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Information Media for Water Supply and         From the Editor                                                            ...
FROM THE EDITORW           e have determined to tirelessly voice out a plea to make           all of us aware of the impor...
YO U R V O I C E      How to Access Percik Digital File                                            Wish to Have CD and Boo...
MAIN FEATUREI      t seems that an activity without community empowerment          Empowerment. This article intends to co...
M A I N F E AT U R E       COMMUNITY RIGHTS TO                    TANGGUNG JAWAB MASYARAKAT UNTUK               source of ...
M A I N F E AT U R Ecapable of compromising between techni-cal efficiency and and non technical fac-tors underlying the co...
M A I N F E AT U R EActive CommunityParticipation As Key toEmpowermentO          ne of the main components for a          ...
M A I N F E AT U R Esustainability is achieved," he says.                                   ty level or some other locally...
I N T E RV I E WDr. Pungky SumadiDirector of Poverty Alleviation BappenasMAKING COMMUNITYTHE LEADING ACTOR     Community e...
I N T E RV I E W    What is the real purpose of NPCE?                                  related to NPCE. We give freedom to...
I N T E RV I E W                                         Nina Sidle Unsulangi                                         A FA...
I N T E RV I E Wschool and primary school children.    Is there any special method in educating children?    Of course. As...
R E G U L AT I O NWATER SUPPLYPROVISION SYSTEMPursuant to Government Regulation No. 16 of 2005                            ...
R E G U L AT I O Nfulfillment of minimum standard of serv-ice, and prevention of negative socialimpact.    This government...
INSIGHT                                                                                   myths and taboos. This is intend...
INSIGHTof an ecosystem depends on the climate, physiography, vegeta-          supervision because it must be sustained and...
INSIGHTtionship between the macro cosmic (the universe) and micro        nature wisely and sustainably. This is allcosmic ...
INSIGHTTHE COMMUNITYS MOSTSUITABLE LATRINE TECHNOLOGY  Oleh: Alma Arief                                                   ...
INSIGHT              A communal WC at Pondok Pesantren (Religious School) Al Falah In Kabupaten Pamekasan. Photo: Oswar Mu...
INSIGHTGLOBALWARMING  Oleh: Imam MG          lobal warming is not a purely natural phenomenon          independent of huma...
Community Empowerment. Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine. July 2007.
Community Empowerment. Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine. July 2007.
Community Empowerment. Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine. July 2007.
Community Empowerment. Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine. July 2007.
Community Empowerment. Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine. July 2007.
Community Empowerment. Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine. July 2007.
Community Empowerment. Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine. July 2007.
Community Empowerment. Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine. July 2007.
Community Empowerment. Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine. July 2007.
Community Empowerment. Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine. July 2007.
Community Empowerment. Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine. July 2007.
Community Empowerment. Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine. July 2007.
Community Empowerment. Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine. July 2007.
Community Empowerment. Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine. July 2007.
Community Empowerment. Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine. July 2007.
Community Empowerment. Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine. July 2007.
Community Empowerment. Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine. July 2007.
Community Empowerment. Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine. July 2007.
Community Empowerment. Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine. July 2007.
Community Empowerment. Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine. July 2007.
Community Empowerment. Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine. July 2007.
Community Empowerment. Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine. July 2007.
Community Empowerment. Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine. July 2007.
Community Empowerment. Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine. July 2007.
Community Empowerment. Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine. July 2007.
Community Empowerment. Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine. July 2007.
Community Empowerment. Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine. July 2007.
Community Empowerment. Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine. July 2007.
Community Empowerment. Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine. July 2007.
Community Empowerment. Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine. July 2007.
Community Empowerment. Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine. July 2007.
Community Empowerment. Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine. July 2007.
Community Empowerment. Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine. July 2007.
Community Empowerment. Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine. July 2007.
Community Empowerment. Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine. July 2007.
Community Empowerment. Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine. July 2007.
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Community Empowerment. Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine. July 2007.

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Published by Indonesia Water and Sanitation Working Group. First Edition in August 2003

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Transcript of "Community Empowerment. Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine. July 2007. "

  1. 1. Information Media for Water Supply and From the Editor 1 Environmental Sanitation Your Voice 2 Published by: Water Supply and Sanitation Working Group Main Feature Advisor: Community Empowerment 3 Director General for Human Settlement, Department of Public Works Active Community Involvement is Key to Empowerment 6 Board of Trustee: Interview Director of Settlement and Housing, National Development Planning Agency Pungky Sumadi, Director of Poverty Alleviation Bappenas 8 Director of Water and Sanitation, Ministry of Health Nina Sidle Unsulangi: A farmer who does not have Director of Water Supply Development, Department of Public Works to be in a village with big land 10Director of Natural Resources and Appropriate Technology, Director General on Village and Regulation Community Empowerment, Department of Home Affairs Water Supply Provision System 12 Director for Facilitation of Special Planning Environment Management, Insight 14 Department of Home Affairs Chief Editor: Report 21 Oswar Mungkasa Telescope 23 Board of Editor: Zaenal Nampira, Our Guest 26 Indar Parawansa, Bambang Purwanto Innovation 28 Editor: Around Plan 29 Maraita Listyasari, Rheidda Pramudhy, Raymond Marpaung, Bowo Leksono, Around ISSDP 31 Reski Dian Diniari Around WASPOLA 33 Design/Illustrator: Rudi Kosasih Around WSS 34 Production: Program 45 Machrudin Distribution: Abstract 47 Agus Syuhada IATPI Clinic 48 Address: Jl. Cianjur No. 4, Menteng, Jakarta Pusat Book Info 49 Phone/Fax.: 62-21-31904113 http://www.ampl.or.id Website Info 50 e-mail: redaksipercik@yahoo.com redaksi@ampl.or.id CD Info 51 oswar@bappenas.go.id Agenda 52 Unsolicited article or opinion items are welcome. Please send to our address WSS Bibliography or e-mail. Dont forget to be brief and accompanied by identity. This magazine can be accessed at Water Supply and Environmental Sanitation Website at www.apml.or.id
  2. 2. FROM THE EDITORW e have determined to tirelessly voice out a plea to make all of us aware of the importance of raw water and healthy environment. This edition brings to you anumber of water supply and environmental sanitation relatedinformation. It has become a kind of task, to knock at the door of ourawareness, through transformation of knowledge and informa-tion so that this very magazine published by the WSS-WG hascome into 18th edition. Last May and June the world celebrated two important his-toric moments each carrying the duties related to the fate ofworlds population. They are the World Environment Day on 5June and Earth Day on 22 April. Have we asked ourselves what good deed have we con-tributed to the environment around us? To our beloved earth,for that matter? It seems this question frequently whines duringthe disaster or when an awareness is passing through for a shortmoment. Do you realize that the earth we live in is more than 4 billionyears old. And each time the planet that has been inhabited byhuman being for thousands of years is undergoing change. Aslow but sure change. The change is linked with the existence ofits inhabitants. Natural disasters that overwhelm the earth sur-face is the symptom of the acceleration of the changes. And it isquite unwise if the blame for each disaster is imposed on naturalphenomenon. What have we, the civilized being, contributed to this earth?Have we done anything positive for the sake of environmentalconservation and for the sake of human life? Lets compare our WSS Working Group - WASPOLA Booth in Indowater Exhibition 2007.good deed against the destruction to the earth. It is not impos- Photo: Bowo Leksono.sible, that the big changes that lead to the earth destruction arethe consequences of human activity. More horrifying is the global warming phenomenon that An article reviews how WSS programs and projects inagain becomes the daily talks since the last few years. Various Indonesia are inseparable from community empowerment asdisasters have hit and several diseases plague the earth popula- vehicle towards achievement. WSLIC (Water and Sanitation fortion is the evidence how vicious global warming effect can be. Low Income Communities), CWSH (Community Water Services Imagine, this phenomenon will accelerate the earth damage and Health Project), Sanitation by the Community (Sanimas)that means damage to the life of its inhabitants. This is beyond and ProAir (Water Program). Even, Sanimas program claimsthe individual problems or that of one or two nations. Earths that 70 percent of its implementation is pivoted on communityfate is the responsibility of all human being. empowerment. Again, human awareness is at stake. And speaking of human The main feature of this edition is made more complete withawareness, individually as well as communally, demands an an interview with Dr. Pungky Sumadi, Director of Povertyeffective community, sensitive to environment, and capable of Alleviation, Bappenas who speaks a lot about National Programovercoming life problem wisely. for Community Empowerment. Last but not least our guest A review on community empowerment fills our Main Tasya who was once a junior singer who is now coming to ado-Feature in this edition. In reality, there are still many of us lescence. This Junior Environmental Ambassadress representshuman beings who are alien to clean environment for our sur- young people of her age in speaking about waste management.vival. Through community empowerment mans conscious For all of the above and in the light of further improvementinvolvement is absolutely needed and this requires support and to this magazine comments and suggestion from our loyal read-facilitation. ers are most welcome. Have a nice time in reading Percik. Percik July 2007 1
  3. 3. YO U R V O I C E How to Access Percik Digital File Wish to Have CD and Books Assalamu alaikum warahmatullahi wabarakatuh. To improve the students knowledge and insight on Praise God. Id herewith acknowledge with thanks receipt of Environmental Science, we, the Association of EnvironmentalPercik English version ed. December 2006. It is stated therein Engineering Students, Pasundan University Bandung kindlythat Percik magazine can be accessed in the AMPL website. I request for the following items:have tried to dowload it but I always failed. I wonder if a permit, Reducing Energy Cost in Municipal Water Supplyspecific method, or requirement is required. Operation Thank you. Guidelines for Domestic Wastewater Management. Wassalamu alaikum Published by DG City Planning and Urban Planning, 2003. Denny Herlard (in Indonesian) Fighting Against Waste, Depok City Cleaning Agency (in Thank you Mr. Denny, Indonesian) There is no permit, specific method or requirement needed. Waste Recycle, Tony Hare, PT Rosda Jayaputra, Jakarta (inIt might be due the size of the file, over 3 MB, thus it takes a long Indonesia)time to access. We are trying to reduce the file size to make it Bringing Water to the Poor. Selected ADB Case Studies.easier to access. ADB Water Awareness Program. Municipalities & Community Participation. A Sourcebook Wish to Have Percik Bound Volume of Capacity Building. Jenelle Plummer. Earthscan Publication Ltd., London. Thank you for your response to my email. Thank you also for Dictionary of Terms and Foreign Abbreviation inthe CD and magazines. If you do not have the bound volume I Environmental and Sanitation Engineering. Published bywould like to have the CD, and additionally I also would like to Trisakti University Press. (in Indonesian)subscribe Percik magazine. I enclose herewith my home and Percik magazine. Regular subscription.office addresses. Please let me know if there is a mailing costinvolved. Our address: With kind regards. Campus IV Pasundan University Bandung Yuliyanti Association of Environmental Engineering Students University of Indonesia Health Research Centre Secretariate: Bldg C Jalak Harupat 7th fl. Faculty of Community Health Bldg G Room 211 Jl. Setiabudi No. 193 Bandung. University of Indonesia Depok Campus Postal Code 16424 With kind regards, Thank you for your attention Wish to Have Percik Magazine Asep Pulloh Hidayat Dear Percik, Acknowledgement of Receipt I am Rudi. I came to know Percik from environmentalreporter mailing list. Today I am no longer a reporter but con- Acknowledge with thanks receipt of Percik magazine XVII,centrating more on training radio reporters. Sometimes I teach Percik Yunior, and 3 CDs. We honestly hope these materials willspecific subject on environment. Therefore I need the magazine be helpful to our department, especially the students, so that theyou are publishing. If it is free of charge I am quite interested. I intention to extensive dissemination of water supply and sanita-also need the earlier editions. If it would be difficult for you to tion related information could be achieved.send to my address, I will be happy if you let me collect it from With kind regards and thank you againyour office. Yudi Chairman, Environmental Engineering Department Pondok Cipta Blok C25 Technical Faculty Andalas University Bekasi Barat 17134 Limau Manis Campus, Padang 2 Percik July 2007
  4. 4. MAIN FEATUREI t seems that an activity without community empowerment Empowerment. This article intends to contribute information label tagged to it is considered outdated. This tendency on the meaning, basic principle, advantage and disadvantage was unheard of until early 1990s when many government including government portion in a community based activity.projects were beginning to bear community based label. Whatfollows was that the term community empowerment is under- What is Community Empowerment?stood in various different ways. From the most rigid which Community empowerment is defined in many differentdefines it as from, by and for the community denying as much as ways, but there are at least two requirements that have to be metpossible the role of government till up to the most loosely if an activity is to be considered as community based. One, if thedefines it as a one way socialization of the project to the benefi- community reserves the right to make decision. Two, if the com-ciary community at beginning of the activity. Currently the gov- munity is responsible for operation and management (O&M) ofernment has launched a National Program for Community the facility. Percik July 2007 3
  5. 5. M A I N F E AT U R E COMMUNITY RIGHTS TO TANGGUNG JAWAB MASYARAKAT UNTUK source of conflict; (iv) there may arise competition between management team Technology choice Maintenance and repair with the traditional community leaders or even with the village government; (v) Level of service Regulation highly dependent on exernal facilitator. Form of organization Funding Legal Implication Funding mechanism Management organization In connection with community based management, there are several issues that are likely to create problems in the future.Requirements for Community of community demand and willingness to Based on experience, ownership of theBased pay; (iii) community understanding asset is the main issue. Especially when Community based activity will run always to be taken into consideration; (iv) the fund is derived from various differentsmoothly if the community is (i) capable; the community becomes more indepen- sources, such as donor, government (cen-and (ii) willing to manage. The require- dent from external sources; (v) cost tral and regional), NGO, and the commu-ments are developed through training recovery principle and payment system nity. Transfering the asset to the commu-and capacity building programs, the rest can be adjusted to community condition; nity will remove it permanently from thewill come through organizational (vi) improvement of community manage- government balance sheet including theimprovement. Though many aspects of rial capacity; (vii) the community owns consequential maintenance budget whichthe development are to be obtained from its own facility; (viii) improvement of otherwise may not be available. If on thegovernment facilitation. community self confidence. other hand the asset is transferred to the government then the community would question the whereabouts of its contribu- CAPACITY TO MANAGE KEINGINAN MENGELOLA tion. One of the ways commonly prac- tised is transfering the asset to the go- Availability of technical skill Demand vernment while the management right remains with the community. In this way Availability of management Human resouces quantity, the community can manage and generate and problem solving skill dependability and quality income from the management. For this purpose it is deemed necessary to make Integratedness Advantage regulatory changes in order to make go- vernment a grant to community possible Technological complexity Equality and to determine the legal status of the Availability of spare parts Acceptability of technology community level management team. Capacity of payment Level of service What Makes Government Support Work? Legal framework Willingness to pay If community is directly involved in a Availability of information Cost of service opportunity development process, the government will feel somewhat dizzy as to change its Management alternative role from provider into facilitator, coordi- nator and supporter. This requires that Political factor the involved government employees adjust their attitudes. In addition to loos- Advantage and Disadvantage The disadvantages may vary widely ing their capacity for making their own It is understood that community will- depending on the local condition and in decision and issuing instruction to theingness is influenced by many factors, general may come in the following for- community, they have to listen to thesuch as the advantage to the community. mats (i) the management team is func- communitys opinion and idea.For this purpose there are several identi- tioning only at times of the facility break- Government employees must answer onfiable advantages the community could down, in all other times it is dormant; (ii) behalf of the community in terms of tech-possibly get (i) design is developed in the management team is dominated by nology choice, funding, efficacy, level ofaccordance with community demand; (ii) certain group/individuals; (iii) financial service, O&M requirements, etc. As addi-level of service is determined on the base management frequently becomes the tion, they also have to be flexible, and 4 Percik July 2007
  6. 6. M A I N F E AT U R Ecapable of compromising between techni-cal efficiency and and non technical fac-tors underlying the community demand.Of course, there are requirements thathave to be met such as (i) capability ofcommunication; (ii) motivation to help;(iii) availability of minimum fund; and(iv) willingness to spend more time for thefavour of the community.Advantage and disadvantage of go-vernment support As it is with the community, the go-vernment will support the community onlyif it is obviously advantageous. The mostobvious advantage is less routine mainte-nance and repair to be done. Besides,there are several other advantages, suchas (i) improvement of willingness to paybecause the community realizes that theservice is not government provided; (ii)improved system efficacy; (iii) more timefor the government to concentrate onplanning without being distracted byother details such as routine repair; (iv)relieve the government from the burdenof limited financial and human resourcescapacity; (v) funds for maintenance andrepair can be shifted to development Napila Hilwati, AM Keb., village midwife of Tanjung Tiga village, Muaraenim, S. Sumatrafinancing. is discussing the topic of hygiene life with young females of the community. Photo: Bowo On the other hand, there are in it se-veral disadvantages should the govern-ment facilitate community based acivity: In the last few decades changes are In reality the community based WSS(i) loss of power, status and influence; (ii) beginning to take place that stimulate facility management does not alwaysthe whole process takes a long time; (iii) development orientation leans towards mean a full community management. Thedifficult to apply a uniform approach; (iv) involvement of stakeholders from outside basic idea is role sharing according topossible difficulty for compromising com- the government. This tendency goes in each ones capacity. Even the private sec-munity demand with political considera- compliance with the beginning of the era tor may be involved in case the communi-tion. of decentralization giving the regional ty alone is unable to handle a certain government more responsibility and at development undertaking. The pattern ofApplication in WSS Development the same time also the demand improve role sharing will not always be the same One of the difficulties faced by the efficiency, effectiveness and service susta- depending on the type of activity, techni-government in the provision of water sup- bility. cal and financial capacity of the commu-ply and sanitation facilities is limited The above process then ignites a nity, government facilitation capacity,funding capacity. This is because of the change in government role from provider and so on.conventional tendency of government ori- to facilitator, and supporter. Each of the To find the right community empo-entation (i) more emphasis on physical two parties, the government and the com- werment format in WSS development isconstruction instead of service improve- munity as well, are facing uncertainty our common task. So that the pendulumment; (ii) service is provided purely by within the transition period. On the one that currently is aiming to communitypublic sector instead of partnership hand, the regional government tends to empowerment in WSS development willarrangement; (iii) lack of political will to release the entire process to the commu- not swing back to the government direc-urge the community to pay for a public nity while the community is not prepared tion as the sole WSS service provider.service. to assume the new role. (OM from various sources) Percik July 2007 5
  7. 7. M A I N F E AT U R EActive CommunityParticipation As Key toEmpowermentO ne of the main components for a community development pro- gram or project is its in buildingthe community active participation notonly in sharing the benefit but also in thesense of being part of the development sothat the project or activity may sustain.Community involvement is the real con-summation of community empowermenttowards self reliance, as is in WSS deve-lopment in Indonesia, Various methods and approacheshave been tried to explore the communitypotential. For example, WSLIC (Waterand Sanitation for Low Income Commu-nities) is implemented based on theMethodology for Particiapatory Assess-ments (MPA) and Participatory Hygiene A group of village youth regardless of status and sexual denomination sit together to dis-and Sanitation Transformation (PHAST) cuss the village development. Photo: Bowo Leksonoi.e. participation and democracy in reallife particularly for women and the poor. more or less the same objective. Active In CWSH the community is activelyThis method is not too much different community involvement is a coercive factor involved and plays a role in decision mak-from CWSH (Community Water Services in order that everyone feels to belong to ing, planning and implementation of vil-and Health) Project is doing. In Sanimas and therefore is responsible to sustain the lage level activity and in supervising the use(Sanitation by the Community) the appli- projects effectiveness. of the existing resources. In Proair, thecation of RPA (Rapid Participatory German government grant funded projectAssessments) is considered effective in a How far is community involve- the community involvement also requires,rapid and systematic manner the identifi- ment? additionally, in cash and in kind contribu-cation of sanitation problems and issues Each activity or project puts the com- tion including labour.and the community willingness for their munity as the leading actor. This is evi- WSLIC-2 CPMU Imam Syahbandiresolution on their own. denced for instance in Sanimas, the com- says that WSLIC-2 project target is an While in the ProAir program the munity involvement is the dominant factor empowered grassroot community who isemphasis it is put on demand responsive- so that without community involvement willing to actively participate so that theness approach which is open for all com- there is no community sanitation. "In development is from and driven by theponents of the community with special Sanimas, community empowerment repre- community. "The community developsattention to women as community moti- sents 70 percent of the activity," says Emah, the idea, plan, implementation activity,vator (participatory approach) and the a Dept. Public Work officer responsible for use and maintain, and is committed tocommunity as the leading actor. Sanimas day to day activity. the decision made so that everyone The methods are basically directed to belongs to the development and thus the 6 Percik July 2007
  8. 8. M A I N F E AT U R Esustainability is achieved," he says. ty level or some other locally suitable method. In addition it is In CWSH the target is to build community self reliance, self necessary to establish an inter-agency coordination particularlyconscience and responsibility. "It is expected the community is when it comes to budget requirement and post project sustain-capable of managing hygiene behaviour, prevention of diseases, abiliy for program replication (exit strategy).protect water source and environment, development of water Lack of field facilitators dedication who are the spearheadssupply and sanitation," says Mrs. Pimanih, of CWSH Planning of the empowerment, is a barrier in Sanimas. Emah admits thatand Financial section. empowerment is never easy, it is even a difficult task if it is done As for ProAir, considering the relatively big investment without the heart and if not understood well.involved for its construction, the community empowerment is With ProAir, the barrier lies with the target setting and fiscaltargeted to sustainability of the water supply and sanitation year. "Besides, the collection of in cash contribution takes afacility. We may sum up from the above discussion that commu- longer time because the amount of fund for physical cxonstruc-nity empowerment is targeted to a strong community that is evi- tion is relatively big therefore the community in cash contribu-denced from its willingness to actively participate and involve tion is also big," explains Ir. Deni Mulyana, Mkes. ProAir exectowards achieving sustainability. secretary. The hard work of the field facilitators , according to Deni, becomes the concrete solution.Barriers and Solution While according to Pimanih, more intimately called Upi, it is According to Imam the classic reason for community difficult to change the government employeess way of thinking,empowerment failure is poor economic condition and communi- is the barrier in CWSH. "They have been patterned to projectties are highly different one from the other. The worst of all, he orientation, always consider the the poor is helpless, lack of edu-said further, the marketing to the involved sector for the adop- cation therefore knows nothing. It is not too difficult to accepttion and replication of approach. "Probably all of us are aware the new paradigm but it is extremely difficult to unleash the oldthat community empowerment based activity is more realistic habit,"says Upi. For this CWSH developed a way to overcome itand beneficial, but when it comes to marketing the idea to obtain through capacity improvement of the employees in facilitationpublic funding, APBD (regional budget) and or APBN (national and empowerment approach through relevant trainings andbudget), for post project activity continuation one can be sure study visits to successful community based empowerment pro-that it is not at all an easy thing to do. Therefore, one of the bar- jects.riers in the near future is the exit strategy," revealed Imam. He tries to overcome it through provision of facilitator coun- Indicator of Successterpart, by cross sector teamwork or by a consultant to build For WSLIC-2 project the indicator of success is sustainablecommunity preparedness, through repeat meeting at communi- community self reliance. How to sustain empowerment and community participation is, according to Imam, provision of more authority to the community in development management, development of reward system, and establishment of two-way communication with the government to discuss development progress. Proair determines it through the number of facilities deve- loped run by an established management team and the presence of institutional and policy support. Emah strongly emphasizes the need for criteria for measuring the level of achievement of community empowerment. "The achievement does not only come in the form of physical construction, but it is more its sus- tainable function of the facility developed through community activity and creativity," she says firmly. And for CWSH, empowerment achievement is considered successful if the community is capable of identifying, analysing and propose solution to their problem and help themselves, self confident and responsible to create a sustainable health devel- A group of villagers are seriously discussing their village opment process. Bowo Leksono hygiene program. Photo: Istimewa Percik July 2007 7
  9. 9. I N T E RV I E WDr. Pungky SumadiDirector of Poverty Alleviation BappenasMAKING COMMUNITYTHE LEADING ACTOR Community empowerment programs have been tried sincethe time of the New Order. There are many aspects that mustbe ironed out and improved in order to reach the real commu-nity self-reliance. Community empowerment definition hasshifted into human resources capacity to solve his problems.Through the National Program for Community Empowerment(NPCE) launched barely one year ago it is expected to serve ascoordinating body for community empowerment related programs. How the national program is brought into implementationand how effective is it to the community? The following is aninterview made by Percik with Dr. Pungky Sumardi, Director ofPoverty Reduction, Bappenas, held in his office.W hat is the background of the National Program for Community Empowerment? Early May 2006, the Coordinating Ministers of SocialWelfare and Economic and Industry invited us together with theWorld Bank to sit together and discussed the performance ofKecamatan Development Program (KDP) and the possibility ofexpanding it to cover the whole Indonesia. In the beginning I Foto: Bowo Leksonowas surprised, why was it they only knew about KDP while thereare many other programs such as Urban Poverty Reduction After it was agreed, what happened then?Program (UPRP), and others. There are 19 ministries and This means we have to work extra hard. There must be anational institutions managing a total of 56 community empow- minimum standard within which the programs work though thiserment based programs. does not mean uniformity. This demands extra cautiousness in Then I spoke about real situation. In 2007 KDP is nearing formulating NPCE design. After data collection and assessmentcompletion and UPRP will run through 2010 for the whole coun- of the existing programs it was concluded that there a number oftry. I also proposed that from now on we must start phase by the programs are ineffective. This may not continue that wayphase beginning from preparing the institution first. and for this reason NPCE is designed to serve as umbrella and It was agreed that in 2007 KDP and UPRP are expanded to coordinator so that all empowerment programs could workcover 2800 kecamatans and in 2800 to 3800 kecamatans and effectively and efficiently.later all kecamatans in 2009. But I also proposed that 2009 is Through empowerment program it is expected that the com-only two years from now we wont be able to make it because the munity will participate actively and access to basic infrastruc-availability of direct community subsidy is quite limited. I ture and the small scale production economy. The key is tosuggested that this be extended up to 2015 because at that time make community of organizing themselves then they can devel-Indonesia must announce the MDGs target achievement. It was op any activity and work on any sector as they may wish. This isagreed. NPCEs real intention. 8 Percik July 2007
  10. 10. I N T E RV I E W What is the real purpose of NPCE? related to NPCE. We give freedom to the community to choose It is obvious that we have to put the 56 programs into order who is the poorest among them. If we work based on BPS data,so the community may participate more actively in their effort to the tendency is individual target. Therefore, the approach mustimprove their daily life or in the development activity and also as be based on community, we provide them with guidelines whopartner to the regional government. should be selected as benefiaciary and target. We have to see to it that the purpose is to bring the community closer to the basic What is the underlying principle? infrastructure and the rolling economy. In other words, the tar- The establishment of transparency, democracy practice in get is up to the community to choose. They have the freedom tocommunity group election, accountability, help each other decide.among community members based on voluntary principle,equality principle in practice. These are the principles we wish What aspects are to be dealt with?to establish. It is mainly aimed at infrastructure and economic activity based on rolling fund credit scheme. If we really want to reduce Community empowerment in this connection, what poverty, the most obvious is through an economic activity i.e.does it look like? increasing income through employment generation. In this case What we consider empowered community is when it is capa- infrastructure and small scale economy together serve as theble of identifying its own problem and capable of proposing main entrance. However, poverty cannot be dealth with merelyalternative solution through setting the priorities. The decision from the economic aspect. Social aspect such as education andmust be in their hands. If they are given opportunity to make health is also poverty indicator. Each one supports the other.their own decision, the effect will be overwhelming. This is whatwe call the essence of community empowerment, making the What are the barrriers currently in view?community the leading actor. It is clear that we are under time pressure and short of per- sonnel to launch a stronger socialization schedule to both cen- In what way will it be implemented? tral and regional level officers, this is because we are still being At least the pure NPCE is categorized as PPK and P2KP and tied with the NPCE design completion. The guidelines arethis year the SPADA is ongoing, similar to PPK but specially already completed and are now waiting for further inputs todesigned for conflict, backward and isolated areas. In 2008 make them final.Regional Infrastructure for Socio-economic (RISE) program is Another problem is there are many who think we are a kindprepared for implementation. This also will become an NPCE of agent. While in real fact is, the implementation will be in thecore program. hands of the involved Department. There are also who think Next year, we invite other programs to implement their that NPCE will take somebodys share. The actual intention isactivities within the NPCE areas gradually through the guidance that we need cooperation to build a better coordination so thatand coordination we are developing. This is the consequence of all programs may run more effectively.programs being tagged with community empowerment label. The above still does not count the probable regional eco- nomic condition from financial management inefficiency. The The targets? regional government spend more money for office grandeur and There are two aspects in the context of poverty reduction comfort rather than public service. The solution? This again stresses the need of an effective communication and socialization strategy. We are now working together with Depkominfo in formulating the strategy design so that the grass- root level facilitator has the same understanding of what is being transmitted to the community. Besides, monitoring and evalua- tion is another tool for overcoming the barriers. So what are the targets? By 2015 in terms of development the Indonesian community has increased into a better position. They exercise their right to improve themselves, they are participative, they have courage to speak before their government and make the regional govern- ment more sensitive to public service. Bowo Leksono Photo: Bowo Leksono Percik July 2007 9
  11. 11. I N T E RV I E W Nina Sidle Unsulangi A FARMER DOESNT HAVE TO BE VILLAGER WITH VAST TRACT OF LAND Photo: Bowo Leksono Indeed, it is not easy to make the community understand remain consistent with environmental education. It is quitethe meaning of caring and being part of the environment. It appropriate that at the Jakarta 474th Birthday the Provincialtakes a long time to introduce such an idea even to your imme- Government selected the home of this 70 years old lady thediate neighbour. It takes a lot of sacrifice and high sense of Winner of Residential House Arrangement. The 25 sq metresocial responsibility. And Nina Sidle Unsulangi together with ground floor 3 storey house is adorned with more than 100the surrounding community have proven this social dedication. species of medicinal herbs and flower plants arranged nicely at The mother of three children and seven grandchildren every space and corner. Percik visited her home at Jl.working hand in hand with the waste management pioneer Banjarsari No. 13 RT05 RW09, Fatmawati, W, Cilandak, S.Madam Bambang "the waste" Wahono have strongly determined Jakarta.to make this small part of this Beloved Jakarta green and to The following are the excerpts.W hen did you move into Jakarta? I moved from Bandung to Jakarta in we have 40 presently, some of them are men. The core team consists of 7 mem- bers including myself. Starting from oneself to the smallest unit, i.e the family, how to live in healthy home and free from waste to keep diseases1973. At that time, this neighbourhood In 1987 UNESCO provided us with away. Free from waste is by itself a pollu-was quite messy. Turning it into a green training on waste management and envi- tion prevention in addition to environ-leafy surrounding was then unthinkable. ronmental regreening. The institution mental regreening which is done throughBut something did happen and it started did not come with financial assistance, it learning nursery preparation and plantfrom RT level meeting in which 23 fami- came with education. And we are very maintenance.lies got together. Together we made pleased with it. Both UNESCO and theavailable empty drums to serve as government never give us financial assis- You also work on scavengersgarbage bins and we started flower plant- tance they help us with education and improvement?ing. Gradually the area began to look training. We bought all the plants from Yes, and that is not easy because ofbeautiful because we put flower plants our own money. After some time the their low education level and economicalong the road for all of us to take care of. result became obvious, visitors from difficulty. We have to use more feeling. Then some time around 1982 I joined other areas of Jakarta and the surround- Such as slowly building their awarenessMadam Bambang who lives in the neigh- ing regions began flowing in. Then also that scavengers are also Indonesian citi-bouring RT. I received a lot of guidance from other areas, even from abroad for zens with the same rights and responsi-from her. By chance both of us have the sharing of experience. bilites as the others, rich or poor. If yousame interest and ideal, therefore we can feel that you are Indonesian citizen youget along nicely together up to now. What aspect of empowerment must also assume reponsibility towardsTogether we organized a Farmers Group are you aiming at? this land. I also motivate them to plan fornamed Dahlia. From around 20 mem- Many. The essence is how to live a a change so as not to be a scavenger allbers the number gradually increases till hygienic life through selfhelp effort. their life. Not only that, I also teach pre- 10 Percik July 2007
  12. 12. I N T E RV I E Wschool and primary school children. Is there any special method in educating children? Of course. As we all know children are still plain and inno-cent, of course it needs a specific method in educating them.They are generally of 5 to 8 years old. We must use a lot of exam-ples to make them understand. For instance, what time do youwake up in the morning? At half past five! Oh, then it is the timewhen the buftterfly flower begins to bloom. This, at the sametime, is teaching them the name of a flower and its equivalentEnglish and Latin names. Learning while playing. Then we singtogether. Then they would say: "Grandma, please pray for us sothat we love our environment." This is like one years hot daysbeing quenched with a one days rain. Outside Jakarta what other regions do the partici-pants come from? From all over the country. Around Jakarta such asTangerang, Bekasi to Bandung, Cimahi, Subang and the easternregions such as Gorontalo, Makassar, and others. If there aremany participants, they usually invite us to come. What we usedto pioneer is now no more for us alone, it now belongs to every-one, to all Indonesian communities. We realize that some of our training participants are not suc-cessful in their home town. There are so many reasons for this,one of them is if a participant represents the upper middle class.Generally this class considers that city cleaning or waste man-agement is none of our business. That is the governments. Let Nina Sidle Unsulangi in front of her tree shaded house at Jl. Banjarsari, Cilandak Barat, South Jakarta. Photo: Bowo Leksonothem do their job. That what they think it is, so they wait for thegovernment to do the job. What visitors or tourists would be willing to visit our city? If our doesnt have to be living in a rural village and work on a big tractenvironment is dirty. How could we make spend their money if the of land. What can we do if we have only a small piece of land?environment is not comfortable for them? The rich and the low We must be creative. Most important of all is that we must have wi-income population each has a different way of thinking. The latter is llingness to try, and work hard, since without it we are nothing.more readily to being influenced and easily handled. We can plant flowers and other ornamental plants. With a capital of less than Rp 5,000 we already have a plant together What are the constraints in the implementation of with its pot. If we rent it to an office or to a festive we can col-the education? lect Rp 10,000. Some pots we may resell at profit. In short there Many. In terms of age of the participants, one who is 40 is some revenue that may add to family income. In the endyears and above is more difficult to learn than young people of many housewives are attracted to join the movement.20 years or below. Some young participants are also difficult ifthey come here on behalf of the government or NGO and thus How do you maintain the momentum?they attend the training partly as being forced to and therefore We have to continuously do community approach, implantthey behave more or less like a tourist. And there is also a prob- better knowledge and build empowerment. We hold a monthlylem derived from economic condition. Most of the participants revolving program on waste (arisan sampah) to tie closer rela-are housewives coming from low income bracket. There glitters tionship and information sharing among ourselves. Everythingfrom here a ray of hope that the women may produce an addi- is done in transparent manner, no discrimination between thetional income for the family, however small it may seem. A fa- rich and the poor including the scavengers.mily will certainly needs sugar, coffee, rice, gas fuel, and so on. It might not be 100 percent successful, but at least we are try-The would try their best to help their husband by earning some- ing our best to make the community care the environment. Asthing. This is welfare in real life. long as we are healthy we are going to do our best conducting How could we make it into a reality? By being a farmer. This regeneration so that Jakarta and Indonesia will become greenis a sort of awareness we build to city dwellers, being a farmer and comfortable to live in. Bowo Leksono Percik July 2007 11
  13. 13. R E G U L AT I O NWATER SUPPLYPROVISION SYSTEMPursuant to Government Regulation No. 16 of 2005 Photo: ExclusiveP ursuant to article 40 of Law No.7 of 2004 on Water tion unit, service unit, and treatment facility. For its implemen- Resources, the central and regional governments are tation, the WSPS is divided into two parts namely piping and mandated to take care of the water supply system deve- non piping networks.lopment. This is intended to guarantee the availability of rawwater for household water supply. To enable the government Raw water as an important componenteffectively carry out the responsibility it is necessary to develop Raw water regulation is basically intended to support watera regulation as guidance in the water supply provision manage- resources conservation. This is important considering manyment. It is for this purpose the government put into effect a go- areas including Jakarta are beginning to suffer from raw watervernment regulation No. 16 of 2005 on Water Supply Provision shortage. Based on this regulation the central and regional go-System (WSPS) for the purpose of provision of water supply to vernment may arrange an inter-regional cooperation for efficientthe public at an acceptable quality and price rate. In addition, raw water management. Since the availability of raw water isthe WSPS regulation is also intended to develop a balanced of essential in WSPS development, this regulation makes a strongthe providers and the consumers interest, and to enhance emphasis on water source conservation. For this purpose theimpovement in efficiency and service coverage. regulation is directed towards an integrated water supply and The government enacts regulation in consideration of vari- sanitation, wastewater and solid waste management. It mustous related aspects to keep WSPS development on track. This always be born in mind is that sanitation development must beregulation reflects that WSPS development is governed by five oriented to the demand of the poor and areas vulnerable todifferent aspects, namely raw water, production unit, distribu- water shortage, improvement of community health condition, 12 Percik July 2007
  14. 14. R E G U L AT I O Nfulfillment of minimum standard of serv-ice, and prevention of negative socialimpact. This government regulation is direct-ed to a WSPS development that goestogether with sanitation developmentthat may at least be implemented in eachphase both in master as well as in imple-mentation plans. For this purpose, theregional government may establish aninter-regional coordination. The national policy and strategy forWSPS development is formulated andmade effective by the government in con-sideration of the national policy for waterresources and other related sectors. Asfor the master plan which is part of WSPSdevelopment plan, is developed by thegovernment or regional governmentwhereas a master plan involving acrossthe boundary resources is determined bythe provincial government in coordina-tion with the related regions. If it Piping system of a water treatment installation. Photo: Exclusiveinvolves inter-provicial areas the plan isdetermined by the related Minister incoordination with the involved provinces. Water tariff charged to management by the provider. The tariff A master plan consists of at least a is calculated based on fairness and capa-general plan, network plan, development the customers (mainly house- city of payment, taking into considerationplan and activities, service standards and hold) represents the service fee the principles of cost recovery, water usecriteria, raw water allocation plan, inte- for water supply and wastewater efficiency, transparancy and accountabi-gratedness with sanitation, financing management by lity, and raw water source conservation.hints and investment policy, and institu- the provider. With a permit from the central ortional development plan. Beside the mas- regional government a specifically incor-ter plan, WSPS development would WSPS. DSB-WSPS is a non structural porated cooperative, a private corpora-require a detailed feasibility study and body established by and is directly tion and/or a community group may acttechnical design. responsible to the Minister. Its member- as WSPS provider to serve a particular Public WSPS service is provided by a ship consists of representatives from the locality in which a public utility serviceutility public company specifically esta- government, the service provider and the does not reach the area. This is done inblished for this purpose. If the public community. In terms of funding for consideration on the one hand of theutility fails to improve service then the WSPS development including construc- regional government responsibility insupervisor may decide to invite the tion, expansion and physical (technical) WSPS management, and on the other theinvolvement of cooperative, private com- and non physical system improvement government obligation to improve thepany, and/or community group in the may come from different sources inclu- capacity of the cooperative, and the pri-said WSPS management. ding the central and or regional govern- vate corporation/community group in ment, public company, cooperative, pri- terms of standard setting, guidelines,Community Involvement in WSPS vate corporation, community, and others. manual and facilitation, supervision and As a regulatory instrument it is con- Water tariff charged to the customers training. This requirement is also goodsidered necessary to establish a (mainly household) represents the serv- for utility company and the regional go-Development Support Body (DSB) for ice fee for water supply and wastewater vernment. Afif Percik July 2007 13
  15. 15. INSIGHT myths and taboos. This is intended to conserve forests and protect every water source. They were aware that someday fresh water from the forests will dry up unless the forests are well protected and wisely managed. Today, illegal logging, mining, and land clearing for new settlements are con- ducted carelessly, this leads to the decrease of fresh water availability. The application of hi-tech from the West on the pretext of modernization has weak- ened the pivotal joints of local wisdom. The harmony of human and nature rela- tionship in terms of forest and water resources management ceased to be revered. The Indonesian community is cur- rently undergoing a drastic behavioural change, they do away with the old forest and water resources management tradi- tion because it is considered primitive and against modernization. The commu- nity is uses water as it pleases, as if water is always available and never dries. The community lacks awareness that fresh water source is quite limited, while the demand for it continuously increases along with the population growth. Water sources are no longer protected against pollution, quite often they are even co- vered by various kinds of building. If this tendency is let to continue without anyCOMMUNAL WATER preventive measure being undertaken then Indonesia will suffer from water scarcity.MANAGEMENT SYSTEM OF Demand for Water and the Role of ForestKAMPUNG NAGA Water is the core substance and civi- lization of the world. Unfortunately, this most valuable resource is presently under a serious threat. Although two thirds of Oleh: Raditya Permana, S.H., M.Hum the earths surface is covered with water yet we are now in danger of water scarci-I n the past Indonesia is known as a water container. Rainwater is absorbed ty. In all cases the story of water scarcity nation rich in fresh water. The by the forest to be released as water is the recital about greed, careless tech- expanse of the country is covered springs to feed rivers and lakes. Our nology, and sucking water in exceed ofwith thick forest which serves as fresh ancestors have for centuries created the natures capacity. Water availability14 Percik July 2007 Percik Juli 2007 14
  16. 16. INSIGHTof an ecosystem depends on the climate, physiography, vegeta- supervision because it must be sustained and be kept from beingtion and geology of a particular location. In all the aspects mo- adulterated from any external influence.dern man has disturbed the earth and destroyed its capacity to The sacred area consists of a small hill located to the west ofreceive, absorb, and contain water. Forest denudation and mi- the settlement area. The first part of the hill is covered withning in forest areas destroy soil capacity to absorb and retain small restricted forest where old trees grow and represents thewater. Monoculture crop and sylvian cover makes the ecosystem burial ground of their ancestors. Beside the restricted forest thedry. Increased consumption of fuel oil causes air pollution and area is also covered with old trees, mostly of hundred years oldclimatic change becomes the main causes of flood, tsunami, and is called cover forest. The cover forest grown by a wide varietyrecurrent drought. Forest is a natural dam with is absorption and of biodiversity species serves as environmental chain that influ-water retention capacity and releases it slowly into water springs ences the micro climate, and at the same time as source of liveli-and rivulets. Forest cutting and monoculture plantation makes hood.water disappear and disrupts soil capacity to conserve water. 2) Clean area, is the com- Before the Green Revolution, ground water can be obtained munity settlementthrough traditional conservation irrigation technology.However, the renewable human and animal driven technologiesare considered inefficient. These technologies are then substi-tuted with engine driven and electric pumps to draw waterfaster than natures capacity to replenish ground-water reserve (Vandana Shiva, 2002:1-3). The Community ofKampung Naga In the midst ofswiftly flowingmodernization cur-rent, it would becommendable thatwe look back into area. The buildings of thethe way the com- area consist of the vil-munity manages and sustains forest lagers dwelling builtand water sources traditionally based on traditionalbased on local wisdom. Kampung Sundanese architecture,Naga is located on the hilly areas between Tasimalaya and rice barn, mosque and community hall.Garut. The area where the villagers build their house is sur- 3) Dirty area, is the area located in the lower elevation. Thisrounded terraced rice field and forest cover. A portion of the area is located along the river Ciwulan which is also the border-area is used for pond that serves as reservoir and fish culture. line of Kampung Naga with other villages. The buildings in dirtyFrom the ecological point of view this pattern follows the typical area are basically the complementary buildings, simple andSundanese village. In such pattern there are 3 elements each made of materials taken from the surroundings. They are watersupporting the other to meet the daily requirement of the com- spouts for bathing and washing and other purposes, animalmunity. These are a house to live in, water source, and garden houses, saung lisung, and fish ponds (Her Suganda, 2006:26-including a pond for fish culture. Since the housing forms a clus- 28).ter within a prearranged location, the land use and spatial plan-ning is made clear in accordance with the principle of efficiency Water Management Systemwhile taking into consideration the ecological factors for main- The ancestors of Kampung Naga community inherited thetaining environmental balance. traditional water channeling technology from generation to the If we look into it more closely, the land utilization pattern at next. The younger generation improves the technology he justKampung Naga is divided into 3 categories: learned from his father. In terms of natural resources manage- 1) Sacred area, is restricted area where only certain individ- ment the system is always related to natural sustainability anduals are allowed to enter. This area is put under the community environmental balance. The close linkage and causal inter-rela- Percik July 2007 15
  17. 17. INSIGHTtionship between the macro cosmic (the universe) and micro nature wisely and sustainably. This is allcosmic (human being) lies the wisdom of keeping the balance being done under the principlebetween human being and the environment (Kusnaka of maintaining harmonyAdimihardja, 2004:6-7). with the surrounding Water for Kampung Naga is supplied from two sources environmentbrought in through bamboo pipe conveyance system. Water (Adrydirectly tapped from is used for drinking and cooking. Some ofthe surface water flowing into the rice fields is divertedthrough filtering ponds into water tanks forwudhu (ablution before prayer) andMCK (bathing, washing and sanita- Paddmation). ea., 2001:17). Beside for fish culture a pond A pond has a mul-serves as natural septic tank to settle tiple of purposes suchdown human waste. Waste water wastewater receiver and it isfrom MCK activities drains out into also a place for fish cultivation. In athe pond. The pond is fed with the corner of a pond stands a saung lisung asame surface water as for the MCK hut without wall where two mortars are placedbut without filtering. (Adry Padma for pounding rice. Long mortars are used to pounde.a., 2001:16). rice right from the infloresence to produce husked rice. After Placement of saung lisung (mortar house for pounding rice) that the rice is pound in a smaller mortar using a pestle. To pro-at the edge of fish pond rice bran and human waste from MCK duce high quality rice sometimes it is pound again to remove thecan directly wash down into the pond as fish feed. Fish is for bran. This bran, locally called bekatul, is made into pellet for fishhuman consumption, thus this simple method - one that is not (Her Suganda, 2006: 28).inferior to the present day technology- makes a recycle process The various restrictions and taboos for anyone to enter thecomplete. To maintain its existence, the community always sees forest is the main contributor to forest conservation in Kampungto it that natural resources are used without damaging them. Naga, thus maintaining the water sources. The community obe-Through the combination of knowledge and simple technology, dience and consistency in keeping the ancestors tradition hasand with care to natural resources, the community exploits proven that they could stand the grinding wheel of moderniza- tion. Kampung Nagas wisdom in forest and water management deserve commend for imitation and expansion. To the people of Kampung Naga water is communal property that must be ma- naged communally, this is intended to make everyone gets a fair allocation of water. The community realizes that water is vital for human survival therefore it must be managed and used effec- tively. REFERENCES: - Adry Padma ea., Kampung Naga; Settlement inherited from great-grandparents, Foris, Bandung, 2001. - Her Suganda, Kampung Naga; Maintaining Tradition, Kiblat, Bandung, 2006. - Maude Barlow and Tony Clarke, Blue Gold; Robbery and Commercialization of Water Resources, Gramedia Pustaka Utama, Jakarta, 2005. - Vandana Shiva, Water Wars; Privatization, Profit and Pollution, Insist Press, Yogyakarta, 2002. Source of drawings: Andy Padma, ea. Kampung Naga; Settlement inherited from great-grandparents, Foris, Bandung, 2001, p.16.16 Percik July 2007
  18. 18. INSIGHTTHE COMMUNITYS MOSTSUITABLE LATRINE TECHNOLOGY Oleh: Alma Arief Cases in several villages Most of the latrine types being developed up to now absolutely demand water availability, so that in certain areas where water is wanting the requirement is difficult to apply. On the other hand, if the community is given free hand to develop one in accordance with the local environment, they do not have enough knowledge to build a hygienic model. In Kabupaten Timor Tengah Selatan (TTS) of NTT Province, many of the population live in the hills while water source is located far downhill. This kind of area is susceptible to diar- rhoea disease. To take water from a distant place, they use 5 litre jerrycans. In one day a family of 5 to 7 consumes around 25 litres of water, whereas the normal per capita consumption is 30 to 40 litres in one day. Twenty five litres of water is only enough for cooking and dishwashing. What about bathing? They have more or less similar condition in Kabupatens E. Flores, Sikka and Ende. With the application of historical time- line method we can draw the general picture how they get water and their daily consumption rate. A transect walk to assess the water supply and sanitation facilities makes it clear that in ge- neral the most sensitive point is their sanitation that remains a poor condition and if we push them to build one the result would not be hygienic. In a number of villages of Tamburi, East Sumba where UNICEF once provided latrine development assistance, the A CLTS triggered non subsidized latrine built by the community. facilities are left unattended while their number shrinks from 20 Photo: Exclusive down to 10. While in West as well as Central Java with a tradi- tion of building fish pond they build a latrine on the pond to feed their fish. It is equally difficult for them to build a toilet with septic tank. Even, a pond owner of Kabupaten Banjarnegara, C.T o change the communitys habit and viewpoint is never Java, is willing to pay for someone to defecate on his latrine built an easy task. Experience tells us that through a transect on his pond. walk on basic sanitation (latrine) indicates that certain There are various local conditions that must be taken intotype of latrine is not suitable to the socio-cultural and environ- consideration. How a locally adaptable latrine should bemental condition of a locality. Various different package models designed to meet hygiene requirement.were introduced and constructed, many of them only end up tomonuments, left unattended and the community is reluctant to CLTS Modeluse them. While the Kamal Khar model, one that is called This model was initially developed by Kamal Khar throughCommunity Led Total Sanitation (CLTS) in which the communi- abstraction of several principles such as relying on communityty designs and builds its own facility without any external input, active participation, freedom from external subsidy, social soli-though in some areas particularly those with critical water con- darity, and community pride as motivational element. Thisdition some adjustments needs also be done. What kind of model is applicable in several areas with amazing results. In alatrine is the most suitable and acceptable to a community? short while the community is able to build their own latrine, Percik July 2007 17
  19. 19. INSIGHT A communal WC at Pondok Pesantren (Religious School) Al Falah In Kabupaten Pamekasan. Photo: Oswar Mungkasawilling to change the habit of open defecation, and a vast deve- The problem is whether the ecosan model can be replicatedlopment growth. Within the span of months, villagers have built in dry and vulnerable to water shortage areas. Whether the com-latrines and are free from defecation in the open. This model munity is willing to change opinion from urine and faeces thathas been successfully developed in Kabupatens of Sambas (W. used to be considered as waste into a resource. To change anKalimantan), Muara Bungo (Jambi), Bogor (W. Java), opinion needs explanation from those who really understand it.Pandeglang (Banten), Lombok Barat (NTB) and others. All theregions developing CLTS are practically without water shortage Near Ecosan Modelproblem so that any model of whether goose neck, or any other In several aspects particularly as they relate to chain process-latrine model is no problem. The latrine can be used without es a latrine suspended above fishpond or built in-house butemitting unpleasant odour so that the user feels comfortable. directly flushed into fishpond are basically similar to ecosan. The principle is reusing waste material to feed fish culture.Ecosan Model for Water Vulnerable Areas What makes it different from ecosan is that in this case there is The purely ecosan type of latrines was developed in China no preprocessing before the reuse. The ecosan product isand was later given a warm welcome. In addition to its being obtained from drying and composting into economically valu-environmentally friendly for not polluting and causing adverse able farm manure, while in case of a fishpond suspended latrineeffect to the environment this model is also hygienic. Besides, the product is directly fed to the fish.this model is also successful to change the notion of what used to However, the fishpond suspended or in-house built directlybe considered as waste. flushed into fishpond latrine cannot be considered an environ- Ecosan technology is basically divided into several compo- mentally friendly technology. Disposing directly into a pondnents, namely separation of urine from faeces each into a sepa- leads to surface water of pond, river, lakes etc. polluted withrate container, using urine for farm manure, spreading ash over Essecheria coli (e. coli) bacteria, the main cause of diarrhoea.the faeces for drying and composting and utilization of faecal If after an assessment the communiy is really willing to applycompost for farm manure. The manure both of urine and faeces ecosan model for areas vulnerable to water scarcity, what wecontains high nitrogen content which is quite useful to plant need to do is to prepare a simple technology design so that thegrowth. Spreading ash to the faeces makes it free from pathogen community is capable to develop, operate and maintain.mirobes so that it is now safe for application for agricultural pur- * WASPOLA Consultantposes.18 Percik July 2007
  20. 20. INSIGHTGLOBALWARMING Oleh: Imam MG lobal warming is not a purely natural phenomenon independent of human intervention. Since the inven- tion of steam engine in the eighteenth century thegrowth of industries using coal and oil fulled engines one cannotdeny that it was the beginning of global warming. Therefore,with respect to global warming, human is the major variable.This can be seen from data published by World Wildlife Fund(WWF) at the end of the twentieth century about the role ofengines. Carbondioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitraoxide(N2O) contribute the major industrial gas emission, at 36 per-cent. These gases are emitted from coal generated power plantsand oil refineries. Then follow transportation sector at 27 per-cent and other industries 21 percent. Power plant releases twice the amount of energy into theatmosphere relative to what it generates. Coal generated powerplant uses 100, produces 35 and releases 65 units of energy intothe environment. Therefore a 1,000 MW power plant releases5.6 million tonnes of carbondioxide gas into the atmosphere. In the meantime, a car engine that consumes 7.8 litres per100 km and travels 16 thousand km per year releases 3 tonnes ofcarbondioxide gas into the air. One can imagine Jakarta withmore than 4 millions vehicles, how many tonnes is CO2 gasemission within one year?Methane and Waste Disposal A chimney of manufacturing plant is one of the major contribu- Although carbondioxide is considered the major contributor tors to the global warming phenomenon. Photo: Bowo Leksonoto global warming, the most dangerous component is methanegas. Methane is 23 times stronger than carbondioxide. Themain sources of methane are marsh areas, final waste disposal(TPA), natural gas mining field, and burning of biomass. In con- in 2000 it increases to 1.0 kg, in 2020 it is estimated to reach 2.1nection with waste, metyhane gas is produced from anaerobic kg per person per day. Under the above principle the final oper-waste decomposisiton in waste disposal sites. ation in waste management ends with disposal in the TPA. In Waste management in Indonesian cities is operated under the TPA is dumped in an open pit in disregard of sanitationthe principle of collect, transport and dispose. Along with popu- aspect. As a consequence, the growth of a number of environ-lation growth and increased activities, the quantity of waste dis- mentally related problems, such as air- and groundwater pollu-posed is also increasing. It is estimated that in 2020 waste piles tion, breeding ground of contagious diseases, etc.will grow fivefold from its size today. If in 1995 the average Today there are somewhere around 450 TPAs which notawaste disposed by urban population is 0.8 kg per capita per day, bene are the sources of methane gas emission. As an example, Percik July 2007 19

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