Information Media for Water Supply and          Environmental Sanitation                                                  ...
FROM THE EDITOR                                                                                             prove competit...
YOUR VOICE      How to subscribe                         We will be pleased to send you              reads: "there is a po...
M AIN F EATURE       chool is an important part of environment for children          Movement at the National UKS (School ...
MAIN FEATURE                                                                                              stood as tree pl...
M A I N F E AT U R E                                    MORE ABOUT                                   GREEN SCHOOLDefinitio...
LAPORAN UTAMAment in an easy and pleasing manner, (iii)          schools in Indonesia that are unfamiliar          rents w...
INTERVIEW                                 Dr Dewi Utama Faizah         Disseminating Hygiene Life Inspiration             ...
REGULATION              PERMENDAGRI NO. 23 OF 2006                ON TECHNICAL GUIDELINE                AND PDAM WATER TAR...
REGULATIONtion to raw water source protection andsutainability of water resources in thelong run. A progressive tariff sys...
INSIGHT   GREEN SCHOOLAND THE PROBLEM OFENVIRONMENTAL CARE                         By: Imam M.*           ecently, there i...
INSIGHT  1. Islamic Study: Competence in      Natural and Environmental      Degradation. Week 18-21.  2. Civics: Competen...
INSIGHT                                                                                                   denced from big ...
INSIGHT          WATER FLOW REGULATOR             `A LA BARUGAYA  (Local Genius from Barugaya Hamlet, Bonto Kadatto Villag...
INSIGHTtion chart is presented in the diagram. Isthere any electric short cut? This isalready considered, the connection i...
INSIGHT         CONTRIBUTION OF WATER SUPPLY                  PROVISION IN THE NATIONAL              ECONOMIC GROWTH (FY 2...
INSIGHTfacility. In addition, the investment can also be calculated, to     ment of contracting firms capable if designing...
REPORTAGE                          WATER SCARCITY                        IN MUSTIKA HOUSING            s basic demand for ...
Green School. Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine. August 2007
Green School. Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine. August 2007
Green School. Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine. August 2007
Green School. Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine. August 2007
Green School. Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine. August 2007
Green School. Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine. August 2007
Green School. Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine. August 2007
Green School. Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine. August 2007
Green School. Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine. August 2007
Green School. Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine. August 2007
Green School. Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine. August 2007
Green School. Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine. August 2007
Green School. Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine. August 2007
Green School. Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine. August 2007
Green School. Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine. August 2007
Green School. Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine. August 2007
Green School. Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine. August 2007
Green School. Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine. August 2007
Green School. Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine. August 2007
Green School. Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine. August 2007
Green School. Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine. August 2007
Green School. Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine. August 2007
Green School. Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine. August 2007
Green School. Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine. August 2007
Green School. Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine. August 2007
Green School. Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine. August 2007
Green School. Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine. August 2007
Green School. Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine. August 2007
Green School. Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine. August 2007
Green School. Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine. August 2007
Green School. Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine. August 2007
Green School. Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine. August 2007
Green School. Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine. August 2007
Green School. Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine. August 2007
Green School. Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine. August 2007
Green School. Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine. August 2007
Green School. Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine. August 2007
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Green School. Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine. August 2007

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Published by Indonesia Water and Sanitation Working Group. First Edition in August 2003

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Green School. Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine. August 2007

  1. 1. Information Media for Water Supply and Environmental Sanitation From the Editor 1 Your Voice 2 Published by: Main Feature Water Supply and Sanitation Working Group Making Clean and Pleasing School 3 More about Green School 5 Advisor: Director General for Human Settlement, Interview Department of Public Works Dr Dewi Utama Faizah, Disseminator of Healthy Life Inspiration 7 Board of Trustee: Regulation Director of Settlement and Housing, National Permendagri No 23 of 2006 8 Development Planning Agency Director of Water and Sanitation, Insight Ministry of Health Green School and Environment Care Issue 10 Director of Water Supply Development, Department of Public Works Ecological Disaster and Failure of City Planning Model 12Director of Natural Resources and Appropriate Water Flow Regulator `ala Barugaya 13 Technology, Director General on Village and Community Empowerment, Contribution from Drinking Water Provision 15 Department of Home Affairs Reportage Director for Facilitation of Special Planning Environment Management, Water Scarcity in the Mustika Housing 17 Department of Home Affairs Purbalingga in Drought 18 Chief Editor: Reflection Oswar Mungkasa Learning Sanitation from India 19 Board of Editor: Jambangan Village, Green All the Year Round 22 Zaenal Nampira, Child Festival of Surabaya River 2007 23 Indar Parawansa, Inspiration Bambang Purwanto The Water "Pawang" 24 Editor: Our Guest Maraita Listyasari, Rheidda Pramudhy, Raymond Marpaung, Bowo Leksono, Endang Wardiningsih, Perseverance in Teaching Students to Aware Reski Dian Diniari the Environment 26 Design/Illustrator: Around ISSDP Rudi Kosasih Portrait of Mid-City Clean Environment 28 Production: Closing Factory Isnt Enough, Whats Needed is Mutual Commitment 29 Machrudin When Diarrhoea Picks Noviana 31 Distribution: Initiative for Public-Private Partnership in WHWS 32 Agus Syuhada Around WASPOLA 33 Address: Around WSS 38 Jl. Cianjur No. 4, Menteng, Jakarta Pusat Program Phone/Fax.: 62-21-31904113 http://www.ampl.or.id SMK Negeri 1 Surabaya, Towards Environmentally-Based School 44 e-mail: redaksipercik@yahoo.com IATPI Clinic 47 redaksi@ampl.or.id oswar@bappenas.go.id Book Info 48 Website Info 49 Unsolicited article or opinion items are welcome. Please send to our address CD Info 50 or e-mail. Dont forget to be brief and WSS Bibliography 51 accompanied by identity. Agenda 52 Glossary Percik magazine can be accessed through WSS website http://www.ampl.or.id
  2. 2. FROM THE EDITOR prove competitiveness in the world mar- ket and at the same time sustain natural resources of Indonesia. Green school is identified as one com- mitted to and systematically develop pro- grams to inclusion the environmental va- lues into all school activities. A school with a vision, mission and objectives and policies aimed at quality improvement and is highly interested in quality of life through Green School Program. It is indeed far from easy to build a real green school because it is not just that the school physically looks clean and lush and green, rather it is more on the development environmental awareness of school academia which is noticeable from their daily habit as a reflection of the demand of improved quality of life. The consummation of Green School is inseparable from the role of private sec- tor, NGO and the government. And most importantly is the role of the community within the school itself, everybody in- cluding the pupils, teachers and the staff. It takes a teacher or several teachers to pioneer and become the examples to the pupils. We greet Our Guest, one of SMUN 34 Jakartas teachers, Endang Wardiningsih who is diligent and with her environmen- tal training experience from Unesco, give it to her students. The outcome? The subject matter on Photo: ISSDP environment does not end up in an extra- curricular activity but it goes beyond into a local content of an integral part of the n reality Water Supply and Sanita- Because there are not many schools that curriculum called Environmental Edu-I tion (WSS) is never separable from life. It appears as a problem notreadily resolved, it is even growing more care to its surrounding environment. This is important, cultivating hygiene behaviour early since the school age. cation, which means that it is compulsory subject for all pupils. As a warming up, we present you aand more intensely along with the growth School environment varies extensively, small review on the National Sanitationin population number, social and eco- the students come from various different Conference (NSC) 2007, such as a talknomic activities. It demands an immedi- background. It is hoped when they are show and visit to Kelurahan (Village) ofate problem identification and resolution. outside the school environment they Petojo, a sanitation pilot project locatedIt is quite necessary to continuously would continue to put hygiene behaviour right in the heart of the city of Jakarta.inform the community the efforts are into application. We hope what Percik presents you inbeing or should be done in WSS deve- An environmentally conducive school this edition would be useful and providelopment. One of the means is through is necessary to produce graduates skilled an inspiration for all to live hygienicallypublication of this magazine. through high quality education. But that and at the same time take a good care of In this nineteenth edition we present is not all, conducive school environment the environment. Your comments andyou the concept of Green School. It is pre- also promotes high quality life pattern, so- suggestions are most welcome. We hopesented here in the main feature. Why? mething that is presently necessary to im- you enjoy reading Percik. Percik August 2007 1
  3. 3. YOUR VOICE How to subscribe We will be pleased to send you reads: "there is a pond owner when Percik since January 2007 edition asked why his latrine flushes into the Percik pond he answers: "…. I am willing to pay someone who is willing to defecate I am an instructor of Environmen- in my latrine". The answer does not at tal Engineering of the Trisakti Univer- Acknowledgement and all indicate that in Banjarnegara there sity, and I wish to know how I could Notice of Change of is a pond owner who pays anyone to subscribe this magazine. Many thanks in advance Address defecate in his pond, rather, it is a response to a question that he consi- On behalf of PT Arutmin Indonesia ders as putting him to an odd corner, a Best regards, Id like to acknowledge with thanks question that considers it negative to Pramiati receipt of Percik regularly. And also Id defecate in a fish pond, etc. The an- like inform you that effective from 21 swer is more as a defensive response to Dear Ms. Pramiati, his behaviour, indicating a response of May 2007 PT Arutmin Indonesia has Please send us your complete being offended by the question, etc. moved from Mid Plaza Bldg 2 9th floor address to our email address: redak- Thus, in Banjarnegara there is no to a new address as the following: sipercik@yahoo.com. We will send additional source of income from such Wisma Bakrie II 10th floor you every edition free of charge. thing as defecating in someone elses Jl. HR Rasuna Said Kav B-2 Thank you. fish pond. I would appreciate it if you Jakarta 12920 could publish this straightening infor- Regards, mation. To subscribe Percik Delma Azrin Alma Arief Thank you for you correction Magazine Straightening of I would herewith subscribe Percik beginning from January 2007 edition. an article in Percik Notice of Change of Please be informed that our institution ed. July 2007 Address "Human Resource Development and Applied Technology (CREATE) East I wish to thank Percik for the pub- I wish to thank Percik for the Java II" is conducting rehabilitations lication of my article entitled "The receipt of the magazine regularly. to the areas that were by hit flood and communitys most suitable latrine Seeing its usefulness I still wish to con- landslide at Kecamatan Panti, Ka- technology" in July 2007 edition. In tinue receiving its future editions. I bupaten Jember East Java. We are general there is no problem with the also wish to inform you of my moving looking for useful information and arti- edition of the article. However there is from the former address of cles that may be applicable at commu- something annoying that may have Jl. Cipinang Asem RT 02 RW 012 No. 5 nity level. occurred when editing the part on Kel. Kebon Pala Jakarta 13650 Thank you in anticipation. Best "cases in several villages", which calls regards. for a little ironing out. In this part it is to the following: Our mail address is the following: written therein: "…. Even, some pond FPPB UBB owners in a village in Kabupaten Ban- Jl. Diponegoro No. 16 Ir. H.R. Soedradjad M.Sc. jarnegara, C. Java, are willing to pay Sungai Liat, Bangka. Chairman, CREATE II East Java for someone to defecate on the latrine I would appreciate it if Percik Jl. Semeru VII/M-8 built on his pond". This statement would be willing to continue with the Jember 68121 clearly indicates that in Banjarnegara cooperation. Thank you in anticipa- there is a pond owner who pays some- tion. R. Soedradjad one to defecate in his pond. In my ori- Best regards, Jember ginal article (before editing) I dont Idha Susanti mean it that way. My original article2 Percik 2007 August
  4. 4. M AIN F EATURE chool is an important part of environment for children Movement at the National UKS (School Health Unit) JamboreeS upbringing. It is here, besides home and social environ- ment, that mental and intellectual is educated and tested. Therefore, beauty and comfort are both needed to smooth and the Presentation of National Defence by SMK Students at Ken Arok Sport Hall, Malang. The launching of clean and green school is expected to lead to a generation of hygiene behaviourthe path of absorption and application of knowledge. This can since early age.be achieved through the responsibility care of everyone in Green school is one that is committed and systematicallyinvolved in the school. A pleasing and beautiful school environ- develops programs for inclusion of environmental values withinment must not be understood as simply tree planting and clean school activities. To generate the spirit and sustain the Greensurrounding or composting and recycling of wastes. It is more School implementation, several private corporations like Cocathan that, it is the inclusion of environmental values and are Cola Foundation Indonesia (CCFI) and Toyota working in col-manifested in the actual school activities. And for all of this, the laboration with non government organizations conducted greenrole of all stakeholders comprising the teachers, students and school competition. Competition is an effective means for gen-staff and other parties outside the erating awareness to sustainingschool is called for. The role of green school program.teachers as instructor and exem-plary individuals is indispensable. Go Green School ProgramThe cultivation of a character is to To support the schools insome extent inspired by the Indonesia to Green Schoolteacher who teaches with all his Program implementation and toheart and inspiration. promote environmentally sensi- tive habit via school activities,Green School GGS program was launched. Environment is our common This program is intended mainlyconcern. Through common atten- for schools in urban areas wheretion and effort, the environment the community is growing rapid-can be sustained. And school is ly. GGS was launched in 2005expected to play key role in gene- by the Centre for the Bettermentrating environmental care within of Education (CBE), KEHATIthe heart of young generation, the Foundation, and Coca Colafuture decision makers. Foundation Indonesia (CCFI) In recent years several senior with support from the Ministryand junior high schools have of Environment, especially forstarted to implement Go Green high school level.School (GGS) Program. This pro- The Deputy Chief Executivegram is the fruit of interventions Operating Committee CCFImade by various stakeholders, Triyono Priyosusilo disclosedfrom the government, the private that GGS is a movement to pro-sector and the community. mote environmentally sensitive Last August the 4th the school especially high schoolMinister of National Education, level in Jakarta, Bogor, Depok,Bambang Sudibyo, launched Pleasing environment of a school in Jakarta. Tangerang and Bekasi. Photo: Bowo LeksonoClean and Green School "Through this program we hope Percik August 2007 3
  5. 5. MAIN FEATURE stood as tree planting, painting wall of school building in green, washing floor and cleaning glass pane. EE should actu- ally be able to create critical awareness of student to exploit wisely the earth natural resources. EE also stresses the impor- tance of the method of learning from nature by exploring the facts around us, stressing more on the use of students senses. In an opportunity, Emil Salim, former Minister of Environment revealed that the sustainability of GGS program will generate hope that in the future environ- ment will become the policy mainstream and for this the students involvement is School should cultivate the habit of waste separation. Photo: Bowo Leksono important. "In 2025 they will sit in the policy making offices in this country.that we could develop a concept and loped by Ecoton (Ecology and Wetland Therefore, now is the right time tomodel of Green School that is suitable for Conservation) research institute in col- implant environmental care withinhigh school of urban areas in Indonesia," laboration with KEHATI Foundation. them," he had said.he said. Both institutes provide consultation and Green School Program has in reality Green School according to Triyono is EE teaching materials (guidebook, CD, provided opportunity for all members ofone with the members of the community human resources and training), teachers the school community to be directlyenvironmentally sensitive and is made training in developing syllabus and EE involved in creating a pleasing education-real through behaviour and environmen- training method, competition in EE al atmosphere. A good and pleasing envi-tally sensitive school management in implementation for students through ronment is everyones dream. The con-order to improve quality of life. "It is research contest and ecosystem report- science of the importance of environmen-hoped the schools that have implemented ing, and comparative study to other tal conservation must be cultivated asthe program would be able to sustain and schools that have implemented EE. early as possible. Bowo Leksonoinspire other schools to do the same," he Up to now EE is only partially under-concluded. The program is based on KEHATIFoundation and CCFI concern to schoolsas educational base and potential institu-tion to support the efforts to improveenvironmental quality. With all theresources and coverage, schools play animportant role in the application of envi-ronmental education for youth inIndonesia.Local Contents Schools that have won competitionand have been given guidance from GGSare ones that have inserted environmen-tal subjects into educational curriculum.They are SMA Wikrama Bogor, SMA N 13North Jakarta, SMA 69 of the ThousandIslands, SMK Al Muslim Bekasi, SMA N34 South Jakarta, and several others. Thesubject matter which is known asEnvironmental Education (EE) is deve- Recycle house of SMU N 34, Jakarta. Photo: Bowo Leksono 4 Percik 2007 August
  6. 6. M A I N F E AT U R E MORE ABOUT GREEN SCHOOLDefinition reen School is an environmentally sensitive school andG its members are environmentally conscience and put it into reality through environmentally friendly be-haviour in order to improve the quality of life. More clearly greenshool is school committed and systematically develop a program toinclusion the environmental values into school activities.Basic Value The concept and activities being developed rest on the noblevalues of human life such as humanity, solidarity, honesty, jus-tice and natural balance.Basic Principle Participatory. All members of a school and the communityare entitled to obtain sufficient information and to involve them-selves in the overall process (planning, preparation, implemen-tation and control) in accordance with the responsibility androle. Sustaining. All of the activities are beneficial now and in thefuture. Comprehensiveness. All members of school must considerthe each and every aspects of life in the process of planning,implementation, and evaluation in order to enable to provide Backyard garden ornamented with medicinal plants.the biggest contribution to the environment. Photo: Bowo LeksonoWhat Green School Looks Like environmental condition, (iii) development of community based Green school must at least meet the following requirements education. School is inseparable from the real life and therefore(i) education is based on environmentally sensitive curriculum, school and community are inter-dependnt one from the other,(ii) design, use of materials and maintenance of facilities are (iv) development of environmentally friendly support system.based on environmentally friendly principle, (iii) run on envi- This program is significantly connected with WSS such as waterronmentally sensitive management; (iv) school program is sup- thriftiness, sanitation development and waste management, (v)ported by communities outside the school, and (v) the school development of environmentally sensitive school management.community maintains the habit of environment care. Its hoped that school management could develop an environ- mentally sensitive culture and philosophy and is supported withProgram capable human resources. Green school can be formatted into five (5) programs, name-ly (i) development of environmentally based curriculum, (ii) im- Benefitprovement of environmental condition of school compound and Various benefits can be obtained among others (i) schoolthe surrounding areas. This is part of the efforts to promote the community has had an integrated understanding about environ-school and the surrounding communities to actively improve the ment, (ii) school becomes an institution to learn about environ- Percik August 2007 5
  7. 7. LAPORAN UTAMAment in an easy and pleasing manner, (iii) schools in Indonesia that are unfamiliar rents who work in synergy through theeducational method becomes more dynamic, with the green school concept. Some of availability of external funding source.(iv) students potential and teachers capacity the few that have applied the concept arein environmental aspect are continuously SMA N 13 N. Jakarta, SMK Al Muslim Constraintimproving, and (v) the school is getting more Bekasi, and SMK Wikrama, Bogor. Although the green school conceptextensive network and is supported by the has been successfully put into implemen-community outside the school. Promoting Factor tation, however its further expansion is The success in the application of handicapped with the limited number ofApplication of Green School in green school concept is attributed to de- skilled teachers.Indonesia dication and sincerety all stakeholders In general, there are still many including the students, teachers, and pa- Linkage with WSS Development So far WSS development is way from SMA N 13 JAKARTA UTARA SMK AL MUSLIM BEKASI SMK WIKRAMA BOGOR satisfactory achievement, especially as it Theme Integrated environmental Nature and evironment Quality lifestyle with green relates to sanitation and waste manage- management by the school based education school ment. It is believed that the major in- and the surrounding com- hibiting factor is the poor hygiene beha- munity through 3R principle viour of the community. Therefore beha- Purpose Establishment of environ- Application of environmen- Establishment of environ- vioural change is prerequisite in WSS mental concern, esta- tally friendly activities by ment care among students blishment of integrated the school community, toward green life society, development. waste management, im- availability of environmen- establishment of high quali- On the other side, behavioural change provement of the role of tally based local content ty green environment, may take place easier if it starts early in school in handling envi- curriculum. application of school based ronmental issues. environmental management ones life. For this purpose school system becomes the most suitable means for Program Strengthening Green Empowerment of Green Development of environ- behevioural change process. The experi- School Group, manage- Education team of volun- mentally based curriculum, ence in application of green school con- ment of waste in school, teers, water and energy development of cooperation cept confirms it. This has been proven in cultivation of medicinal thriftiness campaign, waste network, empowerment of plants, integration of management, integration of teachers and students based SMA N 13 of North Jakarta paticularly in issues into educational waste matter related issues on environment, application waste recycle campaign, at SMK Al activities, environmental into education, open house of information technology in campaign and speech contest on environmental manage- Muslim Bekasi and SMK Wikrama Bogor waste, environmentally ment, environment care boy in reusing waste as raw material for based school management scout, waste management, handicraft such as key holder, bags and hygiene behaviour. Source: Kehati Foundation wallet. OM 7 SEVEN STEPS TO MAKE SCHOOL GREEN (adopted from Eco-Schools International, www.eco-schools.org) 1. Organising Green Club. Green Club serves as motivator the conclusion is used as input in determining priority and pioneer in the application of green school concept. action. The survey should be done in pleasing manner. It comprises all stakeholders (students, teachers, staff, 4. Formulation of Green School Action. As preliminary parents and school committee). It is an open organiza- action, the plan must be realistic and can easily be tion and is run by the students. The main task is to achieved. The next may follow the more challenging coordinate the overall activities, provision of recom- long term plan. mendation, and facilitation of communication among 5. Progress Monitoring and Evaluation. Green Club together the school community. with other members of the school community collec- 2. Formulation of Vision. Vision should be written and tively evaluate the progress. The conclusion is used to affixed in public area, and can also be supported measure the program achievement. through statement of attitude from the school commit- 6. Inclusion of the activity into curriculum. tee, and parents union. 7. Involving all stakeholders and do not hesitate to disse- 3. Conduct Survey on the School Environment. The survey minate the achievement. is conducted to identify environmental problem, then 6 Percik 2007 August
  8. 8. INTERVIEW Dr Dewi Utama Faizah Disseminating Hygiene Life Inspiration human being sensitiveness any time any- Dewi Utama Faizah has been a where. I will always ask the teachers to staff of the Directorate of render a helping hand to children resolve Kindergarten and Primary School of their shabbiness. And this can start from the Dept. of National Education simple matter. For instance, to help ta- since 24 years ago. king care of common cold and runny Dewi as she is intimately called nosed which is common in NTT also in has been involved in curriculum NTB. When I joined in Monev Team for development that serves to inspire AusAID Partnership program in 2002 I the teachers at school. Dewi also lends her hand in many cooperation was surprised to see how a teacher can programs between the government teach when the pupils look so clumsy, red and donor countries in terms of nosed with greenish mucus flowing down, monitoring and evaluation (monev) dark green collar and sleeve because they and training for teachers, especial- use them to mop their nose. ly of kindergarten and primary school. What are the barriers? Since 2000 the lady, who likes to wear in black, has been working I do not see any barrier. Because hy- together with teachers working in schools, especially of eastern regions giene life is human basic demand. Unfor- of Indonesia. What Dewi Utama Faizah is doing while facilitating the tunately our schools, or even parents of- "meritorious yet undecorated heroes"? The following are the excerpts of ten neglect and feel its not necessary to an interview with Percik. learn about it in the same way it is not ne- cessary to learn mathematics and scien- hat does the hygiene beha- environment as means to do it. ces. Who would not be happy if the chil-W viour education look like inIndonesia? Then, what should be done and dren are healthy, they come home smells good, clean hair and smiling with white Too bad indeed! Our teachers now at in what way to change the habit? teeth.schools are "curriculum teachers". They Do it and do it again to make it aoccupy themselves with curriculum and habit. Any time and anywhere. This in Is there any special message?textbooks, while forgetting the dignity of addition to the necessity of having an Come lets disseminate the hygienethe young people as growing and develop- exemplary teacher and adult to help in life behaviour to all children in Indonesia.ing individuals. disciplining. If children are immersed Hygiene life starts from them as non into this condition, there will be a feeling hygienic life also starts from them. Lets What it should look like? of something sticking to always behave combine head, heart, hand and healthy Speaking of habit is not as simple as hygienically. The hygiene feeling sticks into learning process in this country.transferring the content of a book into firmly with emotion, while emotion is anhuman mind. Developing habit com- energy that flares the childrens desire to What are the stakeholders weprises a series of long processes within live a healthy life. could expect to render help/get in-human being, day by day from waking up volved?in the morning till hes asleep again at Where has the program been I hope the teachers, the communitynight. At home and in school are the are- employed? and in the future WSS stakeholders couldnas where children develop their good I have no specific program for that. help this program. OK? Ill be waiting forand healthy behaviour. They need social But I will do my best to sharpen my the action. Bowo Leksono Percik August 2007 7
  9. 9. REGULATION PERMENDAGRI NO. 23 OF 2006 ON TECHNICAL GUIDELINE AND PDAM WATER TARIFF DETERMINATION he story of losses incurred by PDAM in supplying water PDAM Water Tariff which is considered less workable with theT to the community has been a daily news over the years. The high operational costs and high leakage level com-bined drag its income drops down. On the other hand PDAM is present PDAM condition. Up to now PDAM does not reflect full cost recovery principle. Several new changes have been made in considering and determining PDAM tariff. In the new regula-seemingly being placed in a difficult position if it is trying to tion basic cost is calculated based on three components, busi-increase its tariff. Protests from consumer ness cost, quantity of water produced andcommunity backed by the parliament water loss. Basic cost is business cost di-become the stumbling stone. As a matter of In the calculation vided by quantity of water produced afterfact, though, income from a proper tariff is of the new basic cost deduction with standard water loss.indispensable to cover the operational costs. water loss is taken into Business cost is the total costs covering costsIn addition, a portion of the income must be account. Whilst for water source, water treatment, transmis-reinvested for service coverage expansion. the old regulation sion and distribution, partnership, and ge-As of 2006 piped water service coverage is considers water loss neral and administration costs.still as low as 18 percent. While in terms of as liability that Compare the old basic costs which com-water tariff there are many PDAMs put tariff has to be borne fully prise operational cost, maintenance cost,rate at Rp 500 per cu. m thus below the aver- by PDAM administration cost, interest on loan andage national tariff level at Rp 1.000 per cu.m. loan principal. In the calculation of the new Requesting for a loan is the last resort for basic cost water loss is taken into account.most PDAMs. And the loan makes the bur- Whilst the old regulation considers waterden heavier. They are unable to pay the loan installments, if any loss as liability to be borne fully by PDAM.payment is made it is only for the interest. This is considered quite appropriate between 2000 and 2007 Finally there are many PDAMs that are deeply in debt. there are several PDAMs that have to pay raw water tenfolds theFrom 318 PDAMs only 18 percent of them is considered finan- earlier cost. This new regulation has made it clear that O&Mcially sound, which means capable of developing, loan manage- costs in the old regulation are now the costs for water treatment,ment, asset replacement, efficient operation, and making profit. transmission and distribution. Water loss as a determining factor in basic cost calculation Quality of service, and raw water source protection as factors Considering this condition, the government sees to it that in tarif determinationPDAM should be salvaged by issuing Permendagri (Home Tariff determination policy will undergo some changes. ToAffairs Ministerial Regulation) No. 23/2006 on Technical improve the calculation the new regulation sets the tariff deter-Guideline and the Mechanism for PDAM Water Tariff mination toward inclusion of equitability, service qualityDetermination. This regulation supersedes the earlier regula- improvement, accountability and raw water source protection.tion Permendagri No.2 /1998 on Guideline to Determining In the new regulation PDAM tariff is directed toward contribu- 8 Percik 2007 August
  10. 10. REGULATIONtion to raw water source protection andsutainability of water resources in thelong run. A progressive tariff system isintended to help raw water source protec-tion. Based on the new regulation the cal-culation and tariff determination must bebased on easily understandable andaccountable principles. Each rupiahmanaged by PDAM must be transparentand accountable especially to the commu-nity. Otherwise, itd be difficult forPDAM to increase its tariff. Water use efficiency is still the base intariff determination. Efficiency can beachieved through the application of pro-gressive tariff for consumers using waterbeyond the standard water demand. It ishoped that through this limitation theseconsumers will refrain from excessive useand raw water can be economized. Cost recovery principle will be consi-dered as the main in tariff determination. Photo: Bowo LeksonoThe new regulation made some revisionin calculating the cost recovery. For now, It has been written many times and pub- according to tariff category. Group 1 withfull recovery can be reached when mini- lished the media that a particular PDAM low tariff, group 2 basic tariff, group 3 fullmum average tarif equals the basic cost. is difficult to raise tariff because of poor rate, group 4 special rate.But if we wish to expand the service, the service. In another case, a PDAM pro- It is here PDAM is given a freehand toaverage tariff must be planned to cover ceeds with tariff increase although the determine a policy of each type of con-the basic costs plus a fair level of profit. service remains poor. With the conside- sumers for each group based on the con-This fair profit is reached when the ratio ration of quality of service it will push sumers real condition and characteristicsof profit to production asset is 10 percent. PDAM to improve its service. in each locality. What is important is However tariff is set within the reach PDAM does not change the number ofand fairness. The tariff for standard Flexibility in bloc consumers and customer groups as determined pursuantwater supply demand must be set within customers group to the present Permedagri.the reach of consumers earning a To simplify tariff calculation, con- Most important of all is that with thisprovincial minimum wage level. The ta- sumers bloc and customers group are new regulation, the mechanism of PDAMriff is said within reach if it is not more more flexible to the newly developed re- tariff determination is based on balancethat 4 percent of consumers income. For gulation. Consumers blocs are reduced of interest of the consumer communityfairness of tariff application, it is under- from three to two, namely the consumers and the regional government. Therefore,taken through tariff differentiation using water within the standard demand tariff determination must at the samethrough cross subsidy between consumer limit and those consuming above the time be intended to improved service,groups. limit. While customers group is reduced cost recovery, and profit that eventually Quality of service is a new considera- into four from previously five. To the new could be reinvested for future servicetion in tariff determination. Quality of regulation, each group is determined development. ? Afif Numanservice is still a big question with PDAM. Percik August 2007 9
  11. 11. INSIGHT GREEN SCHOOLAND THE PROBLEM OFENVIRONMENTAL CARE By: Imam M.* ecently, there is a promising environment care R movement arising from students, especially high schools. The students are no longer spoiled newly as we used to describe them, today they are grown up youth who are seeking for identity. Some of the high schools students have change their views by launching activities that used to be conducted by those who are engaged in environmentally related organizations. What is interesting in these environmentally oriented activities is that the students are now aware of the negative effects of the extensively ongoing nature exploitation and environmental pollution practices. Of course, their activities will not dramatically change the polluted environment into Various medicinal herbs grown in a green school. Photo: Bowo Leksono clean and decent surroundings. The main objective is to lay basic awareness as early as possible so that in the future they will become the first person to protect the environment in sively. Some say that the river flowing into Mojokerto is not which they live. If environmental awareness has been developed too polluted as shown by a student named Yogi of SMUN 1 it will be easier to develop into environmentally oriented Wringinanom. Some say that it is already polluted as is habit in daily life. shown by students studying Brantas River that flows in the Take for instance the students of SMUN 1 of city of Surabaya (Tempo, 16 April 2007). Wringinanom, Gresik, East Java. We can say this is one of Some of the schools do not stay silent with the increasing- the foremost of its age in environmental awareness. Beside ly gloomy environmental condition. Several schools have practicing clean and green environment by planting trees and started with environmentally based curriculum. SMUN 1 herbs in the school compound, they are also engaged in out- Wringinanom intends to treat it as a subject matter by giving side school environmentally related activities. The students 1 hour a week, while some other school wishes to integrate it attended workshops on environment and persuade other high into other subjects. This is done, for instance, in SMK school students in East Java to conduct a study on Brantas Wikrama Bogor that puts environmental subject within PKN, River. This study is to find out the pollution level of the river Indonesian Language, English Language, Mathematics, and as accumulative result of pollution dumped into it by citizens Physics. The following is the explanation: as it flows down along its course. The outcome varies exten-10 Percik 2007 August
  12. 12. INSIGHT 1. Islamic Study: Competence in Natural and Environmental Degradation. Week 18-21. 2. Civics: Competence in Natural Resources. Week 61-73. 3. Indonesian Language: Compe- tence in Reading and Writing on Environment. Week 5-25. 4. English Language: Competence in Novice Level of reading and writing on natural environment. Week 21-40. 5. Mathematics: Competence in the application of the concept of real Tree shaded schoolyard. Photo: Bowo Leksono figure. Week 1-13. 6. Physics: (a) Calorie calculation, (b) Application of power concept, the school compound. This school ness and sustainability. Most impor- energy, capacity, (c) Application does not only look clean but also green tant of all is to sustain the program of fluid concept, (d) Thermo- and is comfortable and is finally the implementation in the future". dynamics, (e) Optics, (f) Elec- most suitable place to cultivate the The support provided by various tricity, (g) Productive RPL1. Basic seed of intelligence. organizations for environmentally ori- Programming, (h) Computer ented activities is essentially to moti- Technology and Network, (i) PC Various supports vate and at the same provide room to Installation. Week 1-10. Environmental care can also be create awareness to environment. The concept applied in SMK seen at SMK Al Muslim Bekasi. In SMAN 1 Wringinanom has by itselfWikrama does not disturb subject mat- 2005 this school won Oxygen Prize worked in cooperation with Gresikters because it does not add to the stu- from PT Coca Cola in collaboration regional and East Java provincial go-dents tasks because everything is inte- with KEHATI Foundation. This prize vernments, also with Ecoton andgrated within the subject matters. is intended to cultivate the seed of KEHATI. But the support is only tem-Therefore, the concept is supporting environment care within the students porary assuming a participation in dis-the subjects and at the same time ge- to grow into reality of life. The spon- semination of the environmentalnerated awareness to environment. sors gave them Rp 25 million in cash awareness seedling that would be use- It can be said that SMK Wikrama plus 1 year facilitation. ful in the future. This is quite in lineBogor has made a systematic break- But, as stated by Ms. Elis Setiawati, with school education that is intendedthrough in response to the environ- Headmistress of SMK Al Muslim: to provide basic provision to preparementally critical issues into education- "What is more important is what will the students when they enter andal domain. Beside integration curricu- happen after the support. Indeed the become part of the community.lar system, they also see to it that it is GGS program has in reality provides In connection with the increasinglyreflected in the school behaviour. They opportunity to all members of school apprehensive environment this provisioninstall automatic device to control elec- to be directly involved in the green is quite important. Because no mattertricity and water use in order to education program that was conceived how great the opinion of environmentaleconomise. As to waste they have in 1986. Our involvement in planning, awareness to be built will not be of anymade available separate bins, each for implementation, monitoring, repor- use unless the awareness is deeplyorganic and inorganic waste. In addi- ting and follow-up action plan has implanted within the individuals. I thinktion, in SMK Wikrama the environ- broadened our view in the implemen- this is where the go green school programmental awareness is already reflected tation of two main principles underly- becomes very important.from the trees growing in all corners of ing GGS program i.e. comprehensive- * Ecology Observer Percik August 2007 11
  13. 13. INSIGHT denced from big flood such as the one in ECOLOGICAL DISASTER 2002 and again in 2007 causing many lost his life and belongings. The floods of AND A FALLIBLE CITY Jakarta are not simply ordinary natural phenomenon but they are the conse- quence of the municipality government PLANNING MODEL policy for relinquishment of the city development strategy fully into market mechanism. What is the linkage of Jakarta floods of 2002 and 2007 with a by: Firdaus Cahyadi *) development policy that worships market mechanism? he city of Jakarta develops so ra- more conspicuous if we take look at theT The intensive commercial develop- pidly that makes it far more expansion of commercial areas from time ment has taken away many water infiltra- advanced than other cities of to time. In 2006 for example, there were tion areas, such as parks and lakes, intoIndonesia. This is evidenced from the more than 30 large scale shopping cen- extinction. The total green and openfact that it records the highest income per tres, apartments, and office building con- spaces are diminishing from time to time.capita. The rapid Jakarta development structed. While in 2007 to 2008 there are In Jakarta Master Plan of 1965-85 thehad made it the centre of both business 80 similar buildings are under of planned for green areas is targeted at 18,000 ha, inand government administration. In order construction (Kompas, 10 February 2006). 1985-2005 it decreases to 16,908 ha andto achieve a higher economic growth rela- in 2000-2010 spatial plan in goes downtive to other cities the municipality go- Market mechanism and flood in further to 9,560 ha. The decrease in thevernment directs the development strate- Jakarta green areas causes increase in watergy to an effort to attract as many investors The intensive development taking runoff in rainy days that causes floods inas possible. place at Jakarta commercial centers has Jakarta. The latest data for BPJHD A development strategy vested on made this city less and less comfortable Jakarta in 2005 indicate that only 26.5market mechanism becomes the domi- and even environmentally and socially percent of rain water is absorbed by thenant paradigm of this city. This becomes dangerous to its inhabitants. This is evi- soil and 73.4 percent as runoff. The fact tells us why the flood of 2007 is more intense thn that of 2002. RAINFALLS TURN INTO SURFACE RUN OFF Precipitation 2000 million Market mechanism and social costs m3/year The handing over of the city develop- ment to the freedom of market mecha- Run Off nism has made Jakarta regional revenue 1468 million m3/year increase considerably. But if the social (73,4%) costs as the result of environmental disas- ter are also taken into account the re- sea surface venue will be sigificantly reduced. shallow groundwater According to Bappenas estimate, the deep costs of from 2007 floods the community groundwater and government lost a total of approxi- mately Rp 5.2 trillion. Plus indirect eco- nomic losses at Rp 3.6 trillion. Ironically though, such social costs miss the market attention. *) Executive ManagerSafe boundary of groundwater extracting is 30-40% of groundwater potential (186 million m3/year) 3 Environment Caucus(Groundwater deficiency 66.65 million m /year in 2005) Jakarta Source:BPLHD DKI Jakarta, February 15, 200712 Percik 2007 August
  14. 14. INSIGHT WATER FLOW REGULATOR `A LA BARUGAYA (Local Genius from Barugaya Hamlet, Bonto Kadatto Village of Kabupaten Takalar) by: Sofyan Iskandar ow could we divide the responsibility equitably anH electric bill to run a communal water pump? My immediate answer would be to divide it proportional-ly among the users. It could be based on the quantity of wateruse or from the size of the family. If it is based on water use theneach user must install a water meter. If this is too expensive andimpractical, the alternative is the size of family. That is what Ithought. But that is different with the community of Barugaya hamlet,Bonto Kadatto village, Kabupaten Takalar in S. Sulawesi.According to them my idea is too complicated, in spite of it isbasicaally a simple idea, the practical implication is complicated.Say for instance, using water meter, who will read it, then whowill collect the contribution, what about a payment delay. Thealternative is the size of the family, there is no guarantee if asmaller family size uses less water than a bigger one. All these problems came to light because there are only fewwater sources available. There are only several wells to avail of.And it takes electricity to make water flow.Economising water use Fortunately we have Bassere Daeng Tale (45) a member of Water pipe crossing directly to the community housing.the community who has some knowledge in electricity. To over- Photo: Bowo Leksonocome the problem of electric bill, it is required that each houseuses its own power. In this way there is no need for a dispute onthe amount of money one has to spend for electricity. It is up to Operating Mechanismeach individual family to decide what quantity of water to use, How does the system that has been functioning for threethe more the use the more his bill will become. years operate? In principle each family has its own power line to If he wants to economize use water as necessary. This is be connected to a water pump at the well. Each house installs aunanimously accepted by the users. The system initiated by switch to connect and disconnect the power line. To determineDaeng Tale was developed three years ago by Daeng Nai (43). the turn of service each house also installs an indicator lightThis was revealed from a field visit by participants of MPA- which is on when the pump is running.PHAST orientation to Barugaya hamlet of Bonto Kadatto, in The rule is you may switch on your pump when the indicatorTakalar in June 2007, an event that was organized by WSS-WG is off. After you have finished with the pump, put both theJakarta in cooperation with DG-PMG Dept. of Home Affairs. power switch and the water tap into off position. Power connec- Percik August 2007 13
  15. 15. INSIGHTtion chart is presented in the diagram. Isthere any electric short cut? This isalready considered, the connection ismade on the same power phase. This system is used in a group consist-ing of 3 to 12 houses. The longest dis-tance to the well or pump is 100 metres.The costs for construction, pipeline andelectricity installation as well as procure-ment of pump are paid collectively by theparticular user group. I have to put away my critical analysisbecause in reality the system does work,well operated, it holds for three yearsnow, and is self financed. Take forinstance, that all indicator light flash onwhen one household is switching thepump on, it means 13 x 5 watts = 65 wattsof electricity is being used. If this is com- A reservoir in front of houses. Photo: Bowo Leksonobined with the power for the pump say e.g200 watts, then all the households will When the house at the tail switches house is significantly reduced. If there ispay for 265 watts of power. To calculate the light on, in principle the other houses a pressing need a direct communicationthe costs we can just multiply it with the can open its tap to get some water. But is made by asking someone to switch offnumber of hours the system operates. To since the users live in close vicinity with his connection.economize it is perhaps by replacing the each other, a control can always be taken,5 W bulbs with smaller indicator lamps. this can be seen from the flow to the tail Sustainable system Seeing the fact that the development has been three years in place and up to now the facility is perfectly functioning and is continuously in use, all indicates that the facility is sustaining. This fact strengthens my conviction that the com- munity is capable of resolving its own problem, even in discovering an appro- priate technology. That technology choice should open for discussion regarding its advantages and disadvantages is prerequisite for sus- tainability. The community decision is key to sustainability of a construction being planned. That outside party does not have to come with subsidy, does real- ly happen in Barugaya. It is a blatant fact that if I want to contribute to the develop- ment of sustainable water supply provi- sion in this country, I shall have to learn more and more. Water distribution pipes. Photo: Bowo Leksono * WASPOLA consultant14 Percik 2007 August
  16. 16. INSIGHT CONTRIBUTION OF WATER SUPPLY PROVISION IN THE NATIONAL ECONOMIC GROWTH (FY 2006) By Sandhi Eko Bramono, S.T., MEnvEngSc.* Methodology of Calculation Employment generation is considered as a workable parameter to test if an infrastructure is sufficiently effective. Through employment a long chain of effects could possibly be generated for the benefit of the community. Starting from job vacancies a number of skilled workers find an opportunity to apply his skill. Through employment the economic wel- fare increases, this is followed by the growth of awareness to education, health, and so on. The final impact is improve- ment in human resources capacity, an irreplaceable national asset. Provision of water supply infrastruc- ture significantly affects overall employ- ment opportunity from the survey to determine the infrastructure up to field supervision to record water meter read- ing in each home connection. How many A reservoir built through collaboration of the community, NGO and the government. Photo: Bowo Leksono university graduate would be needed, then diploma and high school level tech- rovision of efficacious infrastruc- affects national economic growth is aP nicians, and below them ordinary work- ture is just like a pillar of natio- yardstick to measure the benefit of an ers to build the facility and its distribu- nal development. The infra- infrastructure. tion system. Then the number of fore-structure must be intended to improve One of the infrastructures that sup- men to control the workers, PDAMthe community welfare. Several parame- port national development is Water employees required, the number of IPAters may be proposed to measure the Supply System (WSS). In what way does PAKET ready for installation at the loca-effectiveness to community welfare. One WSS contribute to employment genera- tion, the number of network systemof the parameters worth testing is capaci- tion, and as such what percentage is its supervision, and so on.ty to generate employment. How many contribution to the national economic Based on the above calculation we canemployment opportunities are generated growth, are seemingly the questions that determine manpower requirement for theby an infrastructure development that worth our further examination. construction of 1 litre/sec water supply Percik August 2007 15
  17. 17. INSIGHTfacility. In addition, the investment can also be calculated, to ment of contracting firms capable if designing IPAgenerate employment of that size. By comparing with the PAKET/Package of Water Treatment Plant or employmentinvestment in each FY, we can also calculate the contribution of opportunity capable of planning and designing WSS facility).employment generation and national economic growth each It might be worthwhile to remember that the governmentyear in water supply sector. recommendation for water thriftiness may result in accelerating economic growth. With less water consumption, then theWSS in Indonesia investment per capita can be decreased, this will expand service Based on the data from the Coordinating Ministry of People coverage for an equal amount of investment. This means largerWelfare generation of 500 thousand new employments will service coverage at a lower cost but provides a wider employ-increase economic growth by 1 percent. Data from UNDP ment opportunity and increases the national economic growth.(United Nations DevelopmentProgram) 2006 in New Delhi con- Challenges in the futurecludes that every l/sec WSS cre- WSS planning and designates 1.72 new employments. Employment generation is engineers are required to create Due to lack of such data for considered as a workable facilities that could boostIndonesia, it is assumed the con- parameter to test if an national economic growthdition in India is similar to infrastructure is sufficiently through the sectors develop-Indonesia (both are developing effective. Through employment ment. Modification as discussednations). In FY 2006 the amount a long chain of effects could above, may be considered as aof investment made by Dept. method to improve water supply possibly be generated for thePublic Works is Rp 1.4 trillion for coverage at a relatively lower (or benefit of the community.WSS facilities. Assuming that the equal) cost, but capable of sup-demand for water supply is 200 plying a bigger coverage area,l/cap/day and the investment thus generating more job vacan-costs (including production and distribution network) for WSS cies to raise the national economy to a higher level.is Rp 270 thousand/capita this equals to services to 5.18 million The combination of technology-economic-social-culture ispopulation or equivalent to 12 m3/sec facility. With such an absolutely necessary, to enable us develop more creativeamount the new employments created is equal to 20,640 or approach in translating it into reality, in spite of financial limi-0.041 percent. If the national economic growth in 2006 is 5.6 tations.percent then 0.0412 percent of it is contributed by WSS. It is not impossible that WSS sector provides a larger contri- bution to the national economic growth. In addition to waterEconomic growth through WSS supply WSS can also provide a chain of beneficial impacts for It can be said that the above methodology is an accurate and community welfare, even outside the water supply.quantifiable methodology to see the WSS effectiveness viewed In other words an effective water supply provision systemfrom the national economy. It is yet still necessary to look deep- will be able to provide a real contribution as an effect fromer and verify more accurate data in order to obtain more detailed extensive employment opportunity in Indonesia. It is equallypicture about WSS contribution to the national economy. possible the employment opportunity in this sector will jack up Looking at the above calculation, it is therefore possible to a growth in another sector that eventually provides extensive jobaccelerate economic growth through WSS facilities. The para- vacancies, as a follow effect.meter related to this is e.g. reduction of l/sec investment cost. The author is a staff of Sub-directorate of Policy and Strategy,Each investment will increase service coverage which is followed Directorate General of Human Settlement (Dept. Public Works).by expansion of employment opportunity. Currently he is working on his doctorate degree in Environmental Science and Engineering Division, NUS, Singapore. In addition, it is necessary to create more extensive employ- Contact with author: sandhieb@yahoo.comment opportunity, so the each l/sec of WSS facility is capable ofabsorbing as much manpower as possible (such as establish-16 Percik 2007 August
  18. 18. REPORTAGE WATER SCARCITY IN MUSTIKA HOUSING s basic demand for life, it is notA surprising that water scarcity might become the source of dis-pute among community members. Thishappened in Mustika Tigaraksa Housinglocated at Kabupaten Tangerang, Bantenprovince. Since the very beginning thehousing which was developed in 2001 isknown to have water supply problem. In a dry season like this there is apt tobe dissidence among inhabitants. Oneman was even wounded from beingassaulted by another. Of course no onewants this to happen. Ideally, waterscarcity should become a blessing to unitethe community to find a solution. Mustika Housing consists of 8 RWsand is inhabited by approximately 3.600 This artificial lake is the source of water for Mustika Housing of Tigaraksa, Tangerang. Photo: Bowo Leksonofamilies. Four RWs belong toPasirnangka village and the other four toMantagara village. Geographically Another type of initiative is taken by season this artificial lake is a very valu-underground water source is scarce here. Rohayati (31). The housewife buys a tank able asset to the inhabitants. Several Rusdianto, Chairman of RW 08 of water containing 6 thousand litres for water pumps are installed in the lake andMustika Tigaraksa Housing told Percik Rp 135.000. "This water will last for a dozens of distribution pipes convey waterthat the housing developer only provides week or 10 days," she says. Ety as she is to the houses. One pump belongs to tenthe inhabitants with a shallow well for preferably called, has tried to dig artesian or more owners, and they take benefitevery house. "Since the very beginning well for 4 times, none of them produces from the lake for water supply.the 18-24 m well did not function. any water. Each morning and afternoon, theEspecially during dry season," he says. Santosa, representing the community, members of the community come to takeSome of the inhabitants made a short cut wishes to request PDAM connection to water from the 100 m by 60 m lake. Toby cutting water pipe running in front of Mustatika Tigaraksa Housing. "The near- bathe, wash and take water for their fam-his home. est PDAM network is one kilometre away ily. But at the peak of dry season, the Finally the community initiated to dig from here," he says. water level is shrinking and finally driesartesian well up to 80 m deep. One well altogether. It seems that the communitybelongs to 7-8 families. Even this initia- Taking benefit of an artificial lake of Mustika Housing of Tigaraksa istive does not immediately solve the prob- In the centre of the housing area there becoming more and more tortured fromlem. During dry season water scarcity is a manmade lake which was already the year long water scarcity. Boworecurs. there before the housing was built. In dry Leksono Percik August 2007 17

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