance would be needed once in a while, but that is not the main reach synergy. mindedness will recover", he further says. He suggests that an empowerment pro- issue. Government subsidy is only a ject must be funded based on multiyear stimulant," he added. community capacity. They thought that budget system. Alfred Lambertus, Rural Water community is incapable and devoid of Empowerment is multi-sectoral. Supply and Sanitation Specialist, who initiative. "Whereas the community will- Each sector must have the same accelera- handles the SANIMAS project points out ingness to assume responsibility is very tion. From experience, the community that demand responsive approach is very big. Even the poor class. Provided this usually moves faster than the others. The important to a project if we want the relates to their demand, they are willing sectors must be able to catch up in order project to sustain. The policy that is for- to contribute," Alfred further explains. to reach synergy. mulated through WASPOLA, according However, according to WSLIC-2 pro- The abovementioned projects are in to him, is being put to trials in the field ject leader, Zainal I. Nampira, the com- the process of proving whether the and this process will last for a consider- munity must be made well prepared. national policy is the right policy for WSS able length of time. "From this imple- Beside physical construction, the commu- development. There are some barriers mentation it can be seen how a regional nity must be able to manage its financial being identified, and it seems that the is required to be responsive to the affairs in order to be accountable in implementation will need more time. demand of its community, he continues. accordance with accounting principles. What and how are the projects look like, According to him, there was a com- "This is a learning process," he stresses. the following main report will discuss mon mistake in the past when the deci- Relinquishment of responsibility to each one of them in general. sion makers used to underestimate the the community, according to Zainal, must 5 Percik October 2003
  • 6. MAIN REPORT Community Water Services and Health (CWSH) P ursuant to Memorandum of through institutionalization of demand cially announced. Twelve provinces were Understanding (MOU) between responsive and household based system invited for that occasion, consisting of W. the Government of Indonesia and and program focused at low income com- Kalimantan, S. Kalimantan, C. Kalimantan, Asian Development Bank (ADB) it is munities in partnership with civilian Papua, Lampung, Jambi, Banten, agreed that ADB will provide support to community and private sector. Gorontalo, Bengkulu, Riau, S. Sulawesi, and Indonesian efforts to reduce a number of SE. Sulawesi. A national seminar was held problems and limitations related to water Output on 2 July 2003 inviting participants from supply and environmental sanitation, The expected output of the project the 12 provinces. Each province was to be both in urban and rural areas. In this are: represented by the members from Bappeda connection the Country Program Mission a. A capable regional government to and Dinas Kesehatan. Representatives from (CPM) ADB 2002 it was made certain facilitate planning and implementation Papua failed to attend. that Community Water Services and (including managerial aspect) of a On 22 July 2003 a coordination Health Project (CWSHP) is included in community-based project that is also meeting was held at Bappenas and was the Country Strategy and Program (CSP) capable in providing family-based attended by WSS Technical Team and 2003-2005 for Indonesia. ADB approves health services especially in water the PPTA Team. It was concluded that CWSH as a project loan effective from borne diseases. there would be provincial level seminars year 2004. b. Strengthened community and families to be held at W. Kalimantan, C. At this time the CWSH project is still in such a way that they are capable to Kalimantan and Jambi. The Technical in preparatory stage. One of the main plan, advocate, manage the O&M of Team made a special effort to talk with activities during this stage is Project WSS service and also improved health Province Papua for participation in Preparation Technical Assistance and hygienic behaviour. CWSH project, considering Papua was (PPTA). In general, the purpose of c. Development of sufficient, acceptable prioritized in the second place. This was PPTA is to help Indonesian government and sustainable WSS system and other done until the second week of August to identify and prepare a project propos- health service facilities especially in 2003. Finally the Technical Team had to al which is expected to start implementa- water borne diseases. decide to give Papuas place to Bengkulu tion in year 2004. The output from d. An efficient project implementation as the fourth province to participate in PPTA will be used by ADB and and coordination system including this project. Indonesian Government to process and project monitoring and evaluation. Provincial level seminars were already formulate the required investment for conducted at Palangkaraya, Jambi, Ponti- the related WSS development. Preparatory Activity: anak and Bengkulu. In this provincial semi- The PPTA team started its activity on National Workshop on Community nars 3 kabupatens were selected as project 16 July 2003 and will be completed in Water Services and Health (CWSH) at sites in each participating province. May 2004 (10 months). This team is Bekasi on 2 July 2003 In the Tripartite Meeting held in 2 preparing the kabupaten level SPAR (Sub September 2003 it was agreed to add more Project Appraisal Report) from the Site Selection Criteria participating kabupatens to a total of 19 selected provinces. The Central Level Technical Team for from the presently selected provinces. Water Supply and Sanitation represented Purposes and Output by cross-sectoral agencies have deve- Concluding Remark loped a criteria for selection candidate CWSH is the first project in 2003 which is General provinces with marked achievement in designed in pursuant to the new procedure as Improving quality of life and status of Human Development Index (HDI), set forth in Decision of Ministry of Finance health of low income communities living Gender-Related Development Index No. 35/KMK.07/2003 on Planning, Imple- in the rural areas and the fringes of big (GDI), Human Poverty Index (HPI), co- mentation/Organization, and Monitoring of towns/cities through improvement in verage in WSS service, diarrhoea inci- an Extension of Government Loan to Regi- water related hygiene behaviour of the dence, and status of the existing WSS onal Level Government. According to the households through improved access to projects and consideration on the linkage KMK 35 the regional government is obliged to water supply and sanitation system. with other ADB projects, such as FHN, share the obligation with the central govern- DHS and RWSS. ment in the loan repayment, therefore the Specific possibility for changing the participating pro- A capable regional government to Preparatory Activity vince may happen in accordance with the wil- improve water supply and health service On 23 June 2003 the project was offi- lingness to share the repayment obligation. 6 Percik October 2003
  • 7. M AIN REPORT Program Air dan Sanitasi Perdesaan Propinsi Nusa Tenggara Timur (ProAir) Rural Water Supply and Sanitation Program in Nusa Tenggara Timur N usa Tenggara Timur (NTT) pro- Purpose Coordination Team (TKK) that produced vince is located in a low rainfall a. General many applications from the community. region, thus water scarcity becomes To provide contribution in minimiz- Phase 2, all the applications were select- a common phenomenon. Beside the natural ing the risk to health of rural community ed and assessed according their feasibili- condition, most of the population is insuffi- caused by water borne diseases through ty by the Project Implementation Unit ciently knowledgeable about hygienic mat- improvement of drinking water supply (PIU). Phase 3 represents implementa- ters and they are still living in less hygienic and environmental sanitation in the tion plan which involves the community environment. This makes the people of province of NTT. group in executing the actual construc- NTT vulnerable to water borne diseases. tion through participatory activity apply- Aware of this condition in 1998 the b. Specific ing MPA-PHAST methodology with faci- government of Indonesia and the Federal Rural community that is capable of litation from a motivator. Rep. of Germany concluded an agree- running the management of a sustainable ment for a development undertaking in water supply and environmental sanita- Constraints the field of water supply and environ- tion system on their own and a regional There are several constraints crop- mental sanitation in NTT province. government that is capable of adopting ping up while implementation is on- As a follow-up to the agreement, a this methodology. going, the constraints may come in physi- meeting between the German Bank for cal or non-physical nature: Reconstruction (KfW) and the regional Location and central level agencies related to the ProAir operates in the rural areas of Physical sector was held in 2001. It was conclud- Kabupatens Sumba Timur, Sumba Barat Geographical condition ed that the German Ministry for and Timor Tengah Selatan of the The settlements are scattered so that Economic Cooperation (BMZ), KfW and province of NTT. it is difficult to choose the most suitable Deutsche Gesselschaft fuer Technische technology for a specific condition Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) will coordinate a Program Implementation technical assistance and financial assis- Unlike in the past the present Non-physical tance for the program. The kabupatens approach is not based on standard nor- Lack of knowledge in the part of the to participate in the program are Sumba mative defined by the government (sup- local implementation personnel about Timur, Sumba Barat, and Timor Tengah ply driven), therefore the present pro- demand driven approach that makes Selatan. On 12 December 2001 Grant gram is implemented based on the real community motivation process moves Agreement "Rural Water Supply and demand of the community (demand driv- only very slowly. Sanitation" was concluded. KfW is to en). There are several phases to be com- Fund channeling mechanism is not fully make available 15,6 million DM for pleted in ProAir implementation, begin- understood, this causes delays in request for investment (construction, procurement ning from socialization and dissemina- fund and its subsequent processing. of materials and services) and for con- tion phase, followed by planning, after sultant costs. As a counterpart, each of that technical design and contracting, Plan for the future the kabupatens will set aside an invest- then construction phase and finally post In order to overcome the constraints, ment fund in their budget (DIPDA) construction activity. it is planned for the future: amounting to 10% of the total grant fund The implementation itself is conduct- a. A continuous HRD program inclu- provided for by KfW and other non ed gradually beginning from Kabupaten ding re-socialization of ProAir program investment funds in conformance with Sumba Timur. In this kabupaten imple- through advocacy to the regional govern- the need of each of the kabupatens. This mentation has reached phase 3. Phase 1, ment and legislative (DPRD). program is given a specific name. ProAir, the socialization and dissemination was b. Keep on trying to find the best to distinguish it from other projects in conducted through a public campaign choice of technology for application in other locations. activity by ProAir Kabupaten NTT. 7 Percik October 2003
  • 8. M AIN FEATURE SANIMAS An Initiative in Community Based Sanitation Management By: A. Lambertus, WSP-EAP What is SANIMAS? available, SANIMAS intends to introduce SANIMAS could only provide facilitation SANIMAS is an initiative designed to another option, i.e. community-based for a maximum of 8 towns. The agreed promote community-based sanitation wastewater disposal system. It is expect- requirements for participation are as the (CBS) system as an alternative choice for ed this effort would become acceptable to following: the poor community. the regional government for adoption Willing to set aside a counterpart into its sanitation development strategy. budget; Background Decide the responsible sector to coordi- Improper sanitation condition in the nate the activity; areas where most of the urban poor live is economically detrimental and tends to One principle is choice Select and employ two local facilitators. degenerate quality of life, especially of of technology which women and children. In the worst condi- Those towns interested are required tion it may lead to relapsing of abdomi- is to be made by to send application letter with attach- nal infectious diseases that the number of the community. ment of the agreed requirements stated typhoid incidence in Indonesia is the above. There were 12 applicant towns highest in East Asia. This causes a finan- SANIMAS would assume indicating willingness: Bangli, Gianyar cial loss amounting to approximately the role of introducing and Denpasar of Bali, Pamekasan, Rp47 trillion (4,4% of 1997 GDP) to the Mojokerto, Sidoarjo, Pasuruan, Probo- economy or equals to Rp120.000 per the technology options linggo, Blitar, Kediri, Batu and Malang of household per month. including the strength E. Java. Further selection indicated that Improper sanitation condition of the Probolinggo, Malang, Batu, Gianyar did urban poor is closely related to the exist- and weakness not meet the required score. An MOU ing wastewater disposal system. In of each. with the remaining 8 towns was prepared, broad line, sanitation facilities in urban but Bangli finally withdrew because DPRD areas can be categorized as the following: did not give approval for the counterpart budget. Sewerage system built in several big Demand Responsive Approach In selection of community partici- towns with a very limited coverage. (DRA) pants the Demand Responsive Approach On site disposal system, generally con- At this time SANIMAS is being tried was also applied. During the process 10 sists of toilet with or without a septic in 7 towns, Blitar, Pasuruan, Kediri, communities compete among themselves tank. This is the most common type. Mojokerto, Sidoarjo and Pamekasan in to win SANIMAS facilitation. Beside Direct disposal into a river or open East Java and Denpasar in Bali. demand responsive approach there are space. Selection of the sites took a long process. two other important principles applied First, a dissemination process about by SANIMAS. One principle is choice of Purpose SANIMAS to the communities in 21 technology which is to be made by the With regard to the limited option for towns with population density above 700 community. SANIMAS would assume wastewater disposal system currently persons per ha of East Java (15) and Bali the role of introducing the technology (6). Followed with an information semi- options including the strength and weak- nar to discuss SANIMAS idea in more ness of each. The other principle is, the Percentage of Urban Wastewaterercentage of Urban Wastewater Disposal Fac detail. Interested towns are invited to community assumes the responsibility Disposal Fasilities in Indonesia in Indonesia participate with a requirement that all for technical construction and the mana- Type of Facility % the involved agencies must attend and gement of funds coming from own Septic tank 63,07 they must pay their own travel expenses. sources, the government, SANIMAS, an Apparently, all the towns sent their rep- NGO (BORDA) in some cases. Fish pond/rice field 3,28 resentatives and they participated active- River/lake 16,70 ly in the seminar. Toward the end of the SANIMAS Implementation phasing Pit well 14,44 seminar it was announced that this exer- There are 3 components involved in Sea coast/open area 1,28 cise was also intended to select the towns the implementation. First, CBS Others 1,23 capable of implementing the program. Capacity Building. The purpose is to Source: BPS, 2002 Source: BPS, 2002 8 Percik October 2003
  • 9. M AIN FEATURE define project rules, sanitation technolo- gy options development, and construc- tion of implementation tools to be tested and demonstrated. The output of the first component consists of: Compilation, analysis, and synthe- sis of lessons learned from Indonesia and abroad; Rules and feasibility requirements for participation in SANIMAS pro- gram; Variety of technology options for CBS system; Training module for facilitation institution and local government. Second, Promotion and Demon- stration of CBS System. The purpose is to improve the knowledge, skill and awareness in CBS as an appropriate sani- tation option to be applied in the section Source: OM of a town where the poor live. One of the outputs of this component is an estab- lished CBS system that represents the choice of the whole user community. There are two choices that are generally selected The whole is underscored because if there is only one family disagrees against from by the user community. Basically the community this may lead to cancellation of the pro- would take a sanitation system that makes them ject, in spite of all other processes have been completed in agreement with all the feel secure and at the same time also prestigious. community members. For this purpose the community expects to have There are two choices that are gene- rally selected from by the user communi- a system with home connection, but local condition ty. Basically the community would take a may cause something different. sanitation system that makes them feel secure and at the same time also presti- gious. For this purpose the community expects to have a system with home con- nection, but local condition may cause There are four funding sources for Pengkajian Kemasyarakatan & something different. the construction: community contribu- Pembangunan (LPKP) covering activities A location with the following charac- tion (cash and materials), local govern- in Pasuruan, Blitar, and Kediri and is teristics: ment, SANIMAS, and in some cases the based in Malang, E. Java; Bina Ekonomi Houses built on contours shortage is subsidized by BORDA. Sosial Terpadu (BEST) for areas covering Intermittent flooding Physical construction is expected to be Pamekasan, Sidoarjo, and Mojokerto and Limited land area, even for a toilet completed in November 2003. is based in Surabaya; and for Denpasar construction The third component is, the responsibility is imposed upon Bali Houses built crammed with each Implementation Management. Fokus which is based in Bali. other, such as the rent houses. SANIMAS is financed through a grant At the community level, SANIMAS is fund provided for by the Australian gov- facilitated by two field facilitators. One The community has no choice but an ernment through AusAID. The daily comes from the implementing agency MCK as sanitation system. From the 7 activity is run by an NGO, BORDA and the other is recruited from local communities facilitated by SANIMAS (Bremen Overseas Research and NGO. SANIMAS activity will be com- four of them are fortunate because they Development Association) based at pleted in April 2004, in which a national could build a system with home connec- Kayen No. 176, Jl. Kaliurang KM 6,6 level seminar will be organized to wrap tion; as for the other three they have to Sleman, Yogyakarta. BORDA is assisted up the lessons learned to be dissemi- be satisfied with an MCK. by 3 local NGOs namely Lembaga nated for future purposes. 9 Percik October 2003
  • 10. M AIN FEATURE Water and Sanitation for Low Income Communities (WSLIC)-2 M any villagers are dependent Sumatra, Bangka-Belitung, West Java involved in the project out of 2.000 upon a traditional source for and South Sulawesi. Criteria for selec- toward the end of WSLIC-2 in 2006. their drinking water. Whereas tion is based on: frequency of diarrhoeal the source is located far away and diffi- inciddence, poverty level, and water sup- Constraints cult to reach, discharge is insufficient ply and sanitation service coverage. As a new and fully innovative project especially during dry season, water qua- applying MPA approach, WSLIC-2 is faced lity is below the required standard for Methodology with a number of difficulties and con- consumption. This unfavourable condi- WSLIC-2 consists of 4 main compo- straints. In the initial stage, the constraint tion poses a big difficulty particularly for nents, namely improvement of the appeared as a consequence of limited women and children who have to spend capacity of community institution, human resources capacity in understanding most of their time to take water for improvement of hygiene and sanitation the methodology. As a result, the project washing, cooking and drinking. status through provision of services in that should have lifted off the ground in Besides, many of the low income health and hygiene behaviour, provision 2001 was delayed. The project has had to families who live in a more remote loca- of water supply and sanitation system, prepare the human resources first. NGOs tion defecate in the river or open place. and project management. and consultants are recruited and give them This bad habit frequently causes conta- This project applies an approach the necessary training. They then provide mination of diarrhoeal or other diseases methodology that is sensitive to the training to facilitators. to other community members who share demand of the community. All members Other constraint relates to financial the same water source. of the community have an equal oppor- administration system in which the pro- WSLIC-1 project was implemented in tunity to participate in the selection of ject requires channeling fund directly to 1993-99 to find a solution to some of activity related to health, water supply community account. This system is these problems. Studies on the impact and sanitation, with a specific focus to entirely alien to the existing law and re- of provision of water supply and other the demand of women and the poor gulation. That is why the project has to sanitation facility to health condition group. make the necessary preparation in order indicate a decrease in diarrhoeal cases The methodology being applied is the community could manage the fund up to one third. However, WSLIC-1 was called PHAST (Participatory Health and in auditable manner. Each year an audit faced with a major difficulty related to Sanitation Transformation), which is was conducted on 60% of the Communi- fund disbursement system and its adminis- based on the earlier participatory ty Management Units. tration. This project is now being followed- methodology called SARAR (Self-esteem, There is something else the project is up with WSLIC-2 which will be implemen- Associative strength, Resourcefulness, need to consider for implementation in ted through year 2006. WSLIC-2 total pro- Action planning, Responsibility). With the future, i.e something related to ject cost is USD106 million coming from the demand responsive methodology the health. Whether health component must IDA (World Bank), Indonesian govern- community is involved beginning from start from the bottom? ment, Australian government through planning, implementation, and O&M. Experience indicates that Kabupaten AusAID and the community. The community decides by itself the Management Unit has, from the very technology choice for the system to be beginning, never worked within the line Purpose constructed. This activity is funded by a of the process. It is not surprising, This project is intended to improve combination of grant from the World therefore, the communication network health status, productivity and quality of Bank and a subsidy from the local gov- does not work harmoniously. life of low income communities through ernment that make up 80% of the total improved hygiene behaviour, environ- cost. The remaining 20% represents the Plan for the future mentally-based health service, provision community contribution, 4% of which in To overcome the communication of a sustainable, safe, sufficient, easily cash and 16% in labour and materials. delay among kabupaten level imple- accessible and effectively used water Up to August 2003 there were 870 menters some sort of a technical team supply and sanitation system/facility. villages selected for participation, 779 of involving the stakeholders related to the the applicants were being processed, 387 technical aspects of health, community Location of which have signed a contract. Up to empowerment and others will be orga- The project is implemented in 7 that time 221 villages have completed nized, so that everybody will be informed provinces consisting of East Java, Nusa construction. It is expected that by the about what is going on and coordination Tenggara Barat, West Sumatra, South end of the year 1.000 villages will be be made easier. 10 Percik October 2003
  • 11. P ERSPECTIVE Empowerment Without CompellingI n 1997-98, Water and Sanitation Program of the World Bank and IRC International Water and SanitationCenter formulated a community empo-werment method that is known asMethodology for ParticipatoryAssessments (MPA). This methodologyis a combination of the earlier methods,Minimum Evaluation Procedures (MEPand SARAR (Self-esteem, Associativestrength, Resourcefulness, Action plan-ning, Responsibility). In 1998-99 the methods were put totrial at 88 water management communi-ties of 18 projects in 15 countries. Thestudy was conducted by a team from uni-versities, local and national NGOs, rela-ted government agencies, and projectmanagers. The lesson learned from thestudy reveals that sustainable water sup-ply system is one that provides satisfac-tory service to the majority of usersincluding low income group. A service isconsidered satisfactory if it is beneficialand the system is effectively usedbecause the majority (at least 80%) ofthe community has access to it. Source: OM Sustainable service and effective use and involvement of the poor, and appli-are interrelated with demand-sensitive Financially sustainable cation of the principles of democracyprogram. This can be achieved if from This can be established if the com- and transparencythe very beginning the users are involved munity is involved in planning. Besides,in the planning to express their ideas also in deciding the O&M costs and the Socially sustainableand to vote. Besides, there will be equity amount of community (rich/poor, This condition can be reached if allin the system management and share in man/woman) contribution. Contri- components in a community are givenbenefit and burden. All requires com- bution is decided in proportion to level the same opportunity in the selectionmunity participation in contribution, of service or the amount of clean water process of technology choice, type of sys-supervision in project implementation, per household. tem to be constructed, level of service,and sharing of responsibility in trans- type of training. All community mem-parent manner. Environmentally sustainable bers have the same opportunity to voice Finally it was summarized that there Sustained environmental condition out their ideas in decision makingare 5 aspects influencing the sustaina- can be reached if the planning by the process to decide the size and format ofbility of a project. Those aspects are: community also takes into consideration community contribution and dues, deci- the environmental aspect as it relates to sion in management mechanism, andTechnically sustainable water source and wastewater disposal. selection of the management team. Sustainability in technical aspect can With the application of the fivebe obtained if the project is planned by Institutionally sustainable aspects for the purpose of improvementthe community and in consideration to Sustainable institution is a process in of demand responsive approach in plan-the type of technology applied in accor- formation of management team that ning, MPA applies participatory methodsdance with the community condition takes into consideration gender equity consisting of: 11 Percik October 2003
  • 12. P ERSPECTIVE the most difficulties in adopting the Activity Methodology methodology are the decision makers Inventory of village characteristics Open discussion and project managers. Why? All this time they have been used to top down Social classification Welfare classification and instructional and is difficult for Social mapping Discussion and drawing them to accept the aspiration from the User evaluation Pocket votes community. They seldom go to the field and speak with the community. Many of Decision making evaluation Matrix voting them consider that community will never Sample taking for transect walk and focused group discussion utilising the social map be able to get stronger by itself. Evaluation of management, maintenance and financial Discussion with the From the implementation side, there is no meaningful barrier. But MPA will management of service management team (men and be easily implemented if the facilitator is Evaluation on history of system construction women) willing to learn. The application of MPA Evaluation of division of labour and benefit becomes difficult if the facilitator has been formed and tend to teach rather Review of service system performance Transect walk, supplemented than to learn. Empowerment through Ranking score by user with rating scale and checklist MPA is possible for any group of the Evaluation by non user for WSS facility community. Whether is the rich, the poor, the educated and even the illitera- Evaluation on user satisfaction Ladders, card sorting tes. This methodology comes in me- Division of labour and benefit Card sorting thods that can be easily understood by Plenum meeting on the result of activity with the Presentation of scores and the community. In other words MPA can be adjusted to the local condition. community open discussion As an example, in Laos when applying Inventory of institutions that influence service Open discussion, scoring, this methodology it was difficult to clas- pocket votes sify how many rich population and how many are poor. Over there, such a dis- tinction is unthinkable. But through a The information generated from the local community language this distinc- process will be useful to identify the tion is made possible. It was through basic social characteristic and service For Indonesia, the metho- indication that the rich wear a lot of facilities in accordance with the opinion of all components in the village level dology could be considered ornaments, holding a high position so that they have a fixed income, in con- plenum. The community could then re- as new. Therefore con- trast with those without education concile their demand with the technolo- straints are coming up in because they are only farm labourers gy choice, capacity and willingness to pay, between the different groups and the field. Based on experi- without a fixed income. For the commu- nity, what is important they understand assess their own level of demand. MPA ence, the one who have and capable of expressing themselves. is not only useful for the community but also for all related components such as the most difficulties in With a symbol or drawing it will do, as long as they can express their opinion public service management, project adopting the methodology and make a choice without any pressure. implementers, project managers, and decision makers. are the decision makers Seeing the real success in applying the MPA, not just a theory, there are many What about Indonesia? Since 1980 and project managers. requests for application from many other there are many water supply and sanita- projects. Other countries such as Laos, tion facilities built in Indonesia. The Cambodia and Vietnam have adopted facilities were built and implemented by this methodology. This methodology has a number of projects and programs lack of sustainability happens because of impacted to local government policy funded by central government budget, lack of sense of belongingness within the including institutions related to sectors donor countries, donor agencies such as community. This condition makes other than water supply and sanitation. World Bank. The reality in the field Indonesia one of the locations suitable With regard application in other sec- indicates that the facilities did not last for the application of MPA approach. tors there is no problem. The methodology long. Frequently they become a monu- For Indonesia, the methodology may be the same. What need adjustments ment. Why must it happen? Based on could be considered as new. Therefore are the indicators. (Summarized from studies conducted by Water and constraints are coming up in the field. interview with Ratna I. Josodipoero, Sanitation Program (WSP) the failure or Based on experience, the one who have Hygiene Education Specialist, WSP). 12 Percik October 2003
  • 13. P ERSPECTIVE Handwashing I n October 2003 we received an invi- tation to a seminar from WSP-EAP World Bank with an agenda on Handwashing. This raised a number of questions. We all know that handwash- ing is part of the tradition of civilized community. The question is whether it is worthwhile to discuss such a matter in a meeting attended by representatives from World Bank/Jakarta, USAID, UNICEF, John Hopkins University, Universitas Indonesia, Koalisi Untuk Indonesia Sehat, Bappenas and Ministry of Health? The more so is because one of the agenda is the naming of Indonesia as the fifth nation in the world to involve in Global Initiative for Handwashing pro- moted by the World Bank in year 2000. This article does not intend to discuss what was happening in the meeting, but rather to provide a further under- standing about Handwashing. Flashback Source: ML The history of handwashing goes back to the 19th century when many European and American women died to warm it up and water was still con- How Important is Handwashing? shortly after childbirth. As many as sidered as the source of malaria and Let us look back to the data produced twenty five per cent of mothers died typhoid contamination were the most from several studies. In 1996 by not after delivery. The main cause was probable reasons for doctors opposing washing hands there was 40% contribu- Streptococcus pyogenes bacteria. Early the habit of handwashing. It looks quite tion to infected food including salmonel- in 1843 Dr Oliver Wendell suggested discordant from our point of view today la in the US. This figure refers to 80 handwashing as a means to overcome it. that doctors were the ones opposing to million people poisoned from food which He was convinced that the cases were handwashing. increase the medical cost, decrease pro- caused by the doctors habit. Refusal to handwashing continued ductivity, and death of 10.000 people. It was Dr Ignaz Semmelweiss who in and even in a seminar at the Academy of More than 2 million children died in 1850 observed that mortality rate of Medicine in Paris 1879 disease contami- the developing nations each year women giving birth under the care of a nation through contact with hand was through diarrhoea. Each minute 5 peo- physician is three times higher that those still doubted. It was Louis Pasteur who ple are infected by diarrhoea microbe or handled by non-medical help. The in the seminar spoke loudly saying "As 300 cases for 1.000 population. Accord- observation led to a conclusion that doc- doctors you are the ones killing those ing to Directorate General of Communi- tors did not wash their hands before women by contaminating with deadly cable Disease Control & Environmental helping a parturition. Whereas the doc- microbe from sick patient to women Health, Ministry of Health, diarrhoea is tor might just from attending another about to give birth." number two cause for mortality rate of patient or even conducted an autopsy. The above story gives us the histori- children under 5 in Indonesia. In the Dr Semmelweiss suggested that a cal background how the steps towards meantime based on the latest observa- doctor must wash his hands prior to awareness of handwashing as a means to tion by The Lancet Infectious Diseases attending a patient. The result was, prevent contamination. It took a consid- Journal it is evidenced that 42-47% of mortality rate dropped significantly. But erable length of time and effort before diarrhoeal incidence can be prevented ironically, without looking into the fact handwashing become part of the cultural only by washing hands. Studies in Pa- Dr Semmelweiss was ostracized by his tradition of civilized community and not kistan indicate that handwashing reduces own colleagues. Maybe the habit of simply as a physicians routine. diarrhoeal incidence by 44%. A study by handwashing was entirely new then. Handwashing is presently a subject Khan (1982) indicates that washing The availability of clean water was still taught in schools and even handwashing hands is an effective means to prevent relatively insufficient, it took a big effort facility is now a public requirement. diarrhoea. Other studies by Alam (1989) 13 Percik October 2003
  • 14. P ERSPECTIVE and Clemens (1987) suggest that wash- effective means to prevent contamination. ing hands by mothers is an important Other studies indicate that Apart from the various diseases that factor in reducing diarrhoeal incidence handwashing reduces can be prevented simply by washing of their children. This all makes provi- hands, what concerns most from the incidence of infectious sion of clean water and sanitation water supply and sanitation is water improvement more effective if combined diseases by 50%. Other borne diseases such as diarrhoea. with handwashing program. source says that it reduces Other studies indicate that hand- up to 65%. Besides, When handwashing should be washing reduces incidence of infectious done? diseases by 50%. Other source says that washing hands regularly There is not specific rule how often it reduces up to 65%. Besides, washing reduces the contamination we should wash our hands but at least: hands regularly reduces the contamina- with antibiotic resistant Before eating and cooking tion with antibiotic resistant bacteria. After using toilet All the facts mentioned above indi- bacteria. After house cleaning cate the importance of washing hands as After visiting a sick person a means to prevent various diseases. After cleaning nose, coughing or Therefore, wash your hands. Handwashing Could Prevent sneezing Contamination After an outdoor activity such as Is it true handwashing is a cultural Virus and bacteria can spread in playing, gardening, sport, etc. tradition? many different ways such as spoiled A study conducted by Applied water and food, phlegm from cough or The time required for handwashing is Research Group University of sneeze, dirty hand, infectious surface less than 2 minutes. Westminster Inggris reveals that only (soil, table and others), excretion from a 32% (from 292 toilet users) wash their patient. If by chance we get in touch How to wash hands hands after using toilet. While result of with virus or bacteria from one of the There are three simple steps in hand- observations in 5 cities in the US by the above sources, millions of microbes will washing, (a) washing your hands from a American Society of Microbiology Clean be in our hand. Most of them are harm- faucet, spout of with a water dipper, pre- Hands Campaign indicates that although less, but some of the microbes can cause ferably using warm water; (b) use a soap 95% of the sample wash their hands flu, and diarrhoea. By simply touching (not necessarily an anti-bacterial type) after using toilet but only 67% wash their nose, eye or mouth we are soon infected. for 10-15 seconds. Be sure that all the hands in the right manner. Washing hands is the first step against hidden parts of your hands are wetted How about in Indonesia? In June the spread of the diseases, from flu, me- with soap; and (c) after drenching use a 2003 an institution in Indonesia con- ningitis, hepatitis A, and diarrhoea. A step towel or tissue to dry hour hands. ducted an observation at 33 users in one as simple as washing hands turns out an of the man toilets of Jakarta Hilton Convention Centre (JHCC). It turned out only 8 men washed their hands after using toilet. Though this cannot be taken as representing Indonesian condition but it reveals that even in a toilet in Jakarta hand- washing is not a common habit. Are they that igrorant about the importance of handwashing? According to a study in England, it was found that they are aware of the importance of Use a soap washing hands but there are several rea- (not necessarily sons why they do not do it such as the an anti-bacterial toilet looks very nice and clean and they type) for dont want to touch anything other than 10-15 seconds. their own, or their hands still look clean -clean does not mean free from microbe. The above study indicates that though handwashing is understood as important, in practice it is seldom prac- tised. Even in a highly developed nation Source:OM like England. 14 Percik October 2003
  • 15. R EFLECTION MCK Jempiring is not an MCK MoerdionoA s a tourist destination Bali is well known for its natural beauty and its cultural heritage. However,behind the natural beauty, the Denpasarcity as the provincial capital suffers froma bad luck as do the big cities on Java.The fast economic growth and side effectof development activities have turnedthe face of Denpasar pockmarked withclumsy and overpopulated quarters.Some of the locations are easily obser-vable at Banjar Sari and Banjar Batur ofKelurahan Ubung in KecamatanDenpasar Barat. According to DinasLingkungan Hidup and Public Works,Gang Jempiring which is located atBanjar Sari is top in the list of clumsyareas within the city of Denpasar.Banjar Sari itself is located just behindUbung, a land transport terminal andmain transit in Bali. This is the mainreason why Ubung especially Gang Source: Bali FokusJempiring has developed into such a Before constructionthickly populated with various ethnicgroups living in this place. I Made Yasa, chief of Banjar Sari them "MCK Moerdiono". Unfortunately during the Community Based Sanitationcommunity and also an employee of the the MCKs have met with unlucky fate. (CBS) program socialization meetingKelurahan Ubung says that most of the "They could function only for 4 years", conducted by Bali Fokus in associationpopulation came from Lombok, E. Java said I Wayan Gandra, owner of one of with BORDA in July 2002. From theand various parts of Bali. Land lords in the MCKs. Gandra admitted that his process of identification, problem formu-Jempiring rent out their lands for living MCK was not maintained properly. lation up to recommended solution con-quarters but unfortunately there are not Since the septic tank was full and cannot ducted by Bali Fokus, BORDA togethermany of them able to provide an accept- be emptied, Gandra had difficulty and with the community during the timeable sanitation facility for their tenants. does not know what to do, so that he span between August till December 2002According to Yasa, Gang Jempiring is flushes the waste directly into the it became known that the status of MCKinhabited by approximately 300 families drainage canal. Besides, according a Moerdiono causes deep apprehension,who in average work as street vendors, landlord of more than 20 rental houses, such as bathroom and closet full of dirtconstruction labourers, and other infor- water supply service from PAM for MCK and stench from the closet. Worse still,mal sectors. A combination of lack of seldom if not to say never flows. almost all the MCKs have their septicknowledge and absence of acceptable The level of community knowledge tank broken so wastewater flows directlysanitation system have made Banjar Sari and awareness is considered as another into a drainage ditch nearby.a city slum with sanitation problem reason for the breakdown of the MCKs. Other issue that was brought forwardespecially with regard human waste. Made Yasa who is also an owner of one relates to level of community awareness Actually the government had once of the MCK Moerdiono mentions his to participate in maintaining and clean-tried to make improvement to the sanita- experience that he found ladys tissues ing a public facility. The level is very lowtion condition of this place. Yasa admitted were buried in clogging the closet pipe. and the main reason lies in lack of sensethat once Gang Jempiring had received a "We had to cut the waste water pipe in of belongingness.subsidy from the former administration. order to release the stopper", explained Bali Fokus an NGO specializing inIn 1980 to be exact. At that time the go- Yasa. environmental and community develop-vernment constructed 4 public toilet The abovementioned sanitation rela- ment in collaboration with BORDA a(MCKs). Banjar Sari community called ted problems and issues were revealed non-profit institution based in Bremen, 15 Percik October 2003
  • 16. R EFLECTION and Bali Fokus which contains 3 main points. First, that the community of Jempiring, Banjar Sari needs a sanitation facility. Second, the community mem- bers of Jempring are willing to con- tribute for its O&M costs, and third, the community will support the construction of the new MCK and is willing to main- tain and keep the MCK clean. Then based on the mapping of sanita- tion problem as prepared by the commu- nity, there were 3 candidates for the loca- tion of the new MCK. After a month of a more detailed technical survey it was agreed that the land belonging to I Ketut Nasib is selected as the location. The other two locations were dropped because they are too near the old MCKs and one of the owner refuses to have an MCK built on his land. MCK Jempiring construction through community based demand is only one merit of the MCK. Because there is, additionally, another merit. MCK Jempiring which was inaugurated by the Mayor of Denpasar on Wednesday, 6 August 2003 is equipped with an appro- priate technology for wastewater treat- ment system which produces methane Source: Bali Fokus gas and water in accordance with the safety standard as set by the government. Germany, initiated a demonstration pro- was not a top down à la MCK Moerdiono The biogas produced by a digester under- ject. This project was offered to Gang approach that made the MCK Jempiring neath the MCK can supply gas for cook- Jempiring community as a solution to constructed in Banjar Sari. Almost all of ing of 3 families. their sanitation problem. This heavily the decisions related to solution to sani- To maintain cleanliness, the MCK innovative and appropriate technology tation problem were consulted and coor- employs 2 workers, each working on an based project is believed to be able to dinated with the community. "We fre- 8-hour shift, from 5 AM to 1 PM and create a sustainable and technically reli- quently held a meeting with the commu- from 1 PM to 9 PM. After 9 PM the MCK able sanitation system in Gang nity of Gang Jempiring", said Made Yudi is closed. What about the wastewater? It Jempiring. This project is innovative Astrana, one of Program Officers of Bali is BORDA Indonesia with 20 years of because it was born out of a real demand Fokus. "There were at least 10 meetings experience in the field of wastewater pro- and participation of the community. The with the community before they came up cessing that provides the technical assis- non-technical/participatory approach with a solution to build an MCK at tance to MCK Jempiring construction. began from July-August 2002 and con- Jempiring", added the ITS graduate. Through a technology called DEWATS tinued till the completion of a function- Again according to Yudi, initially there (Decentralized Waste Water Treatment ing MCK structure on Wednesday, 6 were 3 alternatives: System) the human waste is processed. August 2003. In this participatory Construction of an MCK at the location of "We guarantee the wastewater process- approach the community was asked to Balai Banjar Sari ing system will be functioning perfectly", identify the problem and propose the Construction of a new public MCK at says Yuyun Ilham, Director of Bali best and workable solution by the com- Gang Jempiring Fokus. According to Jempiring commu- munity itself. The community then for- Construction of communal piping system nity: "MCK Jempiring is more than just mulated a number of alternatives that an MCK". finally in January 2003 the community agreed to build a new MCK at Gang Renovation of the existing MCKs. (Summarized from MCK Jempiring, Jempiring. After several more meetings on 31 a glimpse of, Thus this project did not come out of January 2003 an MOU was signed Bali Fokus, Denpasar) emptiness as it used to be in the past. It between the community of Banjar Sari 16 Percik October 2003
  • 17. L ESSONS LEARNED Local Lesson LearnedD uring the months of September and October 2003 the WSS Working Group had an oppor-tunity to make a field visit to WSLIC-2project sites, at Kabupaten Bima (NTB)and Kabupaten Ponorogo (E. Java),The following is the report:Water has been flowing but theamount of subscription hasnt beendetermined yet by TotokanCommunity. On 7 October last, a water supply andsanitation facility that was developedunder the WSLIC-2 project was handedover to Totokan Village Headman ofKab. Ponorogo. The event was attendedby the Bupati and his staff, DPRD, PKKofficers, Director of Water andSanitation (Ministry of Health), Directorof Human Settlement and Housing(Bappenas), Central level CoordinationTeam, CPMU, DPMU of Kab. Ponorogo.This specific event was jointly organizedby 7 villages being the sites of WSLIC-2project that have completed construction Source:BPas an expression of thankfulness for aclean water system for the community. tem has not been finalized though the one at the primary school.The transfer of asset to each of the vil- community has enjoyed the clean water But as the new village headmanlage is intended to build a sense of service. It is expected that the manage- began assuming office there arisebelongingness so that the community ment unit together with the community seedlings of discord within the commu-would manage the facility O&M in sus- could work out a management system nity. This causes the Communitytainable manner. including the subscription dues. What is Implementation Unit divided in two, Up to this time the village obtained certain is, as a result of water availability may even lead a negative effect to thewater from the deep wells filled in by the production of brick baking industry sustainability of the facility. Worse stillinfiltration from the irrigation system. is increasing. Before this, water for mix- is the fact that the construction was exe-Water is flowed regularly one every ing brick mold was difficult to obtain. cuted through pressing the budget at themonth. expense of its technical quality. There are two water supply systems. Friction is apt to happen This situation indicates that commu-The first is pumping up water from a 130 The community of Tanah Putih vil- nity participation at village plays a verymetre-deep well into a big reservoir and lage, Kecamatan Sape, Kab. Bima (NTB) important role lowering constructionthen water is distributed using 2 pumps obtain their water from a river. The budget especially in a difficult location.which are located far from each other. source is located not far from their But in a certain condition, an overlyThe second is deep pit wells. There are 9 homes but it is difficult to reach because economized budget may adversely affectsuch wells dug manually 50-60 m below of the steep slope. Only a small fraction the quality of construction.ground. The construction works for both of the population have had access to There is a general notion up to thissystems were done by the community. piped water system, but the discharge is time that a village community is always To supply oxygen for men working too little. About 5,4 km from the village, homogenous and cannot easily be divid-underground while digging the wells, air there are two water sources but accessi- ed. This fact has proven that villagewas pumped into the pit through a plas- bility is very difficult. One of the sources community is also susceptible to frag-tic hose from the ground surface. The is being used by the neighbour village mentation.soil of Totokan is made of rock so that with permission and without any com-from a 50 m well, 3-4 truckloads of rock pensation. WSLIC-2 installed a piping In September 2003, WSS Workingcould be mined. connection from the source and public Group together with the World Bank Unfortunately, the subscription sys- taps at 5 distribution points including made a field visit to several SANIMAS 17 Percik October 2003
  • 18. L ESSONS LEARNED project sites. Here is the report: Socialization and campaign is important Before there was SANIMAS project the community of Bakalan, Pasuruan town, used to defecate in the river. Through this project the community are made informed about the importance of hygiene behaviour. Now almost all of the community members have changed their habit by building household sanita- tion facility and a connection to commu- nal wastewater treatment system. Unfortunately, a hospital located nearby indicates reluctance to join the connection to the communal disposal installation. It should be questioned to Source: WSLIC Dinkes Kab. Pasuruan why the agency does not support this project. At this tion process. It is, therefore, necessary Community rejection moment construction is just beginning and is implemented by the community. to make available the appropriate infor- From the visits made to Denpasar Total financial contribution for this proj- mation media that will reach the com- (Bali), Sidoarjo and Pamekaan (E. Java), ect is Rp238.243.399 consisting of com- munity. it was found out that land availability is munity Rp13.618.500, Local 2. If the community, including the one of the determining factors in the Government Rp174.639.841 and SANI- local government, has understood the success of a project. In the three sites, MAS Rp49.985.038. priciple in community environment, location for project construction is diffi- A similar project is being initiated at then willingness to pay can also be ge- nerated. This is evidenced from the con- cult to obtain, so that project must be Kelurahan Sukorejo, Kab. Blitar. relocated. In Pamekasan the location Construction work hasnt started yet. tribution, both in cash and in materials and labour. hasnt be agreed and possibly the project Activity is now concentrated in construc- tion of abutments to support the con- 3. Through informed technology has to be cancelled. struction because the treatment system choice, community participation, type of Community agreement is understood will be built very close to a riverbank. A community contribution, community in an absolute meaning, so that if any toilet will be built in every home since participation is more effective. one family has an objection that means the community has had in general built a 4. Detailed design of piping network an agreement fails to be reached. The bathroom but without a toilet. or wastewater treatment system must be project must be relocated. But what is Community contribution for this project prepared in the best manner in order to interesting is that most of community is Rp12.155.000, SANIMAS prevent any future problem due to rejection is engineered by the agency Rp49.975.141 and Local Government improper design, such clogging in pipes because of too small gradient or malo- that should be in favour of this project. Rp174.436.799. Total Rp. 236.007.122. dorous from a leak of the system. In Denpasar the rejection comes from While construction work for waste- water treatment facility in Kelurahan 5. Community must be informed Dinkes. In Pamekasan it is engineered Baluwerti in the city of Kediri is con- about the O&M of the installation in by Puskesmas Pembantu. It seems the strained because the available fund from order to result in sustainable service. idea behind SANIMAS project is not yet the community is only Rp7 million and For example, periodical cleaning of to- fully understood by the stakeholders. the contribution from the government ilet, no garbage in any form enter the The lessons learned from the above amounting to Rp152 million and from wastewater disposal system, no deter- situation, it is necessary to first deter- SANIMAS 50 million hasnt arrived yet. gent or other cleansing material enter mine whether a village level agreement It is said that the budget for this project the disposal system in order to prevent process follows an absolute agreement has been included in the BUDGET any disturbance to the growth microor- (100% agree) or based on majority vote Revision of the PEMDA. ganism within the installation. (50% plus one). Besides, it should be Lessons learned from SANIMAS 6 Construction work, especially com- project in 3 villages: munity based sanitation system, not only noted from the beginning that if a com- 1. Community awareness on hygiene calls for community participation, but munity fails to agree on something there behaviour especially in using toilet and also support from all stakeholders, such must be an extreme condition behind it. wastewater treatment can be generated as donor agencies, local government, The result is, a project has to be can- through project campaign and socializa- DPRD and NGOs. celled. (OM) 18 Percik October 2003
  • 19. L ESSONS LEARNED FROM ABROAD Empowerment in Other Countries I n several countries water supply and sanitation development pro- gram have started in the previous decade. It is therefore becomes interest- ing to know the precious experience du- ring the implementation of the develop- ment as a means for our enlightenment. The following article tries to bring for- ward the experiences related to collect- ing of fines (Pakistan), development of new norm (Guatemala); Egypt, Benin, Cameroon, Uganda. The redline identified from experi- ence of the foreign countries are (a) local wisdom in the format of traditional rule that can be adopted and effectively used like the case of Pakistan. If at one time the existing rule is not sufficient any more, a new set of rule might be formu- lated through public consultation such as the case in Guatemala; (b) the communi- ty and the clean water supplier can co- operate. The format is the supplier assumes the responsibility up to the main distribution point and then the community will continue it with home connections. This is the case with Egypt; If the family refuses to pay the manage- ty in supporting the provider. (c) women involvement is still quite limi- ment will cut his supply of water. Community health center employs a sa- ted in management and in traditional The fine comes in various different nitarian who takes the responsibility in positions such as treasurer and sanitari- forms. A fine for someone who does not monitoring the water quality and other an, this case is in Benin; (d) land is the repair a broken connection, a fine for a medics regularly conduct hygiene beha- determining factor for WSS development family who fails to attend a community viour education. The role of an NGO is in urban areas because of the high price, meeting. A portion of the fine collected to provide input in determining strategic the case of Cameroon; (e) NGO can play is given to the Zatoon as a salary, the objectives in WSS development policy a role in expanding the level of activities rest goes to O&M fund. and in finding participatory model, the but is constrained by a limited capacity, most suitable technology choice and co- the case of Uganda. GUATEMALA verage expansion. NGO is also instru- The Aguacatán Case Study. A mental in the improvement of human PAKISTAN Participatory Action Research pro- resources capacity in the community. WASEP (Water Supply and ject to support community water NGO does not do construction work nor Sanitation Extension Programme supply management in rural com- its expansion. It is not a substitute of of the Aga Khan Planning and munities was implemented in 1994. the local or a state government, rather it Building Service) In Guatemala the authority in water is a facilitator to guarantee that each Traditionally they have a fine collec- supply management has been arranged. institution is functioning in accordance tion system. The community employs an The state government is responsible in with its specialization and the user gets individual whose work is to collect fine, provision the basic service system. It his right in the proper manner. and he is called a Zatoon. If a family decides the regulation and responsible Water supply management is fails to participate in a community work for investment in villages. The local go- given to the community associations that the Zatoon is sent to collect a fine from vernment must provide its support, con- are operating every day. Their responsi- the family. This system is adopted in duct monitoring and evaluation. Even if bility includes O&M, financial manage- water supply program by sending the the local government does provide the ment, repair works, etc. After operating Zatoon each time a family breaks a rule. community will assume the responsibili- for some time, there is a desire from 19 Percik October 2003
  • 20. L ESSONS LEARNED FROM ABROAD within the community to manage the system in a businesslike manner. They want to have a community-managed company supplying quality drinking water at a cheapest possible price. What is interesting in Guatemala is the norm and regulation pertaining to water supply management system. The existing traditional norm is insufficient to cover the whole aspects. Some of the norms and regulations are considered too technical so that adjustment and improvement should be made. The pha- ses in participatory formulation of norms and regulation are as the following: UGANDA 1. Introduction the problems and issues Relinquishment of autho- related to water supply; rity to the community to 2. Problem analysis and identification manage its own water sup- of key problem; ply system means giving an 3. Finding alternatives to solution; opportunity for NGO to 4. Agreement to a new set of norms and play its role. regulation 5. Community acceptance of the new norms and regulation through public consultation. EGYPT Experience indicates that relinquish- ment of authority and increasing com- munity involvement in water supply sys- tem management takes a long and gra- dual process. The introduction of de- tions which are favourite for women: Land price becomes so high because of mand responsive approach and commu- treasurer and sanitarian. landowners take the opportunity to nity-based management in a semi-urban The intensity of visit made by donor- make a big profit. areas is possible but it takes a long time funded NGO is an assurance that the A lot of violation or disobedience and requires a revision to government O&M management will be functioning made by community members against policy and management authority. In well. In the long run there is a possibility the mutually-agreed regulation cannot the future, the water supply authority that the quality of management is be legally followed up because most of will only be responsible in construction decreasing. Now and in the near future the management units are not the legally and conveyance to the main distribution the fund in the bank is relatively suffi- registered organizations so that it is dif- point, from there on the community will cient, but later on the community will ficult to take legal action against them. be responsible for the home connection become less regular in making deposit. including the collection of subscription. They dont see the importance of having UGANDA a big amount of fund in the bank Relinquishment of authority to the BENIN because they dont know the importance community to manage its own water Active community participation in of maintenance. supply system means giving an opportu- each phase results in a strong sense of nity for NGO to play its role. In many belongingness. Voluntary management CAMEROON cases, NGO plays a big role in expanding is difficult to motivate. While the in- The community is not free from the coverage of a community based volvement of women is increasing internal conflict. One way to prevent it activity. The constraint being faced is though the indicator does not show is through enhancing transparency and the limited capacity. women involvement in the entire communication. process. Women are involved in the Many development programs are Source: Summary of several management; this is indicated from 30% constrained by land availability. The articles in IRC website of the members of management team main reason being land tenure system. consists of women, especially in posi- 20 Percik October 2003
  • 21. MI S C E L L A N E O U S Technology Choice Alternative Choices for the Community P ursuant to the principle in the much as possible contain a complete One of the projects that offer National Policy on Community information enable the community to informed choices is SANIMAS (Sanitasi Based Water Supply and choose the best one in accordance with Masyarakat). In compliance with the Environmental Sanitation, by placing the the geographical, socio-cultural, and eco- scope of project, SANIMAS offers sanita- community in the highest position in nomic condition of the locality. tion management, beginning from toilet, decision making process means offering Some sanitation projects of the past collection, treatment, disposal, and de- technology choice to the community. indicates that a sustainable sanitation sludging. The informed choices vary The choices are assembled into one system can be achieved if the facility is widely, but in this edition we only pre- informed choices comprising technical, built in accordance with prevailing con- sent to you a rough sketch of few of financial, socio-cultural, and institutio- dition of the community and the local them. nal aspects. The offered choice must as government. TO I L E T Simple flushing toilet outside house Flushing toilet outside house Flushing toilet inside house 21 Percik October 2003
  • 22. MI S C E L L A N E O U S T R E AT M E N T Main treatment and supported Septictank Multiple septictank DISPOSAL Condominial system Open channel Combination piping system DE-SLUDGING Manual drain Collected by sludge truck River outlet 22 Percik October 2003
  • 23. B OOK INFO Sustainability Planning and Monitoring in Community water Supply and Sanitation. A Guide on the Methodology for Participatory Assessments (MPA) for Community-Driven Development Programs Author: Nilanjana Mukherjee, Christine van Wijk Publishing: Water and Sanitation Program (WSP). Water Supply and Sanitation on World Bank, Washington 2003. xii + 157 pages assess the sustainability of their facility tion, gender equity, and community and plan for a corrective action as neces- empowerment. Second, presents case sary. MPA can strengthen the capacity studies in the application of MPA in se- of poor community to plan manage and veral countries. There are 7 case studies maintain the quality of service of their on various stage of project implementa- own water supply and sanitation facility. tion, from project planning, evaluation, The methodology has been used in vari- monitoring and design; policy related ous countries and produced a good research, project regulation, and com- result in Asia, Africa and Latin America. munity based project; and an illustration In this book, WSP and IRC of MPA application as a catalyst to social (International Water and Sanitation change at community level. The Centre) attempt to assemble the experi- strength of this book lies in the case ences from the various countries. studies that enable it to shed a whole M PA is a methodology designed to enable the policy makers, program managers, and the local community to This book consists two parts. First, explains what MPA is about especially as picture of how MPA is translated to implementation. One of the case studies it relates to sustainability, poverty reduc- is a project located in Flores. Water and Sanitation in the World’s Cities. Local Action for Global Goals Author: United Nations Human Settlements Programme (UN-HABITAT) Publishing: Earthscan Publication Ltd, London, 2003 xxv + 274 pages tainable hygienic human settlement sys- environmental condition; (iv) satisfac- tem. At the same time this report also tion of drinking water and sanitation conducts review on the need of interna- requirement must be undertaken within tional community in MDGs achieve- the framework of good governance. ment. The above topics are combined in This report basically discusses four several orderly successive chapters main topics, (i) inaccuracy from the part of the government and international beginning from provision of water sup- organizations in anticipating the total ply and sanitation in cities; the impact of population of cities who have no access shortage in water supply and sanitation to water supply and sanitation service; system; changes in perspectives related and its consequence to health condition to provision of water supply and sanita- to hundreds of million world population; tion; regulation related to provision of (ii) ignorance from the government and water supply and sanitation. All the to- international organizations to the above pics become very interesting because condition, though various studies indi- T his report represents the initial effort by UN-HABITAT which is the extension of UN hands for monitoring, cate that the main cause lies with institu- tional and political aspects; (iii) the they are complemented with comparison of conditions in various nations inclu- requirement for water supply and sanita- ding Indonesia, so that we get the pic- analysis, and reporting of the implemen- tation of Habitat Agenda especially sus- tion must be based on the local condi- ture how Indonesia look like in compari- tion, including community priority and son with other nations. 23 Percik October 2003
  • 24. W EBSITE INFO IRC T his website is one of busiest and most complete in the world that contains news and information, suggestions and training related to low cost water supply and sanitation in the deve- loping nations. A lot of experience, case studies, and articles about the implementation of WSS develop- ment from all over the world can be downloaded here. What is more important is that this website pro- vides information about water sup- ply and sanitation organizations all over the world. List of Water Supply and Environmental Sanitation Websites Additional information related to articles contained in this edition can be obtained from the following websites: Donor Countries/Institutions and International Organizations 1. AusAID in Indonesia. and 2. United Nations Human Settlements Programme (UH HABITAT): 3. United Nations Childrens Fund (UNICEF): Government agencies 1. Bappenas: 2. Depkes: 3. Kimpraswil: Programs and Activities 1. Water Supply and sanitation Policy Formulation and Action Planning Project (WASPOLA) 2. Handwashing Clean Hands Campaign: 24 Percik October 2003