Community Empowerment. Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine. July 2007.
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Community Empowerment. Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine. July 2007.



Published by Indonesia Water and Sanitation Working Group. First Edition in August 2003

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Community Empowerment. Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine. July 2007. Community Empowerment. Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine. July 2007. Document Transcript

  • Information Media for Water Supply and From the Editor 1 Environmental Sanitation Your Voice 2 Published by: Water Supply and Sanitation Working Group Main Feature Advisor: Community Empowerment 3 Director General for Human Settlement, Department of Public Works Active Community Involvement is Key to Empowerment 6 Board of Trustee: Interview Director of Settlement and Housing, National Development Planning Agency Pungky Sumadi, Director of Poverty Alleviation Bappenas 8 Director of Water and Sanitation, Ministry of Health Nina Sidle Unsulangi: A farmer who does not have Director of Water Supply Development, Department of Public Works to be in a village with big land 10Director of Natural Resources and Appropriate Technology, Director General on Village and Regulation Community Empowerment, Department of Home Affairs Water Supply Provision System 12 Director for Facilitation of Special Planning Environment Management, Insight 14 Department of Home Affairs Chief Editor: Report 21 Oswar Mungkasa Telescope 23 Board of Editor: Zaenal Nampira, Our Guest 26 Indar Parawansa, Bambang Purwanto Innovation 28 Editor: Around Plan 29 Maraita Listyasari, Rheidda Pramudhy, Raymond Marpaung, Bowo Leksono, Around ISSDP 31 Reski Dian Diniari Around WASPOLA 33 Design/Illustrator: Rudi Kosasih Around WSS 34 Production: Program 45 Machrudin Distribution: Abstract 47 Agus Syuhada IATPI Clinic 48 Address: Jl. Cianjur No. 4, Menteng, Jakarta Pusat Book Info 49 Phone/Fax.: 62-21-31904113 Website Info 50 e-mail: CD Info 51 Agenda 52 Unsolicited article or opinion items are welcome. Please send to our address WSS Bibliography or e-mail. Dont forget to be brief and accompanied by identity. This magazine can be accessed at Water Supply and Environmental Sanitation Website at
  • FROM THE EDITORW e have determined to tirelessly voice out a plea to make all of us aware of the importance of raw water and healthy environment. This edition brings to you anumber of water supply and environmental sanitation relatedinformation. It has become a kind of task, to knock at the door of ourawareness, through transformation of knowledge and informa-tion so that this very magazine published by the WSS-WG hascome into 18th edition. Last May and June the world celebrated two important his-toric moments each carrying the duties related to the fate ofworlds population. They are the World Environment Day on 5June and Earth Day on 22 April. Have we asked ourselves what good deed have we con-tributed to the environment around us? To our beloved earth,for that matter? It seems this question frequently whines duringthe disaster or when an awareness is passing through for a shortmoment. Do you realize that the earth we live in is more than 4 billionyears old. And each time the planet that has been inhabited byhuman being for thousands of years is undergoing change. Aslow but sure change. The change is linked with the existence ofits inhabitants. Natural disasters that overwhelm the earth sur-face is the symptom of the acceleration of the changes. And it isquite unwise if the blame for each disaster is imposed on naturalphenomenon. What have we, the civilized being, contributed to this earth?Have we done anything positive for the sake of environmentalconservation and for the sake of human life? Lets compare our WSS Working Group - WASPOLA Booth in Indowater Exhibition 2007.good deed against the destruction to the earth. It is not impos- Photo: Bowo Leksono.sible, that the big changes that lead to the earth destruction arethe consequences of human activity. More horrifying is the global warming phenomenon that An article reviews how WSS programs and projects inagain becomes the daily talks since the last few years. Various Indonesia are inseparable from community empowerment asdisasters have hit and several diseases plague the earth popula- vehicle towards achievement. WSLIC (Water and Sanitation fortion is the evidence how vicious global warming effect can be. Low Income Communities), CWSH (Community Water Services Imagine, this phenomenon will accelerate the earth damage and Health Project), Sanitation by the Community (Sanimas)that means damage to the life of its inhabitants. This is beyond and ProAir (Water Program). Even, Sanimas program claimsthe individual problems or that of one or two nations. Earths that 70 percent of its implementation is pivoted on communityfate is the responsibility of all human being. empowerment. Again, human awareness is at stake. And speaking of human The main feature of this edition is made more complete withawareness, individually as well as communally, demands an an interview with Dr. Pungky Sumadi, Director of Povertyeffective community, sensitive to environment, and capable of Alleviation, Bappenas who speaks a lot about National Programovercoming life problem wisely. for Community Empowerment. Last but not least our guest A review on community empowerment fills our Main Tasya who was once a junior singer who is now coming to ado-Feature in this edition. In reality, there are still many of us lescence. This Junior Environmental Ambassadress representshuman beings who are alien to clean environment for our sur- young people of her age in speaking about waste management.vival. Through community empowerment mans conscious For all of the above and in the light of further improvementinvolvement is absolutely needed and this requires support and to this magazine comments and suggestion from our loyal read-facilitation. ers are most welcome. Have a nice time in reading Percik. Percik July 2007 1
  • YO U R V O I C E How to Access Percik Digital File Wish to Have CD and Books Assalamu alaikum warahmatullahi wabarakatuh. To improve the students knowledge and insight on Praise God. Id herewith acknowledge with thanks receipt of Environmental Science, we, the Association of EnvironmentalPercik English version ed. December 2006. It is stated therein Engineering Students, Pasundan University Bandung kindlythat Percik magazine can be accessed in the AMPL website. I request for the following items:have tried to dowload it but I always failed. I wonder if a permit, Reducing Energy Cost in Municipal Water Supplyspecific method, or requirement is required. Operation Thank you. Guidelines for Domestic Wastewater Management. Wassalamu alaikum Published by DG City Planning and Urban Planning, 2003. Denny Herlard (in Indonesian) Fighting Against Waste, Depok City Cleaning Agency (in Thank you Mr. Denny, Indonesian) There is no permit, specific method or requirement needed. Waste Recycle, Tony Hare, PT Rosda Jayaputra, Jakarta (inIt might be due the size of the file, over 3 MB, thus it takes a long Indonesia)time to access. We are trying to reduce the file size to make it Bringing Water to the Poor. Selected ADB Case Studies.easier to access. ADB Water Awareness Program. Municipalities & Community Participation. A Sourcebook Wish to Have Percik Bound Volume of Capacity Building. Jenelle Plummer. Earthscan Publication Ltd., London. Thank you for your response to my email. Thank you also for Dictionary of Terms and Foreign Abbreviation inthe CD and magazines. If you do not have the bound volume I Environmental and Sanitation Engineering. Published bywould like to have the CD, and additionally I also would like to Trisakti University Press. (in Indonesian)subscribe Percik magazine. I enclose herewith my home and Percik magazine. Regular addresses. Please let me know if there is a mailing costinvolved. Our address: With kind regards. Campus IV Pasundan University Bandung Yuliyanti Association of Environmental Engineering Students University of Indonesia Health Research Centre Secretariate: Bldg C Jalak Harupat 7th fl. Faculty of Community Health Bldg G Room 211 Jl. Setiabudi No. 193 Bandung. University of Indonesia Depok Campus Postal Code 16424 With kind regards, Thank you for your attention Wish to Have Percik Magazine Asep Pulloh Hidayat Dear Percik, Acknowledgement of Receipt I am Rudi. I came to know Percik from environmentalreporter mailing list. Today I am no longer a reporter but con- Acknowledge with thanks receipt of Percik magazine XVII,centrating more on training radio reporters. Sometimes I teach Percik Yunior, and 3 CDs. We honestly hope these materials willspecific subject on environment. Therefore I need the magazine be helpful to our department, especially the students, so that theyou are publishing. If it is free of charge I am quite interested. I intention to extensive dissemination of water supply and sanita-also need the earlier editions. If it would be difficult for you to tion related information could be achieved.send to my address, I will be happy if you let me collect it from With kind regards and thank you againyour office. Yudi Chairman, Environmental Engineering Department Pondok Cipta Blok C25 Technical Faculty Andalas University Bekasi Barat 17134 Limau Manis Campus, Padang 2 Percik July 2007
  • MAIN FEATUREI t seems that an activity without community empowerment Empowerment. This article intends to contribute information label tagged to it is considered outdated. This tendency on the meaning, basic principle, advantage and disadvantage was unheard of until early 1990s when many government including government portion in a community based activity.projects were beginning to bear community based label. Whatfollows was that the term community empowerment is under- What is Community Empowerment?stood in various different ways. From the most rigid which Community empowerment is defined in many differentdefines it as from, by and for the community denying as much as ways, but there are at least two requirements that have to be metpossible the role of government till up to the most loosely if an activity is to be considered as community based. One, if thedefines it as a one way socialization of the project to the benefi- community reserves the right to make decision. Two, if the com-ciary community at beginning of the activity. Currently the gov- munity is responsible for operation and management (O&M) ofernment has launched a National Program for Community the facility. Percik July 2007 3
  • M A I N F E AT U R E COMMUNITY RIGHTS TO TANGGUNG JAWAB MASYARAKAT UNTUK source of conflict; (iv) there may arise competition between management team Technology choice Maintenance and repair with the traditional community leaders or even with the village government; (v) Level of service Regulation highly dependent on exernal facilitator. Form of organization Funding Legal Implication Funding mechanism Management organization In connection with community based management, there are several issues that are likely to create problems in the future.Requirements for Community of community demand and willingness to Based on experience, ownership of theBased pay; (iii) community understanding asset is the main issue. Especially when Community based activity will run always to be taken into consideration; (iv) the fund is derived from various differentsmoothly if the community is (i) capable; the community becomes more indepen- sources, such as donor, government (cen-and (ii) willing to manage. The require- dent from external sources; (v) cost tral and regional), NGO, and the commu-ments are developed through training recovery principle and payment system nity. Transfering the asset to the commu-and capacity building programs, the rest can be adjusted to community condition; nity will remove it permanently from thewill come through organizational (vi) improvement of community manage- government balance sheet including theimprovement. Though many aspects of rial capacity; (vii) the community owns consequential maintenance budget whichthe development are to be obtained from its own facility; (viii) improvement of otherwise may not be available. If on thegovernment facilitation. community self confidence. other hand the asset is transferred to the government then the community would question the whereabouts of its contribu- CAPACITY TO MANAGE KEINGINAN MENGELOLA tion. One of the ways commonly prac- tised is transfering the asset to the go- Availability of technical skill Demand vernment while the management right remains with the community. In this way Availability of management Human resouces quantity, the community can manage and generate and problem solving skill dependability and quality income from the management. For this purpose it is deemed necessary to make Integratedness Advantage regulatory changes in order to make go- vernment a grant to community possible Technological complexity Equality and to determine the legal status of the Availability of spare parts Acceptability of technology community level management team. Capacity of payment Level of service What Makes Government Support Work? Legal framework Willingness to pay If community is directly involved in a Availability of information Cost of service opportunity development process, the government will feel somewhat dizzy as to change its Management alternative role from provider into facilitator, coordi- nator and supporter. This requires that Political factor the involved government employees adjust their attitudes. In addition to loos- Advantage and Disadvantage The disadvantages may vary widely ing their capacity for making their own It is understood that community will- depending on the local condition and in decision and issuing instruction to theingness is influenced by many factors, general may come in the following for- community, they have to listen to thesuch as the advantage to the community. mats (i) the management team is func- communitys opinion and idea.For this purpose there are several identi- tioning only at times of the facility break- Government employees must answer onfiable advantages the community could down, in all other times it is dormant; (ii) behalf of the community in terms of tech-possibly get (i) design is developed in the management team is dominated by nology choice, funding, efficacy, level ofaccordance with community demand; (ii) certain group/individuals; (iii) financial service, O&M requirements, etc. As addi-level of service is determined on the base management frequently becomes the tion, they also have to be flexible, and 4 Percik July 2007
  • M A I N F E AT U R Ecapable of compromising between techni-cal efficiency and and non technical fac-tors underlying the community demand.Of course, there are requirements thathave to be met such as (i) capability ofcommunication; (ii) motivation to help;(iii) availability of minimum fund; and(iv) willingness to spend more time for thefavour of the community.Advantage and disadvantage of go-vernment support As it is with the community, the go-vernment will support the community onlyif it is obviously advantageous. The mostobvious advantage is less routine mainte-nance and repair to be done. Besides,there are several other advantages, suchas (i) improvement of willingness to paybecause the community realizes that theservice is not government provided; (ii)improved system efficacy; (iii) more timefor the government to concentrate onplanning without being distracted byother details such as routine repair; (iv)relieve the government from the burdenof limited financial and human resourcescapacity; (v) funds for maintenance andrepair can be shifted to development Napila Hilwati, AM Keb., village midwife of Tanjung Tiga village, Muaraenim, S. Sumatrafinancing. is discussing the topic of hygiene life with young females of the community. Photo: Bowo On the other hand, there are in it se-veral disadvantages should the govern-ment facilitate community based acivity: In the last few decades changes are In reality the community based WSS(i) loss of power, status and influence; (ii) beginning to take place that stimulate facility management does not alwaysthe whole process takes a long time; (iii) development orientation leans towards mean a full community management. Thedifficult to apply a uniform approach; (iv) involvement of stakeholders from outside basic idea is role sharing according topossible difficulty for compromising com- the government. This tendency goes in each ones capacity. Even the private sec-munity demand with political considera- compliance with the beginning of the era tor may be involved in case the communi-tion. of decentralization giving the regional ty alone is unable to handle a certain government more responsibility and at development undertaking. The pattern ofApplication in WSS Development the same time also the demand improve role sharing will not always be the same One of the difficulties faced by the efficiency, effectiveness and service susta- depending on the type of activity, techni-government in the provision of water sup- bility. cal and financial capacity of the commu-ply and sanitation facilities is limited The above process then ignites a nity, government facilitation capacity,funding capacity. This is because of the change in government role from provider and so on.conventional tendency of government ori- to facilitator, and supporter. Each of the To find the right community empo-entation (i) more emphasis on physical two parties, the government and the com- werment format in WSS development isconstruction instead of service improve- munity as well, are facing uncertainty our common task. So that the pendulumment; (ii) service is provided purely by within the transition period. On the one that currently is aiming to communitypublic sector instead of partnership hand, the regional government tends to empowerment in WSS development willarrangement; (iii) lack of political will to release the entire process to the commu- not swing back to the government direc-urge the community to pay for a public nity while the community is not prepared tion as the sole WSS service provider.service. to assume the new role. (OM from various sources) Percik July 2007 5
  • M A I N F E AT U R EActive CommunityParticipation As Key toEmpowermentO ne of the main components for a community development pro- gram or project is its in buildingthe community active participation notonly in sharing the benefit but also in thesense of being part of the development sothat the project or activity may sustain.Community involvement is the real con-summation of community empowermenttowards self reliance, as is in WSS deve-lopment in Indonesia, Various methods and approacheshave been tried to explore the communitypotential. For example, WSLIC (Waterand Sanitation for Low Income Commu-nities) is implemented based on theMethodology for Particiapatory Assess-ments (MPA) and Participatory Hygiene A group of village youth regardless of status and sexual denomination sit together to dis-and Sanitation Transformation (PHAST) cuss the village development. Photo: Bowo Leksonoi.e. participation and democracy in reallife particularly for women and the poor. more or less the same objective. Active In CWSH the community is activelyThis method is not too much different community involvement is a coercive factor involved and plays a role in decision mak-from CWSH (Community Water Services in order that everyone feels to belong to ing, planning and implementation of vil-and Health) Project is doing. In Sanimas and therefore is responsible to sustain the lage level activity and in supervising the use(Sanitation by the Community) the appli- projects effectiveness. of the existing resources. In Proair, thecation of RPA (Rapid Participatory German government grant funded projectAssessments) is considered effective in a How far is community involve- the community involvement also requires,rapid and systematic manner the identifi- ment? additionally, in cash and in kind contribu-cation of sanitation problems and issues Each activity or project puts the com- tion including labour.and the community willingness for their munity as the leading actor. This is evi- WSLIC-2 CPMU Imam Syahbandiresolution on their own. denced for instance in Sanimas, the com- says that WSLIC-2 project target is an While in the ProAir program the munity involvement is the dominant factor empowered grassroot community who isemphasis it is put on demand responsive- so that without community involvement willing to actively participate so that theness approach which is open for all com- there is no community sanitation. "In development is from and driven by theponents of the community with special Sanimas, community empowerment repre- community. "The community developsattention to women as community moti- sents 70 percent of the activity," says Emah, the idea, plan, implementation activity,vator (participatory approach) and the a Dept. Public Work officer responsible for use and maintain, and is committed tocommunity as the leading actor. Sanimas day to day activity. the decision made so that everyone The methods are basically directed to belongs to the development and thus the 6 Percik July 2007
  • M A I N F E AT U R Esustainability is achieved," he says. ty level or some other locally suitable method. In addition it is In CWSH the target is to build community self reliance, self necessary to establish an inter-agency coordination particularlyconscience and responsibility. "It is expected the community is when it comes to budget requirement and post project sustain-capable of managing hygiene behaviour, prevention of diseases, abiliy for program replication (exit strategy).protect water source and environment, development of water Lack of field facilitators dedication who are the spearheadssupply and sanitation," says Mrs. Pimanih, of CWSH Planning of the empowerment, is a barrier in Sanimas. Emah admits thatand Financial section. empowerment is never easy, it is even a difficult task if it is done As for ProAir, considering the relatively big investment without the heart and if not understood well.involved for its construction, the community empowerment is With ProAir, the barrier lies with the target setting and fiscaltargeted to sustainability of the water supply and sanitation year. "Besides, the collection of in cash contribution takes afacility. We may sum up from the above discussion that commu- longer time because the amount of fund for physical cxonstruc-nity empowerment is targeted to a strong community that is evi- tion is relatively big therefore the community in cash contribu-denced from its willingness to actively participate and involve tion is also big," explains Ir. Deni Mulyana, Mkes. ProAir exectowards achieving sustainability. secretary. The hard work of the field facilitators , according to Deni, becomes the concrete solution.Barriers and Solution While according to Pimanih, more intimately called Upi, it is According to Imam the classic reason for community difficult to change the government employeess way of thinking,empowerment failure is poor economic condition and communi- is the barrier in CWSH. "They have been patterned to projectties are highly different one from the other. The worst of all, he orientation, always consider the the poor is helpless, lack of edu-said further, the marketing to the involved sector for the adop- cation therefore knows nothing. It is not too difficult to accepttion and replication of approach. "Probably all of us are aware the new paradigm but it is extremely difficult to unleash the oldthat community empowerment based activity is more realistic habit,"says Upi. For this CWSH developed a way to overcome itand beneficial, but when it comes to marketing the idea to obtain through capacity improvement of the employees in facilitationpublic funding, APBD (regional budget) and or APBN (national and empowerment approach through relevant trainings andbudget), for post project activity continuation one can be sure study visits to successful community based empowerment pro-that it is not at all an easy thing to do. Therefore, one of the bar- jects.riers in the near future is the exit strategy," revealed Imam. He tries to overcome it through provision of facilitator coun- Indicator of Successterpart, by cross sector teamwork or by a consultant to build For WSLIC-2 project the indicator of success is sustainablecommunity preparedness, through repeat meeting at communi- community self reliance. How to sustain empowerment and community participation is, according to Imam, provision of more authority to the community in development management, development of reward system, and establishment of two-way communication with the government to discuss development progress. Proair determines it through the number of facilities deve- loped run by an established management team and the presence of institutional and policy support. Emah strongly emphasizes the need for criteria for measuring the level of achievement of community empowerment. "The achievement does not only come in the form of physical construction, but it is more its sus- tainable function of the facility developed through community activity and creativity," she says firmly. And for CWSH, empowerment achievement is considered successful if the community is capable of identifying, analysing and propose solution to their problem and help themselves, self confident and responsible to create a sustainable health devel- A group of villagers are seriously discussing their village opment process. Bowo Leksono hygiene program. Photo: Istimewa Percik July 2007 7
  • I N T E RV I E WDr. Pungky SumadiDirector of Poverty Alleviation BappenasMAKING COMMUNITYTHE LEADING ACTOR Community empowerment programs have been tried sincethe time of the New Order. There are many aspects that mustbe ironed out and improved in order to reach the real commu-nity self-reliance. Community empowerment definition hasshifted into human resources capacity to solve his problems.Through the National Program for Community Empowerment(NPCE) launched barely one year ago it is expected to serve ascoordinating body for community empowerment related programs. How the national program is brought into implementationand how effective is it to the community? The following is aninterview made by Percik with Dr. Pungky Sumardi, Director ofPoverty Reduction, Bappenas, held in his office.W hat is the background of the National Program for Community Empowerment? Early May 2006, the Coordinating Ministers of SocialWelfare and Economic and Industry invited us together with theWorld Bank to sit together and discussed the performance ofKecamatan Development Program (KDP) and the possibility ofexpanding it to cover the whole Indonesia. In the beginning I Foto: Bowo Leksonowas surprised, why was it they only knew about KDP while thereare many other programs such as Urban Poverty Reduction After it was agreed, what happened then?Program (UPRP), and others. There are 19 ministries and This means we have to work extra hard. There must be anational institutions managing a total of 56 community empow- minimum standard within which the programs work though thiserment based programs. does not mean uniformity. This demands extra cautiousness in Then I spoke about real situation. In 2007 KDP is nearing formulating NPCE design. After data collection and assessmentcompletion and UPRP will run through 2010 for the whole coun- of the existing programs it was concluded that there a number oftry. I also proposed that from now on we must start phase by the programs are ineffective. This may not continue that wayphase beginning from preparing the institution first. and for this reason NPCE is designed to serve as umbrella and It was agreed that in 2007 KDP and UPRP are expanded to coordinator so that all empowerment programs could workcover 2800 kecamatans and in 2800 to 3800 kecamatans and effectively and efficiently.later all kecamatans in 2009. But I also proposed that 2009 is Through empowerment program it is expected that the com-only two years from now we wont be able to make it because the munity will participate actively and access to basic infrastruc-availability of direct community subsidy is quite limited. I ture and the small scale production economy. The key is tosuggested that this be extended up to 2015 because at that time make community of organizing themselves then they can devel-Indonesia must announce the MDGs target achievement. It was op any activity and work on any sector as they may wish. This isagreed. NPCEs real intention. 8 Percik July 2007
  • I N T E RV I E W What is the real purpose of NPCE? related to NPCE. We give freedom to the community to choose It is obvious that we have to put the 56 programs into order who is the poorest among them. If we work based on BPS data,so the community may participate more actively in their effort to the tendency is individual target. Therefore, the approach mustimprove their daily life or in the development activity and also as be based on community, we provide them with guidelines whopartner to the regional government. should be selected as benefiaciary and target. We have to see to it that the purpose is to bring the community closer to the basic What is the underlying principle? infrastructure and the rolling economy. In other words, the tar- The establishment of transparency, democracy practice in get is up to the community to choose. They have the freedom tocommunity group election, accountability, help each other decide.among community members based on voluntary principle,equality principle in practice. These are the principles we wish What aspects are to be dealt with?to establish. It is mainly aimed at infrastructure and economic activity based on rolling fund credit scheme. If we really want to reduce Community empowerment in this connection, what poverty, the most obvious is through an economic activity i.e.does it look like? increasing income through employment generation. In this case What we consider empowered community is when it is capa- infrastructure and small scale economy together serve as theble of identifying its own problem and capable of proposing main entrance. However, poverty cannot be dealth with merelyalternative solution through setting the priorities. The decision from the economic aspect. Social aspect such as education andmust be in their hands. If they are given opportunity to make health is also poverty indicator. Each one supports the other.their own decision, the effect will be overwhelming. This is whatwe call the essence of community empowerment, making the What are the barrriers currently in view?community the leading actor. It is clear that we are under time pressure and short of per- sonnel to launch a stronger socialization schedule to both cen- In what way will it be implemented? tral and regional level officers, this is because we are still being At least the pure NPCE is categorized as PPK and P2KP and tied with the NPCE design completion. The guidelines arethis year the SPADA is ongoing, similar to PPK but specially already completed and are now waiting for further inputs todesigned for conflict, backward and isolated areas. In 2008 make them final.Regional Infrastructure for Socio-economic (RISE) program is Another problem is there are many who think we are a kindprepared for implementation. This also will become an NPCE of agent. While in real fact is, the implementation will be in thecore program. hands of the involved Department. There are also who think Next year, we invite other programs to implement their that NPCE will take somebodys share. The actual intention isactivities within the NPCE areas gradually through the guidance that we need cooperation to build a better coordination so thatand coordination we are developing. This is the consequence of all programs may run more effectively.programs being tagged with community empowerment label. The above still does not count the probable regional eco- nomic condition from financial management inefficiency. The The targets? regional government spend more money for office grandeur and There are two aspects in the context of poverty reduction comfort rather than public service. The solution? This again stresses the need of an effective communication and socialization strategy. We are now working together with Depkominfo in formulating the strategy design so that the grass- root level facilitator has the same understanding of what is being transmitted to the community. Besides, monitoring and evalua- tion is another tool for overcoming the barriers. So what are the targets? By 2015 in terms of development the Indonesian community has increased into a better position. They exercise their right to improve themselves, they are participative, they have courage to speak before their government and make the regional govern- ment more sensitive to public service. Bowo Leksono Photo: Bowo Leksono Percik July 2007 9
  • I N T E RV I E W Nina Sidle Unsulangi A FARMER DOESNT HAVE TO BE VILLAGER WITH VAST TRACT OF LAND Photo: Bowo Leksono Indeed, it is not easy to make the community understand remain consistent with environmental education. It is quitethe meaning of caring and being part of the environment. It appropriate that at the Jakarta 474th Birthday the Provincialtakes a long time to introduce such an idea even to your imme- Government selected the home of this 70 years old lady thediate neighbour. It takes a lot of sacrifice and high sense of Winner of Residential House Arrangement. The 25 sq metresocial responsibility. And Nina Sidle Unsulangi together with ground floor 3 storey house is adorned with more than 100the surrounding community have proven this social dedication. species of medicinal herbs and flower plants arranged nicely at The mother of three children and seven grandchildren every space and corner. Percik visited her home at Jl.working hand in hand with the waste management pioneer Banjarsari No. 13 RT05 RW09, Fatmawati, W, Cilandak, S.Madam Bambang "the waste" Wahono have strongly determined make this small part of this Beloved Jakarta green and to The following are the excerpts.W hen did you move into Jakarta? I moved from Bandung to Jakarta in we have 40 presently, some of them are men. The core team consists of 7 mem- bers including myself. Starting from oneself to the smallest unit, i.e the family, how to live in healthy home and free from waste to keep diseases1973. At that time, this neighbourhood In 1987 UNESCO provided us with away. Free from waste is by itself a pollu-was quite messy. Turning it into a green training on waste management and envi- tion prevention in addition to environ-leafy surrounding was then unthinkable. ronmental regreening. The institution mental regreening which is done throughBut something did happen and it started did not come with financial assistance, it learning nursery preparation and plantfrom RT level meeting in which 23 fami- came with education. And we are very maintenance.lies got together. Together we made pleased with it. Both UNESCO and theavailable empty drums to serve as government never give us financial assis- You also work on scavengersgarbage bins and we started flower plant- tance they help us with education and improvement?ing. Gradually the area began to look training. We bought all the plants from Yes, and that is not easy because ofbeautiful because we put flower plants our own money. After some time the their low education level and economicalong the road for all of us to take care of. result became obvious, visitors from difficulty. We have to use more feeling. Then some time around 1982 I joined other areas of Jakarta and the surround- Such as slowly building their awarenessMadam Bambang who lives in the neigh- ing regions began flowing in. Then also that scavengers are also Indonesian citi-bouring RT. I received a lot of guidance from other areas, even from abroad for zens with the same rights and responsi-from her. By chance both of us have the sharing of experience. bilites as the others, rich or poor. If yousame interest and ideal, therefore we can feel that you are Indonesian citizen youget along nicely together up to now. What aspect of empowerment must also assume reponsibility towardsTogether we organized a Farmers Group are you aiming at? this land. I also motivate them to plan fornamed Dahlia. From around 20 mem- Many. The essence is how to live a a change so as not to be a scavenger allbers the number gradually increases till hygienic life through selfhelp effort. their life. Not only that, I also teach pre- 10 Percik July 2007
  • I N T E RV I E Wschool and primary school children. Is there any special method in educating children? Of course. As we all know children are still plain and inno-cent, of course it needs a specific method in educating them.They are generally of 5 to 8 years old. We must use a lot of exam-ples to make them understand. For instance, what time do youwake up in the morning? At half past five! Oh, then it is the timewhen the buftterfly flower begins to bloom. This, at the sametime, is teaching them the name of a flower and its equivalentEnglish and Latin names. Learning while playing. Then we singtogether. Then they would say: "Grandma, please pray for us sothat we love our environment." This is like one years hot daysbeing quenched with a one days rain. Outside Jakarta what other regions do the partici-pants come from? From all over the country. Around Jakarta such asTangerang, Bekasi to Bandung, Cimahi, Subang and the easternregions such as Gorontalo, Makassar, and others. If there aremany participants, they usually invite us to come. What we usedto pioneer is now no more for us alone, it now belongs to every-one, to all Indonesian communities. We realize that some of our training participants are not suc-cessful in their home town. There are so many reasons for this,one of them is if a participant represents the upper middle class.Generally this class considers that city cleaning or waste man-agement is none of our business. That is the governments. Let Nina Sidle Unsulangi in front of her tree shaded house at Jl. Banjarsari, Cilandak Barat, South Jakarta. Photo: Bowo Leksonothem do their job. That what they think it is, so they wait for thegovernment to do the job. What visitors or tourists would be willing to visit our city? If our doesnt have to be living in a rural village and work on a big tractenvironment is dirty. How could we make spend their money if the of land. What can we do if we have only a small piece of land?environment is not comfortable for them? The rich and the low We must be creative. Most important of all is that we must have wi-income population each has a different way of thinking. The latter is llingness to try, and work hard, since without it we are nothing.more readily to being influenced and easily handled. We can plant flowers and other ornamental plants. With a capital of less than Rp 5,000 we already have a plant together What are the constraints in the implementation of with its pot. If we rent it to an office or to a festive we can col-the education? lect Rp 10,000. Some pots we may resell at profit. In short there Many. In terms of age of the participants, one who is 40 is some revenue that may add to family income. In the endyears and above is more difficult to learn than young people of many housewives are attracted to join the movement.20 years or below. Some young participants are also difficult ifthey come here on behalf of the government or NGO and thus How do you maintain the momentum?they attend the training partly as being forced to and therefore We have to continuously do community approach, implantthey behave more or less like a tourist. And there is also a prob- better knowledge and build empowerment. We hold a monthlylem derived from economic condition. Most of the participants revolving program on waste (arisan sampah) to tie closer rela-are housewives coming from low income bracket. There glitters tionship and information sharing among ourselves. Everythingfrom here a ray of hope that the women may produce an addi- is done in transparent manner, no discrimination between thetional income for the family, however small it may seem. A fa- rich and the poor including the scavengers.mily will certainly needs sugar, coffee, rice, gas fuel, and so on. It might not be 100 percent successful, but at least we are try-The would try their best to help their husband by earning some- ing our best to make the community care the environment. Asthing. This is welfare in real life. long as we are healthy we are going to do our best conducting How could we make it into a reality? By being a farmer. This regeneration so that Jakarta and Indonesia will become greenis a sort of awareness we build to city dwellers, being a farmer and comfortable to live in. Bowo Leksono Percik July 2007 11
  • R E G U L AT I O NWATER SUPPLYPROVISION SYSTEMPursuant to Government Regulation No. 16 of 2005 Photo: ExclusiveP ursuant to article 40 of Law No.7 of 2004 on Water tion unit, service unit, and treatment facility. For its implemen- Resources, the central and regional governments are tation, the WSPS is divided into two parts namely piping and mandated to take care of the water supply system deve- non piping networks.lopment. This is intended to guarantee the availability of rawwater for household water supply. To enable the government Raw water as an important componenteffectively carry out the responsibility it is necessary to develop Raw water regulation is basically intended to support watera regulation as guidance in the water supply provision manage- resources conservation. This is important considering manyment. It is for this purpose the government put into effect a go- areas including Jakarta are beginning to suffer from raw watervernment regulation No. 16 of 2005 on Water Supply Provision shortage. Based on this regulation the central and regional go-System (WSPS) for the purpose of provision of water supply to vernment may arrange an inter-regional cooperation for efficientthe public at an acceptable quality and price rate. In addition, raw water management. Since the availability of raw water isthe WSPS regulation is also intended to develop a balanced of essential in WSPS development, this regulation makes a strongthe providers and the consumers interest, and to enhance emphasis on water source conservation. For this purpose theimpovement in efficiency and service coverage. regulation is directed towards an integrated water supply and The government enacts regulation in consideration of vari- sanitation, wastewater and solid waste management. It mustous related aspects to keep WSPS development on track. This always be born in mind is that sanitation development must beregulation reflects that WSPS development is governed by five oriented to the demand of the poor and areas vulnerable todifferent aspects, namely raw water, production unit, distribu- water shortage, improvement of community health condition, 12 Percik July 2007
  • R E G U L AT I O Nfulfillment of minimum standard of serv-ice, and prevention of negative socialimpact. This government regulation is direct-ed to a WSPS development that goestogether with sanitation developmentthat may at least be implemented in eachphase both in master as well as in imple-mentation plans. For this purpose, theregional government may establish aninter-regional coordination. The national policy and strategy forWSPS development is formulated andmade effective by the government in con-sideration of the national policy for waterresources and other related sectors. Asfor the master plan which is part of WSPSdevelopment plan, is developed by thegovernment or regional governmentwhereas a master plan involving acrossthe boundary resources is determined bythe provincial government in coordina-tion with the related regions. If it Piping system of a water treatment installation. Photo: Exclusiveinvolves inter-provicial areas the plan isdetermined by the related Minister incoordination with the involved provinces. Water tariff charged to management by the provider. The tariff A master plan consists of at least a is calculated based on fairness and capa-general plan, network plan, development the customers (mainly house- city of payment, taking into considerationplan and activities, service standards and hold) represents the service fee the principles of cost recovery, water usecriteria, raw water allocation plan, inte- for water supply and wastewater efficiency, transparancy and accountabi-gratedness with sanitation, financing management by lity, and raw water source conservation.hints and investment policy, and institu- the provider. With a permit from the central ortional development plan. Beside the mas- regional government a specifically incor-ter plan, WSPS development would WSPS. DSB-WSPS is a non structural porated cooperative, a private corpora-require a detailed feasibility study and body established by and is directly tion and/or a community group may acttechnical design. responsible to the Minister. Its member- as WSPS provider to serve a particular Public WSPS service is provided by a ship consists of representatives from the locality in which a public utility serviceutility public company specifically esta- government, the service provider and the does not reach the area. This is done inblished for this purpose. If the public community. In terms of funding for consideration on the one hand of theutility fails to improve service then the WSPS development including construc- regional government responsibility insupervisor may decide to invite the tion, expansion and physical (technical) WSPS management, and on the other theinvolvement of cooperative, private com- and non physical system improvement government obligation to improve thepany, and/or community group in the may come from different sources inclu- capacity of the cooperative, and the pri-said WSPS management. ding the central and or regional govern- vate corporation/community group in ment, public company, cooperative, pri- terms of standard setting, guidelines,Community Involvement in WSPS vate corporation, community, and others. manual and facilitation, supervision and As a regulatory instrument it is con- Water tariff charged to the customers training. This requirement is also goodsidered necessary to establish a (mainly household) represents the serv- for utility company and the regional go-Development Support Body (DSB) for ice fee for water supply and wastewater vernment. Afif Percik July 2007 13
  • INSIGHT myths and taboos. This is intended to conserve forests and protect every water source. They were aware that someday fresh water from the forests will dry up unless the forests are well protected and wisely managed. Today, illegal logging, mining, and land clearing for new settlements are con- ducted carelessly, this leads to the decrease of fresh water availability. The application of hi-tech from the West on the pretext of modernization has weak- ened the pivotal joints of local wisdom. The harmony of human and nature rela- tionship in terms of forest and water resources management ceased to be revered. The Indonesian community is cur- rently undergoing a drastic behavioural change, they do away with the old forest and water resources management tradi- tion because it is considered primitive and against modernization. The commu- nity is uses water as it pleases, as if water is always available and never dries. The community lacks awareness that fresh water source is quite limited, while the demand for it continuously increases along with the population growth. Water sources are no longer protected against pollution, quite often they are even co- vered by various kinds of building. If this tendency is let to continue without anyCOMMUNAL WATER preventive measure being undertaken then Indonesia will suffer from water scarcity.MANAGEMENT SYSTEM OF Demand for Water and the Role of ForestKAMPUNG NAGA Water is the core substance and civi- lization of the world. Unfortunately, this most valuable resource is presently under a serious threat. Although two thirds of Oleh: Raditya Permana, S.H., M.Hum the earths surface is covered with water yet we are now in danger of water scarci-I n the past Indonesia is known as a water container. Rainwater is absorbed ty. In all cases the story of water scarcity nation rich in fresh water. The by the forest to be released as water is the recital about greed, careless tech- expanse of the country is covered springs to feed rivers and lakes. Our nology, and sucking water in exceed ofwith thick forest which serves as fresh ancestors have for centuries created the natures capacity. Water availability14 Percik July 2007 Percik Juli 2007 14
  • INSIGHTof an ecosystem depends on the climate, physiography, vegeta- supervision because it must be sustained and be kept from beingtion and geology of a particular location. In all the aspects mo- adulterated from any external influence.dern man has disturbed the earth and destroyed its capacity to The sacred area consists of a small hill located to the west ofreceive, absorb, and contain water. Forest denudation and mi- the settlement area. The first part of the hill is covered withning in forest areas destroy soil capacity to absorb and retain small restricted forest where old trees grow and represents thewater. Monoculture crop and sylvian cover makes the ecosystem burial ground of their ancestors. Beside the restricted forest thedry. Increased consumption of fuel oil causes air pollution and area is also covered with old trees, mostly of hundred years oldclimatic change becomes the main causes of flood, tsunami, and is called cover forest. The cover forest grown by a wide varietyrecurrent drought. Forest is a natural dam with is absorption and of biodiversity species serves as environmental chain that influ-water retention capacity and releases it slowly into water springs ences the micro climate, and at the same time as source of liveli-and rivulets. Forest cutting and monoculture plantation makes hood.water disappear and disrupts soil capacity to conserve water. 2) Clean area, is the com- Before the Green Revolution, ground water can be obtained munity settlementthrough traditional conservation irrigation technology.However, the renewable human and animal driven technologiesare considered inefficient. These technologies are then substi-tuted with engine driven and electric pumps to draw waterfaster than natures capacity to replenish ground-water reserve (Vandana Shiva, 2002:1-3). The Community ofKampung Naga In the midst ofswiftly flowingmodernization cur-rent, it would becommendable thatwe look back into area. The buildings of thethe way the com- area consist of the vil-munity manages and sustains forest lagers dwelling builtand water sources traditionally based on traditionalbased on local wisdom. Kampung Sundanese architecture,Naga is located on the hilly areas between Tasimalaya and rice barn, mosque and community hall.Garut. The area where the villagers build their house is sur- 3) Dirty area, is the area located in the lower elevation. Thisrounded terraced rice field and forest cover. A portion of the area is located along the river Ciwulan which is also the border-area is used for pond that serves as reservoir and fish culture. line of Kampung Naga with other villages. The buildings in dirtyFrom the ecological point of view this pattern follows the typical area are basically the complementary buildings, simple andSundanese village. In such pattern there are 3 elements each made of materials taken from the surroundings. They are watersupporting the other to meet the daily requirement of the com- spouts for bathing and washing and other purposes, animalmunity. These are a house to live in, water source, and garden houses, saung lisung, and fish ponds (Her Suganda, 2006:26-including a pond for fish culture. Since the housing forms a clus- 28).ter within a prearranged location, the land use and spatial plan-ning is made clear in accordance with the principle of efficiency Water Management Systemwhile taking into consideration the ecological factors for main- The ancestors of Kampung Naga community inherited thetaining environmental balance. traditional water channeling technology from generation to the If we look into it more closely, the land utilization pattern at next. The younger generation improves the technology he justKampung Naga is divided into 3 categories: learned from his father. In terms of natural resources manage- 1) Sacred area, is restricted area where only certain individ- ment the system is always related to natural sustainability anduals are allowed to enter. This area is put under the community environmental balance. The close linkage and causal inter-rela- Percik July 2007 15
  • INSIGHTtionship between the macro cosmic (the universe) and micro nature wisely and sustainably. This is allcosmic (human being) lies the wisdom of keeping the balance being done under the principlebetween human being and the environment (Kusnaka of maintaining harmonyAdimihardja, 2004:6-7). with the surrounding Water for Kampung Naga is supplied from two sources environmentbrought in through bamboo pipe conveyance system. Water (Adrydirectly tapped from is used for drinking and cooking. Some ofthe surface water flowing into the rice fields is divertedthrough filtering ponds into water tanks forwudhu (ablution before prayer) andMCK (bathing, washing and sanita- Paddmation). ea., 2001:17). Beside for fish culture a pond A pond has a mul-serves as natural septic tank to settle tiple of purposes suchdown human waste. Waste water wastewater receiver and it isfrom MCK activities drains out into also a place for fish cultivation. In athe pond. The pond is fed with the corner of a pond stands a saung lisung asame surface water as for the MCK hut without wall where two mortars are placedbut without filtering. (Adry Padma for pounding rice. Long mortars are used to pounde.a., 2001:16). rice right from the infloresence to produce husked rice. After Placement of saung lisung (mortar house for pounding rice) that the rice is pound in a smaller mortar using a pestle. To pro-at the edge of fish pond rice bran and human waste from MCK duce high quality rice sometimes it is pound again to remove thecan directly wash down into the pond as fish feed. Fish is for bran. This bran, locally called bekatul, is made into pellet for fishhuman consumption, thus this simple method - one that is not (Her Suganda, 2006: 28).inferior to the present day technology- makes a recycle process The various restrictions and taboos for anyone to enter thecomplete. To maintain its existence, the community always sees forest is the main contributor to forest conservation in Kampungto it that natural resources are used without damaging them. Naga, thus maintaining the water sources. The community obe-Through the combination of knowledge and simple technology, dience and consistency in keeping the ancestors tradition hasand with care to natural resources, the community exploits proven that they could stand the grinding wheel of moderniza- tion. Kampung Nagas wisdom in forest and water management deserve commend for imitation and expansion. To the people of Kampung Naga water is communal property that must be ma- naged communally, this is intended to make everyone gets a fair allocation of water. The community realizes that water is vital for human survival therefore it must be managed and used effec- tively. REFERENCES: - Adry Padma ea., Kampung Naga; Settlement inherited from great-grandparents, Foris, Bandung, 2001. - Her Suganda, Kampung Naga; Maintaining Tradition, Kiblat, Bandung, 2006. - Maude Barlow and Tony Clarke, Blue Gold; Robbery and Commercialization of Water Resources, Gramedia Pustaka Utama, Jakarta, 2005. - Vandana Shiva, Water Wars; Privatization, Profit and Pollution, Insist Press, Yogyakarta, 2002. Source of drawings: Andy Padma, ea. Kampung Naga; Settlement inherited from great-grandparents, Foris, Bandung, 2001, p.16.16 Percik July 2007
  • INSIGHTTHE COMMUNITYS MOSTSUITABLE LATRINE TECHNOLOGY Oleh: Alma Arief Cases in several villages Most of the latrine types being developed up to now absolutely demand water availability, so that in certain areas where water is wanting the requirement is difficult to apply. On the other hand, if the community is given free hand to develop one in accordance with the local environment, they do not have enough knowledge to build a hygienic model. In Kabupaten Timor Tengah Selatan (TTS) of NTT Province, many of the population live in the hills while water source is located far downhill. This kind of area is susceptible to diar- rhoea disease. To take water from a distant place, they use 5 litre jerrycans. In one day a family of 5 to 7 consumes around 25 litres of water, whereas the normal per capita consumption is 30 to 40 litres in one day. Twenty five litres of water is only enough for cooking and dishwashing. What about bathing? They have more or less similar condition in Kabupatens E. Flores, Sikka and Ende. With the application of historical time- line method we can draw the general picture how they get water and their daily consumption rate. A transect walk to assess the water supply and sanitation facilities makes it clear that in ge- neral the most sensitive point is their sanitation that remains a poor condition and if we push them to build one the result would not be hygienic. In a number of villages of Tamburi, East Sumba where UNICEF once provided latrine development assistance, the A CLTS triggered non subsidized latrine built by the community. facilities are left unattended while their number shrinks from 20 Photo: Exclusive down to 10. While in West as well as Central Java with a tradi- tion of building fish pond they build a latrine on the pond to feed their fish. It is equally difficult for them to build a toilet with septic tank. Even, a pond owner of Kabupaten Banjarnegara, C.T o change the communitys habit and viewpoint is never Java, is willing to pay for someone to defecate on his latrine built an easy task. Experience tells us that through a transect on his pond. walk on basic sanitation (latrine) indicates that certain There are various local conditions that must be taken intotype of latrine is not suitable to the socio-cultural and environ- consideration. How a locally adaptable latrine should bemental condition of a locality. Various different package models designed to meet hygiene requirement.were introduced and constructed, many of them only end up tomonuments, left unattended and the community is reluctant to CLTS Modeluse them. While the Kamal Khar model, one that is called This model was initially developed by Kamal Khar throughCommunity Led Total Sanitation (CLTS) in which the communi- abstraction of several principles such as relying on communityty designs and builds its own facility without any external input, active participation, freedom from external subsidy, social soli-though in some areas particularly those with critical water con- darity, and community pride as motivational element. Thisdition some adjustments needs also be done. What kind of model is applicable in several areas with amazing results. In alatrine is the most suitable and acceptable to a community? short while the community is able to build their own latrine, Percik July 2007 17
  • INSIGHT A communal WC at Pondok Pesantren (Religious School) Al Falah In Kabupaten Pamekasan. Photo: Oswar Mungkasawilling to change the habit of open defecation, and a vast deve- The problem is whether the ecosan model can be replicatedlopment growth. Within the span of months, villagers have built in dry and vulnerable to water shortage areas. Whether the com-latrines and are free from defecation in the open. This model munity is willing to change opinion from urine and faeces thathas been successfully developed in Kabupatens of Sambas (W. used to be considered as waste into a resource. To change anKalimantan), Muara Bungo (Jambi), Bogor (W. Java), opinion needs explanation from those who really understand it.Pandeglang (Banten), Lombok Barat (NTB) and others. All theregions developing CLTS are practically without water shortage Near Ecosan Modelproblem so that any model of whether goose neck, or any other In several aspects particularly as they relate to chain process-latrine model is no problem. The latrine can be used without es a latrine suspended above fishpond or built in-house butemitting unpleasant odour so that the user feels comfortable. directly flushed into fishpond are basically similar to ecosan. The principle is reusing waste material to feed fish culture.Ecosan Model for Water Vulnerable Areas What makes it different from ecosan is that in this case there is The purely ecosan type of latrines was developed in China no preprocessing before the reuse. The ecosan product isand was later given a warm welcome. In addition to its being obtained from drying and composting into economically valu-environmentally friendly for not polluting and causing adverse able farm manure, while in case of a fishpond suspended latrineeffect to the environment this model is also hygienic. Besides, the product is directly fed to the fish.this model is also successful to change the notion of what used to However, the fishpond suspended or in-house built directlybe considered as waste. flushed into fishpond latrine cannot be considered an environ- Ecosan technology is basically divided into several compo- mentally friendly technology. Disposing directly into a pondnents, namely separation of urine from faeces each into a sepa- leads to surface water of pond, river, lakes etc. polluted withrate container, using urine for farm manure, spreading ash over Essecheria coli (e. coli) bacteria, the main cause of diarrhoea.the faeces for drying and composting and utilization of faecal If after an assessment the communiy is really willing to applycompost for farm manure. The manure both of urine and faeces ecosan model for areas vulnerable to water scarcity, what wecontains high nitrogen content which is quite useful to plant need to do is to prepare a simple technology design so that thegrowth. Spreading ash to the faeces makes it free from pathogen community is capable to develop, operate and maintain.mirobes so that it is now safe for application for agricultural pur- * WASPOLA Consultantposes.18 Percik July 2007
  • INSIGHTGLOBALWARMING Oleh: Imam MG lobal warming is not a purely natural phenomenon independent of human intervention. Since the inven- tion of steam engine in the eighteenth century thegrowth of industries using coal and oil fulled engines one cannotdeny that it was the beginning of global warming. Therefore,with respect to global warming, human is the major variable.This can be seen from data published by World Wildlife Fund(WWF) at the end of the twentieth century about the role ofengines. Carbondioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitraoxide(N2O) contribute the major industrial gas emission, at 36 per-cent. These gases are emitted from coal generated power plantsand oil refineries. Then follow transportation sector at 27 per-cent and other industries 21 percent. Power plant releases twice the amount of energy into theatmosphere relative to what it generates. Coal generated powerplant uses 100, produces 35 and releases 65 units of energy intothe environment. Therefore a 1,000 MW power plant releases5.6 million tonnes of carbondioxide gas into the atmosphere. In the meantime, a car engine that consumes 7.8 litres per100 km and travels 16 thousand km per year releases 3 tonnes ofcarbondioxide gas into the air. One can imagine Jakarta withmore than 4 millions vehicles, how many tonnes is CO2 gasemission within one year?Methane and Waste Disposal A chimney of manufacturing plant is one of the major contribu- Although carbondioxide is considered the major contributor tors to the global warming phenomenon. Photo: Bowo Leksonoto global warming, the most dangerous component is methanegas. Methane is 23 times stronger than carbondioxide. Themain sources of methane are marsh areas, final waste disposal(TPA), natural gas mining field, and burning of biomass. In con- in 2000 it increases to 1.0 kg, in 2020 it is estimated to reach 2.1nection with waste, metyhane gas is produced from anaerobic kg per person per day. Under the above principle the final oper-waste decomposisiton in waste disposal sites. ation in waste management ends with disposal in the TPA. In Waste management in Indonesian cities is operated under the TPA is dumped in an open pit in disregard of sanitationthe principle of collect, transport and dispose. Along with popu- aspect. As a consequence, the growth of a number of environ-lation growth and increased activities, the quantity of waste dis- mentally related problems, such as air- and groundwater pollu-posed is also increasing. It is estimated that in 2020 waste piles tion, breeding ground of contagious diseases, etc.will grow fivefold from its size today. If in 1995 the average Today there are somewhere around 450 TPAs which notawaste disposed by urban population is 0.8 kg per capita per day, bene are the sources of methane gas emission. As an example, Percik July 2007 19
  • INSIGHT inhabitants are the concrete evidences. In the meantime the increase of sea level will cause rock whitening and the damage to coral reef around the world threat- ens the sustainability of marine ecosystem. Forest fires will be more often, expansion of the epidemic of tropical diseases such as malaria into new areas because of the increase on mosquito population, several regions will become more densely populated from the inflow of refugees. Future Outlook Global warming is a problem not only in connection with the nations with the highest emission contribution, in this case the United States followed by China, France, England, Germany, Canada and Japan; it is also the concerns of all nations since the effect is felt by all citizens of the world. A preventive measure must be taken to reduce the amount of emission into the atmos- phere. At least a petition to enhance the reduction of emission rate to a level below 1990 as declared in Rio de Janeiro meeting 1992 and the Kyoto Protocol. There are two measures that may be taken. One, through international political agreement like Rio meeting but one that is more effective in reducing emission level. And several other meetings in various different forums, such as with G-8 nations in Germany June 2007 on global warming. The second measure is taken, while waiting for the positive result of the internation- al meetings, is conducting anticipative actions. At least through Methane gas emission from a waste dump is also major a research towards the development of environmentally friendly contributor to the global warming. Photo: Exclusive renewable fuel for power generation. Solar energy is one of the environmentally friendly and its usage is being anticipated as substitute to fossil fuel.1,000 tonnes of waste containing 56 percent organic matter will With respect to waste, the Eurpean community can be seenproduce 21,000 tonnes of methane gas or equivalent to 486,500 as example. Since 2005 the European community does not dis-tonnes of carbondioxide annually. pose its organic waste directly to TPA. It is pretreated to prevent large amount of gas emitted to the atmosphere. The treatmentRisks may be conducted by way of incineration, composting and bio- If the approach being applied is "wait and see without doing gas production.anything" it is estimated that by 2100 the atmospheric tempera- Meanwhile, to bind the atmomospheric carbondioxide it ta-ture will increase by 1.5 - 4.5ºC. The other impact will be seen kes a serious effort to protect forests from illegal logging. Indo-from extinction of a number of biodiversity species, increasing nesia as the world lung is highly responsible for the critical con-the intensity and frequency thunderstorm, typhoon and flood dition of her forests from continuous denudation day after day.water. Polar ice and glaciers will melt faster, more and more fer- Gerald Foley in 1993 mentioned that by looking at thetile dry lands turn into desert due to prolonged drought, increas- amount of carbondioxide that has reached extreme level in theing of sea level resulting in increased flood areas, and an atmosphere, the world needs a forest as large as Australian con-increase of water temperature of the seas. tinent to absorb the carbondioxide. Besides, energy saving habit It is estimated that within the same year the sea level will must not stay as petition, but it must work in ecological contextraise by 15-95 cm. Several of the recent cases related to sea level supported by high morale as it relates to the survival of all formsare the burial of small islands under water forcing the inhabi- of life in this planet.tants to move somewhere else. Two unihabited islands in Imam M., ecology observer, living in JakartaKiribati on the Pacific namely Tebua Tarawa and Abenuea wereburied underwater in 1999 and evacuation of Tegua island by its20 Percik July 2007
  • R E P O RTA G E WATER IN CIRUYUNGT he fresh cool morning breeze seems to penetrate deep is good for. "Well, what can we do, we are used to bathing and into the bone. That morning it was almost 10 AM, yet washing in this river. It is more comfortable and less tiring not a single drop of water flow comes out from the tap. washing here," said Watinah (56). At that time the water in riverNo more hope to take a bath and to cook our breakfast if the Cikuya was muddy from the heavy rain of the night before.night before we fail to save water One can understand why thefor the morning activities. This community prefers the riveris the common daily ritual for the because it really takes a lot ofhouseholds of Grumbul or effort to draw a pail of water fromPengasinan hamlet, Ciruyung the well, because groundwatervillage of Kecamatan table is relatively deep here.Karangpucung, Cilacap, C. Java. This morning, with musicYet the villagers do not to worry background of cocks crowing andbecause there is always alterna- birds singing, scores of villagers,tive source to meet their demand children and adults together, werefor water. forming groups along the bank of River seems to remain a com- river Cikuya, in disregard if thefortable place for the villagers to upstream people were defecating,do their activities. Bathing, they kept themselves busy withwashing and defecation. Quite their bathing and washing rituals.often the water is muddy, Suryati (14) has been therethough. The community isnt One of water reservoirs of the village of Ciruyung, since 5.30 AM with a pile of dirty Kecamatan Karangpucung, Kabupaten Cilacap, C. Java.aware what a household latrine Photo: Bowo Leksono clothes to wash. "Each morning I Percik July 2007 21
  • R E P O RTA G Ewash the family clothing before going to school," says the village instance, with a population of more than 1.000 from 60 or sogirl. After finishing the washing, Suryati takes a bath by dipping families, community wells were sunk some five years ago. "Theherself in the water. Scores of the village women do the same wells were built for the community to use. But many are noteach morning. They dont care if water colour is yellowish or interested because they are more comfortable with bathing andeven brownish indicating impurity. They always feel comfort- washing in the river," says Kamyo (28), a youth leader who hasable with their routine that has been practised for generations. to admit that the community is not sufficiently educated on the importance of clean water for health.Community Well Except by a few of the population the wells that are located The portrait of a marginal community such as this is not in the centre of the housing area are not effectively used and notsolely an urban phenomenon. In a village on the mountain slope properly maintained. The buildings look old and clumsy. Ina similar view can also be seen. The hamlet of Pengasinan, for terms of community education, according to Kamyo, extension activity has ever been done to the community by the regional government or any other party. "Help of any kind almost total- ly denies us. This water supply system came into being from the communitys own initiative," says the energetic youth. Clean Water Tank The hamlet of Pengasinan is the most remotely located part of Ciruyung village. To reach it one must walk a steep and wind- ing trail of hilly terrain. Up and downhill sometimes across wooded areas interspersed with rice fields to reflect the source of livelihood of the local population. To access clean water for daily consumption the community of Pengasinan built 2 water tanks. The water is tapped from a spring in a hill near Kahuripan using easily breakable PVC pipe. Suparno, a community leader from Pengasinan who is also a member of Ciruyung development committee said that the water tanks were built by the communi- ty from their own resources. "Frankly speaking the tanks cannot be used at full capacity. Only around half of the capacity. Water does not always run smoothly," he said. Suparno says the reason for the retarded flow is not only due to the demand level of the local population but also because of inadequacy of the facility. Everything has been made available from whatever the community can do," he said. Small PVC connection pipes are running like intermesh in yards and gardens. Some are leaking and not immediately taken care of. The community seems at ease with the situation although they know for sure that the pipes are of low quality and not worthy of use. It needs a big investment to build a really worthy water supply network. According to Suparno the community made a communal activity to repair damages at the upper region. "For repair and maintenance purpose each family contributes Rp 1000 a month." Pengasinan community is out of service during the days of major damage to the network. Breakdown generally occurs after a landslide that washes away the main pipeline. Actually Ciruyung is not a place with water scarcity. Their problem lies with management capacity and the limited availability of proper Leakage in conveyance hose is a common sight on the roads of equipment and materials, all of this leads access to water below Ciruyung, yet the community does not seem to care. the sufficient level. Bowo Leksono Photo: Bowo Leksono22 Percik July 2007
  • TELESCOPEMULTI PURPOSE the river. Whereas in fact the river is the source of raw water for Jakarta water supply system. Thus raw water is beco- ming scarcer day after day for Jakarta cit-DEEP TUNNEL izens. Jakarta is not a city with good sanita- tion management system. Only 3 percent of total Jakarta area is provided with cen-A Step into Multiple Objectives: Drainage, tralized (off site) sewerage system, i.e the one located in Setiabudi area.Water Supply, and Wastewater Management Taking the above condition as point of departure PAM DKI Regulatory Body in its capacity as the party responsible for water supply provision put forward a pro- posal for MPDT system development. MPDT is a system of long and large dia- meter underground tunnels. Its develop- ment is considered as an effective and sustainable solution to Jakarta water resources management problems because it can simultaneously serve as flood con- trol, waste water management, raw water scarcity, improvement of river water, and underground water conservation. Moreover, MPDT does not meet any hin- drance from land acquisition and pro- curement problem because the MPDT construction is almost entirely located underground and the construction process does not disturb land traffic and community life in general. MPDT application starts from divi- sion of Jakarta area into West, Centre and East. The construction is to be conducted in phases according to the urgency of problem being faced. The Centre area is proposed as the priority and pilot project for river Ciliwung peak flood control. This Central MPDT will be placed under- ground along river Ciliwung and West Drainage Canal beginning from Jl. Haryono MT as 22 km long 12 m diame-L ast February and the same month longed land acquisition problem is ter tunnel. five years ago Jakarta and its sur- blamed for the cause of the flood. Yet an MPDT is a big hi-tech project that is roundings suffered a loss worths alternative solution through river retrain- estimated to cost Rp 16,3 trilliun to com-Rp 187.7 trillion and a death toll of 159. ing is equally sluggish because it touches plete. But 70 percent of the budget isThis was caused by a yearly recurrent di- the interest of the community living along expected to come from private sector par-saster that hits these areas: flood. The the river banks. The flood of Jakarta is ticipation through a public-private sectorlingering problem of East Drainage Canal inseparable from the practice of dumping partnership arrangement.(EDC) development becomes the main wastes into the river. Dumping of wastes In support of the above intentions thetopic when the attempt to find solution to into the river decreases water quality. It MPDT is designed to include revenueflood problem is being discussed. The is aggravated with the magnitude of components to attract investment in tolldelay of EDC development due to pro- domestic wastewater being drained into road, sewerage system including water Percik July 2007 23
  • TELESCOPEreclamation plant and utility shaft for gas directed northwards along the MPDT heavy rainfall plus daily city wastewater.pipe, drinking water, PLN cable, fibre tunnel and eventually to the sea through a A wastewater treatment facility is alsooptic and Telcom. Therefore the upper sea outfall by gravitational flow or pump- part of MPDT that serves to reclaimpart of the design consists of utility pipes. ing system. This operation will last for wastewater and rainwater overflow. TheThe middle section is an underground only a few days in a year during flood sea- result of the treatment is used as addi-double decked motorway as mass rapid son. tional raw water for PDAM, flush watertransit system. The lowest part consists The discharge that enters MPDT is the for city drainage system, irrigation waterof rainfall overflow tunnel and a sewerage peak flood discharge of river Ciliwung for city parks, and to be released back intotunnel system. minus a preintake at the initial point of the river to improve the quality of the MPDT consists of several components the MPDT system. The preintake system water accordance to its functions. One of serves as retention basin/pond for sepa- Another MPDT component is Mudthem is a 4-18 m diameter deep tunnel ration of solid materials such as sand, Treatment Facility, deals with mud sedi-built 20 to 75 m below ground. The deep rock, gravel, solid waste and other mate- ment in the reservoir and that from recla-tunnel consists of vertical shaft that rials carried by the flow. In other words, mation and raw water treatment usingbrings water from the main river and se- an O&M function of the overall MPDT the anaerobic biological process. Theveral other inundation potential areas system. product of the treatment is organicduring heavy downpour and horizontal MPDT is also equipped with Flood manure for agricultural purposes. Thetunnel that carries spillover water toge- Forecasting and Early Warning System treament process will produce methanether with the city sewerage system from located at Jl. MT Haryono though SCADA (CH4) gas that may be used to supportthe combined sewer overflow (CSO) into based on real time to detect more accu- energy diversification program.treatment/reclamation facility. rately the arrival and magnitude of flood. Although the explanation above During heavy rainfall that causes This is monitored with rain gauges placed reflects as if MPDT is a sophisticated andfloodwater the entire MPDT (except se- in various points in the Ciliwung water- complete technology, yet it will remain awerage and the utility tunnels) will be shed plus the services of Weather Radar. complementary to the overall aspect offilled with water from the main river The next component is an underground flood control system that calls for the cen-(Ciliwung in case of Central MPDT) and water reservoir to keep raw water reserve tral and related regional governmentsseveral other inundation potential areas from overflow of inundation as a result of commitment to the water resources ma-during local rain. The overflow will be high rainfall rate or accumulation of nagement of Jakarta. Afif Numan24 Percik July 2007
  • TELESCOPEStormwater Managementand Road Tunnel (SMART)A flood control scenario from MalaysiaI ndonesia, particularly Jakarta is not the only nation to put structed using Tunnel Boring Machine (TBM) Slurry Shield MPDT (Multi Purpose Deep tunnel) technology into appli- type. The construction cost 1,887 Malaysian ringgits or 514.6 cation, other countries such as Malaysia in Southeast Asia million US dollars.has preceeded in applying the technology. The MPDT to be As for the motor vehicle part, SMART consists of a doubleapplied here takes a lesson from the neighbour in which the decked 4 lane 4 km long motorway. The tunnel is desiged fortechnology is known as SMART. light vehicle type. Motorcycle and heavy trucks are not prohi- Stormwater Management and Road Tunnel or SMART is a bited here. The construction works started in 2003 completed inbig drainage cum road tunnel is built in Kuala Lumpur. SMART 2007. The tunnel is officially open to the public on 14 May a big project in Malaysia and is the longest tunnel in SE Asiaand second longest in Asia. The purpose of the tunnel is to cope How is the Tunnel Operated?with flood problem and at the same time to reduce traffic jam There are three scenarios how SMART is operated. The firstduring busy hours. is at normal time when there is no heavy rainfall that may cause The project is motorised by the government including flood. In this case, water is not drained through the tunnel. TheMalaysian Highway Authority, and Department of Irrigation second scenario is SMART operation during heavy rainfall aboveand Drainage Malaysia, together with partner companies normal level. Stormwater is drained through the lower part ofGamuda Berhad and Malaysian Mining Corporation Berhad the tunnel. In this situation the vehicle lanes are functioning as(MMC). In terms of design SMART consists of two main com- usual. The third scenario is when the vehicle lanes are closedponents i.e. drainage tunnel as flood (stormwater) management entirely. This is because stormwater has reached a level that theand a tunnel for motor vehicle. The stormwater part consists of whole system is used for drainage tunnel. The vehicle tunnela 9.7 km long and 13.2 m diameter tunnel. The tunnel is con- will resume its function 48 hours after the closing. OM Percik July 2007 25
  • OUR GUEST from within oneself and this process must start right now," says the cute singer who was born in Jakarta on 22 November 1992. A presenter, artist, and at the same time a movie actress will not dispose waste at any place, because according to Tasya before we move into the community we have to start from within the family, then to RT, RW, school, and so on. Frequently among us at school, my friends would not dispose waste in any place with my presence, says the singer of song I n a garden full of flower plants a group of youngsters are called Libur Telah Tiba (Holiday Has Come) once quite fami- having fun. "One minute please, brother, Ill do some liar among schoolchildren. taking first," says one girl teenager to Percik. She has- Since her appointment as Environmetal Ambassadress tened her pace and joined the group for some TVF (TV film) Tasya takes a frequent visit to various places, mostly in picture taking entitled Love Bodyguard to be broadcast by a Jakarta, to call the communitys attention to its environment. TV station. When Jakarta was hit by flood recently, Tasya took a pleasure After some time there was a signal from the assistant with the visit. Visiting the low income communities who were director: "Cut. OK lets take a break," indicating the comple- then suffering from the disaster. tion of the present picture taking. "Where would you like to sit for this conversation, brother," greeted our young hostess. Tasya is the name of the girl. She whom we used to know as the little singer a few years ago is now coming into adoles- cence. Perhaps for many adolescents of her age the conver- sation that was taking place at Cibubur Flower Garden is not interesting. But to an artist whose complete name is Syafa Tasya Kamil, a discussion about waste materal is quite a pleasant topic. It has been years since Tasya become interested in environmental issues. No wonder that the Al Izhar Jakarta Junior High School student is named the "Junior Environment Ambassadress" by the Mi- nistry of Environment since 2006. "My major task is to call the attention of the community to care the environment,"says the presenter of Pildacil (Ju- nior Dai Contest) program in a TV station. According to Tasya, a mere call for atten- tion or an extension activity will not make the community immediately care and lo- ve the environment. "It takes an effort "Waste may become our friend"26 Percik Photo: Bowo Leksono. July 2007
  • and various diseases. According to Tasya, waste can be useful and become our friend. The way to do it, according to the singer who wants to be an architect, is recycling following a separation. "Waste can be processed into compost or can be reused to pro- duce handicraft," says the fried rice and fried potato hobbyist. In Jakarta it is still uncommon for the community to recycle waste materials. The only successful one is in Kelurahan (vil- lage) Banjarsari, S. Jakarta. As to why the community is alien to waste handling, accord- ing to Tasya, is because the government hasnt paid serious attention to it. "There is yet no specific law on waste and the consequences of its violation." Tasya does not only call the attention of the community to handle its waste, but also to the government. "If the communi- ty is unable to handle the waste on its own, it becomes the responsibility of the government to help it." Tasyas final task is seldom given to students of her age,The Final Task on Waste it is not only to be presented before her own teachers and The pull toward environmental hygiene has made Tasya classmates, but also for presentation before Mr. Emilwrote her final task from school on waste. In the beginning the together with representatives of several organizations,teenager who has won AMI and several other awards did not foundations, and environmentally related NGOs. "Thehave sufficient knowledge about waste. presentation before the teachers and classmates, it was "It turns out that waste can be sorted. This is the way to quite fun and exhilarating, the atmosphere is infor-resolve waste problem right from the household level because mal. But before Mr. Emil, my heart was pounding,"when it has reached the TPA (final disposal site) all the waste is says the youth who played in Nyanyian Burungdumped to form a hill," says the young artist whose final task (Bird Song) a cinema electronics (sinetron) thatreads "Cultivation of Waste Management within the Community won Golden Cairo for TV Programmes.of Jakarta." The artist whose daily life is filled with singing les- But Tasya was able to manage herself andson and presenter additionally mentions that we have sort passed the presentation satisfactorily. Shewastes into three categories: organic waste consisting of plant did not feel difficult in doing that because itmaterials, dry waste consisting of paper and plastic, and danger- was more on the matter of sharing aspect.ous materials such as metal and other dangerous compound. As a Junior Waste Ambassadress do Tasya considers that dumping waste arbitrarily still remains you always dispose waste properly.our custom. Let alone sorting waste, disposing it into a proper "Yes, God willing". But why. "Butcontainer is still rarely done." The evidence that the community sometimes man is apt to be for-especially of Jakarta, is indifferent upon the danger caused by getful," said Tasya at the end ofwaste is proven from the result of an enquette that Tasya distri- the conversation.buted to 50 citizens of Jakarta. It turns out there are less than Bowo Leksono50 percent of the citizens who sort out waste in their home. To most of them, continued Tasya, failure to sort their wasteis not because they are lazy but more because of lack of know-ledge and not being used to the practice. "The community is stilldifficult to handle. They are not used to think of the short termlet alone the long term danger caused by waste," she said. Waste is something that is so close around us. Everydayeveryone definitely produces waste. If it is not properly handled,waste will become the communitys enemy, causing flood Percik July 2007 27
  • I N N O VAT I O N Director of PT. Shiva Rayawhen he demonstrate the performance of this equipment in Jakarta. Shirvaqua is made of durable fibre- glass specially designed to withstand pressure, non corrosive and not easily breakable. "This is a low cost equipment, both in construction and in its mainte- nance," says Irvan. Since this is designed for lower mid- dle class, this equipment is manually operated. Using no chemical, and rela- tively durable. As it is with conventional water filter, this equipment also uses fil- ter media consisting of marine sand and natural rock. Sand is effective in remo- ving iron content, brick and active carbon to remove colour, and zeolit or alum. This equipment consists of 6 parts, each is filled with sand, carbon, and alum. Peaty raw water is filled into the filter from a big pail with a small hose. A tap at SHIRVAQUA the bottom of the filter serves as an outlet from which the filtered water is pro- duced. A float is fixed to serve as water level indicator in the pail. Peat water treatment From a trial test this equipment can produce 90 litres of clean water in an hour. Water replenishment in the big pail is made every 45 minutes. "All this calcu- Irvan Jacob R, Director of PT Shirva Raya, and inventor of peat water treatment system. lation depends on the quality of raw Photo: Bowo Leksono water. The more turbid the water the longer it takes," says Irvan. This equip-T here is a considerable number of There are only 20 units now available. ment is specially made for peat water, not Indonesians who live in peaty We are trying to invite investors, inclu- for any other type of water, such as marsh areas. In Kalimantan and ding the government to manufacture or brackish water. The last two cannot beSumatra for example. Occupying the more this equipment," says Ivan Jacob R, treated with this equipment.areas around Banjarmasin in Kalimantan If after a laboratory examination byand Palembang in S. Sumatra. The com- Dept. Health the water produced frommunity of such an area depends on peat the equipment meets the requirement foras source of water. All source of water clean water, it will be further tested tocontains peat materials. Clean water at a other areas with similar raw water condi-reasonable quality is difficult to obtain. tion. The result?Though in fact prolonged peat water con-sumption causes tooth decay. "The community is very happy To supply fresh water to peaty areas a because they are always in demand forfilter is designed which is named clean water" says Irvan. He guaranteesShirvaqua. In spite the process has been that water processed by Shirvaqua isongoing for two years now, yet there clean though it must be boiled first beforearent many who know of its existence consumption, because the equipmenteven to those in the peat community. does not produce potable water. BW"We havent promoted this equipment.28 Percik July 2007
  • AROUND PLANCHILD CENTREDCOMMUNITYDEVELOPMENT (CCCD)S ince 2002 Plan all over the world has been applying the so-called Child Centred CommunityDevelopment (CCCD) program approach.The approach is developed based onrights. In this approach, child, family,and community play an active role indevelopment process. This approach alsoattempts to improve the capacity andopportunity of children, family and com-munity to work together with other par-ties in overcoming structural causes andconsequences of poverty to children of alllevels. CCCD approach is intended to dealwith more than just the poverty symp-toms, it rather goes deeper into its rootcauses. For instance, CCCD does notimmediately provide a building in case aschool building is really needed, but tofind out first the answer to a question"why is there no school?" The questionwill automatically demand that children,families and the community and the com-munity organization find an answer for One of children facilitation activities for their village development plan.the sake of sustainability of the education Photo: Plan Indonesiaprogram. The CCCD approach is designed tohelp children and their families, the com- the children rather to work together in identification of problems dominatingmunity and Plan partner and Plan per- finding the answer to the basic reasons to them. This is done through group discus-sonnel stimulate children, families, com- poverty of children. sion fora in which all ideas and opinionsmunity and community organization to raised by the participants are heard andpromote their rights; establishment of How CCCD Approach Works considered. This in itself is a challengeconducive environment for boys and girls Plan starts this approach with what is for the community to be willing to listento participate and express their ideas and called participation. At this stage chil- to the voices from marginalized and dis-concern, and for the adults to work dren and the families are persuaded to get criminated groups due to age, gender,together with children, and not work for actively involved in decision making and disability or certain social group. Percik July 2007 29
  • AROUND PLAN Child participation in this case in thechilds right. It may be that to the chil-dren, taking part in a discusson and rais-ing an opinion therein is their first expe-rience but this experience will hopefullychange the pattern of adults - childrenrelationship, trust and discrimitativepractices especially to girls and childrenof minority group. In the following stage after the esta-blishment of overall of participation with-in the community, it becomes necessaryto form child and adult groups or organi-zations to deal with specific issues such aswater scarcity, lack of educational facility,etc. With the establishment of thesegroups or organizations there will be asharing or deepening of local issuesthrough the existing resources. They willbe able to identify the demand to improvetheir capacity for common problem sol-ving. Besides, with the existence of thegroups or organizations the communityfeels that it belongs to the issues andproblems and is stimulated to improve itsknowledge and skill to resolve the pro-blems. Children groups are also importantbecause they could share their knowledgespecific to and the demand felt by, chil-dren. As an example, in the case of posttsunami barracks construction in Aceh,the children expressed their opinion toadd a partition to maintain privacyamong the inhabitants. Or in schoolbuilding construction, the children raisethe need for separate toilets for girls fromboys and the need for a parking lot. Thisexperience becomes important in raisingchildren into active and responsible citi-zens. In problem identification, it oftenhappens that the community is incapable CCCD process cycleof doing much due to limited internalcapacity. In this case it is necessary tobuild partnership with other organiza- be more community members enjoy the Why CCCD is considered child cen-tion, be it government, NGO or private benefit of a program. Partnership with tred? Because the programs or projectssector. The external partner in this case other organization is also necessary for a implemented are centred in children andmay provide help in support or comple- common action, advocacy and develop- honour children as subject/right holderment necessary for problem solving. ment education in order to influence the and answer both poverty elements in chil-Besides, the partnership makes it possi- government and international institu- dren and access to basic services and howble for replicating successful program in a tions on poverty problems in children and adults treat children.certain area into another so that there will children welfare. Percik July 2007 30
  • A R O U N D I SS D PIn anticipation of "Sanitation Conference Indonesia 2007"Major Challenge in SanitationDevelopment: StakeholdersCommitment to a Common Agreement Indonesia with access to basic sanitation is 67.1 percent. The figure seemingly makes us happy, but in reality 76.2 per- cent of 52 rivers on Java, Sumatra, Bali and Sulawesi are heavily polluted with organic compounds. The majority of rivers flowing in densely populated cities such as those of Java tend to contain more coliform and faecal coli bacteria. The presence of faecal coli bacteria indicates pollution from human waste on rivers. Domestic wastewater is also the major contributor to the degradation of water quality in DKI Jakarta. Total wastewater dumped into the rivers of Jakarta is 1,316,113 million m3, three quarters of which comes from domestic sources. One can imagine the magnitude of basic sanitation requirement unless a counter measure is taken to prevent the domestic wastewater pollution. Another consequence is diarrhoea places second for the causes of infant mortality in Indonesia, i.e. 46 per 1.000 Nugroho Tri Utomo, Head of Subdirectorate of Drinking Water and Wastewater, Bappenas in a childbirths and third for baby mortality, discussion Socialization of the Plan for National Sanitation Conference 2007 in the Indowater i.e. 32 per 1.000 childbirths. Besides, Expo 2007. Photo: ISSDP Secretariate based on study conducted by Indonesia Sanitation Development Program (ISSDP) the poor raw water quality It is now almost halfway into the placed in the lowest category together caused by poor sanitation has causeddeadline of MDGs achievement in 2015 with Bangladesh, Pakistan, Myanmar, PDAM customer pay his water bill 25 per-yet our sanitation development is still lag- Laos, Papua New Guinea, and the cent higher.ging way behind the desired level, its Philippines. It becomes quite clear that In parts of a city mostly inhabited byeven indicating a declining tendency. the challenge faced by Indonesia to the urban poor, raw water source hasBased on a report entitled A Future achieve seven of the ten targets i.e. reduc- been heavily polluted that makes the poorWithin Reach and MDGs Asia Pacific ing down to half, by 2015, the proportion pays 5-10 percent more money to buy2006 Report published by UNDP, of population without access to water water. The price paid by the poor obvi-Indonesia is placed in the category of supply and basic sanitation is an extreme- ously is higher than the price paid bycountries whose effort towards achieving ly difficult task. Based on MDGs Progress those who live in elite part of even theMDGs targets is declining. Indonesia is Report up to 2004 the population of rich nation (Report of Humen Resources Percik July 2007 31
  • A R O U N D I SS D PDevelopment, UNDP). rience. The obscure coordination makes each of the many sani- In connection with the above, the stakeholders must begin to tation development programs follows its own path. More ofteninitiate a common effort to accelerate sanitation sector develop- than not valuable findings by one particular program or pro-ment. The effort may start through a forum that unite all the gram management stands alone by itself unknown to otherstakeholders and design the necessary steps to overcome the stakeholders. Whereas in fact the findings may be the key to theproblems and challenges in sanitation development. success of the overall sanitation program or activity being imple- Aware of the abovementioned reality, the government mented.together with the involved stakeholders take an initiative to hold Establishment of integrated commitment among stakehold-National Sanitation Conference in August 2007. It is expected ers in sanitation development. Lack of the stakeholders com-that this conference will the increase of sector profile. As topic mitment is probably because of the absence of common agree-of discussion, today in Indonesia, both at public level as well as ment among themselves. All this time the differences may onlyamong the majority of decision makers, sanitation is placed in in terms of who is doing what activity, whereas each of themthe lowest priority. Political, economic, and entertainment place aims at the same objective, i.e sanitation development for wel-the highest order of interresting issues. Therefore, this planned fare of all. This similarity should be translated into a integralconference must be so organized in order to attract as much commitment among stakeholders.public attention as possible and must of course be directed to a All the strong arguments about the importance of sanitationreal follow up so that sanitation issue will remain in the public development will be of no use unless a political commitment isattention. Identification and formulation of the necessary and developed to compel decision makers to translate them intoimmediately implementable action plans for improvement of implementation.the sanitation condition. The presently poor sanitation condi- The planned conference will carry a big theme, "Mobilizationtion in Indonesia is the cumulative effect of our negligence in the of Resources to Improve Sanitation Development". This bigpast. This condition is like a string of time bombs that may theme is selected because of the frequent budget insufficiencyexplode simultaneously any time in many parts of this country. and human resources deficiency as the reasons for poor sanita-To prevent such a horrible disaster it is neccessary to take firm, tion development. The conference will involve various stake-well thought of, planned and measureable real steps for imme- holders related to sanitation from the government, university,diate action. donor institutions, private sector, mass media, and delegates As stakeholders forum for sharing of information and expe- from neighbouring countries. ISSDP Secretariate An example of poorly attended MCK due to short of O&M budget. Photo: Exclusive32 Percik July 2007
  • A R O U N D WA S P O L ASTRENGTHENING OFCOMMUNICATION STRATEGYin Kabupaten KebumenW hether you are aware of it or not, the problem in con- nection with water supply and sanitation is being felt by the communities all over the country. This callsfor serious attention especially from regional level policy mak-ers. Several problems were revealed during the Workshop forWSS Communication Strategy Formulation of KabupatenKebumen, held at Hotel Candisari Kebumen from 13-24 June2007. The workshop that was organized by WSS-WG ofKabupaten Kebumen was attented by representatives fromBappeda, Public Works, Regional Development, Health, Head ofSubdistrict, Heads of Village, village councils, and mediaactivists. They all spoke freely about WSS sector problems andissues and the communication challenges. In his welcome speech, Suroso, the Regional Secretary dis-closed that within two years, Kebumen has lost 6 potent watersprings, from 36 in 2006 to 22 in 2007. This matter was better Workshop participants in a role playing session. Photo: Dormanclarified by Arief Irwanto, Bappeda Chairman who stated thatthe death of water springs is followed by degradation of surfacewater from pollution of domestic and industrial wastes. "The It was also revealed that one of the legislative members isextinction of the springs is becoming our focus of attention," he highly interested in the WSS issue. I now feel that I fall in loverevealed further. with WSS, I will fight to have the budget increased," said Dian This fact often misses the attention of policy makers. This is Lestari, member of Kab. Kebumen DPRD.because the information does not reach the intended party andis unknown to the general public, the community is unaware of Kabupaten WSS-WG Plan and WASPOLA Supportthe problem, and policy makers are not sufficiently informed If we want WSS a development priority, several related prob-about what is really going on. lems must be thoroughly dealt with. In this connection WASPO- LA has facilitated a woskshop intended to develop the basicThe Importance of Communication Strategy understanding of communication strategy application, exploring Drought problem, degradation of water quality, malfunc- the demand and identification of stakeholders perception, atti-tioning of WSS facility and various other problems happening at tude and behaviour, and formulation of communication strategyan increasing rate are poorly dealt with because of poor inter- implementation.stakeholder communication in addition to technical, legal and In addition to the subject matters related to basic communi-funding problems. Reluctance to communicate then leads to cation the presentation includes media handling, mapping ofgrowth of new WSS management problems. strategic groups, communication management and program Weakness in inter-community communication interaction in design. In this workshop it can be seen, at least, an improve-one hand and the decision makers in the other generates frustra- ment of understanding on the importance of communicationtion within the community. Sometimes the community demand strategy to influence the general community has beginning tofor WSS services is given a half hearted response. The stake- take place. It is obvious from the action plan developed by eachholders must be identified so that the aspiration may be for- kecamatan group. Publication of the news about drought in vil-warded to the right individual. In order to obtain support from lages, arrangement of meeting with the legislative body, deve-the legislative, WSS information must be wrapped and present- lopment of local communitys theatre as communicaton media,ed in clear and consistent manner. and so on. Dormaringan HS Percik July 2007 33
  • A R O U N D W SS"Climate is Changing. Beware of Natural Disaster!"World Environment Day 2007I t was Gaylord Nelson, US senator who on 22 April 1970 proclaimed the Earth Day as the manifestation of his con- cern of the increasingly befouled and polluted earth as aresult of human activity. This idea then gained serious respons-es so that in UN conference on environment held in Stocholm on5 July 1972 it was resolved to name the date the WorldEnvironment Day. Indonesia took part in the conference andnamed Prof. Emil Salim then Chairman of Bappenas asIndonesian delegate. The purpose of environment day com-memoration is to deepen public awareness in environmentalconservation and improvement and refrain from conducting anyactivity that causes negative effects to the environment.Commemoration of Environment Day 2007 inIndonesia Natural disasters that seem endlessly hit Indonesia demandsour concience on the importance of environmental conservation.Therefore, the Commemoration of World Environment Day2007 carries a theme "Climate is Changing, Beware of NaturalDisaster!" On the 5th of June at the State Palace, the commemoration was led by President SBY. The President emphasizes that as an insular nation, the global warming may submerge many small islands of Indonesia. Further the President asks Indonesian people together with the world communi- ties to save the world from environmental degradation. Just like the previous commemorations to the environmen- tal heroes the President awarded Kalpataru and Adipura Landslide may occur anytime due to lack of root support. awards. Photo: Bowo Leksono The State Ministry of Environment staged Indonesia Environment Week 2007. Several activities were per- formed including an exhibition at Jakarta Convention Environmental activists in several regions plead that go- Centre and several contests such waste reuse contest, envi- vernment take concrete steps to save the environment. ronment painting, poster painting, and environmental Such as in Pontianak, W. Kalimantan, they strongly ask the detective at the animal sanctuary of Muara Angke, Jakarta. government to do away with activities that exploit the envi- While in the Office of KLH (Ministry of Environment) hun- ronment. dreds of school boys and girls were competing in website With support from WWF, Global Warming Alliance (GloW design, poster, animation, graphics, computer program- Alliance) and Greenpeace the Environmental Engineering ming, vido clip design, and article writing on enviroment, Student Association of Trisakti University conducted the all wrapped in a student creativity contest. "6th Trisakti Environmental Fair 2007". This event was In rememberance of World Environment Day the commu- made more lively with a series of activities like ISO 14001 nity of West Bali held a ritual for sea cleaning. The activity education and training, environmental exhibition, pho- was conducted in complement the beach and sea coral tography contest, emission test, and other creative acti- cleaning, particularly from thorny crown (Acanthaster vities. BW plancii). Percik July 2007 34
  • A R O U N D W SS maintain let alone conserve it.EARTH DAY In the last two years global warming issue comes back to sur- face. It is marked with the melting of polar ice caps. This is one or the reasons for the outbreak of several diseases such tubercu-REFLECTION losis and avian flu. According to scientists, 40 percent of polar ice cover has melted during the last 40 years. It is estimated that within 50 to 70 years the land currently inhabited by human being will sub- merge under water. The process will be accelerated by the inhabitants indifference. This is no more individual issue and any single nation. The fate of the earth is the responsibility of all its inhabitants. What is earth birthday is good for? For what purpose is that human being remember that 22 April is the Earth Day? It is clear that it is not a mere ceremony that is needed for the con- tinuation of human life. It is the real action out of human aware- ness of the place they live in and continue his generation. Therefore, it is quite appropriate that on an Earth Day human being should contemplate the historic path the earth has travelled and what fate this planet in which human being live. The commemoration of Earth Day as a historic momentum is intended to make human being remember that we have only one planet to live in. Apart form the earths history nothing will mean anything. The most important is how man can maintain and take immedi- aste action to safeguard the earh from destruction. And make everyday an Earth Day to refresh our memory and awareness for the future generation. The earth is already very old. Even human being can predict its destroyal. Will the destruction of this planet becomes faster because of our own action? The history of Earth Day "I feel deeply concerned with the fact that environmental issue is no issue in American political constellation. The people feel concerned, the politicians do not." That was part of state- Natural balance is indispensable. Human being plays major role in it. Photo: Bowo Leksono ment made by Gaylord Nelson, US senator in his speech he delivered in Seattle, United States of America. At that time he proposed an enactment of the so-called national “teach in”, anM ore than 4 billions years ago, the earth we live in came additional lecture discussing the current controversial themes, into being. The earth planet was created from a mix- especially environment. Nelsons idea gained an extraordinary ture of gases and hot plasm that gradually cooled response from the civil society. This was the embryo that gavedown until finally it becomes habitable. Various living creatures birth to Earth Day. Exactly one year later on 22 April 1970 mil-live in it, including human being. lions of people went into the roads on a demonstration that filled Human is the only being with intellectual and capable of Fifth Avenue, New York with people. No less than 1.500 univer-building civilization. Therefore, the earths fate depends on sities and 10 thousand schools took part in the demonstrationmans willingness and free will. that took place in New York, Washington and San Francisco. How can man survive and maintain his existence? It all Time magazine wrote that somewhere around 20 milliondepends on his capability in maintaining his living place. If the people went into the roads during that day, together declaringEarth is destroyed one can be sure that it is the end of human Earth Day and pleaded for commencing a "green revolution".civilization together with all life on the earths surface. The Earth Day Commemoration that was held for the first time Just like human being earth is getting older as years gone by. in 1970 was considered as the summit of the glory of the envi-While for several centuries man tends to exploits the planet. Not ronmental movement of 1960s. Percik July 2007 35
  • A R O U N D W SS Earth Day movement that was initia-ted in the US inspired the birth of envi-ronmental conservation groups, such asEnvironmental Action (in Washington1970), Greenpeace (the radical and mili-tant group of environmentalists, organi-zed in 1971), Environmentalist for FullEmployment (anti industrializationgroup, born in 1975), WorldwatchInstitute (research centre and studies col-lecting information on global environ-mental threats, 1975) and many otherenvironmental observer groups. Various analyses indicate that theexplosion happened from the unificationof generations of protestors (mostly highschool and university students, andscholars) known as motors of the anti warmovement and radical defenders of civilrights with environmental activists of1960s. This monumental movement wasaccording to Nelson, who died on 4 July2005 at the age of 89 as "the most amaz-ing grassroot explosion". It is not mista- ment and real action to make rambutan and petai seedlings token that Nelson is called the Father of garbage bins around the city more passers by.International Earth Day. And up to now beautiful. Before that they distri- On April 14, 2007 the students ofon every 22 April all nations of the world buted free comic calling for care to Musamus University of Merauke,commemorate it. environment. Papua planted 100 trees from vari- Earth Day Commemoration in Several ITB students of Bandung held a ous species as part of WWF pro-Regions series of activities such tree planting, gram. The plants were planted in WALHI organized various friendly a movie show on global warming, their own campus. creative events, national seminar, outbound following along natural The Forestry Agency of Kabupaten national jamboree. WALHI also track combined with educational Kepatang, W. Kalimantan organized appeals for "hold cutting" to stop activities, discussion, collection of a series of activities and contests. temporarily forest exploitation and environmental data; photo and The activity consisted of Plant When denudation that brings ecological poster exhbition, product exhibition You Are Young Harvest as You Grow damage to Indonesia. and workshop; music performance Older and tree planting contest for On 21 April 2007 the municipality of for the environment and carnival. children of kindergarten age. There Bogor in collaboration with Bogor The community along Mertasari are also colouring and drawing con- Institute of Agriculture (IPB) dug Beach, Sanur, Bali took part in the 9 test related to environment. 5.259 bioporous infiltration pits in km beach clean up. About 3.000 ci- On 10 April 2007 around 60 high 21 kelurahans (villages) of 6 keca- tizens of Denpasar and the sur- school and university students of matans of the city of Bogor. Around roundings areas consisting of Palangkaraya, C. Kalimantan con- 4,000 Bogor citizens participated in schoolchildren, custom community ducted tree planting in several the bioporous pit digging. of Sanur, hotel, restaurant and art locations in the city of Palang- On 22 April 2007 thousands of shop attendance, NGO activists, etc. karaya. This activity was conduct- Parigi citizens in C. Sulawesi toge- took part in the activity. ed in collaboration with Primate ther with mass organization and the On April 21, 2007 hundreds of stu- Conservation Program of BOS local government conducted City dents of Environmental Studies of Foundation, WWF Indonesia, Cleaning activity. Haluoleo University in Kendari went Mapala Sylva Raya of Parah- The students of Social Sciences of to the roads distributing hundreds of yangan University together with the University of Airlangga, tree seedlings. They march on the student group of Borneo People Surabaya organized a moral move- roads and distributed mahogani, Accosiation. BW36 Percik July 2007
  • A R O U N D W SS UNTIRTA BRINGS UP WSS THEMET he University of Sultan Ageng Tirtayasa (Untirta) Serang, Banten may be one we should be proud of. In this years thematic student field works program one ofthe selected themes is Water Supply and Sanitation, a themegenerally considered non "sexy" (read: attractive). In thePreparatory for the Instructors and Participants of the fieldworks, the Rector of Untirta Prof. Dr. H. Yoyok Mulyana repor-ted that 66 students and 38 instructors were to be deployed to 76villages in 9 Kecamatans of Banten Province. "It is hoped thatthese students will later become triggering agents for water sup-ply and sanitation development towards improvement of thequality of life of the communities," he stated. Present in the Deputy Governor of Banten Drs. H.M. Masduki, Msi at theevent were Dr. Oswar Mungkasa, Head of Subdirectorate of solid opening session. Photo: Bowo Leksonowaste and Drainage, Bappenas on behalf of the Director ofHousing and Settlement; Drs. HM Masduki, the Deputy of Central WSS-WG.Governor of Banten, and WASPOLA representatives. In the same event, Banten Deputy Governor, HM Masduki, Dr. Oswar Mungkasa firmly suggested that the responsibili- promises that he will closely monitor and guard the student fieldty for WSS development does not lie solely with the government, works through the Regional WSS-WG. He is proud for the campusbut it must be part of all of the stakeholders. "This is indeed for that takes WSS issue as the main theme for field works activity.the first time that a campus carries with it WSS issue as the "Untirta students must serve as locomotive or pioneers intheme for students field works activity. I hope this will serve as WSS development within the community," Masduki stresses fur-example for other campuses in Indonesia," revealed the member ther. BW MPA/PHAST Orientation and Its Application in PlanningT o facilitate the implementation of PAMSIMAS (Community BasedWater Supply Provision) program ting the offices of Community Empowerment, Bappeda, Cipta Karya of Public Works, and Health Agency. the weakness in the part of government officials in facilitating community par- ticipation.Directorate General for Rural Lack of water supply and sanitation Through this orientation the organiz-Development (DG PMD) Dept. Home services is a problem commonly faced by ing committee wishes to introduceAffairs conducted an MPA/PHAST communities of the remote areas. Several MPA/PHAST as tool for assessments and(Methodology for Participatory efforts have been tried by the government the application of MPA/PHAST in plan-Assessments/Participatory Hygiene and to push WSS sector development, PAM- ning, monitoring and evaluation particu-Sanitation Transformation) orientation SIMAS program is one of them. larly for WSS development. During thetraining held in Makassar, S. Sulawesi on The sustainability of WSS develop- visit made to 3 villages at kabupaten18-23 June 2007. The training was ment is influenced by several aspects Takalar the participants took the role asattended by participants representing such as community involvement in the facilitator in the application ofprovincial and kabupaten level officials decision making and in project imple- MPA/PHAST they have learned in classfrom the islands of Kalimantan and Su- mentation. However, it is revealed to get the real picture of the existing WSSlawesi. Each of the regional governments time and again that one of the major condition in the localities. FNwas represented by 4 officials, represen- barriers in program implementation is Percik July 2007 37
  • A R O U N D W SSIndo Water 2007 ExpoOrganizing WSS RelatedWorkshop and DiscussionsI nternational expositions and seminars were held in Jakarta lack of sanitation facility is becoming an important issue in the Covention Centre on 20-22 June 2007. There were four country. inter-related industrial expositions wrapped in an integra- Interactive dialogue entitled "Where Goes My Clean Water"ted implementation; one of them was water supply and waste- was organized presenting an environmental ambassador andwater treatment industry (IndoWater Expo). The event was offi- singer Nugie, Perpamsi Chairman Ir. Mardju Kodri, resourcescially dedicated by Ir. Agus Widjanarko, DG Cipta Karya on persons from BPSPAM and LAPI ITB. Acting as moderator wasbehalf of Minsiter of Public Works who in his opening speech Dr. Oswar Mungkasa, Chief Editor of Percik Magazine.reminded the role of PDAM in water supply provision. WSS-WG in collaboration with ISSDP and WASPOLA orga-"Pursuant to the existing regulations, in the future PDAM can no nized a discussion on Socialization of the Plan to hold Nationallonger hold the monopoly in public water supply provision. Sanitation Conference 2007 that was open to mass media andAnyone can take the role, the community, the cooperative, the the general community. The speaker for the discussion was Ir.private sector," said Agus. Therefore, if PDAM is to be compet- Tri Nugroho Utomo, Head of Subdirectorate of Water Supplyitive it must improve its performance and management capaci- and Waste Water, Bappenas.ty. The expo participants displayed equipment and facilities What Has Happened With Sanitation in Indonesia?related to water treatment. This reflects the role of business sec- What has really happened with sanitation in Indonesia thattor in water supply industry for the advantage of the communi- we had to organize a ministerial level National Sanitationty in the future. Conference in August 2007? It turned out there is nothing that Unwilling to be left behind, the Central WSS-WG together means that since God Knows When we still remain indifferentwith WASPOLA and Gorontalo WSS-WG were demonstrating with the so-called sanitation. "In Indonesia, sanitation is stilltheir existence in the Expo. The visitors were spoiled with vari- considered as private business. Whereas in fact 20 million ofous workshop and interactive dialogues. Raw water scarcity and our population are defecating anywhere in the open places," thus revealed Nugroho. Therefore, he continued, diarrhoea prevalence is that high in this country, even the highest in Asia. According to Nugroho, the reason why sanitation has been sufficiently handled, it is because the stakeholders have not con- sidered it as priority. "We dont have enough willingness and commitment to develop a better sanitation," he said. At the end of the discussion, the participants were requested to provided ideas and inputs for presentation in the forthcoming conference, by writing the message in a piece of paper and then stuck it to a piece of cloth. Before the discussion on sanitation, another discussion on "Water Treatment At Household Level". Present in the discus- sion were Zainal I. Nampira, Head of Sub-directorat of Water sanitation Dept. Health, Rieneke Rolos Deputy Project Director & Community Mobilization, and Irma Setiono, Cognizant Technical Officer, USAID/Indonesia. According to Rieneka Rolos, water treatment in the household contains a complex of problems related to lack of knowledge and skill on how to treat Interactive dialogue on "Where Goes My Clean Water" water properly. "The key is to continuously provide the families at the Indowater 2007 Expo inviting the singer and Environment with information and improve their understanding on the correct Ambassador, Nugie. Photo: Bowo Leksono way to produce good quality drinking water," she said. BW38 Percik July 2007
  • A R O U N D W SSConsultative Meeting andAssessment of Hygiene ProgramImplementationT he Department of Health recently organized a Consultative Meeting on Healthy Environment Program and Assessmentof Healthy Kabupaten/Kota Implementation 2007 held atMakassar on 12-15 June 2007. The meeting is a form of commit-ment for integration of central, provincial, kabupaten/kota stepsand UPT of DitGen PP&PL in implementation strategically,focussed, well targeted, tangible results of healthy environment2008. In his opening speech delivered by Assistant II the Governorof S. Sulawesi mentioned that the provicial government ispleased with the Makassar meeting. "The selection of Makassaras the city for the meeting was made on purpose because it is oneof the big cities on which hygiene development program is con-tinuously monitored," he explained. In his welcome speech, Dr. I Nyoman Kandun, DG forPP&PL made mention that according to WHO health includesphysical, mental and social aspects. "Man must live a healthylife in harmony with his environment," he concluded. Basically, Dr. I Nyoman Kandun, Dir Gen for PP&PL, Dept. Health delivering his welcome speech. Photo: Bowo Leksonohealth development consists of efforts to provide public healthservice as a community basic demand as an investment toimprove human resources capacity. ing his municipality a Healthy City. It is hoped this meeting will The national meeting involved several resource persons, be useful in the implementation of health development program.such as DG for Regional Development Home Affairs, Bappenas, Next year the same event will be held in Gorontalo City. BWand the Mayor of Bontang in honour of his achivement in mak- Makassar in the Path Leading to Healthy CityT he effort of the municipality govern- ment of Makassar to turn it intoHealthy City is continuing. Today, the the kind of city they have in mind. The fact of life shows that there are only too few places in the city that are nice to look Healthy City does not imply a mere phy- sical improvement. "Most important of all is a change in the community way ofcity of more than 1 million people located at. The traffic is a full mess. It seems, thinking," he says firmly. The Depart-on the west coast of island of Sulawesi is Makassar that is focusing on trade and ment of Health definition of healthy city isstill way from being called a healthy city. maritime development, must take into one that continuously improves the qualityMakassars failure to win Adipura award serious consideration the environmental of physical and social environment throughthis year serves as a strong reminder that aspect. Dr. Noer Bahry Noor, Chairman empowering its community to explore allthe municipality government must work of Makassar Healthy City Forum the existing potentials, individually as wellhand in hand with the community into announces that to bring Makassar into as communally. Bowo Leksono Percik July 2007 39
  • A R O U N D W SS Submission of MoU Document and Field Visit by ProAirO n 23 August 2007 a set aside a budget amounting 10 Memorandum of Under- percent of the grant fund for the standing on Water Supply development, excluding adminis-Development was signed by the trative related costs.Deputy for Facility and Infra- As a follow up, on 28 May-1structure Development, Bappenas, June 2007 a courtesy call wasGovernor of NTT, Bupati of Alor and made for the submission of theBupati of Ende. The memorandum memorandum document and acontains an agreement for the par- visit to take a look at the activityties concerned to support water sup- progress in the field.ply development in Kabupaten Alor In this opprtunity the Teamand Kabupaten Ende through an consisting of Bappenas, Dept.extension of ProAir activity in NTT Home Affairs and Dept Healthprovince for 2006-2008. For this took the opportunity to pay apurpose a grant fund at an amount Submission of MoU to the Governor of NTT. courtesy visit to the Governor andof 2.3 million has been made avail- Photo: Sutrisno Head of District of Alor. Fromable by Kfw of Germany for water the field visit it was summarizedsupply and sanitation development including community prepa- that the implementation is in the stage of data collection fromration and capacity building of regional government officials. As the community and preparation of DED. OMcounterpart, the regional governments of Alor and Ende must Workshop on Kabupaten Bangka WSS Data ManagementA s part of WSS data management, on Tuesday 29 May lected from villages of 8 kecamatans. The simple instrument 2007 a one-day workshop on WSS Data was held at using the registration method triggers the need for data manage- Kabupaten Bangka, Province of Bangka Belitung. This ment of the existing condition. The next session deals withworkshop is mandated by the Kabupatens WSS development MDGs target in water and sanitation sector, covering WSS indi-strategy plan as a means for the development of baseline data. cator, use of data base, and example of data calculation forPresent in the workshop were representatives of WSS stake- Kabupaten Bangka. Then the discussion moved on to formula-holders consisting of Bapedalda, Kimpraswil, Health Agency, tion of the required data indicators to be developed specificallyRegional Development Agency, Camat, facilitated by Kabupaten for Kabupaten Bangka. Each of the agencies presented the exist-level Bappeda with support from WASPOLA and Central WSS- ing data in possession and the possibility for further develop-WG. ment. It was found out that the indicators are overlapping and The opening was made by the Regional Secretary of confusion on who must be doing what among the agencies.Kabupaten Bangka who emphasized the importance of data Several of the proposals developed in the discussions com-management in development planning. Poor data management prise: a) establishement of a clearing house for kabupaten levelwill lead to poor planning, and end up in mistargeted develop- data. The clearing house will serve as agent of interexchange forment. This is what is called the principle of garbage in garbage data traffic among agencies. There is for this purpose a need forout. a computer program to support this activity; b) establishment of In the following session it was participatory discussion for a regional level WWS-WG forum for data classification and datadata management identification. The participants were divided category managed by the agencies; c) other forms of agreementinto 2 groups, agency officers and kecamatan officers. The topic such as follow up of the present workshop to discuss data ma-to discuss consisted of data of the existing WSS condition col- nagement in more detail. GTM40 Percik July 2007
  • A R O U N D W SS Gucialit Community Is Free From Defecating In the OpenA nother prestigious achievement has been made. This since 2005 along with the implementation of Desa Siaga (Alert time it is in East Java. One of the kecamatans of kabu- Village) and Desa Sehat (Healthy Village) through Gebang Mas paten Lumajang, Gucialit, has its community built programs all intended to develop Healthy Lumajang 2007.household latrine and use it effectively. The kecamatan is now H. Achmad Fauzi, the Bupati of Lumajang, in his welcomefree from the habit of defecation in the open. speech stated that in the field of empowerment Kabupaten The achievement is marked with "Declaration of Kecamatan Lumajang has developed skilled CLTS facilitators to renderGucialit as Community Who Effectively Use Household Latrine" assistance to the communities at the kabupaten and kecamatanat the Desa Dadapan on 21 May 2007. Present in the levels. "I believe that CLTS methodology is applicable not onlyDeclaration were the representatives of Central CLTS Team, to trigger latrine development, but also for other aspects ofconsisting of officials from Dept. Health, Home Affairs accom- development," he styated.panied by E. Java CLTS Team and Regional Government The community of Kecamatan Gucialit has demonstrated itsOfficials. success which contributes to the achievement of Healthy The Gucialit achievement is carved through the implementa- Lumajang 2007. Through the services of Special Working Unitstion of CLTS (Community Led Total Sanitation) program, one of and camats the Bupati of Lumajang has requested the commu-empowerment methodologies to change community habit initi- nity of the region to together achieve Healthy Lumajang 2007.ated and led by the community itself without any external sub- "This ideal can only be put into reality through real action and Isidy. strongly believe that Kabupaten Lumajang will become a healthy This methodology was introduced in Kabupaten Lumajang kabupaten," he said. BW Credit Program for PDAM Service Connection R ecord indicates that more than 100 million of Indonesian population is presently is devoid of the access to water mit the document to BRI office at keca- matan level to be forwarded to kabupa- ten/kota level BRI branch office for pro- supply. Regional Utility Service (PDAM) cessing. The candidate will have to open is operating in 13 percent of the total an account at BRI. Then BRI approves administrative regions. To improve the the request and transfer the new coverage PDAM in collaboration with conne0ction cost to PDAM account in BRI (Bank Rakyat Indonesia) design a the bank. micro credit scheme for the community If the credit request is approved the to access clean water service. The credit, customer will have a full package con- at a maximum of Rp 3 million and term nection facility from PDAM with one tap of repayment 2 years, is provided in cash fixed within the yard. An extension or to pay for new connection. additional taps within the house will cost As for the procedure, the customer additional in accordance with the real has to go to PDAM counter and ask for cost. If you are still without water sup- the required form and other require- ply, hurry up and request for a micro ments as determined by PDAM and BRI. credit from BRI. BW Photo: Bowo Leksono. PDAM and the qualified candidate sub- Percik July 2007 41
  • A R O U N D W SSWorld Water 2007 ExpoWITH A HOPE THAT IT IS NOTA MERE CEREMONYO ne of the events of the World Water Day national commemo- ration was the 3-day WorldWater Expo held at the Dept. of PublicWorks office compound on 2-4 May2007. The expo which an item of annualagenda was attended by 62 participantsoccupying 123 stands. The participantsrepresented various groups, includinggovernment institutions, private sector,and organizations related to environmen-tal activities. In his opening speech Ir. Siswoko,Dipl. HE, Director General for WaterResources Dept. of Public Works men-tioned that for Indonesian the WorldWater Day is not a mere celebration tothank God for the blessing of abundantwater to this country. "But simultaneous-ly it is an event to remind us that we arebeing faced with a big problem with The stand maintained by WSS WG-WASPOLA in the World Water Day 2007exhibition.water. This year we were reminded again, Photo: Bowo Leksonowith the irregular pattern of world rain-fall caused by drastic climatic changes Indonesia also took part in the expo.. by the United Nations that decided thatand reduced water absorbing capacity of Various WSS related information was made 22 March as World Water Day. Allthe ground due to environmental degra- available in the stand. This stand is quite nations of the world commemorate itdation. All this boils down to our prob- informative because of the amount of infor- every year.lem with water scarcity," he revealed. mation made available to visitors. But the Based on common agreement among Siswoko stressed that it is the time for actual problem lies with how WSS-WG national stakeholders the theme for thisus to realize that Indonesia is indeed suf- could put its ideals into implementation years commemoration is "Coping withfering from water scarcity especially the where many of the regions of Indonesia are Water Scarcity" in line with the integra-regions with low rainfall. Water scarcity not dealt with," said Sahroel Polantolo, one ted effort to overcome water scarcity andbecomes problem of the community all of the visitors to Percik. flood control.the year round. "When water quantity in Further Sahroel felt pity that as an It is hoped that the expo as one of theits source becomes limited and its quality institution with so much information in World Water Day commemoration agen-is made poor from mans carelessness the hand and so many real activities being da does not end up at a mere ceremony.sum result will read: water is becoming a done yet the stand is too small. "It is pity, It is high time for the government and thescarce good and more costly," he stated. indeed, the space is too small that visitors community as well to take a serious con- After opening the expo, Siswoko took looking for information cannot do it more sideration of the water scarcity problem.a walk around the stands for the exhibi- freely," he said. And the means to control flood that regu-tion. One of the stands in run by WSS- World Water Day has been commemo- larly hits many areas is also our responsi-WG and WASPOLA. ISSDP and Plan rated 15 times since its launching in 1992 bility. BW42 Percik July 2007
  • A R O U N D W SS Various Offers of Potable WaterI n Indonesia, water ready for In the meantime, Shamsul drinking is not generally con- Huda, WHO Environmental sidered as a nationwide Health Adviser mentioned thatdemand. While only 22 percent or the discussion on household52 million of our population is still level water treatment manage-foreign to access to water supply. To ment conforms to one of WHOintroduce several simple technolo- strategies. "This strategy isgies for producing drinkable water aimed at increasing access toDept. Health in collaboration with water supply through assess-WHO, and USAID held a presenta- ment of technology choices fortion cum discussion entitled the provision of drinking"Socialization of Several New water," he said. In this oppor-Options for Household Level Water tunity several relatively sim- Presentation and discussion of various water treatmentTreatment" that took place at the technologies in Dept. Health. Photo: Bowo Leksono ple, non-costly yet effectiveOffice of the Directorate General for technologies related to waterEnvironmental Health on 19 April. supply production such as air Dr. Wan Alkadri, Director of drinking. "This is an old practice. As a rahmat, aquatabs, purifier of waterEnvironmental Hygiene in his introduc- matter of fact there is no guarantee that (PUR), sodis and simple filtration unittion mentioned that around 90 percent of after boiling water is free from disease," were introduced. BWIndonesian population boils water for he said Five millions conservation workers are ready to make Indonesia "green"T he multidimensional crisis that continuously hits Indonesia is influencing all aspects of life, including the worsening of environmental condition. One of them isthe effect of global warming that has been a problem for theentire world. This was revealed on the bestowal of Cadres ofEnvironmental conservationists of Kebangkitan Bangsa Party(PKB) at the compound of the partys head office, Jakarta, onSunday 22 April. This presentation was made on the day coin-ciding the Earth Day 2007. Before the inauguration, Th Party Chairman, MuhaiminIskandar says that PKB has just declared that as green partydetermines to resolve many national problems through environ-mental aspect. In this occasion a dangdut singer Inul Daratista and a movieactor Tengku Firmansyah are named the Environmental Inauguration of Inul Daratista and Tengku Firmansyah asAmbassadors of the political party. "I want Indonesia to become Environmental Ambassadors. Photo: Bowo Leksonogreen again," says Inul after her inauguration. To conclude theoccasion An Inconvenient Truth, a movie directed by Divis 5 million conservation workers ready to take conservation jobsGuggehheim, winner of Oscar prize 2007 was put to screen. all over the country. Can these 5 million workers turn Indonesia The mission of the political party with symbol globe is having back to green? Lets see. BW Percik July 2007 43
  • A R O U N D W SS Let a lake be basin where water parks LAKES HAVE TO BE PRESERVED Created by Rudi Kosasih 2007"W e hope that from now on no deeper into the ground as water reserve. amenable once they understand whats it more lake is to be filled in Therefore lake revitalization is deemed all about, and for this it is nescessary to and turned into real estate necessary. have a national movement.or residential area," says Djoko Kirmanto, "We havent treated the land around In the meantine, Minister of ForestryMinister of Public Works firmly in his us in response to what it has been valu- MS Kaban disclosed that this year thewelcome speech in the Lauching of able to us. Watershed degradation from Government has rehabilitated 110 haRevitalization of Lake Cikaret, at mans destructive hands will eventually upper watershed lands in the area ofKampung Tengah, Kecamatan Cibinong, cause harm to himself," says Djoko. Jabotabekpunjur at a cost of around RpBogor, Wednesday 9 May. Before that, a It is planned that by 2009 more than 850 billion. The budget is integratedsigning of memorandum of understand- 140 lakes in Jabotabekpunjur (Jakarta, amounts in three Departments, Publicing by three cabinet ministers, Public Bogor, Tangerang, Bekasi, Puncak and Works, Forestry and Agriculture. "TheWorks, Forestry and Agriculture. This Cianjur) area will be revived to its former leading agency for the operation is Publicmarked the peak event of World Water life. Department of Public Works has Works," he said.Day XV 2007. been allocated Rp 250 billion fund for The Deputy Bupati of Bogor, Albert In the common agreement the three this purpose. This year work is on going Pribadi is pleased with the Governmentgovernment departments will formulate in 51 lakes, while in 2008 and 2009 effort. "There are in Kabupaten Bogor 93an integrated program and a synergy of another 51 and 40 lakes respectively. lakes, of which 15 are in their worst con-land and water resources conservation. The revitalization consists of among dition. We, together with the community,Lake conservation is indispensable, others dredging, and physical construc- are fully supporting the revitalizationtherefore there will be no more lake con- tion such as spillway, intake sluice and program," he says.verted to other purposes. paved track for jogging and amusement Further Albert says that a firm steps Djoko Kirmanto sees that the degra- purposes. The Dept. of Public Works has will be taken for any building and con-dation of land and water resources has started with the revitalization since 1996 struction that violate the spatial plan.reached an alarming stage that it and it has been heightened since the "We have a Regional Governmentbecomes the main cause for flood, land- occurrence of the recent flood. Regulation (Perda) on Spatial Plan. Anyslide and drought. "We have to immedi- Three government departments building constructied in violation of theately restore lake and upper watershed as involved have tried to take improvement spatial plan will be demolished immedi-protection areas through active participa- measures, through extension services, ately," says Albert firmly.tion of the whole community," he says. care development, technical counseling, Lets hope that lakes are really treated One of the main causes for flood di- advocacy, human resources and institu- as basins where water parks to eventuallysaster is that many lakes have lost their tional capacity building, and counterpart function as water reserve and simultane-capacity. Lakes must be seen as water provision. Minister of Public Works is ously flood control system. BWparking area to let it gradually penetrates convinced that the community will be44 Percik July 2007
  • PROGRAMThe Launching of National Campaignfor Wash Hands with Soap 2007An Easy Path towardHygienic LifeT housands of primary school chil- Minister Health, Minister of Education mary schools of Jakarta and Bekasi. In dren standing in rows around the and State Minister of Women fact, handwashing can reduce the risk of National Monument, Jakarta, on Empowerment marked the beginning of diarrhoea contamination by 40 percentSunday 6 May. They are smiling indica- the campaign with releasing gas filled and prevention of other diseases such asting happiness. What are they doing, balloons into the air. The hand washing skin infection, pneumonia and avian flu.actually? Yes, the pure hearted children campaign at the same time also serves to The Coordination Minister startedare taking part in the campaign promo- commemorate the Education Day, was with the practice of washing hands beforeting thw habit of washing hands with held simultaneously in Bandung, Medan the children and their parents. Hesoap. This habit is intended to improve and Surabaya. washed his hands with soap, rinsed themcommunity health through of hygiene "This campaign is necessary because with water, and mopped them with a drybehaviour. Hygiene behaviour must start we want to introduce the correct way of towel. This was followed by Minister ofearly from childhood. washing hands," said Ical, so Aburizal Health, Minister of Education, State The Coordination Minister for Bakrie is intimately called, in front of Minister of Women Empowerment,Welfare Aburizal Bakrie accompanied by 2,700 mothers and children from 25 pri- UNICEF representative and other Officials. It is hoped the campaign leads to community awareness of hygiene behaviour that eventually reduces preva- lence of contagious diseases. Preceding the launching, a media cam- paign and wash hand with soap training as a simple means for hygiene life in var- ious primary schools throughout Indo- nesia. In order to attract a wider audien- ce about this national program the Coor- dination Minister with support from USAID through Environmetal Services Program undertakes an internet based campaign as complementary the Wash Hands With Soap Campaign 2007. Little "doctors" are practising wash hands with soap during the launching of Wash Hands With Soap Program 2007 at the Jakarta National Monument. Photo: Bowo Leksono Percik July 2007 45
  • PROGRAMkampanye berbasis internet sebagai pe-nunjang kegiatan Kampanye NasionalCuci Tangan Pakai Sabun 2007.Makna Cuci Tangan Pakai Sabun Cuci tangan pakai sabun adalah carapenting untuk bisa mencegah penyebaranpenyakit menular, beberapa diantaranyadiare, flu burung, dan tipes. Menurutpenelitian, membiasakan cuci tangan pa-kai sabun dapat menekan angka kema-tian anak di Indonesia. Karena penyakitdiare menjadi penyebab kematian bayiyang cukup tinggi. Diare bukan masalah yang sepelemengingat di Indonesia tercatat rata-rataterjadi 100 ribu kasus diare per tahun.Sehingga perlu dipahami dan disadaribersama bahwa mencuci tangan dengansabun adalah perilaku yang mudah di-lakukan dan efektif untuk mencegah Anak-anak Sekolah Dasar bergembiradiare. menyambut program Cuci Tangan untuk melakukannya dengan benar Badan kesehatan dunia WHO (World Pakai Sabun. pada saat yang penting.Health Organization) juga mencatat pe- Foto: Bowo Leksono.nyebab kematian terbesar bagi bayi dan Langkah Tepat Cuci Tangan Pakaibalita (anak bawah lima tahun) di dunia Fakta Berbicara Sabunadalah ISPA (infeksi saluran pernapasan Angka-angka di atas menjadi acuan 1. Basuh tangan dengan air yangatas) dan diare. Cuci tangan pakai sabun agar masyarakat sadar dan peduli arti mengalir, cuci dengan sabun, dan gosokbisa melepaskan kuman penyebab infeksi pentingnya hidup sehat dengan memu- kedua tangan selama 20 detik hinggadengan murah dan mudah, sehingga lainya dari kedua tangan. Untuk itu pro- berbusa. Pastikan menggosok bagian didianggap sebagai salah satu cara efektif gram kampanye dimaksudkan agar sela-sela jari, di bawah kuku, dan pung-mencegah terjadinya penyakit. pemahaman masyarakat semakin kuat gung tangan. Bagi Indonesia, cuci tangan pakai sa- dan pada akhirnya dikembalikan pada 2. Bilas tangan dengan air mengalirbun ini bisa menurunkan angka kematian manusianya sendiri. selama 10 detik.bayi dan balita di Indonesia yang saat ini Berikut beberapa fakta tentang arti 3. Keringkan tangan dengan menggu-tercatat 35 per 1000 kelahiran hidup un- pentingnya kebersihan tangan: nakan kain lap yang bersih dan kering.tuk bayi 0-12 bulan dan 46 per 1000 ke- 1. Tangan adalah salah satu penghantarlahiran hidup untuk anak bawah lima ta- utama masuknya kuman penyakit ke Waktu Penting Cuci Tangan Pakaihun (balita). tubuh manusia. Cuci tangan dengan Sabun Program ini sebenarnya telah dihem- sabun dapat menghambat masuknya 1. Sebelum makan.buskan sejak Januari 2006 bahkan bebe- kuman penyakit ke tubuh manusia 2. Sesudah buang air besar.rapa program telah dirintis dari tahun melalui perantaraan tangan. 3. Sebelum memegang bayi.2005 dengan tujuan; meningkatkan pe- 2. Tangan manusia yang kotor karena 4. Sesudah menceboki anak.ngetahuan dan merubah sikap ibu rumah menyentuh feses mengandung kurang 5. Sebelum menyiapkan makanan.tangga yang mempunyai balita tentang lebih 10 juta virus dan 1 juta bakteri. Mencuci tangan dengan menggu-manfaat cuci tangan pakai sabun. Me- 3. Kuman penyakit seperti virus dan nakan sabun akan mampu mengurangingembangkan kelompok-kelompok ma- bakteri tidak dapat terlihat secara hingga 47 persen penderita diare dan 30syarakat yang mendukung masalah higi- kasat mata sehingga sering dia- persen untuk infeksi saluran pernafasannitas dan sanitasi termasuk perilaku cuci baikan dan mudah masuk ke tubuh akut atau ISPA (infeksi saluran perna-tangan pakai sabun. Dan mengembang- manusia. pasan atas). Tidak perlu mahal untukkan metode, pesan-pesan, dan produk 4. Hampir semua orang mengerti pen- hidup sehat dan dengan cara yang mudahkomunikasi versi komunitas. tingnya cuci tangan pakai sabun pula. Jadi kapan lagi kita memulai hidup namun tidak membiasakan diri sehat? BW46 Percik Juli 2007
  • A BS T R A C TThe Relationship between WaterSupply and SanitationDevelopment with HealthImprovement(Case Study of the villages of Jambearjo and Klampok in Kabupaten Malang)T he government has implemented various Water Supply focus villages, but without improved water supply and sanitation and Environmental Sanitation development pro- facility. jects/programs since Pelita-I till now. According toWorld Bank report using Susenas Data of 2004, only 48 percent Result Obtainedof the population is currently covered with clean water service, A reduction on diarrhoea cases has been recorded after the42 percent of urban and 51 percent of village population. It is water supply and sanitation facility has been functioning. Thisalso mentioned in the report that for the period of 8 years from is indicated through comparing the control village (Klampok, 481994 till 2002 service coverage increase is only 9 percent, in the diarrhoea cases) with Jambearjo, 13 cases.urban. Furthermore, 40 percent of the population is still defe- In terms the general population regardless of age there is acating in a variety of improper places like garden, fish pond, reduction from 154 for every 1.000 people down to 90. Thelake, river and seafront. reduction of diarrhoea cases for children below 5 years old is This has caused the relatively high prevalence of diarrhoea considered as the result of the availability of clean water, facilitydiseases at 280 per 1000 population and places third in the for defecation, washing hands after defecation, washing handscauses of infant mortality, second in children below 5 and fifth after child cleansing, disposal of child faeces, waste disposalof general population and they frequently come as extraordinary facility and better knowledge about environmental hygiene.occurrence with high mortality rate. The reason for the low water supply and sanitation service Recommendationcoverage is because the government does not consider it a prio- From the findings of the study and for the purpose of redu-rity. Thats also the reason why the World Bank has provided a cing the prevalence of diarrhoea diseases in other villages it isloan for water supply and sanitation development through recommended that the regional government seriously considereWSLIC-2 project. the replication of WSLIC-2 approaches particularly in the toilet facility development, enhancement of hygiene behaviour espe-Research Purpose and Method Applied cially washing hands with soap and development of waste dis- The study was intended to measure WSLIC-2 project effec- posal facility.tiveness as it relates to improvement of community health as It is also recommended to conduct a more detailed researchindicated from reduction of diarrhoea cases in children under 5 especially with Jambearjo about the other diarrhoea causing fac-years old and to identify the most dominant factors for the tors, because the findings indicate that even after water supplyreduction. facility has been running sufficiently well the diarrhoea problem This study was a survey research (i.e non experimental). It in children prevails. As we know the causes of diarrhoea are notwas conducted through questionaires directed to housewives limited to water supply and sanitation only, there are other fac-with children under five years old. The survey areas consist of a tors that may play some role.village with functioning water supply and sanitiation facility. As Condensed from thesis bycontrol, another village that in terms of geographical condition, Rheidda Pramudhy Environmental Study Programsocio-economic status and community habit are similar with the Graduate School, University of Indonesia Percik July 2007 47
  • I AT P I C L I N I C Percik magazine in cooperation with the Association of Sanitation Engineers and Environmental Engineers maintains Clinic column. This column deals with question and answers on water supply and environmental sanitation. Question can be forwarded through Percik magazine Contributors: Sandhi Eko Bramono (, Lina Damayanti ( WATER HYACINTH FOR TREATMENT Answer: Animal waste can be used to make composting process OF HUMAN EXCREMENT faster, because it improves C/N ratio of the solid waste. In its application, considering continuity and availability of supply, itQuestion: is recommended to economize the use of the animal waste. Is it true that water hyacinth can be used to treat human The best waste for use is one produced from poultry farm (itexcrement? needs the least amount), the least is goat waste because it needs Darma 5-6 times the amount of chicken droppings for the same result. Pekanbaru Based on the average solid waste characteristics in Indonesia, the ratio for a good composting process is 100 kg solid wasteAnswer: mixed with 12 kg chicken waste. Water hyacinth can be used for treatment of human excre-ment. This is because this plant thrives well on lands rich inorganic compounds yet low in oxygen content. Water hyacinth TREATMENT OF LEACHATEuses the organic matter of human waste for nutrition. Andbesides, the plant is relatively resistant to nitrate and phosphate Question:containing water such as the ponds that are highly polluted with In a leachate treatment of a TPA using the combination ofdetergents from domestic wastewater. aerator, alum addition, and filter: However, uncontrolled water hyacinth population is detri- a. What is the right order of application for the above combi-mental because it may cause shallowing of water body from the nation? And why?piling up of dead stems bringing oxygen content extremely low b. How long should the aerator be operated to treat 1.5 l/sec(that makes septic-anaerobic condition as evidenced from dark leachate discharge?water colour and smells bad that in the end kills all aquatic life). c. What is the recommended alum dosage to treat the 1.5 l/sec Water hyacinth seed can live a dormant life for a long time leachate?even in a very bad environmental condition. This means, if the Bambang Widiyokoseed are released into the environment (free water body) some- Slemanday they will germinate and cause an uncontrolled waterhyacinth field and weed problem far away from its place of ori-gin. Answer: a. The best recommended order is aeration (using aerator), followed by alum application, wait till sedimentation takes place, and finally filtration (refrain from direct filtering, but MANURE MAKES COMPOSTING FASTER wait for a while till sedimentation takes place, this is to pre- vent clogging of filter element).Question: b. It is recommendable that the time for the treatment is 12- Is it true that composting time can be shortened by adding 18 hours.animal manure? Then, what type of animal waste is the best c. The alum dosage is approx. 50-60 mg per litre of leachate.used for it? Assuming the discharge rate of 1.5 l/sec and alum purity at Sopacua 60 percent, then alum requirement is 12.95 kg per day. Ambon48 Percik July 2007
  • BO O K I N F O ELIMINATE POVERTY SIGNIFICANTLY Title Good Governance, and Conclusion. It ACCESS TO BASIC SERVICES FOR THE POOR also discusses strategies to touch, involve THE IMPORTANCE OF GOOD GOVERNANCE and empower the poor communities in Author: order to improve their life. Asia-Pacific MDG Study Series Specific discussion on community Publisher: empowerment is made in Chapter 3 UNESCAP-UNDP-ADB, 2007 under section Empowering the Poor. In Pages: brief the commitment to build good go- 50 pages vernance is important in strategy formu- lation for provision of basic services andT his book discusses matters relat- poverty reduction effectively and sus- ed to good governance as it tainably. relates to MDGs achievement Good governance guarantees thatthat has been a topic of discussion for poor community and other less privilegedsome time. The explanation stresses groups are involved in decision makingmore on poverty reduction to a significant about public services and their influence local socio-cultural including politicallevel. to their life. aspects. The 50 page book also presents a The involvement of the poor as party This book is divided into 4 chapters,number of strategies to overcome barriers in the motivation towards self reliance. Barriers to Services, Strategies tofaced by the community in obtaining pub- And transparancy is an important base Overcome Barriers, The Importance oflic services in terms of financial, legal, for public service provision. BW Development Planning and Community Empowerment Title actively participate in the development. AUTONOMOUS REGION DEVELOPMENT Empowerment is a process for individu- PLANNING AND COMMUNITY als in the community to be self reliant, EMPOWERMENT motivated and sufficiently skilled. Author: Empowerment also means improving Dr. Drs. I Nyoman Sumaryadi, M.Si productivity. Publisher: The author discusses 5 aspects in Citra Utama, 2005 empowerment to be taken into considera- Pages: tion. First, the leaders must fully under- 290 pp (in Bahasa) stand the empowerment concept. Second, the empowerment conceptT his book consists of two parts The pre planning phase stresses the assumes cultural, organizational and cor- each This book conssists of two importance of awareness campaign to all porate changes. Third, the leaders must parts each is divided into 5 chap- government officials, members of DPRD realize that in implementation of the con-ters. Part one discusses autonomous and others on matters related to the plan- cept there will be changes in role includ-region development planning. Part two ning. Then comes the planning process ing reduction of the role of the leaders.about community empowerment. Part following a preliminary comprehensive Fourth, the community must also under-one describes that regional autonomy study of the area in order to get a basic go some change in itself. And fifth, itrelated development consists of three knowledge about the area. must be realized that empowermentphases, i.e. pre planning, planning and While part two or community empow- process is not a one shot deal. It needsimplementation including its related erment explains that empowerment is an time and patience. BWsupervision. effort for the community to become Percik July 2007 49
  • W E BS I T E I N F OThe IRC International Water implementation. This site is maintained by Mana-and Sanitation Center (IRC) gement Alternatives, a management con- sultant focussing on community, NGO and government based activities.rchText=community+development&Sear chButton=Search Community Development Xchange cd.htm This site provides relatively sufficient information on community development from definition, glossary related to com- munity development and tools for use for The Asset Based Community community development work effective- Development Institute ly. Publication related to the topic is also available for the visitors to read. Some of the interesting topics to /abcd.html include: Community Development- Everywhere and Nowhere: rediscovering the purpose and practice of community Through this web the visitor may development, Political, Professional, obtain various published materials on In this website visitors may obtain a community development. Some of theselection of as many as 3394 articles interesting topics include: Buildingrelated to community development. Communities from the Inside Out: a PathThese articles consist mainly of lessons toward Finding and Mobilizinglearned from community development Community Asset Voluntary Associationactivities particularly within the realm of in Low Income Neighbourhood: Anwater and sanitation conducted by IRC in Unexplored Community Resources, Amany countries. Guide to Evaluating Asset Based This site is maintained by IRC Water Community Development, and others.and Sanitation Center, a foundation This web also provides discussion groupsfocussing on water and sanitation for the for interested visitors.purpose of facilitation sharing process, This web is maintained by The Assetpromotion, and application of the avail- Based Community Development Instituteable knowledge so that government, pro- who realizes that community assets arefessionals, and organizations could help key to sustainable development and com-the poor of the developing nations to munity revitalization efforts in ruralobtain water and sanitation services they areas.could operate and maintain by them-selves. Powerful-understanding community development, Having Your Say- Infed Management Alternatives Responses to Building Civil Renewal: A Review of Government Support for for Human Services Community Capacity Building, Impro- b-comdv.htm ving the Health of Communities: the Role of Community Development in Tackling In this web the visitor could obtain Health Inequalities, and others. Also information about various aspects of This site does not specifically deal available discussion forum on selected community development, from the histo-with community development, but topics. ry of community development up to com-through this site visitors may obtain brief The website is maintained by Com- munity participation and social capital.explanation on the basic concept of com- munity Development Xchange, a non go- Also presentation of selected referencesmunity development, from different vernment organization intended to make on community development. This site isangles such as process, relationship with changes through social justice and equal- maintained by Infed, an independentvarious aspects of life, and the outcome ity through socialization of values and NGO consisting of teachers and instruc-expected from community development community development approach. tors. RR50 Percik July 2007
  • CD INFO "Musyawarah" is a form of community empowerment"M usyawarah" a word adapted from the Arabic, meaning decision making through common deliberation to clearup differences. Musyawarah has long been adopted by survive. Although the people live in a scenic country it doesnt always mean that they live harmoniously. Individual disagreementsIndonesians, and is key to community life. may arise from time to time especially in the public When the wheel of globalization and moderniza- bathing. They fight to be the first to enter. Everyonetion is turning and grinding old values merciless- needs water, for bathing, washing and defecat-ly, it seems as if "musyawarah" would be ing. There is only one facility for all.doomed forever. Especially of the urban com- "Musyawarah" is key. Every discussion ismunity who tends to be individualistic. done through this community forum. The The show is neatly wrapped in a VCD to community has its unique way to get togeth-portray how the age long values and heritage er. Saluang, one of the traditional music ofare still relevant for application in this mod- Minangkabau, is made a tool to make theern time. One form of community empower- people come together.ment. The underlying principle is from the Differences must be honoured and valuedcommunity, by the community, and for the as something natural that eventually will con-community. verge into agreement. The implementation is Saiyo sakato , a musyawarah experience of Bukit done through the communal work ("gotong royong").Gombak, the World Bank facilitated video production starts The principle of carrying a burden together is effective-with the background illustrating the community life of Jorong, ly used in resolving water scarcity. Participaton of all membersBukit Gombak, W. Sumatra. The leading performers are mainly of the community is a form of empowerment. The 16 min. videowomen. Some of them are tapping for latex of rubber plants, is flowing nicely in local dialect with Minang traditional musicothers sell pandan mats. They work hard to make their family for the background. BW Empowerment Makes Dream a RealityN one of us is entirely penniless. Each named Puspasari, a new chapter of her familys life has something, however small it begins to take place. The group membership consists may seem, at the least we have of various different background is determined toconsent, honesty, and care which may improve their living condition. It is not only inserve as the basic moral capital. saving and loan activity, all other life improve- That is the opening statement of a ment related issues are listed in the agenda for17 min. VCD entitled "Make Your discussion (i.e. the musyawarah). As it is, thisDream Come True". The docu-drama empowering group also discusses other thingsvideo that was produced in 2005 flows including hygiene, education, social, economicout of Ibu Yatis viewpoint. The moth- and political matters. Educational aspecter of three children tells us her experi- includes literacy education. Everything seemsence about the misfortune she and her easy if it is done collectively. Ibu Yatis patiencefamily suffered during the monetary crisis. and perseverance has led her to Puspasari GroupUnable to pay the educational cost was aggravat- Chairmanship. The lack of education that ends at pover-ed with the laying off of her husband from his job. ty is being subjected for Urban Community Poverty Alleviation The drama depicting Ibu Yati and her family sufficiently por- Project through this video. Empowerment makes the communi-trays how the poor should struggle and wake up towards a bet- ty learn a lesson, progressive, self reliant and free fromter life. When Ibu Yati joins others in a community group poverty. BW Percik July 2007 51
  • A G E N DANO. TIME ACTIVITY1 01 May 2007 WS for Strategy Plan Formulation for Gorontalo City conducted by WASPOLA2 1-2 May 2007 WS on Data Management conducted by WASPLOA in Kabupaten Bangka3 WS "Macro Study on Indentification of National Demand for Raw Water" held by Dit Gen Cipta karya Dept PW at Grand Mahakam Hotel4 02 May 2007 World Water Expo XV 2007 held at the Dept. Public Works Office5 2-4 May 2007 Follow up WS on the Strategy Plan Formulation for Bone Bolango and Pahuwato held by WASPOLA6 3-4 May 2007 WS for Strategy Plan Formulation for Kabupaten Bangka Tengah conducted by WASPOLA7 04 May 2007 WS "Study on Pollution of Drinking Water Supply" held the Office Dit. Gen PP&PL Dept Health8 7-12 May 2007 MPA-PHAST Training for National WSS-WG held in Semarang by Dit. Gen PMD Dept. Home Affairs9 7-11 May 2007 Follow up Strategy Plan Formulation for Kabs. Bima, Dompu, Lombok Tengah by WASPOLA10 9-10 May 2007 WS on Data Management for NTT Province conducted by WASPLOA11 09 May 2007 Launching of Lake Revitalization aand Singing MOU between Ministers PW, Forestry and Agriculture at Lake Cikaret conducted by WASPOLA12 10 May 2007 WS on CB-WWS for Kab. Soppeng conducted by WASPOLA13 12 May 2007 WS for Strategy Plan Formulation for Kabupaten Wajo, S. Sulawesi conducted by WASPOLA14 15 May 2007 Meeting with Netherland Red Cross at the WSS-WG Office15 15 May 2007 WS on Provincial ISSDP Sanitation Program Policy and Strategy held by ISSDP at W. Java Bappeda Office16 15-16 May 2007 WS for Strategy Plan Formulation for Kabupaten Pemalang, C. Java conducted by WASPOLA17 21 May 2007 Declaration of Gucialit Communitys Freedom from Defecation in the Open at Dadapan village18 21 May 2007 ProAir Techn. Training for Publ Works officials at ABP Training Centre, Surabaya19 21-24 May 2007 WS for Strategy Plan Formulation for Kabs. Konawe Selatan and Konawe conducted by WASPOLA20 21 May 2007 WS for Strategy Plan Formulation for Kab. Pesisir Selatan, W. Sumatra by WASPOLA21 22-24 May 2007 WS on Basic Facilitator for W. Sumatra Province conducted by WASPOLA22 22-23 May 2007 MPA-PHAST Preparation in Makassar conducted by DG Rural Development and WASPOLA23 24 May 2007 WSS Talkshow: "Groundwater Pollution" at DAAI TV24 28-29 May 2007 Monev by ProAir Technical Team in Kab. Ende conducted by Dit Gen. PP&PL Dept Health25 28-30 May 2007 ToT for Strategy Plan Formulation for NTT Province held by WASPOLA26 29-30 May 2007 WS for Strategy Plan Formulation for Kabupaten Bangka conducted by WASPOLA27 29 May 2007 WS for Strategy Plan Formulation for Bukittinggi conducted by WASPOLA28 30-31 May 2007 Monev by ProAir Technical Team in Kab. Alor conducted by Dit Gen. PP&PL Dept Health29 04 June 2007 Kick Off Meeting WSLIC-2 Project held in Jakarta by Dit. Gen. PP&PL Dept Health30 5-11 June 2007 Visit of WSLIC-2 Supervision Mission to Provinces of E. Java, NTB, S. Sulawesi and W.Sulawesi by DG PP&PL Dept. Health31 6-7 June 2007 Finalising Strategy Plan Formulation for Kab. Tanah Datar, by WASPOLA32 8-9 June 2007 Meeting on WSS Development Plan at Cisarua conducted by WSS-WG33 11-15 June 2007 WS on Policy Review and Strategy Plan Formulation for Kab. Cilacap conducted by WASPOLA34 11-13 June 2007 Training on Strategy Plan Formulation for Kab. Konawe conducted by WASPOLA35 14-15 June 2007 Training on Strategy Plan Formulation for Kab. South Konawe conducted by WASPOLA36 12-15 June 2007 Technical Consultation Hygiene Environment Program and Evaluation of Health Kabutaen and Kota Makassar, conducted by DG PP&PL Dept. Health37 11-15 June 2007 CLTS Training for Kab. Tanah Datar conducted by Dit. Gen PP&PL Dept. Health38 18-23 June 2007 MPA-PHAST Training for National WSS-WG held in Makassar by Dit. Gen PMD Dept. Home Affairs39 18-22 June 2007 CWSHP Technical Training for the Province of Jambi held by Dept. Publ Works40 19-20 June 2007 WS for Strategy Plan Formulation for Kabupaten Bone Bolango conducted by WASPOLA41 20-22 June 2007 Indowater Expo & Forum at Jakarta Convention Centre held by Napindo Media Ashatama42 20 June 2007 Interactive Dialogue "Where Goes My Clean Water" at Jakarta Convention Centre held by Napindo Media Ashatama within the framework of Indowater Expo and Forum 200743 25-29June 2007 Preparatory WWS thematic training for S. A. Tirtayasa University students prepared for field works44 25-29 June 2007 CWSHP Technical Training at Pontianak W. Kalimantan held by Dept. Publ Works45 29-30 June 2007 WS on synergy of WSLIC, UNICEF and WASPOLA in Sumbawa held by UNICEF52 Percik July 2007