Information Media for Water Supply and         From the Editor                                                            ...
F R O M E D I TO R   CREATED BY RUDI KOZ                                                                                  ...
Y O U R VO I C E     Motorless Water Pump                                                                       The Underd...
HEADLINES                                                                                                       SOURCE:MUJ...
HEADLINEStion. Harvest is impossible.                                                                                     ...
HEADLINES                                                             percent will suffer the deficit.                   C...
HEADLINES                                             Table 2                                                             ...
HEADLINES                              Table 3                                                                           T...
HEADLINES                            Table 8          Groundwater Potential in Province of East Java                      ...
HEADLINEScomprises:                                       bilitation plans;                          2. Development of lon...
I N T E RV I E W       H. Syamsul Arief Rivai Director General for Bangda (Regional Development) Dept. Home Affairs    All...
I N T E RV I E W                                                                                                          ...
I N T E RV I E WPDAMs are only in capital cities. The         gional governments) the awareness             ported with su...
TELESCOPE             Its all wrong with             BANTAR GEBANGW             aste material tragedy keeps        ment, t...
TELESCOPEThere are so many go-betweeners roam-                                                    Public Works, Ministry o...
Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine. October 2006. When Drought's Gone It's Time for Floods
Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine. October 2006. When Drought's Gone It's Time for Floods
Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine. October 2006. When Drought's Gone It's Time for Floods
Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine. October 2006. When Drought's Gone It's Time for Floods
Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine. October 2006. When Drought's Gone It's Time for Floods
Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine. October 2006. When Drought's Gone It's Time for Floods
Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine. October 2006. When Drought's Gone It's Time for Floods
Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine. October 2006. When Drought's Gone It's Time for Floods
Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine. October 2006. When Drought's Gone It's Time for Floods
Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine. October 2006. When Drought's Gone It's Time for Floods
Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine. October 2006. When Drought's Gone It's Time for Floods
Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine. October 2006. When Drought's Gone It's Time for Floods
Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine. October 2006. When Drought's Gone It's Time for Floods
Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine. October 2006. When Drought's Gone It's Time for Floods
Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine. October 2006. When Drought's Gone It's Time for Floods
Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine. October 2006. When Drought's Gone It's Time for Floods
Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine. October 2006. When Drought's Gone It's Time for Floods
Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine. October 2006. When Drought's Gone It's Time for Floods
Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine. October 2006. When Drought's Gone It's Time for Floods
Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine. October 2006. When Drought's Gone It's Time for Floods
Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine. October 2006. When Drought's Gone It's Time for Floods
Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine. October 2006. When Drought's Gone It's Time for Floods
Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine. October 2006. When Drought's Gone It's Time for Floods
Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine. October 2006. When Drought's Gone It's Time for Floods
Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine. October 2006. When Drought's Gone It's Time for Floods
Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine. October 2006. When Drought's Gone It's Time for Floods
Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine. October 2006. When Drought's Gone It's Time for Floods
Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine. October 2006. When Drought's Gone It's Time for Floods
Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine. October 2006. When Drought's Gone It's Time for Floods
Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine. October 2006. When Drought's Gone It's Time for Floods
Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine. October 2006. When Drought's Gone It's Time for Floods
Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine. October 2006. When Drought's Gone It's Time for Floods
Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine. October 2006. When Drought's Gone It's Time for Floods
Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine. October 2006. When Drought's Gone It's Time for Floods
Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine. October 2006. When Drought's Gone It's Time for Floods
Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine. October 2006. When Drought's Gone It's Time for Floods
Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine. October 2006. When Drought's Gone It's Time for Floods
Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine. October 2006. When Drought's Gone It's Time for Floods
Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine. October 2006. When Drought's Gone It's Time for Floods
Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine. October 2006. When Drought's Gone It's Time for Floods
Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine. October 2006. When Drought's Gone It's Time for Floods
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Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine. October 2006. When Drought's Gone It's Time for Floods

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This magazine published by Indonesia Water and Sanitation Working Group. First Edition in August 2003.

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Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine. October 2006. When Drought's Gone It's Time for Floods

  1. 1. Information Media for Water Supply and From the Editor 1 Environmental Sanitation Your Voice 2 Published by: HeadlineWorking Group for Water Supply and Sanitation When droughts gone, its time for floods 3 Advisor: Rain Harvest á la Gunung Kidul 9 Director General for Urban and Interview Rural Development, Department of Public Works H. Syamsul Arief Rivai Director General for Bangda (Regional Deve- Board of Trustee: lopment) Dept. Home Affairs: Director of Human Settlement and Housing,National Development Planning Agency Republic Allocate Budget of Water Supply For Village 10 of Indonesia Telescope Director of Environmental Sanitation, Ministry of Health Its all wrong with Bantar Gebang 13 Director of Water Supply Development, DKI Jakarta Waste Management Master Plan Review 15 Department of Public Works Director of Natural Resources and Appropriate Insight Technology, Director General on Village and Water Supply Development and Poverty 18 Community Empowerment, Department of Home Affairs PDAM Report Development Strategy 21 Director for Facilitation of Special Planning From Plato to WSS-BM Policy 23 Environment Management, Department of Home Affairs HIPPAM Failure at Bleberan Village 29 Story Chief Editor: Oswar Mungkasa Child Scavenger of Bantar Gebang 31 Reportage Board of Editor: Supriyanto, Johan Susmono, Communal Composting, Alternative to Handling Domestic Waste 33 Indar Parawansa, Poedjastanto Innovation Editor: Urinoir without flush 35 Maraita Listyasari, Rewang Budiyana, AbstractRheidda Pramudhy, Joko Wartono, Essy Asiah, The impact of Water Supply Investment to Economic Mujiyanto, Andre Kuncoroyekti Growth and Income Distribution in DKI Jakarta 36 Design/Illustrator: Regulation Rudi Kosasih Sludge Treatment Installation 37 Production: ISSDP Corner Machrudin Choice Model 38 Distribution: Around Plan Indonesia Agus Syuhada Plan Indonesia in Water Supply and Environmental Address: Sanitation Program 41 Jl. Cianjur No. 4, Menteng, Jakarta Pusat Phone/Fax.: 62-21-31904113 Book Info 42 http://www.ampl.or.id CD Info 44 e-mail: redaksipercik@yahoo.com redaksi@ampl.or.id Around WASPOLA 45 oswar@bappenas.go.id Around WSS 48 Unsolicited article or opinion items WSS Bibliography 50 are welcome. Please send to our address Agenda 51 or e-mail. Dont forget to be brief and accompanied by identity. IATPI Clinic 52 This magazine can be accessed at Water Supply and Environmental Sanitation Website Percik magazine can be accessed through WSS website http://www.ampl.or.id at www.apml.or.id
  2. 2. F R O M E D I TO R CREATED BY RUDI KOZ Happy Eid Mubarak 1427 HT ime goes by. Thanks God we course. But to some areas, for exam- taking the lives of several people. In are still blessed with happy ple Jakarta, a city of this size rain may connection with the same condition, day, Iedul Fitri. On this win- become a disaster. Rainfall that we in Story column, we present to you theners day Perciks crew and all mem- long for may inundate vast areas of the story of a child scavenger whobers of WSS secretariate wish you our city. Again, the community have no depends his life on the Indonesiasheartfelt greetings "Selamat Idul Fitri way to escape from it. We will hear largest TPA.1427H. Mohon Maaf Lahir Batin. again someone saying: "Its nothing Not to be overlooked, in ReportaseMinal Aidin wal Faizin". Lets hope all unusual." column, we bring forward cooperationof us become purified from sins and Are we going to take it as some- between a Non Governmentkeep the purity in the days to come. thing natural and let may happen as it Organization with a community at the Dear readers, sadness upon sad- usually does? Actually, drought, flood outskirt of Jakarta for a self reliantness are continuously overwhelming can be prevented if we want. Both are waste management without addingthis country. Its now a long dry sea- not natural phenomena that happen burden to TPA. With an add-in ofson that we are experiencing especial- all of a sudden. They can be predicted. flexible ideas fixed to it this manage-ly in Java and Nusa Tenggara. The question is again, why should it ment model might be suitable forCommunity access to water supply happen? The attention towards is application in many other communi-declines from the already desperate lacking. Maybe the program towards ties.level. They drink whatever water their prevention is still not so popular. Dear Readers,there is. Availability is always a ques- That is Indonesia. It seems that WSS is still going totion. The community have no choice. Readers, besides discussing the be governed many different problemsWhereas the government seems main topic on drought and flood, coming up one after another fromunable to satisfy the demand of the Percik also held an interview with time to time. New issue appears anypopulation. Regional Utility (PDAM) Director General for Regional time. We have a feeling that all theCompany being the backbone for Development, Department of Home issues havent been given sufficientwater supply in the regions is facing its Affairs to find out what is the condi- attention by the government. Whileown problem; short of supply to meet tion of development in the regions in poor WSS condition directly affectsthe consumers demand. Therefore, its relations with water supply and Indonesian people. We hope thatlet alone a free service, PDAM itself is environmental sanitation. In the something new would come out thatstill defending itself. Teropong column we present to you may lead us to improvement. Shortly we will be entering the TPA Bantar Gebang where in last Together we can make WSS obtainrainy season. This is a blessing, of September the waste hill collapsed more attention. God bless us. Percik October 2006 1
  3. 3. Y O U R VO I C E Motorless Water Pump The Underdeveloped Indonesia I read in Percik website that in Go-rontalo they use motorless water pump Recently the Asian Developmentfor their water supply. I would appre- Bank in cooperation with the Unitedciate it if you could provide me with Nations published in Manila a reportfurther information about the equip- on poverty reduction program by thement. Specifically Id like to know: Asia-Pacific Nations. The report dis- 1. What steps are taken for installing cusses the performance of various na- the equipment? tions in the program. 2. Is there possibility for our commu- The most advanced nations in re- nity back home to obtain govern- ducing poverty are China, Malaysia, ment assistance for such motorless Thailand, Palau, Vietnam, Armenia, water pump? Azerbaijan, and Kirgiztan. On the We would be grateful if equipment other hand there are several nationslike that could be installed for our com- that become less committed to re-munity in NTT. We have water supply ducing poverty. They are Fiji, Kazakh-difficulty and I am convinced that thiskind of equipment may help our com- stan, Samoa, and Uzbekistan. The nextmunity. group of nations work harder, these are India, Aghanistan, Nepal. Finally, the Leonardo FoEnale c) Articles on water supply are a bit most underdeveloped group in terms of Surabaya wanting considering the media poverty reduction. Members of this deals with water supply. group consist of Bangladesh, Indo- For further information about the d) Do away with columns on envi- nesia, Laos, Mongolia, Myanmar, Pa-motorless water pump please contact ronmental voices, waste and kistan, Papua New Guinea, and the Phi-PT. Tirta Anugrah Nusantara at Hotel drinking water containing letter lippines.Mahadria 4th floor Jl. Ki Mas Jong from the reader and opinion from ADB assessment seems to confirmNo. 12 Serang, Banten. Tel. 0254- the editor and or an expert. the real situation. The number of our220270/22268 attn. Ade Purnama e) Column dealing with environ- poor population is increasing rather(CEO). As for financial assistance it is ment, waste and water supply than diminishing. Beggars and va-recommended that you contact the in- from neighbouring countries that grants are adding up day after day.volved agency of the regional govern- are worthy of note. Hunger and related diseases remainment. (Editor) Thanks for your attention. unhealed. The question is now, where are the government promises to reduce Comment and Suggestion Ir. Agus Sutyoso, MSi poverty? The same question must also CEO PDAM Kota Semarang be asked to the political parties and the As follow up to Director of Housing Jl. Kelud Semarang peoples representatives. Where areand Settlement Systems Bappenas let- your promises to improve communityter No. 5411/Dt.6.3/09/2006 dated 4 Thank you for your comment and sug- wellbeing? Shame to all of you, onlySeptember 2006 re Water Supply and gestion. We will take all your comment and government officials, bureaucrates, andEnvironmental Sanitation Information suggestion to our consideration. We hope peoples representatives are prosperousMedia we would like to peresent to you that in the future Percik will improvethe following comment and suggestion: tomeet the expectation of the readers. In while the common people are getting a) Design and layout looks excellent. addition, we are also inviting you to con- poorer. b) Articles related to environmental ribute articles in accordance with your ca- sanitation are presented in suffi- pacity. We hope your contribution will ser- Meddy Chandra cient quantity. ve as lesson for other readers (Editor) Ciputat, Tangerang2 Percik October 2006
  4. 4. HEADLINES SOURCE:MUJIYANTO Water Resource in Java When Droughts Gone, ITS NOW TIME FOR FLOODS R ecently, the drought related about water for bathing, washing and The natural environment news is almost daily in print defecating; it may not be available at all. of Indonesia is severely and electronic flash. It is very This picture covers almost the entire degraded. If at one time hard for the communities to get water island of Java. As far as eyes can see,drought withers every green, for daily need even just for drinking. the areas along the northern coast are next time flood devastates They have to walk for kilometres just for completely dry. Leaves fell to the large areas. Whereas all a pail of water, regardless of quality, for ground. Teak woods standing like con- these occurences are drinking and cooking. Each member of struction piles. Withered yellow grass actually predictable ahead the community can only take a little looks miserable. Burned patches of land of time. Should they because the limited source has to be here and there. Farm lands cracked keep on coming back? shared with so many others. Lets forget from dryness. Farming is out of ques- Percik October 2006 3
  5. 5. HEADLINEStion. Harvest is impossible. Table 1 Drought does not only overwhelm Kabupatens/Kotas of Java that experience big deficitthe rurals. In some cities water is in No. Kabupaten / City River Basin No. of deficit months Max. deficit (m3/sec)limitd quantity. Even for Jakarta, the 2003 2005 2010 2015 2020 2025 2003 2005 2010 2015 2020 2025citizens have complaining lately. Raw I. J AWA B A R AT 1 Kuningan Cimanuk 87.3 % 6 6 6 6 6 7 -9.71 -9.81 -10.13 -10.52 -10.96 -11.46water supply for treatment plants is get- Cintanduy 12.7 %ting lower. Consequently, water supply 2 Cirebon Cimanuk 100.0 % 6 6 7 7 7 7 -26.75 -27.27 -28.68 -30.23 -31.94 -33.85 3 Majalengka Cimanuk 93.6 % 7 7 7 7 6 6 -14.47 -14.15 -13.42 -12.77 -12.18 -11.64distribution is retarded. The citizens Cintanduy 6.4 % 4 Indramayu Citarum 37.9 % 7 7 7 7 7 7cannot do much. Luckily they still can -48.99 -48.13 -46.11 -44.33 -42.80 -41.59 Cimanuk 62.1 %buy bottled water, or refill water or 5 Kota Bandung Citarum 100.0 % 6 6 7 10 11 12 -1.94 -2.16 -2.76 -3.40 -4.09 -4.86 6 Kota Cirebon Cimanuk 100.0 % 5 5 5 5 5 6 -0.61 -0.63 -0.69 -0.74 -0.81 -0.88water vendor although at a higher price. II. JAWA TENGAHBut what about the poor who are far 1 Magelang Progo-Opak-Oyo 96.9 % 7 7 7 7 7 7 -25.72 -25.85 -26.20 -26.59 -27.05 -27.57 Jratun Seluna 0.4 %away from the reach of clean water sup- Serayu 2.6 %ply? 2 Klaten Progo-Opak-Oyo 2.0 % 8 8 8 8 8 8 -32.57 -32.58 -32.63 -32.71 -32.83 -32.99 Bengawan Solo 98.0 % Like a double edged dagger this 3 Sukoharjo Bengawan Solo 100.0 % 6 6 6 6 6 6 -16.68 -16.66 -16.64 -16.67 -16.75 -16.91drought will shortly be followed with 4 Karanganyar Bengawan Solo 100.0 % 7 7 7 7 7 7 -18.52 -18.44 -18.27 -18.14 -18.04 -17.97 5 Sragen Jratun Seluna 25.9 % 7 7 7 7 7 7 -20.64 -20.77 -21.17 -21.66 -22.27 -23.03rainy season. To some the blessing from Bengawan Solo 74.1 %the sky is welcome with gratitude 6 Blora Jratun Seluna 44.7 % 6 6 6 7 7 7 -12.92 -12.94 -13.00 -13.07 -13.14 -13.22 Bengawan Solo 55.3 %because it irrigates their lands. But to 7 Pekalongan Pemali-Comal 99.8 % 6 6 6 6 6 6 -11.45 -11.48 -11.56 -11.67 -11.80 -11.94others, rain is a disaster. Flood will Serayu 0.2 % 8 Kota Semarang Jratun Seluna 100.0 % 6 6 6 6 6 6 -2.40 -2.58 -3.20 -4.05 -5.20 -6.76come at any moment. The misery from 9 Kota Pekalongan Pemali-Comal 100.0 % 6 6 6 6 6 7 -1.07 -1.10 -1.18 -1.27 -1.38 -1.51water shortage will change into flood 10 Temanggung Jratun Seluna 41.0 % 5 5 5 5 5 6 -19.09 -19.13 -19.25 -19.37 -19.51 -19.66 III. D I Y O G Y A K A R TAsufferings. 1 Bantul Progo-Opak-Oyo 100.0 % 7 7 7 7 7 7 -16.33 -16.37 -14.67 -16.63 -16.82 -17.07 It is ironical that flood is coming 2 Gunung Kidul Progo-Opak-Oyo 86.9 % 6 6 6 6 6 6 -5.49 -5.48 -5.47 -5.45 -5.44 -5.42 Bengawan Solo 13.1 %back year after year. And, the signs of 3 Sleman Progo-Opak-Oyo 98.3 % 7 7 7 7 7 7 -21.89 -21.95 -22.13 -22.34 -22.57 -22.84 Bengawan Solo 1.7 %its preventive measures are nowhere to 4 Kota Yogyakarta Progo-Opak-Oyo 100.0 % 6 6 6 5 5 5 -0.85 -0.83 -0.79 -0.75 -0.70 -0.66be seen. There is no significant effort IV. JAWA TIMUR 1 Ponorogo K. Brantas 2.7 % 6 6 6 6 6 6 -28.93 -28.77 -28.41 -28.07 -27.76 -27.50mutually undertaken by the stakehold- Bengawan Solo 97.3 %ers. Consequently, drought and flood 2 Sidoarjo K. Brantas 100.0 % 6 6 6 6 6 6 -15.53 -15.82 -16.78 -18.19 -20.16 -22.89 3 Madiun & Kota Madiun K. Brantas 12.6 % 8 8 8 8 8 8 -28.34 -28.25 -28.02 -27.79 -27.57 -27.35are routines that must be accepted by Bengawan Solo 87.4 %the common people. 4 Magetan Bengawan Solo 100.0 % 7 7 7 7 7 7 -32.62 -32.87 -33.52 -34.19 -34.87 -35.56 5 Ngawi Jratun Seluna 0.1 % 7 7 7 7 7 7 -42.28 -43.77 -47.73 -52.03 -56.69 -61.77 Bengawan Solo 99.9 %Drought as annual schedule 6 Bojonegoro K. Brantas 0.9 % 6 6 6 6 6 6 -25.46 -25.51 -25.68 -25.89 -26.16 -26.51 Bengawan Solo 99.1 % Drought that withers vast areas of 7 Tuban Bengawan Solo 100.0 % 6 6 6 6 6 6 -26.87 -26.46 -25.47 -24.54 -23.65 -22.82Java doesnt come all of a sudden. This 8 Lamongan K. Brantas 2.4 % 7 7 7 7 7 7 -56.23 -55.62 -54.20 -52.95 -51.90 -51.09 Bengawan Solo 97.6 %means that signals of its coming have 9 Bangkalan Madura 100.0 % 8 8 8 8 8 8 -12.08 -12.11 -12.23 -12.38 -12.58 -12.81been sent long before. The calculation 10 Pamekasan Madura 100.0 % 6 6 6 6 6 6 -13.07 -13.04 -12.98 -12.94 -12.90 -12.88 11 Sumenep Madura 100.0 % 7 7 7 7 7 7 -16.52 -16.35 -15.95 -15.57 -15.21 -14.88of water balance or water equilibrium 12 Sampang Madura 100.0 % 5 6 7 7 7 7 -10.42 -10.77 -11.81 -13.13 -14.80 -16.90comparing water demand over avail- V. J A B O D E TA B E K 1 DKI Jakarta Ciliwung-Cisadane 100.0 % N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A -0.2 -1.5 -4.9 -8.7 -13.1 -18.0ability conducted by Directorate of 2 Bogor & Depok & Kota Bogor Ciujung-Climan 2.9 % N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A -2.0 -2.6 -4.5 -7.1 -10.5 -15.0Water Resources and Irrigation Cisadea-Cikuningan 0.2 % Citarum 9.4 %Bappenas in 2005 indicates that based Ciliwung-Cisadane 87.4 % 3 Tangerang & Kota Tangerang Ciliwung-Cisadane 100.0 % N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/Aon 2003 data some 77 percent of areas -3.9 -4.5 -6.6 -9.2 -12.7 -17.3 4 Bekasi & Kota Bekasi Ciliwung-Cisadane 64.5 % N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A - - - - - -3.2outside Jabodetabek will suffer from Citarum 35.5 % 5 Serang & Kota Cilegon Ciujung-Ciliman 90.2 % N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A - - - -0.9 -4.0 -8.3water deficit between one to eight Ciliwung-Cisadane 9.8 %months. While in Jabodetabek only 50 6 Karawang & Purwakarta Citarum 100.0 % N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A - - - - - -2.2 N/A: Not Available Source: Result of analysis by Directorate of Water Resources and Irrigation Bappenas4 Percik October 2006
  6. 6. HEADLINES percent will suffer the deficit. Chart 1Water Balance Projection by Kabupaten/Kota of The figures were derived from calcu- Java and Madura lating water availability factor of the catchment area (representing surface water availability) and regional water demand (covering water demand for domestic, urban activity, industrial, fish farming, animal husbandry, and irriga- tion). Water balance of 2003 indicates that the total water demand for Java and Bali is 38,4 billion m3 during the dry season. The demand can be satisfied only up to 25,3 m3 or about 66 percent. It is esti- mated the deficit will be higher in 2020 as a consequence of population growth and increasing economic activity. In general, drought is caused by three influencing factors, namely global climatic changes such as deviation of ra- iny and dry seasons from the usual pat- tern and other climatic changes, envi- ronmental factor, and water resources management and infrastructures. Spe- cifically, the causes of dryness other than global climatic changes include: 1. Damages in the catchment area that reduces water catchment carrying capacity; 2. Low performing water resource infrastructures; 3. Excessive underground water exploitation that cause lower groundwater table, land subsi- dence, and salt water intrusion; 4. Poor hydrological management. Water balance is divided into 4 clas- ses: normal, low deficit, medium deficit, big deficit. Normal condition when there is no deficit month within a given year. If there are 3 deficit months in a year it is called low deficit. Four to six months Source: result of analysis medium deficit. More than six months is categorized as big deficit. Table 1 = Normal = Low deficit shows us areas with big deficit. = No deficit = Medium deficit If this condition prevails, meaning Percik October 2006 5
  7. 7. HEADLINES Table 2 rolling again after being idle for some Kabupatens/Kotas of Java that experience drinking water deficit time. But to some regions, there is al- No. Kabupaten / Kota River Basin Max. deficit (m3/sec) ways anxiety that rain will cause floods. 2003 2005 2010 2015 2020 2025 I. JAWA BARAT This anxiety grows especially in areas 1 Kuningan Cimanuk 87.3 % -0.51 -0.54 -0.64 -0.74 -0.85 -0.96 Cintanduy 12.7 % where flooding is a recurring phenome- 2 Cirebon Cimanuk 100.0 % -1.67 -1.75 -1.98 -2.22 -2.49 -2.78 3 Majalengka Cimanuk 93.6 % -0.47 -0.50 -0.55 -0.61 -0.67 -0.73 non. Cintanduy 6.4 % 4 Indramayu Citarum 37.9 % -0.17 -0.23 -0.39 -0.57 -0.75 -0.95 The cause of flooding may vary from Cimanuk 62.1 % 5 Kota Bandung Citarum 100.0 % - - - - -0.27 -0.78 region to region. Several factors causing 6 Kota Cirebon Cimanuk 100.0 % -0.38 -0.40 -0.44 -0.48 -0.53 -0.58 II. JAWA TENGAH flood are among others sedimentation 1 Magelang Progo-Opak-Oyo 96.9 % - - -0.09 -0.35 -0.63 -0.94 Jratun Seluna 0.4 % of river bed, overflow from embank- Serayu 2.6 % 2 Klaten Progo-Opak-Oyo 2.0 % -1.43 -1.42 -1.39 -1.36 -1.33 -1.30 ments, poor drainage system, backwater Bengawan Solo 98.0 % 3 Sragen Jratun Seluna 25.9 % - - - - -0.30 -0.83 effect, and defective flood control facili- Bengawan Solo 74.1 % 4 Kota Semarang Jratun Seluna 100.0 % - - -0.11 -0.55 -1.06 -1.63 ty. III. DI YOGYAKARTA 1 Bantul Progo-Opak-Oyo 100.0 % -0.08 -0.11 -0.18 -0.26 -0.34 -0.43 Almost all rivers of Java carry sedi- 2 Sleman Progo-Opak-Oyo 98.3 % - - -0.05 -0.19 -0.35 -0.52 Bengawan Solo 1.7 % ment load in big quantity scouring the 3 Kota Yogyakarta Progo-Opak-Oyo 100.0 % -0.52 -0.51 -0.47 -0.44 -0.41 -0.38 IV. JAWA TIMUR land along their banks down to the sea. 1 Bangkalan Madura 100.0 % -0.54 -0.56 -0.64 -0.72 -0.81 -0.90 2 Pamekasan Madura 100.0 % -0.47 -0.50 -0.56 -0.62 -0.69 -0.77 As a result, areas of sediment deposit 3 Sumenep Madura 100.0 % -0.69 -0.70 -0.75 -0.81 -0.86 -0.92 4 Sampang Madura 100.0 % -0.24 -0.28 -0.38 -0.49 -0.61 -0.75 are built along the river mouth. Sedi- V. JABODETABEK 1 Bogor & Depok & Kota Bogor Ciujung-Climan 2.9 % - - - - - -2.6 mentation decreases the river storage Cisadea-Cikuningan 0.2 % Citarum 9.4 % capacity. In addition, sand mining in Ciliwung-Cisadane 87.4 % 2 Tangerang & Kota Tangerang Ciliwung-Cisadane 100.0 % - - - - -0.2 -3.5 big rivers leads to degradation of river Max. deficit m3/sec) beds. The big water discharge cannot be retained within the water bodies of thethat no infrastructure intervention is maintains groundwater potential. This lowland area. Water then overflows theinroduced, it can be expected that water is because the island has many ground- embankments putting farmland and thebalance deficit will be increasing. water basins. There are at least 80 relatively flat areas under water. Em-Several kabupatens/kota in 2020 are basins spreading along Java and bankments built along the river in thelikely to experience an increasing Madura. They are not fully exploited upper watershed may protect upper wa-deficit, among others are Kabupaten yet. And if any, such as ones in big tershed areas from flooding, but it cau-Ngawi of Bengawan Solo river basin and cities, they are not properly controlled. ses more severe threat to lower water-the city of Surabaya of the Brantas river As a consequence, new problems crop shed areas. This is made worse if thebasin. The projection of water balance up such as decrease in groundwater drainage system is defective. It stillcondition of Java and Madura is illus- quality (Bandung, Semarang), spread of does not say about backwater effect attrated in Chart 1. brackish/salt water (Jakarta and the upper areas as consequence from Water balance deficit adversely Semarang), lower groundwater table changes in current in the lower areas. Ifaffects water availability. The worst (Bandung, Jakarta, Semarang). backwater happens -at a convulsion of aimpact will hit agriculture, industry, city There is a big groundwater proten- stream with the main river, damming orpopulation, drinking water, etc. tial. Tables 3 through 8 illustrate gro- river constriction- flood is unavoidable.Drinking water supply should be given undwater potential by administrative Flood also happens if the catchmentpriority because it is directly related to regions. area disappears. Forest clearing and in-basic demand for life. Table 2 illustrates correct cropping pattern take part in it.the regions that suffer from drinking Flood threats Since there is no more water catchmentwater deficit and projection up to 2025. It is estimated that rain will start to area, water flows directly into the river. fall within this month. The blessing This condition is aggravated in steep ri-Groundwater condition from the falling droplets will bring life verbanks and in rivers that flush swiftly Although currently suffering from back to the dry soil. Economic wheels, in to the downstream areas, whereas thedryness, the island of Java actually especially in agriculture sector, will start retention capacity of these areas such as 6 Percik October 2006
  8. 8. HEADLINES Table 3 Table 6 Groundwater Potential in Province of Banten Groundwater Potential in Province of Central Java Groundwater potential Groundwater potential No Kabupaten No Kabupaten million m3/year m3/sec million m3/year m3/sec 1 Pandeglang 1.112,34 35,27 1 Cilacap 131,75 4,18 2 Lebak 345,40 10,95 2 Banyumas 242,94 7,70 3 Tangerang 451,23 14,31 3 Purbalingga 160,41 5,09 4 Banjarnegara 302,72 9,60 4 Serang 631,35 20,02 5 Kebumen 124,18 3,94 5 Kota Tangerang 101,09 3,21 6 Purworejo 58,21 1,85 6 Kota Cilegon 54,65 1,73 7 Wonosobo 220,69 7,00Source: Analysis result by Dinamaritama Team 8 Magelang 560,79 17,78 Table 4 9 Boyolali 245,06 7,77 Groundwater Potential in Province of DKI Jakarta 10 Klaten 227,35 7,21 Groundwater potential 11 Sukoharjo 163,76 5,19 No Kabupaten million m3/year m3/sec 12 Wonogiri 348,72 11,06 1 Jakarta Selatan 89,95 2,85 13 Karanganyar 282,55 8,96 2 Jakarta Timur 111,36 3,53 14 Sragen 224,62 7,12 30,75 0,97 15 Grobogan 342,69 10,87 3 Jakarta Pusat 16 Blora 38,67 1,23 4 Jakarta Barat 72,77 2,31 17 Rembang 105,64 3,35 5 Jakarta Utara 79,28 2,51 18 Pati 329,50 10,45Source: Analysis result by Dinamaritama Team 19 Kudus 144,86 4,59 Table 5 Groundwater Potential in Province of West Java 20 Jepara 326,67 10,36 21 Demak 380,72 12,07 Groundwater potential No Kabupaten 22 Semarang 242,80 7,70 million m3/year m3/sec 23 Temanggung 407,06 12,91 1 Bogor 1.122,29 35,59 24 Kendal 288,19 9,14 2 Sukabumi 1.034,35 32,80 25 Batang 337,67 10,71 3 Cianjur 849,96 26,95 26 Pekalongan 352,16 11,17 4 Bandung 1.514,95 48,04 27 Pemalang 301,48 9,56 5 Garut 1.528,81 48,48 28 Tegal 197,20 6,25 6 Tasikmalaya 771,38 24,46 29 Brebes 250,40 7,94 7 Ciamis 907,64 28,78 30 Kota Magelang 5,14 0,16 391,62 12,42 31 Kota Surakarta 29,44 0,93 8 Kuningan 32 Kota Salatiga 12,64 0,40 9 Cirebon 342,94 10,87 33 Kota Semarang 146,23 4,64 10 Majalengka 781,67 24,79 34 Kota Pekalongan 32,95 1,04 11 Sumedang 883,07 28,00 35 Kota Tegal 6,68 0,21 12 Indramayu 731,53 23,20 Source: Analysis result by Dinamaritama Team 13 Subang 707,25 22,43 Table 7 14 Purwakarta 253,83 8,05 Groundwater Potential in Province of 15 Karawang 638,68 20,25 Yogyakarta Special Region (DIY) 16 Bekasi 482,66 15,31 Groundwater potential No Kabupaten 17 Kota Bogor 87,72 2,78 million m3/year m3/sec 18 Kota Sukabumi 32,82 1,04 1 Kulonprogo 59,75 1,89 19 Kota Bandung 80,76 2,56 2 Bantul 167,08 5,30 20 Kota Cirebon 10,48 0,33 3 Gunungkidul 297,79 9,44 21 Kota Bekasi 119,63 3,79 4 Sleman 311,88 9,89 22 Kota Depok 124,70 3,95 5 Kota Yogyakarta 19,41 0,62Source: Analysis result by Dinamaritama Team Source: Analysis result by Dinamaritama Team Percik October 2006 7
  9. 9. HEADLINES Table 8 Groundwater Potential in Province of East Java Groundwater potential No Kabupaten million m3/year (m3/sec) 1 Pacitan 65,71 2,08 2 Ponorogo 421,73 13,37 3 Trenggalek 10,70 0,34 4 Tulungagung 315,34 10,00 5 Blitar 460,27 14,60 6 Kediri 595,20 18,87 7 Malang 1.178,00 37,35 8 Lumajang 1.088,80 34,53 Chart 2. Flood vulnerable areas in Java Gambar 2. Lokasi Rawan Banjir di Pulau Jawa 9 Jember 1.695,89 53,78 10 Banyuwangi 1.642,60 52,09 11 Bondowoso sand ha of affected increasing continuously along with pop- 1.034,75 32,81 12 Situbondo 1.170,37 37,11 areas. The distibution ulation growth and increasing economic 13 Probolinggo 833,08 26,42 of flood vulnerable activity. On the other hand, raw water 14 Pasuruan 615,85 19,53 areas in Java can be availability is disrupted as consequence 15 Sidoarjo 264,09 8,37 seen in Chart 2. of changes in land use pattern that 16 Mojokerto 360,32 11,43 Flood control adversely influences hydrological char- 17 Jombang 380,47 12,06 18 Nganjuk 454,63 14,42 through infrastructure acteristics. This condition is aggravated 19 Madiun 441,68 14,01 approach has been by the decreasing of environmental car- 20 Magetan 288,28 9,14 practised for a long ti- rying capacity as a consequence of 21 Ngawi 441,29 13,99 me. Take a look for degradation of the catchment area. One 22 Bojonegoro 254,97 8,09 instance the North Ja- could expect that drought and flood will 23 Tuban 320,71 10,17 24 Lamongan va Flood Control come in succession. More than that, 319,06 10,12 25 Gresik 233,58 7,41 Project and South Java some kabupatens/kotas have put on red 26 Bangkalan 191,21 6,06 Flood Control Project signal indicating inability to meet the 27 Sampang 154,55 4,90 in Jawa Tengah, demand of the population. 28 Pamekasan 115,55 3,66 Citarum Flood Control Like it or not, the kabupatens/kotas 29 Sumenep 193,59 6,14 Project south of that currently are critical situation in 30 Kota Kediri 26,44 0,84 31 Kota Blitar 14,20 0,45 Bandung, Ciliwung water supply despite infrastructure and 32 Kota Malang 28,52 0,90 Cisadane Flood Control other related interventions, must be pri- 33 Kota Probolinggo 23,87 0,76 Project and the cons- oritized. Besides, it is necessary to make 34 Kota Pasuruan 16,43 0,52 truction of Eastern water distribution readjustments 35 Kota Mojokerto 6,80 0,22 Drainage Canal (BKT) among the various demand types, espe- 36 Kota Madiun 12,23 0,39 37 Kota Surabaya in Jakarta, and urban cially for irrigation in Java. This is not 114,39 3,63 development projects an easy thing to do, of course. Indepth Source: Analysis result by Dinamaritama Team like Bandung Urban study is needed. More than that, waterJakarta, Semarang and other big cities Development Project (BUDP) and Sura- resources management in Javais insufficient. Flood becomes unavoid- baya Urban Development Project demands synergy and integratedness.able. (SUDP). However, the acceleration of The Directorate of Water Resources According to Dept Public Works flood control infrastructure develop- and Irrigation of Bappenas suggests aflood in Java mostly hit the north and ment is unable to cope with magnitude recommendation for water resourcessouth coasts, basin areas and big cities. and frequency of the flood. "Flood sea- development program on the island ofIn 2002, there were 74 flood occurences son" is recurring year after year. Java divided into priority actions,inundating 81,9 thousand ha of settle- Challenges of the Future immediate (short term), medium andment areas and agricultural lands. The Water demand for domestic, indus- long term.figures increased in 2003 to 91,1 thou- trial, city and agriculture purposes are The necessary short term action 8 Percik October 2006
  10. 10. HEADLINEScomprises: bilitation plans; 2. Development of long term financ- 1. Land rehabilitation and water 5. Increase in simple infrastructure ing scenario from various different resources conservation, through (a) design facilitation at local level; and sources with emphasis on funds replanting of critical lands with pro- 6. Development of data base on flood directly raised from within the com- ductive tree stands involving the and drought in Java including sus- munities; and community participation; (b) mini- tainable data management concept. 3. Development of community based mizing sedimentation rate through Long term priority covers sustain- infrastructure O&M. river bank rehabilitation and stabi- able drought and flood mitigation plan- The program may work if it is sup- lization; (c) minimizing flooding ning, among others: ported with a strong commitment from time to maximize irrigation water 1. Formulation of macro policy and the stakeholders. Otherwise, efficiency; and (d) integration of strategy for integrated, cross sector Indonesian condition will become flood management and land reha- and inter-regional implementation; worse. Now it is up to us. MJ bilitation programs. 2. Community education in flood and drought mitigation, through (a) building community awareness of Rain Harvest flood and drought and ways to man- age them; (b) improvement of com- á la Gunung Kidul munity alertness in anticipation of T flood and drought; (c) water he village of Bunder, Kecama- water for agriculture can be resol- thrifthiness campaign; (d) develop- tan Patok, Gunung Kidul, Yog- ved. ment of flood early warning system; yakarta belongs to arid climate re- This retention technique can al- (e) development of water resources gion. Traditinally the area was so be used effectively to reduce ve- management institution; (f) human resources development in water grown with cassava almost all the locity of surface runoff, reduce resources management; (g) water year round. But since it was select- amount of flowing water and hold related conflict resolution through ed as the pilot project site for rain it for future use. water resources management; (h) harvest and surface water develop- The technology is recommend- prevention of land conversion ment technology, the cassava plan- able for application in Puncak area through provision of incentive and ting area has been converted to to hold ronoff velocity and reduce issuance of certification; and (i) ricefield. the amount of flowing water. In va- improvement of the role of land rehabilitation and water conserva- The technology is basically qui- rious regions dryland farming with tion institution. te simple, it collects rainwater and water deficit can be improved with Medium priorities needed to sustain surface runoff into a hydrological this technology. And the invest-the immediate priority programs, network of 20 m long, 5 m wide and ment is not as big as a dam con-among others: about 3 m deep reserviors. The struction. 1. Improvement of water use efficien- small reservoir is capable of hol- Thousands of small reservoirs li- cy for regions with high water deficit potential through rehabilita- ding more or less 300 m3 of water. ke this can be constructed along tion of irrgation network and effi- The water can be used for vari- the Ciliwung river and other rivers cient water distribution; ous purposes. In this village it is from upper to downstream areas. 2. Rearrangment and control over of used for irrigation. Water is avai- If it is done, the impact may be ex- sand mining in the river bed; lable not only during rainy season traordinary. Drought and flood pro- 3. Development of local level forest but also during dry monsoon, so blems can be resolved simultane- product industry; that various problems related to ously. MJ 4. Development of IT based land reha- Percik October 2006 9
  11. 11. I N T E RV I E W H. Syamsul Arief Rivai Director General for Bangda (Regional Development) Dept. Home Affairs Allocate Budget of Water Supply for Village! SOURCE:MUJIYANTO capacity of the regions to read the Since the beginning of regional autonomy, the development national and provincial vision and mis- chorus was transferred to the regions. Using the existing resources sion. The national vision should trans- each region owns, they are competing among each other. late itself into provincial vision. Provin- Sometimes, as they are busy with their own activities they have for- cial vision then goes down to kabupa- gotten to adjust their development vision and mission to that of the ten/kota vision. So, if all the vision hit national vision. As a result, each development proceeds as one the target, we can expect national and wishes. provincial vision and mission is also The consequence of the practice is that the development does developed. But, many regions do not not go in the national direction. Sectors that sould be treated as have the capacity to find the linkages common priority are neglected simply because they have no direct with the provincial and national vision. contribution to the regional revenue. This condition does not benefit the communities, rather this is only for As a result, tha region may have done a the satisfaction of the head of the region. WSS sector is one of the victims. Regional governments attention lot of things but still miss the direction. is in want. How could this happen? To answer this, Percik interviewed the Director General for Regioonal They argue it by saying, "we are an au- Development. The following are the excerpts: tonomous region". Yes. You are auto- nomous but you are bound within Unity Nation framework. Regional objectiveW hat does regional develop- ment currently look like? Regional development vision is now ons have been playing according to it. They have taken care of themselves pretty well. Everyone seems to know is set in the framework of national ob- jectives. That is the system that we must build.part of national development paradigm. what he is doing. As we know Law No.The new paradigm reflected in the Law 32 is a new law, effective only in 2004. Does it mean the regions main-No 32 on Regional Government is that But previously Law No. 22 of 1999 has tain their own egoism?most of government authorities are now provisioned the authority. Since the go- Yes. For the reason of autonomydelegated to the regional government. vernment reform i.e. since rescinsion of and resources management, social poli-By so doing the regions have a bigger Law No. 574 to be replaced by Law No. tic progress, and for the reason that theopportunity especially in development 22 the process has been continuing. regional vision and mission is largelyplanning and implementation to impro- Since Law No 22 seven years ago the au- determined by the vision and mission ofve welfare of the community and to pro- thority has been delegated to the heads the elected Bupati. It is the Bupatis vi-vide the best services. Therefore the ini- of the region except those that must be sion and mission that is translated intotiative, creativity must grow from the absolutely vested on the central govern- Medium Term Regional Developmentregion. Therefore the paradigm for ment. The regions are already playing Plan (RJMPD). Some of the elected Bu-regional development is now converted within that rule now. The issue is to pati hardly understand the regional po-into developing region. Developing re- herd them to reconcile their vision and tential as a wholesome. The approach isgion implies that the region takes the mission with the ones developed by In- based more on how you choose me. Theinitiative in planning what is needed donesia Bersatu (United Indonesia) ca- knowledge about the kabupaten/kota it-and what to do to develop the region on binet. This is actually the subsystem of self is weak because most of them areits own in order to bring welfare to the national development. That is the area outsider, coming from some other place.population. That is the essence of the we must deal with. However, as a beginning this is still ancurrent development paradigm. acceptable condition. In the future, a What is the problem why the bupati candidate must fully knowledge- Have the regions adopted the regions do not proceed quite in able about his region, otherwise itd beparadigm? line with the central? difficult for him to plan a development. They should have. Most of the regi- This is closely related with the You could imagine someone born and10 Percik October 2006
  12. 12. I N T E RV I E W SOURCE:DPR.GO.IDbrought up in Jakarta should become aBupati in Tulungagung, what does heknow about the region except from writ-ten documents, figures, etc. This is notenough if he doesnt know the people,the community and their actual conditi-on. From there his vision is born. Thepeople elect him and he wins the office.That is then translated into RJMPD.Whether this is suitable, we do not knowyet. Whether he reconciles it with theprovincial vision? Quite unlikely. Thatis where the discrepancy comes from. What should regional visionand mission look like in order to Parliament has to adjust local vision with national vision.be sustainable? First, it must be part of the national issued a Home Minister circular letter. fore it is impossible to impose limitationvision and mission. Though some spe- The regional demand for such a plan- if they have ample data and sufficientcific characteristics may appear ac- ning must be responded, but it would knowledge about their own region.cording the regional condition. Say for take a long time for issuance of a gov-instance, for a coastal region, the vision ernment regulation, therefore for the Let us move to WSS sector.is closely related to sea coast. But it time being we issued the Min of Home Whats your opinion on the re-must in tune with the national vision i.e Affairs circular letter on Regional gions care to this this matter?poverty reduction. In the past there Medium Term Development Plan. The awareness to clean water supplyused to be a national development plan- Therefore the Bupatis vision and mis- of the communities must be improved.ning system. Actually this mechanism is sion must be tied with regional govern- We have a WSS program with specificstill applicable. We have the so-called ment regulation, in order that he does emphasis on demand for clean water. Itrakorbang (development coordination not forget to fulfill his promises he made is even planned that by 2015 eighty per-meeting). Bottom up, beginning from when campaigning for office. This is to cent of our people must consume cleanvillage level, then to kecamatan, to ka- provide the population with a control water supply. The problem of today isbupaten, province. Vision development mechanism should the bupati try to our people of the regions drink whatevermust learn from this mechanism. evade from his promises. The people water is available. If water looks clearOtherwise, it would be difficult to make then may say "Bupati is going against they take it as clean. In reality it is notthe linkage. Regional Government Regulation". always the case. Thats why we need to build awareness to clean and hygienic What does Bangda do to make Does it mean that so far there is water. Secondly, townspeople are a lit-the regions proceed towards the no hierarchial tie? tle luckier, because they have PDAM.expected direction? Not yet. We hope it is decreed in a The problem is that most PDAM are We are still preparing a government government regulation. If possible, poorly managed so that 80 percent ofregulation on regional development pursuant to Law No. 32. them are operating in red. What aboutplanning. We hope that through the that? Clean water is vital to us but whenbottom up principle all the stakeholders Doesnt it imply limiting the its contaminated it will become the so-will be involved. Beginning from village regions room for maneuver? urce of various diseases. In dry seasonlevel development plan, then kecamaan, Not really. Look here. What the re- like this everywhere people are cryingkabupaten/kota, province, up to natio- gions choose for vision and mision are for water. Whats the regional go-nal level. A village may have its own vi- the bases for policy formulation. They vernments preparation to cope with thesion. But there are activities of the vil- developed their vison and mision based problem? I had a chance to take a looklage that are part of kecamatan pro- on data. Not simply on imagination. at a draft regional budget, the regionsgram, and so forth. Prior to that we Based on research conclusion. There- depend too heavily on PDAM. But Percik October 2006 11
  13. 13. I N T E RV I E WPDAMs are only in capital cities. The gional governments) the awareness ported with sufficient regional budget.kecamatans are overlooked. Thats why about the importance of water supply isBangda in cooperation with CARE and somewhat neglected. What we can do is Do we need a regulation toWASPOLA try to fulfill the demand. to provide them with examples. WSLIC maintain our own environment?There are more people living outside the is an exemplary project on how to ma- Certainly. Because water is closelykabupaten capital cities. They take wa- nage water supply and environmental related to environment, especially fo-ter from pit wells, or rivers, which they sanitation. rest, therefore the signal is getting clear-have only very little knowledge about. er today. It is not only necessary, it is al-Thats why a little bit brackish, never That means that some regions ready in action. Especially in forest cle-mind. They dont know that in the long budget is limited? aring, we strictly forbid it. On the otherrun it will be dangerous to health. Yes, it is. hand, our demand for wood is very high. And we do not have alternative, if not What about the awareness of Is it possible to push the re- wood then what? Now we in Bangda arethe regional government? gions to become self reliant? preparing a policy to minimize wood In general the regions are aware that This is how it stands. This is a pro- consumption. The solution is utilizationclean water is in demand. Thats why they blem of perception. As if drinking water of light steel for construction. I was thedepend their hope on PDAM. But PDAM is easily accessible by everyone. You Governor of Sulawesi Barat, and thatcan only cover townspeople. They should know. The common people of the re- has started over there. In spite of thereprovide regional budget (APBD) for water gion already consume bottled water. is abundant wood in the area. If yousupply at kecamatan, village levels, and There is even a Bupati who has a bottled need wood you just cut one tree. Butpopulation concentration areas. This is water producing company knowing that that means a disturbance, no matterthe part of foreign assistance for helping thers a limited supply from outside. how insignificant it seems. There mustthe people of the rural areas. The Bupatis wife runs the water bot- be a policy. Otherwise men will always tling enterprise. But thats not the solu- need wood though it is prohibited. But the fact is the most regions tion. Because the peoples buying capa- Thats the beginning of illegal logging.provide very little budget, doesnt city is low, the demand for water for do- As for with light steel there are not manyit mean low priority? mestic consumption is countinuous and who are familiar with this kind of stuff. Exactly. It is not a priority. What is increasing, the solution is not through Whereas it is quakeproof and white antsprioritized is physical construction, in- bottled water. The solution is through free. Therefore for water protection,frastructure. As if water will emerge by exploring a water source and process one of the methods is forest protection.itself. We have to admit that everybody the water to be worthy of use. This can Forest is significantly influential todrinks, no one dies of dehydration. But the be done through a program and is sup- hydrological cycle. MJquestion is whether the water is worth SOURCE:DPR.GO.IDdrinking. Thats what we have to find out. Is there any effort from centralgovernment to make the regionsprioritize this? Our effort is to develop cooperationwith donor countries because speakingof water supply implies a big invest-ment, but it touches the needs of the ge-neral public. Together with Bappenas,Public Works, Health we implementWASPOLA and WSLIC to push esta-blishment of water supply provision. Butthis is limited both in terms of charac-teristics and coverage area. We hope theregions would take note on it and followthe idea. I think for many Pemdas (re- Uncontrolled and illegal logging is devastating water resources sustainability.12 Percik October 2006
  14. 14. TELESCOPE Its all wrong with BANTAR GEBANGW aste material tragedy keeps ment, the TPA that started operation in paction (50%) and reduction by sca- on haunting our waste ma- 1992 should be closed down in Decem- vengers. Based on the height of the mo- nagement in Indonesia. Last ber 2003. But the plan did not work. und in 2003 and for height variationyear, death toll count to scores of people The contract was extended based on a between 12 to 15 metres, TPA Bantarburied under by the toppling down of consclusion and recommendation if an Gebang can still be used for 417-1.015TPA (final disposal site) Lewigajah, near independent consultant. Monev con- days.Bandung. Last month, shortly before ducted by the independent consultant in On the other hand DKI Jakarta Cle-daybreak of 8 September it was the time collabotation with Jakarta Cleaning aning Agency cannot release the TPAfor TPA Bantar Gebang, Bekasi to take Agency, Human Resources and Envi- just like that. It is because DKI does notthe live of 5 people and wounded several ronment Research Centre University of have a replacement. The plan to buildothers. Indonesia and Development and En- an integrated waste management facili- Both tragedies evolved from diffe- vironment Study Centre Islamic Univer- ty (TPST) at Bojong, Kecamatan Kela-rent backgrounds. At Lewigajah, the ex- sity "45" Bekasi concluded "assuming panunggal, Bogor does not workpanse waste field slid downhill burying the amount of waste that enters TPA because of the local communitys reject-the low lying settlement along the path. Bantar Gebang is in accordance with ion. Like it or not, TPA Bantar GebangWhile in Bantar Gebang the top of 20 m that of 2003 condition (i.e 20.000 m3 is still the only hope. Certainly DKIhigh waste mound collapsed burying daily) and is decreasing due to the ope- doesnt want the tragedy like the one inscavengers who were then operating at ration of new TPAs in several other pla- Bandung to happen here.the base of the mound. ces and with reference to Cleaning Once there was a rumour that the Some people put the blame on PT. Agency data of 2003 (14.000 m3 per TPA was going to be enlarged. There isPatriot Bangkit Bekasi (PBB), the TPA day); the decrease in amount of waste in a 2,3 ha piece of land that might beBantar Gebang management. The com- the TPA from decomposition and com- used. But the plan met a bih constraint.pany that is operating on contract with SOURCE:BAGONG SDKI (Special Province) Jakarta is consi-dered incapable of managing the 108 hawaste dumping area. The company isblamed for operating in disregard of theSOP. Pursuant to provisions of the con-tract the area must be treated with sani-tary landfill, but the real fact indicates itis not more than open dumping. On theother hand, the Governor of DKI Ja-karta, Sutiyoso, blamed the scavengerswho unscropulously entered the dangerzone of the waste disposal area. Criticsand counter critics were flowing to andfro for some time. Up to now there is noacceptable solution how this mattershould be handled. Apart from it, TPA Bantar Gebangthat is divided into 5 zones is heavilyburdened. Based on the previous agree- Scavengers are fighting over the wastes around loaders. Percik October 2006 13
  15. 15. TELESCOPEThere are so many go-betweeners roam- Public Works, Ministry of Environment,ing around so that the land price and Bappenas to help them in the TPAjumped too high much above the tax- In 2004 the Centre for management. According to him theable price. Should the TPA be enlarged, Study and Development of TPA needs mining for organic matter athe capacity will remain insufficient to useful input for farming.receive 6.000 tons of waste that comes Environmental Technology In the long run he suggests that DKIincessantly every day. (BPPT) once made a study applies 3R (reduce, reuse, recycle) prin- In 2004 the Centre for Study and on the possibility for reha- ciple right from the source of the waste.Development of Environmental Tech- Composting can also be undertaken innology (BPPT) made a study on the bilitation of TPA Bantar the waste source area. This is importantpossibility for rehabilitation of TPA Gebang in 2004. The considering that 44,63 percent of DKIBantar Gebang. The study concludes, study concludes, the TPA waste consists of organic material. "Ifthe TPA can still be rehabilitated into an this works as expected, TPA will onlyenvironmentally friendly and can be can still be rehabilitated deal with the remainder. And thatused continuously. The organic matter into an environmentally means the lesser amount," says Bagong.content underneath the pile can be friendly and can be used In a different occasion, the head ofmined for reclamation of critical lands Jakarta Cleaning Agency, Rama Budior ex mining areas. continuously. said that the problem related to waste Up to now there is no concrete acti- handling is not only from technicalon to handle TPA Bantar Gebang. Eve- aspect. The non technical aspect is evenrything seems to run as usual, despite bigger. He is aware that the technicalthe death tolls. "This is because TPA age of TPA Bantar Gebang is coming toBantar Gebang is an arena to make mo- for six months. Whereas, everyone is an end. That is why DKI Jakarta hasney. Everyone is competing for money aware that PBBs capacity is question- completed a reassessment of the Solidhere," says Bagong Sutoyo, Chairman of able. No one knows of its working capi- Waste Management Master Plan com-NGO Coalition for National Waste Ma- tal, whether it has or none at all. PBB piled by JICA in 1987. The review con-nagement. He tells a story about the does not apply any hi tech waste treat- cluded a new DKI Jakarta Waste Mana-smell of politic in this largest TPA. Big ment facility. Speaking about its human gement action plan for the next 10 yearspolitical parties lend their hands to de- resources, no one knows if this company (2005-2015).termine its existence. Not counting still, hires anyone with acceptable knowledge The action plan has taken into con-exploitation and hoodlum practices that on waste management. Bagong can only sideration all the influencing factors inmay not be less cruel. wonder why such a company is appoint- waste management including institu- Bagong was one the Coordinator of ed to manage TPA Bantar Gebang. tional, legal and financial aspects. TheWorking Group for Handling TPA Ban- "Whether DKI does not have a better approach and strategy includes redu-tar Gebang revealed that money politics business partner?" he says while adding cing and reuse as much as possiblethat makes the TPA management deter- that KKN (corruption, collusion and ne- waste before transporting it to TPA;rent. "The Rp 120 thousand monthly potism) practice was behind the ap- sorting; development of waste manage-management fee is pressured from eve- pointment. ment facilities in various locations andry side. Everyone wants a share. As a In addition, he added further up to waste management zones; applicationresult the money that should be used for now there is no tripartite agreement in- of hi tech waste processing; explorationwaste management is spent unnecessa- volving the DKI Regional Government, of opportunity for inter-regional andrily for non technical expenses. The Bekasi Municipal Government and pri- private sector cooperation; and chang-TPA operation is thickly clad with hood- vate sector. The only agreement is bet- ing the community paradigm that wastelum and corruption and nepotism prac- ween DKI and Bekasi Munipal Govern- is actually an economic resource. Thistices," he concludes ment. It is the dark relationship that strategy includes decentralization, ap- Still according to him, the appoint- causes the TPA management looks like plication of hi tech and inter-regionalment of PT PBB is inseparable from the it is now. cooperation. If this works, the burdenpractices. The company should termi- Bagong suggests that it is high time borne by TPA Bantar Gebang will benate its contract in July 2006. Only God for DKI to request support from the cen- much lighter. The question remains,knows that it is extended two times each tral government such as BPPT, Dept of when? MJ14 Percik October 2006

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