Indonesia Water and Sanitation Highlight 2005. PERCIK. Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine. December 2005

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  • 1. Information Media for Water Supply and Environmental Sanitation From the Editor 1 Published by: Your Voice 2Working Group for Water Supply and Sanitation Main Report Advisor: Potret of WSS Sector 2005, Awareness is Still Lacking 3 Director General for Urban and Rural Development, Department of Public Works National Policy for Institutionally Based WSS Development One Year Waiting for Validation 6 Board of Trustee: Director of Human Settlement and Housing, Portrait of WSS Working Group 2005 9National Development Planning Agency Republic of Indonesia WASPOLA, From Principle to Action 11 Director of Water and Sanitation, 1,66 Villages Obtain Access to Ministry of Health Director of Water Supply Development, Clean Water Service Through WSLIC-2 15 Department of Public Works SANIMAS: Towards a National Programme 18 Director of Natural Resources and Appropriate Technology, Director General on Village and Interview Community Empowerment, Ir. Basah Hernowo, Department of Home Affairs Director for Facilitation of Special Planning Director of Human Settlement and Housing, Bappenas 20 Environment Management, Department of Home Affairs Dr. I Nyoman Kandun MPH, Director General for Disease Control and Environmental Sanitation 22 Chief Editor: Oswar Mungkasa Opinion Faithfully in Service for Eight Years 26 Board of Editor: Ismail, Johan Susmono, World Water Monitoring Day 28 Indar Parawansa, Poedjastanto Success Story Editor: WSLIC-2 of Jambearjo, Malang Maraita Listyasari, Rewang Budiyana,Rheidda Pramudhy, Joko Wartono, Essy Asiah, Rural Connection, Urban Management 30 Mujiyanto, Andre Kuncoroyekti Kaleidoscope Design/Illustrator: Behaviour Change without Subsidy 32 Rudi Kosasih Adat Rule Does Not Work 34 Production: Builds Flying Toilets 35 Machrudin Only to Dig Excremetn Pit 36 Distribution: IATPI Clinic Agus Syuhada Wastewater from Wash- and Bathroom 37 Address: Around WASPOLA 38 Jl. Cianjur No. 4, Menteng, Jakarta Pusat Phone/Fax.: 62-21-31904113 Around WSS 41 http://www.ampl.or.id Website Info 48 e-mail: redaksipercik@yahoo.com redaksi@ampl.or.id Innovation oswar@bappenas.go.id Rahmat (Blessed) Water Converting Clean to Drinkable Water 49 Unsolicited article or opinion items Ceramic Water Filter 50 are welcome. Please send to our address or e-mail. Dont forget to be brief and Agenda 51 accompanied by identity. WSS Bibliography 52 This magazine can be accessed at Water Glossary 53 Supply and Environmental Sanitation Website at www.apml.or.id Percik magazine can be accessed through WSS website http://www.ampl.or.id
  • 2. F R O M E D I TO R SOURCE:GUSTOMI/JeLAJAHT ime seems to slip away so fast. Without we knowing it, we are about to pass 2005. In a mo-ment the new year of 2006 greets us.As usual we use the moment like thisas moment of contemplation, an eva-luation. What have done during theoutgoing year. What is the balancebetween the positive and the nega-tive? And for the government Happybureaucrat the question is how farhave they served the nation and thepeople? Lets us hope they were notenjoyong their handsome income for New Yeardoing nothing to the people who paythem. Of course we hope the bureau-crates at all levels have worked thebest they could do to serve the coun-try in accordance with the oath of 2006office. Dear Readers, at the year end likethis, Percik wont miss to present toyou the portrait of WSS developmentmanagement in Indonesia during theyear. In broad line of course. Theintention is, to provide us with learn-ing materials. We can learn fromboth successes and failures. Succes-ses can be replicated to a wider scale cated a hopeful signs. Yet the cove- this year. For this purpose we inter-in 2006. While failures we will learn rage of these projects is still quite li- viewed the Director of Humanto avoid it and make success in the mited, let alone reaching the far cor- Settlement and Housing, (Nationalfuture. ners of Indonesia. Development Planning Agency If we look into the progress in In this edition we present to you (Bappenas), the Director General for2005 and compare it with has been several successes in the project imple- Disease Control and Environmentaldone in 2004 we see no significant mentation. The expectation is this Sanitation, Department of Health, andchanges have been made. WSS deve- could be imitated by other regions. CPMU Chairman of WSLIC-2 project.lopment seems to make a stationary We dont miss to say that in the midst In essence, there are many things thatmovement. Cases that happened in of these successes we also include the must be done regarding WSS mana-2004 (see Percik December 2004) dark side and contraints as they hap- gement in Indonesia. Especially in con-seem to repaeat in 2005. From flood, pened in the field. These all are valu- nection with Indonesias willingness tocontagious diseases, final garbage able lessons learned that we must being burdened with MDGs target.disposal, pollution, WSS related hori- bear in mind. Isnt the wise used to Lastly, we hope the present Percikzontal conflict etc. did happen again. say: failure is the beginning of a suc- serves as an impulse to improvement.However, within the gloomy face one cess? These lessons are concocted in And we are also expecting feedback fromcannot deny that there is still a splin- several articles. One appears in kalei- the readers, fro the betterment of thister of hope. The projects that were doscope, in success story, and others magazine in particular and Indonesianput into test in 2005 indicated an on the main feature. WSS development in general. Let usexcellent result. Take a look at SANI- Dear readers, it might be worth- greet 2006 with optimism and care toMAS, WSLIC-2 and CLTS. Imple- while for us to know what the WSS the pepoles condition. Lets avoid happi-mentation of national policy for com- related policy makers think about ness at the expense of someone elsesmunity based development also indi- WSS development progress during misery. May God Bless us all. Percik December 2005 1
  • 3. Y O U R VO I C ERequest for Bibliography ILUSTRATION BY: RUDIKOZ.COM advise us how to get them. Dear Editor, Rahayu Sri Pujiati, SKM, M.Kes I am a graduate of Environmental Community Health Study ProgrammeEngineering from ITB class of 1995 University of Jemberand Masters of Science from Tech- Jl. Kalimantan I/93 Kampusnische Universitaet Hamburg, Ham- Tegal Boto, Jember 68121burg, Germany. Presently I am wor- Phone. (O331) 322995 Fax. (0331) 337878king for my PhD from the same univer-sity. Request for Presently I am working on a study subscriptionin the area of susstainability assess-ments of sanitation especially for low Several times I read Percik maga-income urban communities in zine my instructor lent me. It containsIndonesia. The place presently under many insteresting materials and rele-study is Rungkut, Suarabaya. The aim vant to the subject I am studying. Howof the study is to propose an alterna- could I subscribe the magazine regu-tive solution to water pollution prob- larly?lems from human waste for lowincome community in the urban areas Nurul Ichsanof Indonesia. One of the alternatives is Jln. Banjarsari, Gg. Iwenisari No. 8ecosan (ecological sanitation), in Tembalang, Semarang 50275which domestic wastewater is dividedinto three categories, excrement(blackwater), urine (yellow water), and Wastewater, Methodology for Bulletin and CDother liquid waste (grey water). This Participatory Aproach assesment,system has long been developed in Proceeding of SANIMAS National Herewith I would request for free bu-Europe (Germany, Austria, Sweden). Seminar in Bali 2004), proceeding of lletins and CD related to WSS develop-My professor happens to be one of the National Seminar on World Water Day ment for additional collection of ourpioneers. 2004, Data Inventory and Evaluation library of the Faculty of Administration To implement it together with a of Urban Infrastructure Developemtn Sciences, University of Brawijaya.friend who atennd the same school Implementation 1992-2002, andcosntructed an Ecosan pilot plant at Wastewater management handbook) Andy Fefta WiajyaPusdakota Ubaya, an NGO concntrat- and others I wish to have the photo- Fac. Administration Scienceing on community empowerment. A copy. What is the best way for me to Univ. of Brawijayacollague in Pusdakota who attended a have them? Jl. MT Haryono No 163WSS Working Group seminar some Almy Malisie Malang - Jawa Timur, Indonesiatime ago lent me the seminar proceed- Surabayaing and Percik ed. June 2004. I am Thank you for all the attention paidquite interested with the information In need for books by the faithful Percik readers. For yourbacuse of relevance with my ongoing attention, Percik magazine is distributedstudy. I have managed to get most of I am an instructor of Community free of charge. We will send it to you whothe data in Percik of said edition from Health Study Programme of the have attached a complete address. Whilevarious internet sources, yet some University of Jember. Our Study for the bibliography, they are available inother are still lacking. For that purpose Programme is in need for books on very limited copies. Therefore, we willI would inquire how I could obtain sev- environment, and we have received help you as long as they are available ateral refereances from Percik bibliogra- the journal you sent us. We wish to sufficient copies. Otherwise, you will needphy? Beside the data presented there have the books in your website. I to duplicate them yourselves. Thank youare also several VCDs (such as NAP for would be thankful if you could again. (Editor) (Redaksi)2 Percik December 2005
  • 4. MAIN REPORT Potret of WSS Sector in 2005 AWARENESS IS STILL LACKING Water supply and environmental sanitation is still being the national average 54,56 percent of families have a relatively acceptable considered as less important sector. This is evidenced drainage system, and 31,98 percent ha- from the level of attention to this sector and the impact ving no drainage system at all. Community access to WSS system is produced within one year. The hope for a change still rated low, especially for those living in remains a dream. villages. WSS service is not evenly di- stributed among regions and territories, and in many areas the distribution is inequitable between the rich and theY ear 2005 is coming to an end. on survey in 6 districts, local govern- poor. Efficiency in use of the existing WSS development seems to pass ment budget allocation for this sector is facility is only at 76 percent of the total just like that. No significant im- below 10 percent, some even close to capacity. This means 24 percent of theprovement has been made. We should zero. capacity is idle or lost, and boils down torealize, however, that other sectors are inefficient investment. This was becau-performing more or less the same, alias 2003 2004 2005 se of the top down approach of develop- LUMAJANG 0.56 5.56running idle. There are perhaps many ment in the past that made the invest- TAKALAR 1.15 0.01reasons for it, such as the government KUNINGAN 0.97 1.06 ment bigger than the actual demand.has only been newly formed, delay in SUBANG 1.33 1.37 The proportion of urban families withbudget flow, official or positional trans- SIKKA 3.06 0.85 septic tank and pit well systems com-fer in bureaucracy, and so on. SUMBA TIMUR 7.91 0.1 bined is relatively high, i.e at 80,5 per- Admittedly or not, this sector has cent (regardless of quality) (BPS, 2004).not been given the proper attention. Up to 73,13 percent of urban familiesThe central government budget for It is no wonder therefore that WSS that have toilets, and 16,9 percent usehousing and settlement is less than 10 service coverage does not move further communal or public toilet. While in vil-percent. We could then deduce how from the record of the previous years. lages the figure indicates 50 percent.much is from this percentage WSS -as Urban piped water service is 52 percent In such a condition, the environ-part of settlement development gets; and in villages 5 percent. The overall ment suffers from severe degradation.very small naturally. Whereas, it is esti- urban wastewater service, on site and This is because of rapid populationmated that WSS development through off site combined is 25,5 percent (taken growth, urbanization, and industrializa-2015 requires Rp 50 trillion budget if from the population of 399 urban cen- tion. Deterioration threatens manythe MDGs target is to be achieved. The ters). Solid waste management serves water catchment areas. Water sourcesregional attention is even worse. Based 32,1 of the population of 384 cities. At are polluted. This brings serious pro- Percik Desember 2005 3
  • 5. MAIN REPORT SOURCE: MUJIYANTOblems to water supply. Water quality inseveral river basins is decreasing conti-nuously due to domestic and industrialwastes, also from other human activitiessuch as mining and residual effect fromextensive use of pesticides. Pollution towater bodies caused by several reasonssuch dumping of wastewater hasreached an apprehensive stage. Ap-proximately 76 percent of 52 rivers ofJava, Sumatra, Bali and Sulawesi arehighly polluted with organic pollutants,and 11 main rivers are critically contam-inated with ammonium compound. These all are the the consequences ofmans failure to exploit nature in a wisemanner. Illegal logging goes freely un-restricted. No wonder if floods andlandslides are repeating the same placesas the previous years. Death tolls, wo-unded people and loss in properties areunavoidable. Groundwater exploitation and irre-sponsible dumping of industrial waste,especially in the urban areas, are com-mon practices without the least regard is well above the safe treshold (Suara ment.to environmental conservation and nat- Pembaharuan 18/11/2005). Lack community access is also theural carrying capacity. In Jakarta for The nature is also suffering more side effect of institutional and lawexample, groundwater extraction has because the burden of increasing piles enforcement related problems. The ins-exceeded 60 percent above the safe of solid waste. The garbage production titution responsible for WSS manage-treshold. As a consequence, in many growth rate is estimated at 1,49 percent ment is not performing sufficiently andplaces groundwater table has dropped per annum. For regions with sufficient is under capacity. Management, finan-as far as 5 meters. As a consequence of land space, it does not pose a problem at cing, human resources and institutionalpollution from industrial wastes in the least for the time being. In big cities, issues are all in a mess, God knowsnorthern part of the city, the economic solid waste is a real headache. Take a when to get unruffled. While lawvalue of river, i.e Ciliwung Dalam River look at Jakarta, the regional govern- enforcement is going meekly, if not sta-in Rorotan Marunda has been decreas- ment now is deeply perplexed, especial- tionary at all. Laws and regulations areing continuously. In terms of money the ly with TPST Bojong continuously being simple written documents. Environ-value in 2003 was Rp 1,094 billion, sev- denied by the local population, while mental degradation is proceeding freelyeral years after it will become Rp337 TPA Bantar Gebang cannot be used any unabashed.million. The decrease in water value more. Bandung is also suffering from This poor condition brings with it itsfrom 2003-2010 will adversely affect the same headache after the Lewigajah consequences. Action equals reaction,the life of shrimps, crabs, and cock- TPA disaster. The regional autonomy so the the law of relativity says. If thereleshells will become endangered with apparently gives birth to regional ego- is no significant reaction in WSS deve-mercury poisoning from the river. In ism, paying no respect to the interest of lopment, the expected reaction will2010 when the cadmium content in the larger communities. On one side, never come up, in other words stagnan-groundwater of the area exceeds the safe the communitys awareness to 3R cy. And that is better still, the real facttreshold, underground water of the area (reuse, reduce, recycle) principle is lack- is that community health condition -asis not drinkable any more. Then in ing. They still dont care to this dirty it relates to WSS service provision- is2028, water cannot be used for agricul- material. The community attitude getting worse. This is evidenced fromture any more because mercury content towards hygienic life needs improve- the incidence of several diseases such as 4 Percik December 2005
  • 6. MAIN REPORTpolio, dengue fever, avian flu, diarrhoea, realistic. There are so many problems their limited capacity.and cholera. The last disease was wide- this nation faces. In a messy system Based on UNSFIR study (2003) In-spread recently silently missed publica- such it is, the decision makers -inclu- donesia can only reach the reduction bytion. In general, of 175 nations of the ding the parliament- prefer more realis- half the population presently is withoutworld, Indonesia is placed 112 in health tic issues where the result is readily vis- access to water supply and basic sanita-condition. Fadillah Supari, the Minister ible. This of course is different from the tion in 2040. It is estimated that 24of Health says this is a poor position, impact of WSS development which is provinces are unable to reach the targetthough it is slightly better than before. not instant and the impact is visible only in 2015. This condition is open wide in front after a long time. Financial support for There is a paradox between targetof us. We cannot put the blame singly this sector cannot always be expected, and process. On one side, the govern-on anyone for it. Everyone is to share even from the private sector considering ment is putting stronger emphasis onthe responsibility. One cannot deny, the amount needed. While the rich WSS development through communityhowever, that all this time the commu- nations, that should have been alloca- empowerment approach, which natural-nity is not sufficiently SOURCE: MUJIYANTO ly takes a longer timestrengthened in handling to accomplish. On theWSS development so that other side, MDGs tar-a sustainable WSS service get is brought into thesystem has never been mainstream that mustmade into living reality. be reached in orderOn the other hand, the that Indonesia won thegovernment personnel reputation as a suc-are still maintaining their cessful nation by theproject oriented way of international commu-thinking and consider the nity. It is therefore notpeople are a mere stupid impossible that thelot. Incompetence also project oriented way ofinfected the bureaucrates thinking in order toso that in absence of reach the target will befunding, no job could reactivated. What istake place and no atten- certain, with or withouttion could be paid to the target, the people needpeople they are supposed access to water supplyto serve. Incompetence is and sanitation servicea chronic disease this in order to improvenation suffers from. their well being. And this needs the governments manage-Challenges ting 0.1 percent of their domestic prod- ment and seriousness as the mandatory Indonesia has been caught within ucts, no one can expect they would keep to run the management of the state.MDGs trap. Indonesia, in this case the their promise. This needs a clear vision and missiongovernment, is compelled to implement Again the people have to carry addi- that does not depend on other nation orthe agreement made in Johannesburg. tional burden, in spite of their economic international organization. Breakthro-In WSS sector, Indonesia has to reduce difficulty. A new development strategy ugh and creativity is being awaited byby half, in 2015, the proportion of popu- came into practice, called empower- the people. Therefore the governmentlation without access to water supply ment. The community has been consi- must be strong enough to improve itselfand basic sanitation facility. The dered powerless. Therefore, the com- to prevent it being steered by outsidersassumption is, this achievement will sig- munity with its limitation is stimulated with hidden agenda.nificantly influence the improvement of to become capable to develop itself. The The population yearns for drinkingcommunity well being. government -paid handsomely from the water and hygienic environment for qu- From the community point of view peoples tax- will act as facilitator. The ality life. This is not an empty illusion.the government determination is supe- people are facilitated to help the govern- When can this be made a reality?rior. The problem is, whether that is ment to achieve MDGs target in spite of mujiyanto Percik December 2005 5
  • 7. MAIN REPORT National Policy for Institutionally Based WSS Development One Year Waiting for ValidationT he national policy for communi- SOURCE: EXCLUSIVE ty based WSS development has been implemented for twoyears. Though it hasnt spread to allregions, the field trial so far has indica-ted a hope for WSS development in thefuture. However, this policy is notenough to cover the management ofWSS development in general. This isbecause with the policy is limited tosmall scale demand which may be lesseconomical. The demand for WSS service is con-siderably large. In this connection wehave no choice but to orient the ma-nagement to the institutionally based.The big demand will naturally call forlarge scale mobilization of resources,human resources, finance, technology,and others. For that reason, the govern-ment is designing a national policy forinstitutionally based WSS development. As an initial preparation, the formu-lation process is already completed. At towards community welfare. The objec- 6 Establishment of inter-regional andthe end of December 2004 the draft was tives are i) increase in access, ii) effec- cross-sectoral coordination in WSSready for revision. Yet up to the end of tive use, and iii) guaranteed sustainabil- Management.2005 the draft has not been signed. ity. The general policy of WSS sector The general policy is then deducedThere are many constraints over there. development includes the following: to sectoral policy consisting of four sec-This is quite natural considering this 1. Priority to the poor families. tors ie. drinking water, wastewater,policy links many sectors and many 2. Maintaining a balance between solid waste, and drainage."interests". There are still many issues demand for WSS development andrequiring clarification. environmental carrying capacity. Drinking Water What is certain is that this policy is 3. Involving the participation of all Drinking water service is currentlyexpected to serve as directive for all stakeholders. in a very limited coverage. This is onlystakeholders to lead their activity 4. WSS Management that exercises an in urban areas. But the urban poor, tho-towards achieving WSS management optimum entrepreneurship and cost se who live in the slum areas are alwaysobjectives, ie. improved community recovery principles. in want. They have to spend more mo-health and supporting economic growth 5. Effective law enforcement. ney relative to the size of their income. 6 Percik December 2005
  • 8. MAIN REPORT On the other side, the capacity of the cost more and more to produce drinking Whether one admits it or not theenvironment to provide clean water is water and to restrore water resources community as the waste producer doesdecreasing steadily. Though it is renew- quality. not care to what has been done. This isable, water resources availability for Besides, there is presently no plan- made even worse with the fact that thedrinking purpose is a problem for most ning standard applicable to wastewater community lacks the access to wastewaterof the service providers. In the mean- treatment, either for a single housing handling service. Even with one who hastime, the demand for drinking water is area or a municipality scale so that the performane of the providing institutionincreasing due to population growth many of the waste treatment falicities is wanting. Government care is lascking.and changes in lifestyle. are inferior and do not meet the This is evidenced from lack of government PDAM that is supposed to serve the required environmental safety stan- budget and lack of law and regulation go-community is unable to meet the expec- dard. verning this sector.tation both in terms of water quality and Pollution of water body for various Overcome the abovementionedquantity. The public company is suf- different reasons, especially from waste- problems, the polcy for wastewaterfering from internal problems such as water has reached an apprehension treatmen inclues the following:management, tariff, and regulatory level. 76,2 percent of 52 rivers on Java, 1. Promote the integration of regulationaspects. And the role of the private sec- Sumatra and Sulawesi are heavily pol- on drinking water and wastewatertor so far has not been visible. luted with organic pollutants, and 11 management. For all the above conditions the po- major rivers are heavily polluted with 2. Wastewater management is orientedlicy for drinking water includes: ammonium compounds. Major rivers of to raw water conservation.1. Gradual increase in service coverage the urban are generally polluted to an 3. Improvement of community access to and improvement from clean water extent that BOD exceeds 34,48 percent acceptable level of wastewater facility. into drinking water quality. and COD 51,72 percent above treshold 4. Priority service is to be given to poor2. Increase of access to drinking water values. Approximately 32,24 percent of communities. service with priority to low income piped water samples and 54,16 percent 5. Wastewater management be under- communities and areas that are with- of non piped samples contain E.coli bac- taken by a specically appointed insti- out access to such a service. teria. tution.3. Consumenrs involvement to promote quality of service. SOURCE:EXCLUSIVE4. Drinking water consumption control through regulation and tariff instru- ments.5. Improvement of government, com- munity and business community con- trol in raw water management.6. Application of sound management and cost recovery principles.7. Improvement of investment opportu- nity.Wastewater Article 40 of Water Resouces Lawstipulates the requirement for an inte-gral management of drinking water andwastewater. But up to now there is nomeeting of mind regarding wastewatermanagement. Drinking water supply isstill oriented to raw water treatment todrinking water. But without consideringthe waste produced from drinking wateruse that causes pollution to raw watersource. If this tendency continues it will Percik December 2005 7
  • 9. MAIN REPORT SOURCE:EXCLUSIVE Application of cost recovery principle, step by step. Effective law enforcement. Drainage Up to now there is no clarity whe- ther a drainage system in Indonesia is oriented only to avoid rainwater inun- dation or it also includes disposing wastewater into a mixed system. It often happens a drainage system is also used for wastewater, especially grey water, drainage though the systyem is not designed for a mixed system. A mixed system without proper palnning tends to cause pollution of water body in the downstream area. Many drainage system development, by the govern- ment, proivate, or the community, does not follow the existing master plan, and in several cities such a master plan entirely unknown. Besides, attention to drainage issue is not based on program approach, more ofteen than not it is based on casuistic approach and an area development often does not follow a6. Improvement of the role of govern- faces many problems consisting of insti- spatial planning wth regards flow pat- ment, community and private sector tutional, regulatory, and financing. tern and infiltration capacity. in wastewater treatment. Similar with wastewater, solid waste has Drainagwe also faces funding, law7. Application of cost recovery principle not been given sufficient attention it enforcement, and institutional prob- gradually in wastewater management. deserves. However, some hope may lems. Government attention arises8. Effective law enforcement to prevent come from the community because indi- when in response to a consequence. pollution of water sources. viduals and group have in reality capa- Considering the above the policy ble of initiating individual and neigh- related to dainage sector includes:Solid Waste bourhood scale waste management sys- 1. Determine the authority in drainage Indonesian population growth is tem. It is now up to us how to promote handling by the government, private1,49 percent a year and logically this 1. existing potential. the sector and the community dependingbrings an increase of garbage produc- The policy related to solid waste sec- on the drainage system hierarchy.tion up to 2-4 percent per annum. The tor consists of: 2. Establishment of integrated drainageincrease in volume is also followed with 2. Reduce as much as possible waste system management to maintain ba-composition and characteristics of solid production right from its initial lance in water regime.waste in line with industrial growth and source. 3. Priority to the poor community andcommunity consumption pattern. 3. Promote community role and partici- tickly populated sectors in drainage The increase in garbage production pation as partners in waste material managemetn and handling.is not followed with the availability of 4. handling. All sectoral policies, drinking water,garbage handling facility so that the Strengthening Solid waste manage- wastewater, solid waste and drainageremaining untended garbage turns to 5. ment institution. system are to be deduced into moresource of environmental pollution. Development partnership with the detailed implementation strategies.Another difficulty faced by the regional 6. private sector. Socialization process has been under-government is the limited space for final Improvemetn Ste by Step level of taken through talk show in TV. Now wedisposal ground (TPA). This sector 7. service towards a natioan standard. are waiting for the validation. (MJ) 8 Percik December 2005
  • 10. MAIN REPORT Portrait of WSS Working Group 2005 SOURCE:WSST he WSS Working Group in 2005 has fcosed its activity in public campaign and operationaliza-tion of the national policy for communi-ty based WSS development in theregions and completion of the nationalpolicy for institutionally based WSSdevelopment. The public campign is directed toimpart a better understanding to allWSS development stakeholders aboutthe basic principles underlying thenational WSS development policy andto increase their care and participationin the development of this sector. Someof the public campaign activities areundertaken through publication ofPercik magazine, website maintenance,electronic mailing list and WSS newslet-ter, poster and leaflet printing and dis-tribution, exhibition, and talk show inelectronic media. The talkshow hasbeen done through cooperation withtwo TV stations, TVRI and Metro TV, In 2006 the WSS Working ProAir Technical Training.discussing about National Policy for Group has been instrumental WSLIC-2 Post Construction TechnicalInstititutionally Based WSS Develop- in formulating a cooperation Training.ment. MPA-PHAST Training and its agreement between the Translation of the national policy for Application in Planning andcommunity based WSS development Government of Indonesia with Monitoring for Community Basedinto regional level operation has been Plan International, an inter- WSS Projectsundertaken through several activities, national non government 3. Cordination in the Implemen-such as: organization. This coopera- tation of Community Based WSS1. Workshop tion represents one of the Development with Program Workshop on National Policy for Partners efforts for active involvement Community Based WSS Development 4. Field Trial of Community-Led in 7 provinces. of all stakeholders in WSS Total Sanitation Approach Workshop on Operationalization of development The field trial was conducted in National Policy for Community Based cooperation with WASPOLA in 6 loca- WSS Development in the regions for WSS Development in WSLIC-2 pro- tions, namely Lumajang, Muaro Jambi, NGO partners and the involved go- ject sites. Sambas, Bogor, Muara Enim and vernment agencies. Workshop for Operationalization of Sumabawa. CLTS approve works excel- Workshop on National Policy for the National Policy for Community lently in improving community habit Community Based WSS Development Based WSS Development in the trowrds hygiene behaviour. Yet, some in CWSH project sites. regions. of the areas also met with difficulties in Workshop for socialization of the 2. Training the trial. The factors influencing suc- National Policy for Community Based WSS Technical Training. cess and failure of the approach lie with Percik December 2005 9
  • 11. MAIN REPORT FOTO:MUJIYANTOthe support from the local communityyleaders. In 2006 the WSS Working Grouphas been instrumental in formulating acooperation agreement between theGovernment of Indonesia with PlanInternational, an international non gov-ernment organization. This agreementis summarized into a MoU signed by theDeputy for Infrastructure, Bappenasand Country Director of Plan Inter-national Indonesia on 19 October 2005.This cooperation represents one of theefforts for active involvement of allstakeholders in WSS development. The activity related to formulation ofNational Policy for Institutionally BasedWSS Development has finalised draft 3revision 3. Socialization of the latestdraft has been made to echelon 1 offi-cials of Directorate General Bangda,Directorate General PMD, DirectorateGeneral Disease Control and ous skills and knowledge needed forEnvironmental sanitation and Ministry replication of the approaches that haveof Environment. in 2006, will start with been tried sucessfully in the previous communication strategy years, such as CLTS and SANIMAS.Plan for 2006 Workshop of Communication formulation to be In 2006 the WSS Working Group Strategyworkplans include public campaign, initiated with It has been realized that the successoperationalization of National Policy for a workshop to determine in implementing National Policy forWSS (Community as well as Institu- the communication WSS Development is highly influencedtionally Based) WSS Development and model as a base for by application of an effective policyformulation of the related guidelines. In communication strategy communication strategy, in 2006, will2006 the public campaign will follow start with communication strategy formu- development for Nationalalmost exactly what has been done in lation to be initiated with a workshop tothe previous year. This activity consists Policy for (Community determine the communication model as aof publication of Percik magazine, web- and Institutionally Based) base for communication strategy develop-site maintenance, electronic mailing list WSS Development. ment for National Policy for (Communityand WSS newsletter, poster and leaflet and Institutionally Based) WSS Deve-printing and distribution, exhibition, lopment. Policy formulation activity willand talkshow in electronic media. be directed to produce various implemen-Hopefully that in 2006 Percik publica- ed to build a better understanding, con- tation and technical guidelines and CWSHtion volume could be increased. This is sultation and supervision of policy technical modules. Year 2006 will be thein line with the increasing demand to implementation within the framework first year for realization of cooperationthis magazine. of central, provincial and kabupaten between the government and Plan Operationalization of National Policy level WSS Working Groups. International. The scope of the cooper-for WSS Development will be conducted Training ation will include field trial of thethrough several means such as: In 2006 ttraining agenda will be ori- nationa Policy for WSS development, Coordination Meeting on National ented to capacity improvemen of the training, resource centre development Policy for WSS Development actors in operationalisation of National and development of communications This coordination meeting is intend- Policy for WSS Development, and vari- strategy. (AK)10 Percik December 2005
  • 12. MAIN REPORT WASPOLA, From Principle to ActionT he idea behind WSS sector poli- PROPINSI KABUPATEN commitment. The basic policy princi- cy reform was developed under SUMATERA BARAT SAWAHLUNTO SIJUNJUNG ples developed within the framework of KOTA PAYAKUMBUH the premise of increasing an TANAH DATAR equity, and commitment to change,improved and well targeted WSS service BANGKA BELITUNG BANGKA SELATAN from provider to facilitator, should be BANGKA BARATcoverage. The importance of a more KOTA PANGKAL PINANG honestly and openly translated into theefficient, well targeted, poverty orien- BANTEN LEBAK implementation of WSS sector develop-ted, improved community participation, PANDEGLANG ment, by the central and regional go- KOTA TANGERANGgender sensitive, are a few of the under- JAWA TENGAH KEBUMEN vernments.lying principles upon which the WSS PEKALONAGN GROBOGANsector policy reform rests. Since its con- NUSA TENGGARA BARAT LOMBOK BARAT Capacity Improvement, Demandception in 1998, WASPOLA (Water and LOMBOK TIMUR for WSS Development SUMBAWASanitation Policy Formulation and SULAWESI SELATAN PANGKEP From the experience obtained fromAction Planning) has been promoting TAKALAR facilitating policy development in theacceleration towards that reform. SELAYAR regions, especially in the context of WSS GORONTALO GORONTALOThough in the beginning this sectoral BONE BOLANGO policy reform, human resources capaci-policy reform concept was not familiar ty improvement becomes an intrinsicwith the bureaucrates, especially with policy reform is important, first WSS demand within the reform itself.lack of nationally developed lessons development is often understood as Sustainable development and demandlearned to use as reference, yet the WSS facility development subsidy, se- responsive approach are among thereform process still proceeds and cond the budget for WSS developmentis important themes that call for strongobtains multipartite support. Six go- quite limited therefore it is necessary undertanding and sectoral commit-vernment departments involved in its invite support fron non government se- ment. In 2005 WASPOLA has facilita-development pleaded commitment for a ctor. WASPOLA facilitation support in ted interaction between the governmentcommunity based WSS development. the policy implementation, in this con- and the community for the purpose of In 2005 being the second year of text is bridging out transfer of know- exploring and sharing of informationWASPOLA-2 after WASPOLA-1 was ledge and information in order that the about WSS service development at thecompleted in 2003, has printed reform service is not limited to facility con- field level. The outcome is a growingtints to WSS development policy that is struction, but more than that, it is sus- care and attention from within the go-now proceeding in the path of a dynamic tainability. Sustainability begins from vernment agencies, promoting appreci-coordination process. change in paradigm leading to sustained ation of community participation and development covering institutional-, growth of community self reliance inReform and Policy Implemen- financial-, social-, technological- and envi- WSS service management.tation ronmental aspects. Besides, WASPOLA Sustainable WSS service related In 2005 the National Policy for support is also made available to develop- issues are often voiced out by WSSCommunity Based WSS Development ment of synergy between government development actors in the regions.was put into implementation in 21 and non government so that WSS ser- Regional working group identificationkabupatens of 7 provinces. (see table 1) vice development could proceed as com- of drinking water supply related aspects Several experiences have been mon commitment and multipartite in some kabupatens, have identifiedobtained from the implementation in involvement. The involvement leads to several sustainability determining vari-the 21 kabupatens. The experience from development of common responsibility ables, and their interlinkages. As anWSS development up to now can be for investment and O&M costs. Some of example, in a visit to 4 villages ie.used as strong reason for conducting examples of development initiated by Talamelito, Molintogupo, Tangga Jaya,policy reform. Malfunctioning of facili- demand driven and demand responsive- and Illoheluna, all in Kabupaten Boneties, inefficient and mistargeted devel- ness approaches have indicated that Bolango, widely different variables wereopment are among the examples. At there is a hidden potential within the identified. It was found that technologyleast there are two things noted why community, financial, capacity and choice was not followed with institu- Percik December 2005 11
  • 13. MAIN REPORT SOURCE: EXCLUSIVE technical assistance in the regional WSS strategy plan formulation gained a warm appreciation from the regional working groups. This strategy plan was developed within the framework of long term and medium term regional strate- gy plan formulation. The formulation of vision, mission and identification of internal/external factors, formulation on mandate, SWOT analysis, strategiis- sues, and formulation of strategic pro- grammes are several of the materials that must be well understood in a stra- tegy planning formulation. Direct and extensive involvement of stakeholders is a charcteristics that WASPOLA intends to promote in many of the regions. The regions with a strategy plan will be more advenced in developing a comprehen- sive WSS development strategy plan as it relates to MDGs target achievement, and opportunity to multipartite strate-tional management, financial manage- base development, while at the central gic partneship. Placement of WSS asment and environmental protection, it level, this is done a comprehensive priority will save the regions fromwas also found that WSS service sus- study to identify WSS service related unnecessary social investment due totainability was vulnerable to "personal problems especially in this era of decen- negative impact brought by poor drink-policy", or behaviour of village adminis- tralization. All these activities, under- ing water and environmental sanitationtration officer. In the village of Lonuo, taken by the regions and the central service.once appraised for its exemplary WSS government, have produced importantservice management is now at the brink lessons learned for WSS service provi- Institutionally Based Policy, Inof failure because of malfunctioning sion in the future, through reform in Response to Marketmanagement institution. In this context institutional, financial, and regulatory Being part of policy reform, thethe regional government should take a aspects. availability of a policy for WSS servicecloser look at the problem and later pro- provision by an institution is deemedvide technical assistance how to Steps Leading to WSS Priority necessary. PDAM condition, almost allimprove the situation. Similar case hap- The lack of community access to over the country, is not directly correlat-penes in several kabupatens and WSS service in infrastructure develop- ed with improvement of access to drink-WASPOLA keeps on trying to promote ment is identified as a consequence of ing water. Data from PU indicate thatan improvement process. In addition to lack of support to this sector. Most of water supply of the urban is approxi-participatory approaches, which was the regions, even the central, do not mately 39 percent, while PDAM oper-introduced by WASPOLA through place WSS in any development priority, ates in 306 kabupatens (70 percent) ofMPA-PHAST training to enable the at least in the amount of budget alloca- Indonesia. This indicates the PDAMregional working groups analyse the tion, clarity of institution, and availabil- provides very small service coverage,community level problems and issues. ity of capable human resources. In se- and it does not have the capacity to veral regionas, the regioan strategy increase the coverage. This does notAnalysis of WSS Service plan, WSS is menytioned as a scion of include the outstanding payables that WASPOLA is supporting the stake- some component, such as housing or are their main trouble for almost all theholders in conducting evaluation on health. In this conext, preparation of public companies. According to aWSS service provision. At the regional WSS developemtn strategy plan record collected by an NGO in Solo,level, this activity can be undertaken becomes part of the effort to make WSS there are presently 23 PDAMs that arethrough a field observation and data- a development priority. WASPOLAs ready for a cooperation with private sec-12 Percik December 2005
  • 14. MAIN REPORTtor. Along with it, and in order to main- in the overcrowded tail car, that can was visisted by more than 200 gueststain a favourable investment climate never reach the status of the other cars discussing a wide variety of WSS relatedand at the same time to guarantee ser- in front of it. This kind of combination issues.vice to low income community it is ne- model will produce a sector trailing farcessary to build a comprehensive policy behind, yet overburdened with too 2005 SOME OF WASPOLAand capable of accomodating various many a problem. This is clearly evi- ACTIVITIES IN 2005different interests. This is the challenge denced from the meager budget alloca-that the government is trying to answer tion set aside by the regional gover- JANUARY 2005through formulation of a national policy ments for sanitation development. In Preparation of WASPOLA supportinstitutionally based WSS development. this context, WASPOLA promotes the design in facilitating WSLIC andWASPOLAs effort to facilitate this changing of sanitation development CWSH projects policy development;process has been exerted since 2003 concept. Through CLTS (Community- Rationalization of WASPOLAand more intensively during 2004- Led Total Sanitation) approach sanita- Workplan 2005;2005. The involvement of various seg- tion development is oreinted more to Preparatory activity for CLTS Fieldments: government, private sector, change of attitude, so that the govern- Trial.NGOs, universities, and professional ment will no longer act as supplier, andassociations has been obvious. The the community the beneficiary. This FEBRUARY 2005institutionally based policy has been change of insight will lead to change in Workshop for consolidation of opera-formulated more comprehensively and behaviour and finally stimulates tionalization of National Policy foris built on a stronger structure and con- demand and innovation. In SANIMAS Community Based WSS Develop-ceptional framework. It is divided into (Sanitation by the Community) commu- ment, on 15-17 February in Surabaya;general and sectoral policies: drinking nity involvement and participation Workshop on communications starte-water, sanitation, solid waste and stimulates the growth of sense of gy development, on 17 February indrainage. However, as a procwess this belongingness and willingness to pay. Surabaya;policy needs support and acceptance Two of the many sanitation develop- Kick off CLTS approach field trial inextensively from every segments of the ment principles introduced by WASPO- Indonesia.community, especially the regional go- LA intends to improve the situation sovernments and the private sector, so that sanitation is no longer placed as the MARCH 2005that it could be immediately imple- rearmost overcrowded car. Evaluation of provincial preparednessmentable. In connection with MDGs for the operationalization of thetarget achievement, the government Promotion and Partnership, National Policy; Roadshow ofmust as soon as possible invite the coo- Efforts to Achieve Success National Policy for Institutionallyperation of those that care to WSS ser- Policy as a mental product and a Based WSS Development at thevice development, especially the private process must be continuously promoted Ministry of Environment, 29 March;sector and at the same time create a and disseminated in order to gain public Field activity for analytical study onconducive environment required by in- acknowledgement. WASPOLA and WSS service in the era of decentraliza-vestors so that partnership could be WSS Working Group are now together tion;developed. in this line of activity. Involvement of Seven participants representing WSS many parties, local, national, regional, Working Group and WASPOLASanitation, the Passenger Packed and international is on-going, to build attended Water Week Conference inTail Car inquisitiveness, care, commitment and Washington, 28 Feb-3 Mar; Sanitation, for as long as it is treated finally partnership. Together with ka- Presentation of National Policy foras a separate scion from water supply bupaten and provincial working groups WSS Development in Indowater sem-development, it will remain to behave the Policy has been disseminated to inar and exhibition, 30 March.like an ancient overcrowded wagon local and regional level stakeholders.train moving shakily pulled by an Partnership with NGOs, universities, APRIL 2005 nunderrated engine. It will always fall private sectors being build to create WASPOLA and WSS Working Groupbehind water supply. If the engines are synergy and capacity support. Some of participation in WSP retreat meetingto be combined, sanitation and water the activites supported by WASPOLA, at Guilin, China, 4-6 April;supply should be united as an integral have produced impressive results, such WASPOLA and WSS Working Grouppart, yet in reality, sanitation is placed as evidenced in 2 exhibitions, the stand participation in World Water Day Percik December 2005 13
  • 15. MAIN REPORTexhibition held at Dept. Publ Works AUGUST 2005 Presentation of analytical study ofoffice compound, Jakarta. Visited by Worshop on operationalization of the WSS service delivery in the era ofmore 200 visitors; National Policy, Hotel Permata Alam decentralization.Participation in the launching of Puncak;National Partnership for Water Coordination meeting on policy im- OCTOBER 2005Protection, 28 April. plementation for WSS Working MPA-PHAST Orientation Training for Groups of Indonesian Eastern region, Provincial and Kabupaten levelMAY 2005 held in Makassar; Working Groups in Bandung;Dissemination of the National WSS Roadshow of Community Based Workshop Training on WSLIC sus-Development Policy in Province of Development Policy to provincial policy tainability strategy for West and EastBanten; makers of NTB, Gorontalo, and Banten; Indonesia regions, in Padang andCLTS training for members of WSS SSWAF seminar and exhibition in Bali. Surabaya respectively;Working Group, CWSH and WSLIC Roadshow of Community BasedProjects in Lumajang, 2-5 May Sanitation, for as long as it is Development Policy to provincial po-CLTS training for regional WSS licy makers of Sumatra Barat atten- treated as a separate sector fromWorking Group in Sumabawa, 9-12 ded by Deputy Governor, Chairman ofMay; water supply development, it will Kabupaten/Kota Bappedas, Govern-Preparation of CLTS Training work- remain to behave like an ancient ment Agencies, community leaders,plan in the regions. overcrowded wagon train moving WSS Working Group and WASPOLA; shakily pulled by an underrated Roadshow of Institutionally Based PolicyJUNE 2005 engine to DG. PMD of Dept. Home Affairs;Training on the preparation of WSS WSS Network and Partnership Meetingstrategy planning in two regions of held at Hotel Kartika Chandra Jakarta;Indonesia, held in Maassar and Meeting to discuss implementation ofPuncak, respectively; SEPTEMBER 2005 a study on donor harmonization;CLTS Training in Sambas; WASPOLA coordination team mee- Meeting with SIDA (Swedish Interna-Final preparation of SANIMAS ting attended by Director of Housing tional Development Agency), a donor;Outcome Monitoring Study (SOMS) and Settlement Systems, Bappenas, Workshop for developing WASPOLAimplementation; WSS Working Group. AusAID, WSP- Workplan 2006, held at Interconti-Discussion meeting on Global PSP EAP, and WASPOLA; nental Hotel.Review, as part of enrichment of insti- SSWAF seminar and exhibition intutionally based development issues, Bali; NOVEMBER 2005held in Jakarta; Workshop on synergy of WSS devel- WASPOLA Mid term review;Field activity of analytical study on WSS opment activities at regional level; Study visit to Australia by WSS Workingservice in the era of decentralization; Workshop on operationalization of Group and WASPOLA, for enrichmentInitiation of WSS partnership, Policy for project partners and NGOs, of institutional policy development;through cooperation between the go- at Hotel Satelit Surabaya; Workshop on WSS Data in Province ofvernment and Plan International. Roadshow of Community Based Banten. Development Policy to provincial po-JULY 2005 licy makers of Jawa Tengah; DECEMBER 2005Roadshow of Community Based Roadshow of Community Based De- WASPOLA Mid term review;Development Policy to provincial po- velopment Policy to kabupaten level Workshop on WSS data development bylicy makers of Bangka Belitung; policy makers of Pandeglang, Tange- the Provinces and Kabupatens;Interactive talkshow in radio, Radio rang and Lombok Barat; CLTS training for PCI (an NGO) atSonora Pangkal Pinang; Workshop training on CWSH Project Kabupaten Pandeglang;CLTS Training in Kabupatens Bogor, Strategy Planning for Kecamatan Finalising of WASPOLA Workplan 2006;Muara Enim, and Muaro Jambi; Facilitator Team; Facilitation for workshop on PlanPreparation WASPOLA six monthly Roadshow of Institutionally Based International (an NGO) workplan;report; Policy to Diretorate General for Facilitation of Workshop on data by WSSPreliminary discussion on Donor Disease Control and Environmental Working Group.Harmonization study. Sanitation, Dept. Health; (dormaringan h. saragih)14 Percik December 2005
  • 16. MAIN REPORT 1,66 Villages Obtain Access to Clean Water Service Through WSLIC-2 SOURCE: HARTONO KARYATIN The village community were helping each other in com- munal activity building clean water supply facility. Not less than 1,66 million of low income village commu- nity members have had additional water supply from WSLIC-2W hat would it look like life without water. Life will not continue because water isthe origin of life. Unfortunately, in spiteof water is abundant in the world, thereare still who have difficulty in obtaining Minister of Health, Dr Siti Fadilah Supari opens a public faucet at the hamlet of Montor Lekong, the vil- lage of Aikmel Utara, Lombok Timur. Chairman of CPMU WSLIC-2, Zainal I Nampira and Aikmel Utara vil-it. They spend most of their time to take lage headman are watching. The visit was made on 14 July 2005water. They are poor because they donot have time to do productive activity. construction. The activity is entirely 1.605 villages (80 percent) and villagesTheir time is spent for water taking. implemented by the community accom- that have completed MPA-PHAST 1.450 The village community can now be panied by Community Facilitator Team (73 percent), community implementa-proud of themselves. They have mana- (CFT), which was elected democratically tion team (CIT) established 1.439 (72ged to work hand in hand to overcome by the community, from and for the percent), and community workplantheir common problem, making water community. The community also con- (CWP) already submitted 1.311 (66 per-supply facilities close to their homes. tributes 20 percent from the CWP value cent) and approved 1.160 (58 percent).They even worked voluntarily day and (approximately 195-250 million per vi- There are 681 villages (34 percent) com-night to make their dream come true. llage). The government facilitates this pleted with water supply facility con-Their effort was not in vain. Now, community activity and provides a co- struction. The overall implementationapproximately 1,66 village inhabitants unter part budget 8 percent from the has reached 48 percent. From theare enjoying their fruit of hard work in CWP value, through national and WSLIC-2 supervision mission VIII (30WSLIC-2 project. regional budget mechanisms. The May-13 June 2005) the World Bank WSLIC-2 or Water Supply for Low remainder, 72 percent, is a subsidy from gives a rating "satisfactory" to WSLIC-2Income Communities Phase 2 is a water a non interest soft loan from the World performance.supply and environmental sanitation Bank (IDA Credit) and grant fund from Water supply is an intermediateactivity designed for low income com- the Australian government through objective for WSLIC-2. The project ismunities living in rural area. This proj- AusAID. designed to improve health status, pro-ect represents the manifestation of part- Project Management Report (PMR) ductivity and well being of the lownership activity between the community is a quarterly report submitted to the income communities of the villages.and the government. This activity be- World Bank and cross-sectoral agencies Together with the water supply facilitylongs entirely to the community. The members of the Board of Directors. The several other hygiene behaviour relatedcommunity plans the activity by deve- PMR up the third quarter (Jul-Sep activites are also introduced in the com-loping a Community Workplan (CWP), 2005) indicates an access to 1,66 million munity and in public schools. Throughimplementing, supervising, and mana- population (47 percent of 3,5 popula- these activities the principles of hygieneging the facility after completion of the tion). Other data indicate short list of behaviour are introduced to the com- Percik December 2005 15
  • 17. MAIN REPORTmunity. There are at least 1.931 school sized post construction activities in cated ones that are sold in the store.health units activities were conducted order to maintain sustaianbility. Local Puskesmas (Community Healthby primary schools within the WSLIC-2 institutions from sub districts to district Centre) and its sanitarian will be pro-implementation areas. One of the acti- even the provincial levels are to be pro- vided for with budget allocation for pro-vities is eradication of worm disease. moted to take a more active participa- motional and facilitation activities. A The benefit of additional access to tion. capacity improvement programme forwater supply has been enjoyed in 5 WSLIC-2 management have taken the sanitarians will be made coveringprovinces, ie. West Sumatra, South several policies. The guidebook on CWP the subjects on MPA-PHAST, SanitationSumatra, Bangka Belitung, East Java formulation has been revised. Sani- Clinic, CLTS and PKA. Specifically forand NTB. The provinces of West Java tation related activities must be clearly Puskesman chief physician an orienta-and South Sulawesi joined WSLIC-2 reflected in the community developed tion training on sanitation cliniconly in 2005, and West Sulawesi will CWP. There must be integration approach. In WSLIC-2 implementationstart implementation in 2006. Thus the between saniattion activities at schools sites an integration of water supply andthree provinces havent had the benefit and in the community. The CWP deve- sanitation will be tried through the sa-of additional water supply. WSLIC-2 is loped by the community must include nitation Clinic. In CFT training andimplementaion sites are scattered in 8 water supply service covering at least 80 refresher course, the focus on sanitationprovinces, 35 districts, and 2.300 vil- percent of the local families. And the will be more emphasized.lages of the country. community shall have to plan when 100 To increase the intensity of health percent toilet use will be achieved. and hygiene development related activi-Future Plan Now it is already available the ties in school as well in the community a In 2006 WSLIC-2 plans an imple- Catalogue of Sanitation Option and sa- national level workshop on Exit Strategymentation in 610 villages. These vil- nitation flash cards. With this book se- for School Health Activity Unit andlages are scattered in 8 provinces and 35 veral choices of toilet technologies are Community Hygiene behaviour will bekabupatens. In the future WSLIC-2 will presented. With this communication conducted. This activity will be followedstrengthen health and sanitation related media the CFT (community facilitator up at the kabupaten level for dissemina-activities through hygiene behaviour team) can facilitate the community the tion and teacher orientation. Keca-changes within the community and the choose the most suitable toilet technolo- matan level personnel shall be improvedschools. This is one of the follow up gy according to the wishes and financial to support hygiene behaviour pro-actions as recommended by WSLIC-2 capacity. The choices covers the sim- gramme in schools (as post constructionsupervision mission VIII conducted last plest, ie. one that is prepared by the package). Support to the activity willJune. The management also empha- community itself till the most sophisti- also be developed through promotion media development, from the national, SOURCE:EXCLUSIVE provincial and district levels. CLTS (Community-Led Total Sa- nitation) field trials have been under- taken in several WSLIC-2 and non WSLIC-2 districts and have proven sat- isfactory. CLTS approach will be taken into WSLIC-2 implementation. For this purpose a series of CLTS training work- shops will be conducted for provincial and district level facilitators and an ori- entation for sub district level facilita- tors. In villages, the implementation will be oriented to CLTS facilitation. Through CLTS approach, hopefully, a significant change to the habit of defe- cating in the open will take place. Hopefully. (Hartono Karyatin, Media & Communictions Specialist WSLIC-2)16 Percik December 2005
  • 18. MAIN REPORT Ir. Zainal L. Nampira, Chairman of CPMU WSLIC-2 Changes Cannot Be Identified From Physical Aspect OnlyW SOURCE: MUJIYANTO hen WSLIC was first introdu- ced a negative reaction was instantly displayed by the localgovernments. They strongly doubted theWSLIC concept and questioned the validi-ty of community empowerment conceptinvolving the poor families to contribute.How in the world could the poor to con-tribute. And besides, the local govern-ments were also in doubt if the communitycapable of managing the subsidy. Theywere worried the fund would leak withouttrace. Those were two aspects the localgovernments worried about. Once the local government offered asolution by transfering the fund throughdistrict mechanism. This means the fundis not channeled directly to the communi-ty, rather it goes to the local government. nal and community capacity building,The local government does the ma- improvement of hygiene behaviour, provi-nagement on behalf of the community. After it had been running for sion of water supply and environmentalWhile we want this money directly fun- approximately two years sanitation, and project management.neled down to the hands of the community since 2002-2003 the project Based on evaluation conducted by theand the community will then manages World Bank mission, Midterm Review Te- was able to impart a neweverything from planning, implementation am, Technical Audit Team, Output Moni-up to preparation of the accounting report. understanding to the gov- toring Study Team and economic impact After it had been running for approxi- ernments and other stake- study, there is nothing unusual has happe-mately two years since 2002-2003 the holders. Bupatis started ned. From the health aspect this project hasproject was able to impart a new under- willing to inaugurate a proj- produced a significant improvement to co-standing to the governments and other ect and handed it over to mmunity health, and from the technical as-stakeholders. Bupatis (Mayor) started pect the construction has met the standard. the communitywilling to inaugurate a project and handed What should also be taken into consi-it over to the community. Process of deration for the future implementation arechange cannot be seen from physical WSLIC exercises accountability princi- more attention be paid on improvement ofaspect only. Even internally within the ple. The Community Facilitator Team that monitoring quality, tendering process andDept. Health it was rather difficult in the operates without any salary but is required more definite property ownership.beginning. to be transparent and is audited by an inde- In East Java and West Java, the regio- Now in 2005, the program responsibi- pendent auditor. This is the first project nal governments have planned WSLIC pro-lity for implementation is relinquished that audits the community. gramme expansion to several districts thatfrom the central to kabupaten level. The From our experience contruction of have never had this project. We are notprocess starts from the bottom. We want physical facility is relatively easy. The ca- going to implement the project, replicate itto combine both top down and bottom up pacity of each of the line agencies is promi- and stop there, but more than that, we wantapproaches in order to build the local go- nent and immeasurable. WSLIC has lear- to sustain it. What would it mean a develop-vernments sense of belonging. ned four main lessons, they are institutio- ment without sustainability? (MJ) Percik December 2005 17
  • 19. M A I N R E P O RT SANIMAS (Sanitation by Community) Towards a National ProgrammeI n 2005 the SANIMAS (Sanitation tion process, and capacity building. SA- SANIMAS starts with the selection pro- by Community) has been in its NIMAS offers technology choices con- cess. Only those regional governments third year implementation. The sisting of communal septic tank, Waste that are most interested and capable ofprogramme that was designed to pro- Water Treatmant Installation, commu- providing an amount of budget requiredvide an alternative solution to sanitation nal with piping network, and MCK Plus. to be included to the project will be con-problem the thickly populated, poverty Its components consist of toilet/WC, sidered. The beneficiary communiy isstricken slums of the urban has indica- piping system, processing, disposal and also selected. Priority will be given toted a successful result. This is identifi- reuse, and opraion and maintenance. poor and having no sanitation facility.able at least in the kabupaten/kotas that Each of the components contains fund- After selection, the next stage is selec-have implemented the programme, ing, effciency, and contruction levels tion of the location and finally the com-such as Denpasar city (Bali), the cities of from the simple and cheapest till the munity is asked to work out an actionMojokerto, Pasuruan, Kediri, Blitar, most costly and sophisticated. plan. Then comes construction andSidoarjo, and Pamekasan in Jawa SANIMAS is funded by 4 stakehold- finally operation. On average the timeTimur. It is even being replicated in four ers, namely central government, dis- required from the preliminary processcities of Jawa Tengah and two districts tricts government, donor/private sec- up to operationn is approximately oneof Yogyakarta. tor, and the community. Based on the year. The success of this programme has on going project, the composition is asmotivated the government to replicate it the following: central government 27 Lessons learned from SANIMASin 2006 in 100 locations. This plan is percent, regional government 55 per- SANIMAS implementation up tostimulated in order to achieve MDGs cent, BORDA 16 percent, and the com- 2005 has produced several lessons2015. Up to now no decision has been munity 2 percent. learned for the favour of the stakehol-made what districts will be selected to With the availability of counterpart ders to continue with the project. Frankbenefit from the program. What is cer- budget from the regional government, Fladerer, BORDA Representative In-tain is 17 districts in Jawa Timur have SOURCE:ANDRE Ksubmitted their proposal. SANIMAS isdesigned to fill in the gap in technolohy,service, and funding. The inhabitants ofthe thickly populated and poor slumusually choose simple and low cost toi-let. To construcy such a facility will needat least Rp 500.000. The problem is,land is not always available. On theother hand, to build a centralized sani-tation system involves a very high cost.Based on experience, each family isrequired to contribute Rp 7-7,5 million. SANIMAS intends to offer a simpletechnology and reasonable cost for animproved service. The burden requestedto each family is approximately 2,5-3million. SANIMAS is developed underthe principles of demand responsive-ness approach (DRA), community [par-ticipation, technology choice, self selec-18 Percik December 2005
  • 20. M A I N R E P O RT donesia, quoted at least eight lessons 7.of community empowerment activity to treatment facility in anticipation of a learned, they are: pay for community facilitation activity, desludging activity. Information for the stakeholders training for CSG, facilitator, technician, It is still necessary to have a Com- Information derived from multicity and operator, and technical design de- munity Selfhelp Group (CSG) sup-1. seminar should be submitted to the velopment component. On average the port to run the O&M in order the kabupaten/kota level decision makers, cost for capacity building component is facility could run at optimum capa- whilst facilitation, presentation and approximately 20-25 percent of the city. roadshow shall only be provided for to physical component. It is necessary to establish a media or individual kabupaten/kota upon sub- Operation and maintenance forum for CSG and operator and is mission of a written request. It is advise- Laboratory analysis of effluent must facilitated by stakeholders or NGO to able to develop a city sanitation map to 8. be conducted regularly in a referenced enable them solve problem(s) that enable the said government develop a laboratory in order to see if everything may arise in the future. long list for slum development inviting is within the tolerable limit. the community that potentially in need The kabupaten/kota government is for service. required to make available a sludge Community identification The community invited to attend the2. explanation must have had enough Sanitation Challenge information about the project before Indonesian population is 213,6 million (2002). Appox. 53 percent (120 million people) they attend a presentation. live on Java. Mostly dwell in the villages, and only 35 percent live in towns and cities. Selection criteria It is estimated that in 2025 the population living in urban areas will reach 60 percent. Willingness to pay must clarified Every day 400 thousand cu.m domestic waste is dumped directly into rivers and land3. early from the very beginning, including without pretreatment. 61 percent of it is on Java. the status of land where the facility will Centralized sewerage system exists only in 7 cities, providing service to 973 thousand population (1,31 percent of urban population or 0,5 percent of the total population be constructed. in Indonesia). Choice of sanitation technology Final human waste disposal system in the cities: 63,07 percent septic tank, 16,70 Information about community ba- percent to rivers/lakes, 14,44 percent to the ground, 5,79 percent to pond/beach/4. sed sanitation models must be distribu- others (BPS 2002). ted prior to explanation about commu- Septic tanks generally come in infiltration pit or directly into river/drainage ditch. nity choice. Preliminary information Consequentlyriver and groundwater of the urban are generally contaminated by E. including community based sanitation coli bacteria. management pattern. It is estimated that 70-75 percent of water pollutant comes from domestic wastes. Community workplan The community is only willing to SOURCE:MUJIYANTO5. develop a CSG and ready to contribute if all the stakeholders are committed to implement the project. Management CSG always has a hard time in follo-6. wing financila administration as re- quired by the government. Therefore, in the future the executor/consultant must assume the responsibility to assist in financial management by the CSG. To improve fund disbursement efficiency, it is suggested to allow the use of excess money develop small infrastructure in the community upon the stakeholders approval. Funding Funding should consider inclusion Percik December 2005 19
  • 21. I N T E RV I E W Ir. Basah Hernowo, MA, Director Human Settlement and Housing, Bappenas Preventive is more important than CurativeH ow do and the community. positive critic. This is a challenge to us you see And more important- to make what we write word by word the pro- ly, through the toge- meaningful. And not too far hanging ingress in water therness we could re- the cloud.supply and envi- mind each other ifronmental sani- something unruly What progress has been madetation manage- does happen. Anyhow, in the formulation of institutional-ment in 2005? a stronger and better ly based WSS development policy? This year our supervision and con- Hopefully it will be completed at thewater supply and trol is indispensable. end of this year. Compared to the com-environmental sanitation condition is munity based policy this is obviously notgetting better. In the government de- Some local governments do easy exercise. For example, for drinkingpartment, especially Public Works, this implement this. What step should water component we have to know firsthas been restored to a sector. Thus there be taken to accelerate the replica- what the credit restructurization SOPis a directorate of drinking water, tion? from the Ministry of Finance look like.Directorate of Environmental Sanitati- In the future we hope it is not only We cannot put the policy into operationon Development, and consequently a dissemination but also followed by pilot until the SOP is available. This takes ti-more con-centrated attention. We hope project. Thus the region can see this is me. This policy is important because itthis will turn out fine. Now the central the policy, and this is the implementa- will serve as an umbrella. If we talk thelevel coordination is also getting better tion. This will become some sort of details of PDAM credit for instance, theand inter-departmental coordination is demontration plot for them to see by main problem is not limited tto moneymore becoming better and better. We themselves, in accordance with the alone. There is management problem,are also beginning to introduce new regional specific character, of course. In incomplete engineering system, tariffapproaches such as CLTS, SANIMAS. so doing it will be easier to them to re- problem, the capacity of community toWe plan to have a more widespread re- plicate it in other areas. contribute. All these make a complexplication activity. Hopefully next year problem.we are becoming more capable, not only From the implementation pro-in policy formulation, but also im- cess, what has come up or correc- How important is the nationalplementation of the policy. tive measure should be made to policy for institutionally based the existing policy? WSS development in comparison What about about the imple- There are some, naturally. The na- to the community based?mentation of the national policy tional policy does seem to find its foot- Both are equally important. We canfor community based WSS deve- hold yet. Admittedly, it is difficult to cre- formulate the policy framework, welopment? ate a policy that contains all the details know there are two systems that are It looks excellent since the World because we limit ourselves up to setup complementary with each other, theBank is getting more interested. We are policy. It wont be possible for us to say community and the institutionallyscaling it up to nationwide. The ap- that the implementation is in such and based institutions. The problems invol-proach towards this will surely take ti- such a way, the fund is from here, and so ved are obviously differeent. In case ofme. But I am optimistic because the on. We limit the national level up to po- community based it is easier becausecommunity seems to like this approach. licy. The implementation is expected to the community could serve as the sub-They are directly involved. The govern- come from the regons. That is the rea- ject. In the institutionally based thements responsibility is getting lighter son why we disseminate it to the regions community is the user. The subjects arebecause they do not have to do it all by so that ech of them could develop a re- the institutions such as PDAMs, dinasthemselves. We could work together gional policy and implementation pro- kebersihan, and so on. The climate iswith the central, provincial, districts, cedure as they see fit. That is the most obviously different. Therfore the intro-20 Percik December 2005
  • 22. I N T E RV I E Wduction to the community will take a based WSS development, what ly from the DPR (parliament). The DPRdifferent method. With the community will it look like? should have seen that several diseasesbased we work together with them, whi- We are going to have SANIMAS re- atre now spreading all of them boille in the institutionally based we talk plication and the next generation of down to poor environmental condition,vis-à-vis with them. Therefore the stra- WSLIC, say WSLIC-3 perhaps with a the polio, avian influenza, cholera, diar-tegy to apply in solving this matter will slightly different scope, implementation rhoea, dengue fever. I am of the opinionbe the formation of some sort of user fo- ADB loan funded project such as that budget allocation for health shouldrum, be it water supply, garbage clea- CWSH, and ProAir from Germany, sani- not be limited to curative treatment, butning, or other waste handling. tation from Sweden and Netherlands. rather more to preventive measures. It is of no use to have a big house and For the institutionally based The involved institutions, such smart doctors if the number of patientswill there be a pilot project such as as PDAM, whill they be involved in are increaing from year to year. Whyone for community based? the policy formulation? dont we emphasize more to preventive Maybe we will do it, but a slightly Not all of them were involved. We measures. Australia for instance, theydifferent manner because here we are selected randomly for the formulation just built sewerage system after the out-ging to talk to business companies. process. I believe that the random sam- brake of diarrhoea in 1970s, though it pling has represented all the PDAMs. If cost a lot of money. But after that the What opportunity and prospect we look at PDAMs in Indonesia, they va- prevalence of the disease drastically de-could we take within the following ry widely, some with less than 5000 creasing. England when I she was in-year to improve the water supply sbuscribers, some with more than 100 fected by pest disease, they immediatelyand environmental sanitation sec- thousand. Their problems also vary. improved their sewerage system. In-tor? Speaking PDAMs of Surabaya, Medan, donesia should start from there. We We hope the nationwide coopera- Jakarta, they are samples that are high- should not limit the issue on how to cu-tion with the World Bank would bear ly indebted. If we try to sove the prob- re, but we have to look deeper into itsfruit. We will try to get soft loan fun- lem we dont have enough time. We ha- basic causes. Of course not only theding. I hope if this is doable we can im- ve to star from the smaller and medium birds are infected by avian flu virus, the-mediately set things into motion. With a ones where problems are easier to han- re must be more causes than that.nationwide program we can expand our dle. Cirebon for instance. Between the Perharps bad environmental condition.coverage. Unfortunately this is a loan, city and kabupaten why not cooperatewe want it a grant. More importantly for with Kuningan and the neighbouring What effort could be taken tous is to try to improve other aspect of areas so that Cirebon population could make the peoples representativewater supply issue, i.e. asset manage- have water service better. care to this matter?ment. We will introduce this this as the This is not an easy thing to do. If Imain task of all water supply and envi- What is the regions care to the have the time I would be happy to talkronmental sanitation management ins- implementation of the national with them. We dont have to look too far,titutions. It looks that our weakness lies policy for WSS development? just take a glance at Tangerang, there isin this area. PDAMs for instance, some In the beginning they took wait and a cholera epidemy over there. And seemay not have a proper record of their see attitude. After they realized the sco- what causes it. Probably the peoplesassets. If a record on assets is lacking, pe and details of the policy, they become repesentatives need evidence. Whyhow could one institution work? We will so enthusiastic. See the examples in dont they look for it in the field? It is amake an improvement step by step. We Banten, NTT, NTB. challenge in itself to convince the leg-hope the government would make it islatives.compulsory for a public company to The community, includingperform asset management. New Zea- NGOs, do you think they care abo- What about the private sector?land has had a Law on Asset Manage- ut this policy implementation? Do they care? Many of them do care about thisment, the same with Australia. We ha- This is interesting. Speaking about matter. It is now up to us how to build avent. care, I am convinced that the communi- network with them. We want to colla- tys attentionand care to environmental borate with them, they have the money Next years implementation of issues is increasing. The problem is, lack and they apply our approach so thatthe national policy for community of government responsiveness, especial- they could succeed. (MJ) Percik December 2005 21
  • 23. I N T E RV I E W Dr. I Nyoman Kandun MPH, Director General for Disease Control and Environmental Sanitation Primary Health Care is the KeyW hat would you say about drinking water. Indonesia is actually the present condition of made up of land and watwer, and if their water supply and sanita- water shortage that means that some-tion condition in Indonesia? thing has gone wrong in her manage- Let me start by saying that health is ment so that there is a tendency to usethe anal of the system. Forgive me if this non hygienic water, and poor environ-is a rude way of saying it, health is the mental condition especially with bad ba-end part of the system. This is intended sic sanitation condition, and non hygie-to say that if the intial end is good, such nic community behaviour. If we speak ofas a human body is a super system con- Healthy Indonesia 2010 that does notsisting of numerous systems, then the mean there is no sick person in 2010,end system is the anus, i.e health. The behaviour and environmental factors. but what is intended that our communi-waste is in here. If what is administered Behaviour and environment greatly in- ty lives in hygienen behaviour, in ais good the waste discharge process will fluence community health. Therefore in healthy living environment, and havebe smooth, no constipation, no diar- Sulawesi Selatan there is a saying "mo- access to health service as they need. Ifrhoea. So if the upstream development ving mountain is difficult but changing the three demand is fulfilled the com-systems are in disorder the community human behaviour is much more diffi- munity health status will improve stephealth status is also in low condition, cult". Environment is the most influen- by step and is evidenced from a longersuch the prevalence of dengue fever, di- tial factor to health and almost all dis- life expetancy, less incidence of dise-arrhoea, etc. These diseases are caused eases are tranfered through inferior en- ases. Today, our infant mortality rate isby faecal contamination from the ups- vironmental condition. That is the con- 35 per childbirth and mortality rate oftream activities. cern of our directorate general. It can be children below 5 years age is 46 per If we take a look at water supply and illustrated like several diseases that oc- 1000 childbirths. Mostly because ofenvironmental sanitation condition, In- cur recently for instance dengue fever, accute upper respiratory tract and diar-donesia as a big country with more than cholera, avian influeanza, etc. the causes rhoea. If we speak of diarrhoea the key is200 million people and the government are boiled down to bad environmental 5 Fs, they are feces, fingers, flies, fluid,has implemented avarious water supply condition and using inferior water qua- field and food. The feces disposed in theand environmental sanitation projects lity and non hygienic community beha- open contaminate fingers, swarmed bywithout a result that is below expectati- viour. flies, polluting the field, fluid and food;on. In 1974 the year when I graduated everything ends up in sickness. Water isfrom medical faculty there was Presi- What are the constraints to an important factor. Man is told to washdential Instruction No. 5/1974 called improving this sector? his hands: wash your hands with soapSamijaga (Drinking Water and House- I think the government has tried well after defecating and before touchinghold Toilet) Project. I was instructed to enough, and not only the community for food. But the problem: water is difficultJambi for the project implementation. that matter. Whewn we speak of public to find. For this we have a concept, con-At that time the government has reali- health, or healthy public policy, the pub- ceptual framework, and legal frame-zed that the upstrem is drinking water lic is an organized government respon- work.and household sanitation facility. Based se. This means the government is cross-on Indonesia MDGs report the commu- sectoral. Must meet with organized What do the regional govern-nity access to drinking water is only 50 community. Both must meet with each ment care about this sector?percent and that of environmental sani- other, because what we apply is an ap- Pursuant to Law No. 32/2004 ontation is 63,5 percent. When we speak of propriate technology in health pro- Regional Government is reponsible forBhlum theory, health status is determi- gramme. At present a large portion of the provision of water supply and envi-ned by hereditory and health service, the community is without access to ronmental sanitation. This means the 22 Percik December 2005
  • 24. I N T E RV I E W SOURCE:KURNIA RATNA DEWIregional government is authorized to ta-ke care of its own household. The cen-tral government is to provide them withpolicy, provide training, etc. For exam-ple providing them with informationwhat is meant by healthy, hyginenic wa-ter meets such and such requirements,healthy environment lokks like this, andso on. If the regional governmetn deci-des to make houses from concrete wall,or plaited bamboo, it is up to them. Pro-vided they meet hygienic standard. Ifthe requirement is not met, there will beconsequences, in the short, medium orlong run Thus with the promulgation of LawNo. 32 and Law No. 33 (Budget Balan-ce), the regional government has suffici-ent money to run its own household.The question is how far is the regionalgovernment willing to put health deve-lopment a priority over physical deve-lopment, it all depends on the conceptu- to the regional governmnet; Law No. munity participationin water supplyal and perception of the regional autho- 33/2004 on Financial balance between and environmental sanitation develop-rities. The best investment is, of course, the Central and Regional Government. ment.in education and health sectors. If the There is also Government Regulationhuman resources are healthy and suffi- (GR) No. 10/2005 on Drinking Water; Do you think we are capable ofciently trained, the rest will be easy. GR No. 27/1999 on Analysis of achieving MDGs target 2015?That is the upstream, then human deve- Environmental Impact; GR No. God has created the earth in perfectlopment index, and finally economic 82/2001 on Water Quality Management condition. It is up to us with our wisdomgrowth. It the trio works simultaneous- and Water Pollution Control; Presiden- to manage it. There should be no one inly, the region will becopme prosperous. tial Regulation No. 7/2005 on Medium short of water. The creatures are created The government, including the legis- Range National Development Plan, with its food and drink. But there thoselatives, of the province, kabupaten and 2005-2009 which includes Healthy En- who are greedy, those who disregard themunicipal (kota) levels are in general in- vironment. The government also issues environment that make some do not getdifferent to water supply and environ- Decision of Health Ministry No. 907 of their share. Some bathe with 100 l ofmental sanitation development. They 2002 on the Requirements of and Con- water, whereas in Buaya island the pop-prefer to build roads, bridges, and othe trol over Drinking Water Quality; Deci- ulation are in short of water. We arephysical facilities. As sion of Health Ministry No. 1274 of continuously trying our best to reach the 2005 on Department of Health Strategy MDGs target in order to come close to What efforts have been de- Plan, 2005-2009, which also includes the agreement already made throughsigned to overcome the situation? clean water and sanitation uses. Be- mobilization of all potential, from do- As a constitutional state we have sides, a national policy for both commu- mestic as well as foreign sources, to im-made available all the necessary legal nity based and institutionally based prove water service and environmentalinstruments. There a number of Laws, WSS development have also be devel- sanitation coverage. The first goal issuch as Law No. 23/1992 on Health; oped; including optimum use of fund actiually poverty alleviation. IndonesiaLaw No. 7/2004 on Water Resources; from foreign, domestic and community needs international cooperation, espe-Law No. 32/2004 on Regional Go- sources for water supply and environ- cially with the industrialized nations.vernment; stipulating the relinquish- mental sanitation development purpo- Foreign loans must be used effientltyment of responsibility for water supply ses. And not the least important is the and effectively and be allocated to acti-and environmental sanitation provision government is also promoting com- vities with high leverage power. The Percik December 2005 23
  • 25. I N T E RV I E Wregional government and the communi- the instant process the visible result is influencing community participation,ty must be committed in the supporting just a superficial image that is without first is decision making, second imple-the foreign loans. Because of lack of depth, and lack of sense of belonging- mentation and management of the pro-domestic capital, bigger foreign capital ness because the community is not in- ject. Third, financial contribution. Thesemust be invited to come in than the flow volved. all represent empowerment, the willing-of domestic capital out. To make this The community as user must be ness to open his wallet. For this matter,happen, we have to create a favourable made to understand that imppoper several community empowerment ap-investment climate for the existing for- treatment to water and environmental is proaches have been developed such aseign investors and for those who are detrimental to health and will be harm- demand responsiveness approachexpected to come. Therefore we have to full to the community itself. There there (DRA), Methodology for Parcipatorycreate the so-called supportive environ- is need for active participation of the Assessments-Parcipatory Hygiene andment. community in the developemnt of the Sanitation Transformation (MPA/- facility, Therefore the philosophy of 20 PHAST), Community-Led Total Sanita- What do you think the role of percent contribution, 16 percent in kind tion (CLTS), revolving fund, et cetera.the community in WSS develop- and 4 percent in cash, is quite correct. Community habit towards health normment? And more importantly is to plnat within must be improved. This is important be- Speaking about community, com- everyones mind that the responsibiliy cause of its relationship with communi-munity must be strengthened. Otherwi- for environmental protection is not so- ty life in general. As an example, quo-se they will become a bunch of beggars, lely imposed on the government shoul- ting the result of concducted by WSP re-and we (the government, Ed.) are the ders. The mistake is perhaps, we used to cently, that with a good drinking waterSinterklas, distributing their necessities. act as Sinterklaas, we are being welcome supply diarrhoea prevalence will be re-This is quite uneducational. I am strict- each each time we come, presented with duced by 15-20 percent, using a relative-ly against that idea because actually our gifts, and so, forth without invoving the ly acceptable sanitation facility reducescommunity has a high self-esteem. If community. Afterwarsds when the faci- 30-50 percent, and wshing hands woiththe community is sufficiently empow- lity brokedown and turned to rubbles, soap reduces 42-47 percent. If we sumered, they are quite capable. Empowe- the community does not care. That is up all the measures it is possible that 99red community has three characteris- the project we may call a night fair pro- percent of diacchoea could be preven-tics. First, sense of belongingness. With ject. There are three important factors ted. The remainder of the diarrhoea casethis they manage the community baseddevelopment project. And the third is SOURCE:PMDself-financing of community based proj-ect. Therefore in the WSLIC-1 andWSLIC-2 the philosophy is village ac-tion plan. These characteristics do notstrictly apply for community but also forNGO. Non government organizationmust begave properly and prevent fromtalking without sufficient knowledge ofwhat is being talked about. We hopeNGO is sincere in helping the communi-ty into motion. Thus the community can be empo-wered, there are two keys to do it. First,no one should be telling lies among us,tell everything the truth. Second, com-munity empowerment must be an openeffort, do it through building concience.Do not tell anyone what to do. But, be-cause we are quite used to project ap-proach, we become impatient. We wantto get an instant result. Whereas, with24 Percik December 2005
  • 26. I N T E RV I E Wmay occur through food intolerance this case a policy containing role and agents of change. The key is mothers edu-such as lactose, and not from microbial responsibilty should be formulated. cation. Besides, health education shouldcontamination. The philosophy is equity, wide- be actually be part of childrens education spread service to all. The key is cross since the early age. The School Health Unit What could we expect the pri- sectoral coordination, putting the prio- become the key. And many informal insti-vate sector to do? rity to preventive promotive measure, tution thatt can be used as community The private must not stay cool and application of appropriate technolgy health educaton forum. The communityget active only when profit is there. Ac- and involving the community health education should be based on pri-tually the profit the get is manufactured mary health care. Thus we start fromfrom the community buying power, the household level, then moves wider to thecommunity health. The community can community level. Then the Puskesmaswork and be productive. Therefore, part starts as the reference centre. The nextof the profit must be channeled back to stage is kabupaten level hospital. If thisthe community through community de- stategy is strengthened our communityvelopment. Private sector is a compo- health is better. No need to overlynent that must be involved in the sophisticated, starts with primarydevelopment process through health care. The philosophy is equity,investment in public service facility widespread service to all. The key isand setting aside part of the profit cross sectoral coordination, puttingto be invested for improvement of the priority to preventive promotivesocial service improvement. measure, application of appropriateCommunity development fund technolgy and involving the commu-that is generally budgeted espe- nity.cially by big coorporation to beinvested for social service facility Some regional governmentsfor the surrounding community. do not care about health andWhen the community is welathier, hygiene development, how couldmoere productive and healthier, the this have happened?company will sustain. At leasdt there are I cant put the blame on them. Per-four benefits that can be obtained for a harps our advocacy isnt good enoughcoorporation when investing part of for them especially in matters concer-profit for social service facility, first, ning health development programme.improving the community appreciation Perhaps we have to speak in health eco-on cooprate fuction and corporate com- You said earlier that the com- nomic, you invest 1 dollar later you willmunity development programmes; sec- munity still lacks awareness. harvest 10 dollars. If you have endemicond, creation of social harmony with the What are the influencing factors? malaria in your territory, you will lose socommunity esecially the one surround- I dont want to get trapped into bla- much money, productivity decreases. Ifing the community; third, lessening ming the community. The blame is on all some people get diarrhoea, unable toharmful effect to the surrounding com- of us. The task of the government is to edu- work and cannot go to school, you willmunity such as environmental pollu- cate the people, and that is the mandate lose some billions a year. So if you allo-tion. Socal excesses, and so on, and stipulated in the Constitution 1945 cate a certain amount of a budget, youfinally, helps in social economic empo- Preamble. Therefore education, formal or will harvest such and such amount. Wewerment of the surrounding community infoermal, is deemed necessary. I have have to be able to do advocacy in thatand the company fuction as well. worked out what the so-called composit manner. Up to now, our colleagues in Private companies should be com- index of Human Development Index the Dept of Health are quite comfort-mitted and assume the responsibility to (HDI). Hosewives who at least junior high able of using health technical termsdevelop the community. Provision of school graduates have their families in re- which are understandable only amongfund for community development not latively good health condition. If they are themselves. Thus our own people inonly to be conducted by big companies of senior high school of higher they can the Dept of Helath that first needonly but also by all private and public absorb information and change of behavi- improvement. (MJ)companies operating in Indonesia. For ou can take place easier because they are Percik December 2005 25
  • 27. OPINION A Story from Lonuo, Gorontalo Faithfully In Service for Eight YearsT he village of Lonuo has a monu- The situation was worsened with By: mental story about community the fact that they could not improve Isman Uge* and Alma Arif** based WSS development com- themselves into hygienic life. Defecatingparable to Dembe I which the Governor with the National Policy. in the open with all of its consequencesof Gorontalo, Ir. Fadel Muhammad, As it progresses though the facility is is a common phenomenon. They used toannounced as the community based functioning well up to now, there is a practise defecating in a system theyWSS development model for the whole momen of low tide that worths contem- called "rotating closet". As one is defe-province. The gravitational water supply plating. This report will try to reveal the cating and someone else is seen to passsystem of Lonuo was developed in facts. nearby, he would rotate his position to1996/7 through the Water Supply and conceal his embarassment, or he wouldEnvironmental Sanitation Project. History of the past rotate around a tree to conceal himself. In 1998 Lonuo village won a nation- In the past the population of Lonuo, This practise was common in theal first prize in water supply service as is the case with villages in recurrent past, producing human excrement scat-management from the Department of water shortage, was always busy with tering all over the place, and naturallyHome Affairs and the presentation was water taking routines. Time allocated to cases water borne diseases were alsomade in Yogyakarta. The following year water taking was so much that put aside quite common with the population.when the World Bank conducted an the more productive activity. They used Diseases such as infammation of theassessment using Participatory to take water from shallow wells dug upper respiratory tract, skin disease, eyeLearning and Action Plan (PLA) along riverbanks. Since the wells are far irritation, cholera, etc develop in closemethodology in 4 villages of Gorontalo: away from their dwellings the water ta- connection with poor water quality usedLamu, Talumelito, Longalo, and Lonuo, king routine took a lot of time and ener- for maintaining life and hygienic condi-again Lonuo was won a honourbale gy. As a result, the Lonuo population tion. It was not unusual if Lonuo popu-mention. The villages of Lonuo and were shackled by poverty. lation periodically would be contami-Longalo were made as model and docu- SOURCE:ALMA ARIEFmented electronically and distributed nCD format to various developingnations by Water and Sanitation forEast Asia and the Pacific (WSP-EAP, adivision of the World Bank). This electronic document describesthe importance of community involve-ment regardless of rich or poor, old oryoung, male or female in decision mak-ing of development implementation inorder to have a sustainable and effectivefacility. At the time when the WorldBank made the, all the WSS systems in 4villages were in their prime conditionphysically, institutionally, financialadministration, technical personnel,regularity of service, and so on. On cansay that that was the model of WSSdevelopment that was in compliance26 Percik December 2005
  • 28. OPINIONnated with "come and go" disease, ie. if SOURCE:ALMA ARIEFit comes to someone he would certainlydie (go to the eternity).Improved Welfare The community has made animpressive increase in welfare conditionafter the construction of the water sys-tem. There is a systemic linkagebetween the water service satisfactionlevel with community welfare improve-ment. Since the community has had aneasy access to water supply their healthcondition gradually improves. The dis-ease they nicknamed "comes departs"disappeared by itself. This is of courserelated to the hygiene behaviour.Because water is easily obtainable, theycould buil toilets, and could clean it bet-ter and regularly after bathing or defe- The situation was worsened with the fact that they couldcating. Besides, along with better healthand more time allocated for productive not improve themselves into hygienic life. Defecating in theactivities the economic condition also open with all of its consequences is a common phenome-improves. The people, especially women non. They used to practise defecating in a system theycould have new activities such weaving called "rotating closet". As one is defecating and someonemats to earn additionl income for their else is seen to pass nearby, he would rotate his positionfamily. And men could spend more time to conceal his embarassment, or he would rotatetending their gardens. And schoolchild-ren are never late to school any more around a tree to conceal himself.because they are no longer burdenedwith water taking job before goin to public taps and 6 hydrants serving the reservoir or pails for use during the day.school. There are many other changes Lonuo population, later all the public The smooth system was disruptedbrought in by the water supply facility. taps and hydrints were not functioning in year 2000, when election of village Management and Its Constraint any more (this was the basic informa- headman was to take place. One thing When an assessment was made in tion that came to the authors that the that was not anticipated came as a neg-1999 the Lonuo water supply system Lonuo water facility was in disarray). ative feedback. This was because of ofwas in its prime condition. The manage- The disfunctioning was was true but not the candidates, in his effort to gain sup-ment unit was undoubtedly functioning because they were damaged, but port from the community, promisedwell. The Unit was chaired by a woman because the service has developed into them to abolish water contribution,named Satria Kyai. A Management home connections. which in reality was not much, onlyGroup (MG) is a team consisting of Except for three hamlets located Rp1.000/month/household. This The assessment revealed that user too far uphill, now all households of became a bad precedent, because thecontribution was collected by the MG Lonuo had access to water supply serv- community turn agaionst the regulationchairman was running smoothly and ice. 184 households of Lonuo village and and refuse to pay the contribution. Sincewas recorded accordingly. Technical 8 families from Tamboo (neighbouring 200 up to now the management unit hascontrol was conducted regularly, in case village) had the service. Only during the beeen inactive. Worse still, one of theof breakdown the LPMD trained techni- height of dry season, as is generally the active members of the unit is nowcal team would readily take care it. case for similar service elsewhere, water deceased. Satri Kyai explained further It can be said that the management supply is grossly reduced. At such time that a meeting was to be held soon, tounit has made some improvement. the families had to open their taps dur- elect new officers.When in the beginning there were 14 ing the night and collect water into a Since the turning away of the popu- Percik December 2005 a
  • 29. OPINIONlation from the regulation there were against regulations, there are families During the last year, with governmentfrequent harmful incidences happening. who even dare to build a pond! involvement the Lonuo managementIn 2002 some members of the neigh- Because the contibution system does unit has been made to take part in waterbouring village bored holes to the con- not work anymore, in case of breakdown supply discussions, a new spirit isveyance without the consent of the man- such as broken pipe, worn out taps, and beginning to develop to reactivate theagement. When they were reminded of so on, the village headman tells the management unit through reelection oftheir misconduct they reported to the community to contribute and work officers and reinstating all the existingpolice. In defense, the management together to repair the damage. So far, system and regulation. Lastly, there isreported them back to the police for however, this has been effective to deal even an idea to copy the system fromwater theft. Finally they were datined with minor damages, never a major one. Dembe I village by collecting contribu-and had to deal with the police for their This condition will become more tion commensurate with the amount ofmisconduct. Besides, realizing that and more uncontrollable, unless a func- water use measured by water meter.there have been too many violations tioning management unit is reninstated. This idea, however, does not have the consent from the regional government. According to Satria Kyai, the govern- ment argues: "…collection of contribu- tion must be done pursuant to a Government Regulation". Lessons learned There are several lessons learned from the Lonuo experience, they are: 1. There are unforeseeable factors (socio- cultural aspect) that play influential role in the sustainability of the service. 2. Water service management institution plays a very important role in the sustain- ability of a water service. 3. A strong water service management would be capable of overcoming the fac- tors that may adversely affect sustainabil- ity. 4. At the time when management is getting weaker the sustainability is being threat- ened. 5. Management unit and some of Lonuo community members still believe in the importance of management unit and a good management system for the sustain- ability of the service. 6. There is still willingness to reactivate the contribution system commensurate with the amount of consumption using water meter. 7. The government is in a crossroad between upholding of a regulation and sustainabil- ity and community self-reliance. 8. Several of Lonuo problems can be resolved through a meeting among all the community members to find solution through common agreement.b Percik Desember 2005
  • 30. OPINION Local Wisdom in Water Source Conservation Learning from Indegeneous Community and Krama Subak in BaliE very year a certain area size of Conversion of Subak to Tourism By: land in Bali is converted to non Subak is one of social institution I Gede Arya Sunantara agricultural purposes such as and represent a farmers organizationvilla, restaurant, mall, hotel, golf cour- thinking has given birth to traditional that serves to regulate irrigation waterse, residential houses, and other to- law comprising of right and responsi- in wetland farming -- its autonomusurism service centre. Within ten year bility relationship and is always pre- character in water regulation is one(1990-2000) the rate of conversion vailing within the Balinese community. that makes it different from waterwas 1000 ha per annum for the whole However, along with the moderniza- users association in Java. More uniqueisland of Bali. Today what is left is tion and wrapped in deceitfull term that is, inspite of its freedom from ro-86.082 ha of wat rice field, and "development" made popular for the utine coordination with the Public476.450 ha of non rice field (including first time by Sutan Takdir Alisjahbana, Works especially with the Irrigationhousing areas), and other types of land the conscience about the relationship Section, Subak maintains a continuingsuch as marshland and fishpond at 886 relationship with extra Subak instituti-hectares. on, namely sedahan and agricultural The diminishing of agricultural Similarly with the concience extension service. Sedahan is closelyland in Bali is not a simple matter and about the living link between linked with tax office, and also servesmany of farmers have no land and are man and water is being left as coordinator in tax collection of seve-jobless as the case in many places on behind after the changing ral subaks (sedahan agung), agricul-Java. The missing agricultural lands tural exension workers who act as so- of community habit intowill lead to burying of a large portion of urce of agricutural information. This isBalinese life. This is indeed frighte- more consumptive and put like a subak with two hands, one handning, because agricultural land, for Ba- more value to easy way is making connection with sedahanlinese, carries a cultural symbol of of earning money. and the other hand with agriculturalwater spring (tirtha amertha). exension worker. But in connection There is a legal relationship among with water, subaks are entirely inde-man, land and water in the Balinese between the community and land is pendent, they seem to inherit watertraditional law based on the basic con- decreasing. Similarly with the concien- management expertise from their an-cept of everything comes in pairs. Ba- ce about the living link between man cestors.sed on this concept, a Balinese is inse- and water is being left behind after the Similarly is with subak existence asparable from land for reasons: (i) land changing of community habit into mo- religious social organization with uni-is where his family and the community re consumptive and put more value to que values, thus it attracts tourists andlive; (ii) it serves as life sustaining easy way of earning money. The cha- researchers visit and conduct researchresource, especially in producing water nges has made land owner converts his in Bali. Therefore one can say that su-which is the main symbol in the pro- land to housing lot or other building, bak serves as one of tourism asset ofcess of creation (brahman); the place and they work in restaurant or hotel on Bali. Beside managing water use intowhere man dies and be buried; (iv) be- the very land used to be their own. The three functions of adat community, na-lieved as the residing place of the world cermony in honour of land and water is mely (i) religious function; (ii) socalguardian gods and the place where the becoming a mere rite and symbol and function; (iii) economic function, su-souls of the ancestors reside (Ter Haar, no more as a manifestation of devotion bak also serves maintains the so-called1991). to the land. the sacred functions of the rice field, The complexity of magical religious they are (i) there is scenic beauty in ri- Percik December 2005 c
  • 31. OPINIONce field filed (rice terrace); there is ri-tual activity in the rice field; and thereis a culturral attraction in the rice filed.The three functions of water ie. religi-ous, social and economic when combi-ned with the three sacred functions ofrice field, ie. scenic beauty, religiousactivity and cultural attraction, makesall of it a unique attraction to the to-urists. If the attraction deterioratesthen unconciously the exquisite Balitourism will fade away. Therefore, it isdeemed important to maintain subakand maintain its developemtn. Subak activity can be divided intotwo categories, the first is religious andnon-religious acivity. Religious relatedactivity consists of preparation of giftsand offerings, praying at subak templeor other water related temple, and re- gularly. Subak member takes turn in next stake will be Bedugul and Ulunpair of praying facility in subak. Pra- doing the water supervision from wa- Suwi, the temples of subak membersying ceremony in subaks isi conducted ter source down to temuku, the diversi- as life guiding symbol of Balinese willon specific days. Besides, there are se- on where each of the members gets his also deteriorate.veral other days for preparation of water. In case of minor breakdownofferings that are closely related to ac- es[ecially if disrupt water flow, repair- Subak Dereligiousity Equals Wa-tivities in the rice field, such as mapag work will be done immediately. ter Desacralizationtoya ceremony (a ceremony to welco- Attention to subak becomes so im- With the growing awareness of theme water arrival). Other activities con- portant especially as it relates to main- importance of religion, in this casesist of ngewiwit bulih (preparation of taining the physical (ecological) aspect Hinduism, in environmental protecti-rice seedlings), nandur (rice planting) of the subak which according Tri Hita on especially that of water resources,ceremony, a ceremony when rice Karana is called as land element through the continuity of subak, theplants reach 12 days old up to thanks- (land/rice field and water) so that it co- Balinese community and regional go-giving when harvesting the crop. So- uld spread into and effort to maintain vernment are not entirely free frommetimes a ceremony is conducted co- subak members social sub-system and "institutional way of thinking". Where-mmunally in a subak temple, someti- spiritual parhyangan aspect. Since su- as according to Hindu rationalismmes individually in one owns field. bak membership is open to religious when looking into and evaluating ofThe praying facility may be made of follower, there members who are Hin- subak religiousity and water sacralismsimple materals or of permanent con- dus, Muslims or Christians. However, is not limited to rites in narrow senjsecrete, at which time every subak kra- subak activities are based on Hindu re- of the meaning, in actuality it includesma (member) comes in long line to ligion because the majority of Balinese integration of moral valuation and reli-ones own rice field on the day decided are Hindus. Muslim and Christian gious constructive symbols, in otherduring the subak meeting (pauman). members of Subak have to pay all the words it includes ritual forms in wide Non religious related activity con- contribution for subak activities. But sense of the meaning so that diacroni-sist of repair of irrigation and drainage they have to pray in accordance to their cally summarized and identified fromcanals, diversion structure (temuku), own religion, the Muslims in a mosque the periphery down to the essential de-improvement of subak roads, insect and the Chrintians in a church. Religi- tails or related to tattwa.control measures, and others that are ous difference does not make any pro- In terms of relationship with moralelated to productivity improvement. blem in subak membership. Therefore valuation when looking into subak reli-Water division is also contrpolled re- if subak institution is dispersed the giousity and water sacralism, Bali Hin-d Percik December 2005
  • 32. OPINIONdu community is faced with sacred ly or not, will result in an ever growingstructure (luanan), thus it must be kept The element of water environmental fluctuation. In short, anaway from profanities (tebenan). The in Hiduism is considered as elimination of subak and the growingcontinuum of luan - teben relationship water scarcity issues all over the island a means for purification,must be definitely separated, though Bali lately, is not simply a by-product ofphilosophically both must be conside- welfare bringing, a horizontal process, this case must bered as pairs, especially to create power and life current that one must looked upon as a built-in element of asource or bayu. Thus the using of moral wade into the true happiness vertical relationship disharmony.valuation sysmbols in assessing rubal (Titib, 2001).religiousity and water sacralism the en- Towards Tradition Transformati-tire Balinese community -- whether he is ona Hidu follower (krama adat) or the bak religiousity and water sacralism. Though not all of the local commu-non Hindu migrants (krama tamiu) -- In principle, water from a spring is nity tarditions contain environmentallymust understand the position of subak in Hindu religion considered as one of sensitive values, subak existence is un-and water in order to to prevent from the prerequisites (tirtha for paratir- questionable, at least for the Balinese.possible violation that may lead to im- than) in the Panca Yadna ritual, routine Therefore the effort to engineer thepurification (leteh), so the rwa bhineda (nityakala) or incidental (naimitika- community tradition in the pretext ofconcept which contradits purity or sa- kala). The element of water in Hiduism modernization is never a wise choice.cred concept and polluted or leteh con- is considered as a means for purifica- What is needed is actually is a more con-cept could be maintained accordingly. tion, welfare bringing, and life current cise and simpler effort, that is under- While in terms of its connection with that one must wade into the true happi- standing each tradition and adat of eachconstructive symbols as it relates to su- ness (Titib, 2001). Therefore in observ- locality, empowerment of each of them,bak religiousity and water sacralism va- ing the shifting pattern in the aboveme- and make cultural transformation inter-luation, in Hiduism we have difference tioned subak demand and water avail- nally. The cultural transformation is in-is position, colour and staged relious ability within the growing irrationality tended to instill a process for the creati-structure, which will delegates differen- and hypermoralistic on deistic, humani- on of a profoundly new and better struc-ces in authority, power, priethood and ty, and development values, eventally - tural relationship. The local communitystructured religious when defining su- whether one wants it or not - conscious- cultural and traditional transformation makes it possible for us to maintain and more importantly remain owning the cultural and traditional plurality itself, and provides us room to create their own history. In essence, traditional and cultural transformation within an adat community should always consider em- powerment, guarantee and respecting self identication and prevention of mo- nocultural development. These are the real challenges for the adat community as well as for all of us, to look at the re- ligiousity of subak and sacrality of water in the Balinese community. The world always says that Bali and its tradition and culture will remain the morning of the world as Nehru says, or as the para- dise island as the novelist Hickman Po- well says. *Master Degree of AN-Fisipol UGM and MPRK UGM. Water security problem observer. Live in Yogyakarta. Percik December 2005 27
  • 33. R E P O RTA G E World Water Monitoring Day Building Awareness since Early Age SOURCE:MUJIYANTOR endi and Gunadi are seriously observing water sample they just took from Lake Cibubur.Several indicators were added to the wa-ter container. "30 degrees Celcius," saidRendi. "Try once again," said Gunadiwho wanted to confirm the reading. Notfar from the two of crouched their class-mates from SMP (Junior High School)233 Jakarta, 40 pupils in total, weredoing the same thing. They were meas-uring the quality of water from the lake.The indicators are water temperature,turbidity, dissolved oxygen, and pH."This is a new experience for us, we canlearn form here about water biotic, con-tent, temperature, and so on," saidRendi who ranks second best in hisclass. "Yes, new experience. At school itis mostly theoretical, practice is lack-ing," added Gunadi. And besides, thetwo said that they got a new lessonabout how to economize and protect about water quality. Before this I never with Thames Pam Jaya (TPJ), andwater source. "It is not wise to wash a had any idea what a water quality meas- PASM Lyionnaise Jaya (Palyja).bicycle by drenching with pails of water. urement is all about. It is simpler than I Job explained that the theme of theWhen taking a bath, better use a do- thought, isnt it," she said. commemoration is "Safe Our Water".uche. Do not dispose garbage, excre- The water quality mesuring event There are two targets to be reached fromment, used oil unscropulously all over lasted for almost half a day. The event this commemoration, namely behaviou-the place," said Rendi who added that was held as part of World Water Moni- ral change manifested in economizingwater is not merely for the present gen- toring Day commemoration. The com- water use and stop pollution. "The es-eration but also for the generations to memoration day itself was on 12 Octo- sence is, treat water in a responsiblecome. ber. "This is part of a series of the com- manner," He said firmly. New idea was also revealed by Mar- memoration events," said Job Supang- For this effort the children and yo-shanda, TV star, who was present as a kat from FORKAMI (Indonesia Drin- uth were targeted as agent of develop-guest star. "How I am so happy. My king Water Communication Forum). ment. The assumption is children areknowledge has increased. I heartily sup- The activities consisted of water quality more sensitive to changesw and are ableport this kind of programme specially measurement in several locations, dra- to influence their parents. "Thereforededicated to children. The more fre- wing competition by 30 pupils of 20 pri- since early on, primary school, juniorquent the stronger care implanted with- mary schools in Jakarta, and visit to wa- high they are invited to the event to ma-in the childrens mind," she said. She ter treatment plant. This event was or- ke them realized the importance of reso-admitted that she didnt know much ganized by FORKAMI in cooperation urces protection, said Abdullah Mutha-28 Percik December 2005
  • 34. R E P O RTA G Elib, FORKAMI Chairman. According to ment elements, especially tose related to He added further that beside school-Abdullah, although water is a renewable education. Why is it that only NGO and children, campaign to build care to wa-resource, but because of the big invest- the private sector that care? Therefore ter resources has also been directed toment involved to recover its availability she calls that in the future the encoura- the community. Together with Palyjaand quality, has made water as a reso- gement of water resources care related and TPJ Forkami has worked out an a-urce in limted quantity. For this purpo- activity should involve every segments wareness education to water supply sus-se, he said further, water resources pro- of the population. "This kind of activity cribers of Jakarta. Also the organizationtection must be done by all including must continue. Wherever possible this is conducting a radio talk show everychildren, the community, water related is to involve a bigger number of school- third week every month. The response isproffesionals, private sector, NGO, and children. And not only limited to com- quite positive. It turns out they care andthe government. "Through this World petition, but real education to the young are eager to know better about waterWater Monitoring Day commemoration people," she said. resources related issues, drinking waterwe wish to sprinkle common awareness Job is agree with the educators. Ac- in particular," Job concluded. One thisto the importance of water source pro- cording to him, this event is just the certain, that qwater quality education istection and to work together to improve beginning. In Indonesia the commemo- absolutely necessary for every one. Andthe availability and quality of our water ration of World Water Monitoring Day for that prupose, all stakeholders aresource for our life of today and the has only been conducted in the last two compelled to care about it. The wayto doforthcoming generations," he said. years. "We are not going to stop up to it is by taking part in every activity that Devy A Yheane, Public Relations here. What we have done will be sus- leads to water rsources protection. DoManager of TPJ, says that her company tained but at larger scope. Of course it not wait until a disaster to happen. Suchhas endeavoured to conduct schoolchil- will be done phase by phase," he as Rendi said, "Without water our lifedren education and groundwater pro- explained. will be in danger." mujiyantotection campaign. "We have issued a CDRom containing educational module.The content is neutral and can be used Marshanda,by anyone," said Devy. Januar, SMP 233 teacher, said thatthis kind of programme is quite useful Artist and Environmental Special Envoyfor his pupils. According to him, atschool the children receive more theori- Still Short of Carees and less practice. "The subject on wa- Iter resources is actually included in dis- f we look at the community, I have a term, if the river is clean, we can paycussion about ecosystem. But how to feeling that it sufficiently cares. But, less for water contribution becausemeasure water quality, this has never perhaps, the care is not concrete. It water treatment costs less money.been done in our lab," he said. needs a deeper insight to translate the Isnt it so? (MJ) In similar tone, Yanti, a teacher of care into real life. SOURCE:MUJIYANTOBudi Wanita Primary School of Jakarta The habit of dispo-Selatan hailed enthusastically the lear- sing garbage into thening programme provided in the World river, for instance. IWater Monitoring Day commemorati- think they alreadyon. According to her, beside to the pu- know that this prac-pils the result is also positively influen- tise in immoral. Butced the accompanying teachers. "It is an is it immoral? If weexcellent programme. Personally, here I could tell them in alearned that chlorine kills E. coli bacte- way that makesria. What has been explained when we sense and nicely, itvisited the water treatment palnt is would not be tooquite educative to the children" she said difficult to undo theenthusiastically. However, Yanti was habit. In simplewondering why this kind of programmedoes not seem to involve the govern- Percik Desember 2005 29
  • 35. S U C C E S S S TO RY WSLIC 2 of Jambearjo, MalangRural Connection, Urban ManagementR SOURCE: MUJIYANTO egional Water Company (PDAM) service is way off from the village of Jambearjo,Kecamatan Tajinan, Kabupaten Ma-lang. But, in every home a PDAM stan-dard water meter is well fixed. How co-me? This is because of Water Supply forLow Income Communities Phase 2(WSLIC 2) project implemented in thevillage. Previously, in the village that islocated 18 km south of the city of Ma-lang the inhabitants had to take waterfrom Kali Manten, a small river runningin the south part of the village, and wa-ter spring located in valley 30 m deep.This spring was the main drinking watersource for the villagers. There were alsoseveral water wells, only a few of themand they are so deep. "On average wellhere is 24 m deep. Even if you dig a well valley. The community was not able to the poor at Rp10.000, group C thethere is no assurance that you dig at the build a facility to lift the water and dis- medium Rp 15.000 and group D the richright point to get water," says Abdullah, tributed it among the population. Up to at Rp20-25.000. The fund is collected inJambearjo village headman. a certain extent the people were helpless each RT, there are two of them one in It is no wonder, several water born and could not do anything. hamlet Jambearjo and the other at ham-diseases, especially diarrhoea common- let Karangjambe. The total fund collectly visit to the village with 3.734 popu- Join WSLIC Project amounted to Rp 8 million.lation (910 households). The inhabi- It was like a dream come true. The Before that the inhabitants havetants wasted a lot of time to carry water populations dream to have clean water made village meeting attended also byfrom the river of the valley. "On average service was facilitated. Thanks to the hundreds of prople about management1-1,5 hours were spent daily," says introduction of WSLIC project. The of the project. Furteen people wereAbdullah again. Water is carried on the community was trying to look for infor- elected by the community to act as Com-shoulders. mation how they could join the project. munity Facilitator Team (CFT). This Drs. Imam Nawawi, Chairman of the It turned out that several requiremen- team then developed the communityWater Supply Management Team ntys must be fulfilled. Under the spirit workplan (CWP) and established two(WSMT) described that the above con- of communal work they started with implementation units: technical imple-dition have made the inhabitants defe- fund raising, because one of the require- mentation unit (TIU) and special imple-cated anywhere around the house or in ments is willingness to contribute in mentation unit (SIU).the river. "Most of us here are poor," he cash and in kind. It was the beginning of WSLIC pro-said. Through a village meeting attended ject in Jamberarjo. The central govern- On the other side, there is a water by more than 300 inhabitants, it was ment development fund amounted tosource and with discharge of 30 l/sec it then the amount of contribution be Rp 144 million, and kabupaten counter-might be enough to supply the whole determined. There were four contribu- part budget Rp 16 million, and commu-population. It is called Sumber Apak tion categories, group A the very poor nity contribution Rp 8 million. In kindand is located far away at the end of the the contribution is Rp5.000, group B community participation was provided30 Percik December 2005
  • 36. S U C C E S S S TO RY SOURCE: MUJIYANTOin the form of labour, once a week re in case of breakdown," hefor everyone. "It took almost two explained. Besides, the con-months of contruction and unpaid tribution is set aside for ho-labour", said Imam. norarium of the The project started with con- Management eam. Per-struction of a reservoir at Sumber viously when they wereApak spring. It consists of a 2 m membeber of communitydiam. concrete cylindrical struc- facilitators, they did get anyture planted 4 m deep into the honorarium at all.ground. An electrical panel house WSMT meets monthlywas constructed 5 m from the on the 12th of each month.reservoir and a water collector 6x6 Ths isntitution exercisem2 base and 2 m high capable of open magement system andholding 50 m3 of water. This col- transparent financial recor-lector is placed at a height at the end ding so that fiancial accoun-of the village. Water is lifted from the tability is well maintained.reservior with a 12KW electric pump Depreciation of asset is alsoat a discharge capacity of 3 l/sec. The made fot repalcement in the future.pump is mounted at top of the revervior.Pipe network to bring water to the con- Immediately after Direct Impactsumers is 9.050 m. establishment the Abdullah, the vilage headman re- Together with the water supply the community elected vealed that with the availability of clearCFT initiated rolling fund toilet deve- water supply the number of householdlopment programme, training for com- Water Supply toilets in the village increased consider-munity health cadres, schoolchildren Management Team ably. Before WSLIC there were 310 toi-and teachers; contruction washbasins (WSMT) started with lets in the village, now the total is 733.and canteen improvement in schools, its job. The first Diarrhoea incidence has remarkably The project that styarted in May decreased. And water supply has stimu-2004 was completed in May 2005. This thing to do was lated construction of new dwellings.means the job of CFT is completed. To installing the home From 910 now it has become 968run O&M the community conducted a connections. dwelling houses. A new housing com-villege meeting and elected from among plex is under construction.themselves the candidates of Water Beside that, according to Abdullah,Supply Management Team (WSMT). there is a decrease in cost for water for aThe personnel consist of ex CFT mem- fiesta. "Previously in family fiesta gath-bers, total personnel 7. Rp 750 per m3. Presently there are 609 ering, a family had to spend Rp200.000 home connections in all. for water. It is now only Rp13.000," hePost Project The community pays the contribu- said. The community is happy with this Immediately after establishment the tion dutifully. They come by themselves project. "It is more comfortable now.community elected Water Supply Mana- to the WSMT payment counter. So far We dont have to go to the spring for agement Team (WSMT) started with its there has been no delinquency. In No- pail of water," said Bagilin, weho used tojob. The first thing to do was installing vember the income was recorded at Rp climbed down the valey and carriedthe home connections. "We install water 6 million and the expenditure at Rp 4 pails of water for his family.meter in order to be fair. Who uses less million. There is an increase in income Apparently the community of thepays less, who uses more pays more, every month. neighbouring village of Bululawang,says Imam. WSMT fixed home connec- The money collected from users Kecamatan Bululawang was filing ation fee at Rp 250.000. Today this fee contribution is use for expansion of the request asking for water service connec-was increased to Rp 300.000 after the network and pump replacement. Some tion. The Management Team was ready toincrease in fuel price that influences the time ago, a new 6 l cap/sec pump is ins- do the connection. At a different contribu-raise in price of construction materials. talled as replacement of the old one. tion rate, of course. Is anyone of us willingAnd water use subscription is fixed at "Now we have two pumps. One as a spa- to learn to Jambearjo? mujiyanto Percik December 2005 31
  • 37. TELESCOPE Community Led Total Sanitation (CLTS) Behavioural Change Without SubsidyP essimistic. That was the impres- process of change, not target or freedom sion that was visible when Com- from defecating in the open declaration. munity Led Total Sanitation Several basic principles, community(CLTS) programme was first introduced Kamal Kar, the characteristics, factors that stimulateto Indonesia. Many were doubtful if the expert who formu- success must be identified and im-community would be willing on its own proved.do away the habit of defecating in the lated the concept, What should be done in CLTSopen without any government incentive. in a CLTS workshop 1. Well planned triggering (throughBut now the pessimism was proven in Jakarta on 28-30 introduction, participatory discussi-otherwise after the programme was put on/analysis, transect walk, triggeringinto field trial in six kabupatens, ie. November stated and motivation);Lumajang (Jawa Timur), Sambas (Ka- that Indonesian 2. Understanding that CLTS is not a pro-limantan Barat), Muara Enim (Sumatra achievement has ject, it is an approach.Selatan), Muaro Jambi (Jambi), Sum- 3. Learning together (not an extensionbawa (NTB), and Bogor (Jawa Barat). been excellent process).The whole activity was started in Lu- 4. Continuing triggering process tomajang in May 2005, followed by other excite the feeling of embarrasment,kabupatens in June. nausea, prestige, using the type of lan- The outcome was surprising. Within CLTS programme was first imple- guage common to the community.one to three months, the community tri- mented in Bangladesh in 2000. Now 5. Intensive facilitation in monitoring.ggered by this programme, except in ka- the programme has spread to 8 nations 6. Facilitator capacity development.bupaten Bogor, made an obvious including Indonesia. In each nation 7. Identification and development ofchange. They were beginning to do there is always specific lessons learned new facilitators (who are ready to use,away with the habit of defecating in the to improve the process. Kamal persevering, and highly committed)open, such as along river banks, gan- describes that in Bangladesh there is and community facilitator team.dens, or bushes. It their own conscience constraint i.e intoduction of subsidy 8. CLTS implementation in areas wherethey build a toilet according to their from the government that adversely there is no project.financial capacity. The success does not affect the success of the programme. 9. Support to establish community self-end there but continues to expand to the Besides, target becomes the aim rather reliance movement (through commu-surrounding villages. In Sambas, the than process. Therefore, Kamal stresses nal activity, adat leader, religiousBupati has even announced that the that the success of CLTS programme leader, etc.).program will be replicated throughout must be supported with the change of 10. Freedom to initiate.the region. government attitude. In this case the 11. Appreciation/commend to individu- Kamal Kar, the expert who formu- government must avoid providing sub- als, group who are willing to make alated the concept, in a CLTS workshop sidy. Besides, CLTS needs a good many change.in Jakarta on 28-30 November stated facilitators to trigger the community. 12. Provide recommendation/opinionthat Indonesian achievement has been Oswar Mungkasa of the Directorate when asked.excellent. Within 6 months it was capa- of Human Settlement and Housing, 13. Creating natural leader and invite himble of changing at least 3.500 people Bappenas also stresses the most impor- to see other places (comparative stu-from the habit of defecating in the open. tant element of CLTS programme is the dy).32 Percik December 2005
  • 38. TELESCOPE SOURCE: EXCLUSIVE14. Facilitate collaboration with third party.15. Declaration once an area is free from defecation in the open.16. Elimination of gap within the commu- nity.17. Support development to the sur- rounding villages.18. Staged socialization process to the stakeholders.19. Cross sectoral common commitment (involvement of all related sectors).20. Influence from the suppressed group (women, children, old people).21. Filtration and decomposition. What may not be done 1. No to subsidy in any form. 2. Acting like a teacher/instructor. 3. Making arrangement for others. 4. Issuing instruction. 5. Forcing one to do, including construc- tion a WC and decide on its model. 6. Promise a reward. 7. Bringing project mission. 8. Distinguishing community classifica- again. And, it was found out that there tion. the role of facilitator, was a "provocateur" who told them that 9. Showing position identity. natural leader, commu- CLTS included a subsidy for toilet con-10. Implementing CLTS in a locataion struction. Apparently, not far from the where a different/contradictory ap- nity figure, and govern- trial location there was a similar project proach is being applied. ment employees are with stimulant subsidy. This clearly The above principles do not neces- quite prominent. indicates that there is a policy discrep- sarily be completely fulfilled. At least, if Without a harmonious ancy within this sector. the majority is fulfilled a successful From field observation it was found CLTS programme is not a dream. collaboration among out that the role of facilitator, natural Keeping the above principles firmly the them, this programme is leader, community figure, and govern- programme can be expanded more difficult to push through ment employee are quite prominent. extensively in Indonesia. This is exactly Without a harmonious collaboration what we have been doing. among them, this programme is difficult On a village already freed from defe- to push through. This is important to cating in the open there is a common consider because this programme is agreement among ourselves that fol- - feel ambarrased when defecating in focussed on behavioural change, not on lowing items have taken place: the open; target achievement. - high potential in community partici- - improved community health. What CLTS has achieved illustrates pation and communal work; What happened with kabupaten that the community is capable of chang- - no more WC construction along the Bogor, based on analysis, was actually a ing its behaviour with its own con- riverbanks; combined consequence of several fac- science if it is sufficiently empowered. - the individual community members tors such as lack of triggering intensity And the process is replicable for sector have built a toilet on land; and lack of facilitation (only once during development other than defecating in - no more stenching odour around the the initiation). This condition made the the open. Thus, not only for digging dwellings; triggered community slowly faded excrement pit. Mujiyanto Percik December 2005 33
  • 39. KALEIDOSCOPE Segarau Parit Village Local Wisdom Does Not WorkP antai hamlet and Usaha hamlet defecation in the open is an irre- in the beginning started to change and of Segarau Parit Village, Keca- spectable manner, there should be no gradually built their toilets. Surianto, a matan Tebas, Kabupaten Sam- dirty water under clothes hanging line, citizen who was involved in this pro-bas, Kalimantan Barat are located at the do not bath in polluted water. But the gramme said that the community awa-mouth of Sambas River on the South rule seems to be regarded as moral sug- reness grew gradually by itself followingChina Sea. It takes 6 hours of travel gestion and no one is paying any atten- the triggrering. "We did not tell them orfrom Pontianak, the provincial capital. tion on it. acted as a teacher. The community lea-From the kabupaten capital it is only On 1 July 2005, triggering was con- ders were instrumental by inserting he-half an hour ride. To reach the hamlets a ducted at kabupaten level followed by fi- alth development messages during reli-visitor needs to cross by one kilometer eld practise in the hamlet. The result gious gatherings," he said. And, some ofinwidth of Sambas River in a ferry or was an agreement to build 156 units of the citizens we beginning to feel embar-sampan. The hamlets are about two toilets in Pantai hamlet and 60 units in rased because their neghbours were be-kilometers from the jetty. Usaha hamlets. From there on the pro- ginning to build closet and were no lo- Main job of these hamlets are agri- cess was guided by tems of facilitators, nger defecating in the waterway.culture, casual labour, and fishing. They at kabupaten, kecamatan and communi- The citizens design their own toilets.are always in short of clean water sup- ty levels. Rajiman explained that in Usa- Some use closet type, some others builtply. There is no drinkable water source ha hamlet the new toilet development it using oil funnel for bowl.available in this area. The abundant process met with a little barrier. This’s Within one month the toilet cons-supply is the brackish river water. For SOURCE : MUJIYANTO truction was already done. The resultdaily consumption they use rainwater, was far away beyond the expectation. Inwhich they collect in big pails or reser- the hamlet of Pantai, 154 unit planned,voirs made of concrete material. For but was constructed 174 new toilets.bathing and washing, they use the al- This means all houses have had a toilet.ways ready river water. In the village of Usaha 60 units were Pantai hamlet is populated with planned but the total constructions were1.057 persons consisting of 175 families 105. Not only that, there are 3 otherliving in 174 dwellings. Before the Com- hamlets of the Segarau Parit villagemunity-Led Total sanitation (CLTS) were influenced. The villagers of thetook place, none of families had a toilet. hamlets were beginning to leave behindThey defecate in the river, which is loca- the habit of defecating in the garden orted near their houses. One can imagine ditches and start building toilets follow-how the river looks like. While the ham- ing a triggering process.let of Usaha is inhabited by 1.153 people This major change has made the Bu-(183) families living in 181 dwellings. pati of Sambas personally visited the vil-Geographically this hamlet is farther lage. He witnessed by himself the com-thab Pantai hamlet from the river. It is munity declared freedom from defeca-not surprising that from the beginning ting in the open. And sysmbolically hethere have been some toilets in the ham- because of limited manpower, because joined in pulling down and washinglet. There are 54 out of 181 dwellings. most of are migrant workers, and it was away of the riverbank toilets.The rest are defecate used river or gar- harvest time when all hands are concen- "Now it is quite pleasant, clean,den as their toilets. trated in harvesting their crop. and children can run around without Actually, according to Rajiman Jufri, However, the difficulty could be over- worry of stepping on human waste.the village headman of Segarau Parit, come through communal work among Even at night we can defecate morethere is already an local wisdom con- the ciitizens. comfortably," says Khairuman, a localnected with hygiene. The rule says that The community who were reluctant villager. (MJ)34 Percik December 2005
  • 40. KALEIDOSCOPE The Hamlet of Sukamenanti, Muaro Pijoan Village Builds Flying Toilets SOURCE : MUJIYANTOT he hamlet of Sukamenanti, competition among RTs. Within two Muaro Pijoan Village, Kecama- months the Suamenanti hamlet has tan Jambi Luar Kota is located been entirely free from the habit ofnot too far from the provincial capital. defecating in the open.By road it is about half an hour ride. Each member of the communityThe hamlet is located about three chose the type of toilet he was able tokilometers from the main road and is build. But all is the water sealed type.built along the Batanghari riverbank. No one knows who advised them butDuring high water season this hamlet many of toilet built were the so-calledis a flooded area. The hamlet is inhab- flying type. A closet built one meterited by 75 families living in stilt hou- about the ground. This is to preventses. From the whole inhabitants there inundation by floodwater that oftenwas only one family i.e M. Yumi calls in to the village.Nangsiah, the RW chairman, who had The villagers admitted that theya toilet. The rest of the population did need to spend too much money forwent to a creek, one of Batanghari ri- the toilet construction. On averagever tributaries, to defecate. "This ha- each toilet only costs Rp 14.000. Thisbit that has been practised for gene- is because sand is abundant in therations," said Yumi. hamlet. And besides, the camat (sub- This was the condition that made district chief) donated cement for ma-this hamlet together with three others ssive closet production.in Jambi were chosen as sites for Marzuki, hamlet headman of Su-Community-Led Total Sanitation kamenanti confesses that he is very(CLTS) field trial. On 6 June 2005, pleased that his hamlet is free fromthe local community was triggered to ned support from local youth and re- defecating in the open. Now the citi-dissuade defecating in the open. The ligious leaders. Within a week all the zens have pleaded to burn down anyresult was a total denial. barriers were lifted, and the citizens river toilet built on the waterway. Lina, the community facilitator, were now convinced. In reality above the waterway thatrevealed that the hamlet inhabitants All this time, according to Yumi, leads to Batanghari River is now freestrongly refused to leave behind the the main hindering factors to toilet from toilets. This is because on last 26habit of defecating in the creek. The building are availability of clean wa- September there was a communalreason was they do not have clean wa- ter, the old habit of defecating in the movement to wash away all the riverter supply. At that time the communi- open, and capacity to buy constructi- toilets. This event was conducted byty promised that they would build toi- on materials. "Many of them wanted the Head of Health Agency of Kabupa-let once they have clean water supply. to build a toilet, but they want it a ten Muaro Jambi and was witnessedThe denial was voiced by the local good one, not just building for the sa- by the Bupati himself.community figure. But the citizens ke of building," he said firmly. For Today, the local citizens have a de-who had attended the training process this purpose he urged the villagers to sire to persuade the surroundingdid not lose hope. The RW chairman work together, communally, both for hamlets to do the same. "We wanttogether with five others who joined toilet construction and for moulding them to also free themselves from de-the training took the first initiative specimen to make simple closet. fecating in the open, otherwise theirbuilding a toilet for their own and The behaviour change process was excrement will remain contaminatingwith that hopefully the others would also promoted by Lukman AS the vil- our place," says Yumi. However, wefollow. Concurrently the RT chair- lage headman and Mrs. Habibah, wife havent had the courage to talk tomans wife persuaded 3 RT chairmen of Camat of Jambi Luar Kota who fre- them whithout the accompanimentand convinced Marzuki, the hamlet quently made a triggering visit to the from the government officials. Theheadman who was formerly one of the community. Triggering was also con- reason is, they look down on us," heprogramme opponents. The step gai- ducted through cleanliness and toilet concluded. (MJ) Percik December 2005 35
  • 41. KALEIDOSCOPE Babakan Lemah Duhur, Village of Cimande Only to Dig a Latrine PitT SOURCE:MUJIYANTO he hamlet of Lemah Duhur, Cimande Village, Kecamatan Caringin, Kabupaten Bogor islocated on the hill southeast of the cityof Bogor. By road it takes half an hourto reach the hamlet and geographicallyone can say that this is the citys out-skirt. This hamlet is divided into twoRTs i.e RT 16 and RT 17 with a total 78households living in the area. Time went by. August 2005, changehad hardly been seen. The communityremained happy with themselves defe-cating in the ditches. This went on tillNovember. Based on information col-lected, the community in RT 17 therewere only three toilets out of 19haouseholds, and 5 families dug newholes. And there were true holes,uncovered. Whikle in RT 16, 59 house-holds 24 from had toilet. Nine familiesdug a hole, and a true hole. Muchtar Lintang, an official of He- defecating in the open is to our health.alth Agency of Kabupaten Bogor, said Community response was not rea-that this condition is caused by less in- Time went by. August 2005, dily seen. Finally Kamal offered thetensive triggering, including lack of fa- change had hardly been seen. community two alternatives; first per-cilitation support. This is also con- The community remained suade those who are already free fromfirmed by Betty, the community facili- happy with themselves defecating in the open to take alook attator. She said, she never visited the defecating in the ditches. still the old habit; the second, put thevillage because she was overextended news about this hamlet in mss media.because of activities in connection with The community disliked any of the two.another project. Moreover, the sanita- They opted to build a toilet. They decla-rian who should be working with the the stimulant subsidy provided to the red that they would be free from defe-community is now absent because of community of the neighbouring village. cating in the open by 24 Descember,his tranfer to other locality. More over This fact has made Kamal Kar, the one month after the triggering. Bimbin,that, said Lintang further, there is a CLTS expert, wondered and decided to the chairman of RT 17 promised tobelief among the community -and it is see for himself what the hamlet looked motivate his citizens. As an initial step,confirmed by the village headman that like. The fact was undeniable. Finally, together with rest of the community hethere is a subsidy for toilet develop- Kamal Kar with his shrewdness con- worked digging hole near the “MCK” toment. According to the citizens, the vil- ducted retriggering. The citizins were function as it should be the day after.lage headman told them that the citi- invited to gather in front of the "It is now functioning, however simplezens need to dig a hole, the rest will mosque. Kamal told them stories about it may look like," he says. The others?taken care of by the government. And successes made in Sambas and Jambi. Hopefully it would be a repetition ofthe citizens guess was supported with He also stressed how bad the impact of just digging excrement pit. (MJ)36 Percik December 2005
  • 42. I AT P I C L I N I C Questions can be submitted to Percik Magazine. Contributor: Lina Damayanti (ldamayanti@wboj.or.id), Dini Trisyanti (dtrisyanti@gmail.com), Sandhi Eko Bramono. This Clinic is colaboration Percik magazine and Indonesian Association of Sanitary and Environmental Engineers. Wastewater from Bathing and WashingQuestion: available drained into a city sewer and ment System (WTS), for non toilet do- Id appreciate it if you could advise finally treated at the city level Waste- mestic wastewater.me regarding treatnment of grey water water Treatment Plant (WTP).(ex washing, bathing and kitchen activi- The second category is domestic Design Flow Directionties). Is it adviseable to let flow into the wastewater originating from bathroom, Wastewater from bathroom/washingseptic tank? washing and kitchen activities; this ca- is drained to collector chamber. It passes Mawardi Adi tegory is also called "grey water" charac- first through a coarse waste (A) equipped Jl. Siaga Swadaya 17, Pasarminggu terised with moderately high organic with a scrren at its base, than the sand par- Jakarta Selatan material and is usually mixed with soap ticles carried in the water will settle at theAnswer: or detergent. bottom of clooector C, while oil layer will Domestic wastewater can be divided The non toilet wastewater should float and is drained through wax catcher B,into two categories. The first category is not be drained intoa septic tank because the water will pass through to a filter tankwastewater from toilet/closet or human the residue from detergent may kill the and on into PVC pipe in the middle of theexcrement and is also called "black bacteria that decompose organic mate- tank, countinue to the lower part and outwater" characterised with high organic rials in the septic tank, therefore grey through a pebble and charcoal screen, thematter content, the treatment is water must be drained into a specific overflow will flow into outside drainagethrough a pit well of septic tank, and if installation, called Wastewater Treat- system. Bak pengumpul/ kontrol dari collector/control chamber, pasangan batu bata 0,5x0,5x0,6 m3 brick structure 0,5x0,5x0,6 m3 A Concrete cover. 8 cm thick B Tutup Tangki Resapan terbuat dari beton 8 cm Pipa PVC PVC connecting penghubung pipe 4 in. diam. C Dia. 4 inch coconut shell Arang batok kelapa 40 cm charcoal A = coarse material catcher, A = Ruang penangkap sampah Batu koral 1 cm2 grid ,saringan kawat kasa 1cm2 diameter 2- cm Pebbles, 2-4 4cm, tebal 60 diam. 60 cm thick B = Ruang penangkap cm lemak B = wax/fat catcher PVC pipe 4 in. Pipa PVC dia. 4 inc diam. C = Ruang pengumpul dan penangkap pasir sand catcher C = collector and Tangki Filter Up flow – 1,2 x 1,2 x 1,8 m3 up flow filter tank 1,2x1,2x1,8 cm3 (terbuat dari: beton / batu kali,/batu bata) (made of concrete/rock/brick) Source: Appropriate Technology, PU R&D Cipta Karya Percik December 2005 37
  • 43. AROUND WASPOLA Because water is so precious… (Note from WSS Working Group Study Visit to Australia)"W ater is a precious re- source. It is water that Precipitation (rain) Evaporation makes our earth unique,and life possible." Thus reads the wel- Transpirationcome statement for Indonesian dele- Potable Residential Industrialgates visiting the Water Discovery water Municipal IrrigationCentre in Werribee, Australia. Because Evaporationwater is a precious resource and it is WWTPavailable in limited quantity Australiahas a strong reason to apply the Runoff WTPreclaimed (better known as recycled) Recycled Sewagewater concept in water resource ma- Reclaimed waternagement. This note is scribbled from astudy visit made by WSS Working PercolationGroup and WASPOLA Secretariate to Ground water aquiferthree Austalian cities: Adelaide,Melbourne and Sidney to take a look atwater resource management with spe- The use of reclaimed water in Aus- maintenance, ecosystem and environ-cial attention to the application of tralia mental support (wetlands irrigation),reclaimed water concept. Australia is one of the countries that and several domestic uses other than uses reclaimed water in large quantities, drinking water such as toilet flushing,What is reclaimed water? What is particular for irrigation, city landscape watering garden plants, and so on. Inthe difference from recycled wa-ter? SOURCE: LINA DAMAYANTI Reclaimed water is reuse of waste-water through a complete process inorder to produce water quality equiva-lent to drinking water. While recycledwater is reusing water without thenecessity to produce a certain degree ofquality. However the term recycledwater is better known so that this termis generally used by reclaimed water Water distribution isconsumers. The following water cycle conducted in 2 differentdiagram -obtained brom Reclaimed reticulation systems,Water Development for Horticulture- red coloured pipe is for drinking waterillustrates the recycled water and and purple coulredreclaimed water terminologies, and sev- pipe for reclaimed water.eral of their uses.38 Percik Desember 2005
  • 44. AROUND WASPOLA SOURCE: LINA DAMAYANTIthe cities visited by WSS Workingreclaimed water is supplied to newlydeveloped housing area for domesticuse through a reticulation system sepa-rate from drinking water. The effort insocializing reclaimed water is not limit-ed to distibution to consumers but it isalso complemented with educationaland public campaign program. This isintended to build consumers confidenceand to asssure of proper use. The use of reclaimed water is closelycontrolled by the responsible lineagency and by EPA (EnvironmentalProtection Agency), including waterquality, operation and maintenanceprocedure of the reticulation systemboth at the utility company and at theconsumer levels. Even for water foragricultural purpose of Werribee, a sub-urb of Melbourne, EPA puts it as arequirement for farmers to prepare aconsumer site management plan toassure that water is used in the propermanner and in accordance with what it A fountain using reclaimed water with landscape built upon waste disposal ground in the back- ground at the Sidney Olympic Parkis intended for. Another effort to social-ize reclaimed water is through tariff reg-ulation. In all of the cities visited provider. Aware of the importance of ment in the State of Victoria. The appli-reclaimed water for domestic purposes water resouce availability for a sustain- cation of integrated concept byis sold at a lower price than the drinking able water supply, the South Australian Melbourne Water can be seen in thewater, except Sidney where it is slightly government applies an integrated water Western Wastewater Treatment Com-higher than the drinking water. For irri- resources management concept, includ- plex at Werribee. The 11,000 ha com-gation, water price is a bit higher than ing socializing reclaimed water. Even plex is not only wastewater treatmentfor domestic purposes, but in general Adelaide has moved further into treat- plant to produce water quality thatfor all types of use the tariff is always ment of storm water and stored it into worths distribution as reclaimed waterlower than the production cost. an aquifer through Aquifer Storage and but it is also conducting ecosystem Recovery (ASR) system. maintenance through wetlands develop-Adelaide ment and other ecosystem support faci- Adelaide is the capital city of South Melbourne lities, as well as establishment of WaterAustralia with 1.1 million inhabitants. The devotion to water resource ma- Discovery Centre as a educational andThe whole population has had access to nagement was directly felt by the public campaign centre.drinking water supply network and se- Indonesian delegates when they walkedwerage system. "We have no more along the Yarra River bank, a river that Sidneyproblem regarding water supply and Melbourne citizens are proud of for its Sidney Olympic Park is an icon ofenvironmental sanitation infrastruc- cleanliness and beauty. "Making integrated management in the city ofture, but if we do not think it from now Melbourne the Worlds Most Water- Sidney. Who would imagine that theon in the future we might face difficulty Sensitive City" is the main aim of the complex used by the sport champions ofin water resource availability", says one integrated water resource management the world to compete for the best per-senior management of SA Water, South conducted by Melbourne Water, a go- formance in year 2000 was formerly aAustralia government owned water sup- vernment owned institution that plays a domestic and industrial waste disposalply and environemtal sanitation service central role in water resource manage- ground. "Then what happened with the Percik December 2005 39
  • 45. AROUND WASPOLAwastes?" was the question from almost reclaimed water), landscape, wetlands Olympic Park saves approximately 850everyone of the Indonesian delegates. and habitat for birds and other wildlife million litres of potable water fromThe waste was used for landscape deve- all are arranged harmoniously within reducing the use of drinking water up tolopment of the sports complex, after the one integrated land area. Water 50 percent within this complex.toxic and dangerous materials were resource management in Sidneyremoved to another disposal SOURCE: LINA DAMAYANTI What about Indonesia?ground away from the city. In At present it may not only aaddition to reusing the waste question posed by the membersSidney Olympic Park is also of WSS Working Group whoapplying an integrated manage- made the comparative study visitment for drinking water, waste but also by all of us. Are we goingwater, reclaimed water, rain to start after we are through withwater, irrigation system, con- the provision of water supply andstruction, landscape, and eco- environmental sanitation infra-system. Sports complex, hou- structure, or are we going to startsing area using 2 water reticula- it right now? Basah Hernowo, Direktur Perumahan dan Permukiman Bappenas,tion systems (drinking and berdiskusi dengan Executif Direktur SA Water, Anne Howe. Lina Damayanti Orientation to MPA-PHAST for Regional Level Water Supply and Environmental Sanitation (WSS) Working GroupsI n order to improve the capacity of monitoring, and evaluation of WSS according to him, is but one tool to the Regional Level WSS Working development. improve community participation. And Groups in facilitating WASPOLA The workshop was openend by moreover, this methodology is quiteand National Level WSS Working Group Oswar Mungkasa of the Directorate of suitable to promote community par-translating the national policy for com- Housing and Settlement Systems, Bap- ticipation.munity based WSS development in the penas who emphasized the importance The subject matters dicussed in theregions, WASPOLA conducted orienta- of community participation in in the de- workshop were, among others (i) com-tion workshops on MPA-PHAST. The velopment of a sustainable and effecti- munity empowerment concept in theactivity was conducted in Bandung on vely used WSS facility. MPA-PHAST, sustainable WSS development process;17-21 October and in Solo on (ii) gender equity con- SOURCE:EXCLUSIVE28 Nov.-2 December 2005. cept; (iii) MPA-PHAST The orientation was in- activity framework intended to urge the partici- planning, monitoring, e-pants to understand more valuation, and decisionabout the importance of making as related to sus-changing the way of thin- tainable WSS develop-king on community based ment; (iv) linkage ofWSS development manage- MPA-PHAST with natio-ment that places the weight nal policy for communityon demand responsive ap- based WSS development;proach (DRA). More specif- and (v) MPA-PHASTically, this orientation is tool. The participants we-directed towards improve re also invited to prac-the knowledge about the im- tise/simulation in MPA-plementation concept of PHAST application thro-MPA-PHAST in planning, ugh a field visit. (MJ)40 Percik Desember 2005
  • 46. AROUND WSS Cooperation between Bappenas and Plan International in WSS SectorT SOURCES:DOK. PLAN INT’L he for National Development and Planning Agency (Bappe- nas) has worked out a coo-peration agreement with Plan In-ternational -- a non government orga-nization -- in the application of thenational policy for Water SupplySanitation development to developsustainable water supply and sanita-tion services. The cooperation is docu-mented in an MoU and was signed atthe Bappenas on Wednesday 19October by the Deputy for Facility andInfrastructure Development, ImronBulkin, and Country Director for PlanInternational Indonesia, MK Ali. Imron Bulkin stated that com-pared to other South East Asia coun-tries Indonesia has a relatively lowaccess of water supply and sanitationservice. The total population with Develop communication strategy dure to translate the national policyaccess to water supply service is not and promote hygiene behaviour to into field level implementation. Inmore than 53,4 percent and only 67,1 addition, Plan will expand its technical children and their families; as wellpercent has a toilet. According to him, capacity to develop knowledge net- as supporting research andfor the last three decades the govern- work in WSS sector together withment has been trying all efforts to development to expand related agencies; develop communica-improve the coverage through various technological choices in the tion strategy and promote hygieneprogrammes and projects. provision of water supply and sani- behaviour to children and their fami- In 2003, he said further, the go- tation services to the community. lies; as well as supporting researchvernment has succeeded in formula- and development to expand techno-ting National Policy for Community tral, fund to run the O&M of the exist- logical choices in the provision ofBased WSS Development. This policy ing facilities. Therefore Imrom wel- water supply and sanitation servicesis intended to promote the active par- comes this cooperation and hopes that for the community.ticipation of the stakeholders. It conta- this will help to solve parts of the prob- Plan will adjust its water and sa-ins 11 policy principles and 16 strate- lem. nitation program with the Nationalgies. Meanwhile, MK Ali described that Policy for WSS Development. Plan Besides, said Imron further, there an integrated service in sanitation, hy- activities will be implementated in 7are several things that must be bro- giene, and water supply is compulsory provincies, namely Jawa Tengah,ught to immediate attention such as because this will contribute to life ex- Jawa Timur, Jawa Barat, NTB, NTT,the gap between the demand and the pectancy and children growth and Sulawesi Selatan, and NAD, plus 3aviability of water supply and sanita- community health as a whole. Thro- big cities, i.e Jakarta, Surabaya andtion facilities. And the limitation of ugh this cooperatin, he added, Plan Makassar.government, regional as well as cen- will help to develop a guideline/prose- (MJ) Percik December 2005 41
  • 47. AROUND WSS Plan International in Brief P lan International is an NGO Cooperation for strengthening the alth maintaining facilities such a fa- focussing its activities on chil- civil society; vourbale surrounding for children dren all over the world. Its Post tsunami life recovery. to study and communicate among staff and volunteer workers work with In health sector Plan Indonesia themsleves; children, their families and communi- sees that the choildren reserve their Application of reproduction health ties in 60 countries. The activities right to grow optimally in a healthy initiatives by emphasizing youth ca- consist of skill improvement and pro- surrounding, good sanitation, suffi- pacity such as promotion of safe vision of resources to enable children cient health and hygiene service. In and responsible sexual life inclu- having the same voice and opportuni- this connection Plan works towards: ding dissemination of information ty to improve health, education, and Improving the percentage of famili- regarding HIV/AIDS; responsibility of their adults. Besides, es with access to accepatble health Incresasing the quantity of assis- Plan also develops a direct approach service provided by a Posyandu; tance through development of im- and campaign for children all over the Improving the number of schools provement of skilled workers thro- world. with a relatively good health pro- ugh community based safe mother- Plans vision is a world where chil- gramme through provision of he- hood project. (MJ) dren could put their potential into re- ality in accordance to their right and dignity. Its mission is to improve chil- drens quality in life of the developing Points of Cooperation between Bappenas and nations through uniting the world culture and better understanding and Plan International life values. Pilot project/implementation effort to develop an information Plan Indonesia has been doing its of water supply and environmental centre. activities since 2 September 1969, ba- sanitation in compliance with the Communication Strategy De- sed on a cooperation agreement with national policy principles. Plan velopment. Bappenas and Plan agrre Indonesia provides assistance in to undertake a study the knowledge, the Indonesian government. In disse- community development, including attitude and practice that can pro- minating its programme, Plan builds water suplly and saniotation service, vide feedback for the development partnership with local oragnizations to more than 300 villages/slum areas of national communication stategy. and also with government agencies. in 15 kabupatens scattered in 7 pro- Research and Development Plan is working in 6 provinces: Cen- vinces. In this connection Plan will Support. Both parties agree to un- tral Java, East Java, South Sulawesi, work together with kabupaten level dertake the necessary efforts to ma- governments to improve knowledge ke available and use the most appro- NTB, NTT, and Nanggroe Aceh Da- about demand responsiveness appro- priate technical choices and to pro- russalam (NAD). Presently there are mote the local industries to produce aches and exploration of possibilities 13 districtslevel programme units . ffor cofinancing with the the govern- them. Plan Indonesia has developed a ment agencies related to WSS devel- Quality Assurance and Ins- medium term strategy 2005-2010. opment. pection (QA&I) Bappenas and Plan Plan wishes to fight children poverty Technical assistance. Plan will develop/aplly a QA&I system will provide the needed technical both for hard- as well as software and would contribute to put Conven- and fiancial assistance including an intervention. tion on the Rights of Children in In- Common Planning and Monito- expert for the Bappenas. donesia into reality, covering: Management and Information ring/Regular Study. Bappenas, Plan The right to clean water, sanitation, Network. Plan will work in close and WSS Working Group will develop and health; cooperation with WSS Working Group a detailed yearly action plan and Right to education; to gather information and leassons study the progress quarterly and ta- Safe household life; learned from various WSS develop- ke correction measures as necessary ment projects. Bappenas and Plan in order to keep the track and effec- Right to protection and participa- tiveness. will help WSS Working Group in its tion;42 Percik December 2005
  • 48. AROUND WSS Dissemination of CWSH and WSLIC 2 ActivitiesB SOURCE:MUJIYANTO y the purpose of dissemi- percent, while good quality of nating Community Water drinking water and maintaining and Sanitation Health the habit of washing hands with(CWSH) and Water and Sanitation soap reduces the diseases by 35-for Low Income Communities 65 percent. According to him,Phase 2 (WSLIC-2) to the regional based on monitoring resultgovernments the future sites of the WSLIC-2 project has improveprojects, the Directorate General community health, improvementfor Bina Bangda of the Dept. Home in managerial aspect. Based onAffairs held an information semi- the lessons learned, methodolo-nar in Surabaya on 6-7 December gy, and approaches applied in2005. This workshop was attended WSLIC-2 implementaton, theby 170 participants consisting of government has decided to applyBupatis, regional peoples repre- a similar accitiy and approach forsentatives, regional coordination CWSH project. CWSH Projectteams (provincial as well as kabu- will be implementaed for 5 yearspaten). (2006-2010) in 20 kabupatens of The event was officially 4 provinces to cover 1.000 vil-opened by Dr. Ir. Dede M. Maskuriyadi, will reduce infant morality by 0,8-1,5 lages.Deputy for Human Resources and percen. Unfortunately, he added, gov- Both WSLIC-2 and CWSH are in-Culture, Bappenas. In his opening ernment budget for health sector is still tended to villages that belong to belowspeech, he said that environment repre- much too low, i.e around 5,4 percent or poverty line level, hgh perevalence of di-sents one of the important parts to equals to USD9 per capita. This figure is arrhoeal disease, low access to watermaintain health. "Health cannot stand lower than Malaysia (6,9 percent) and supply and sanitation facility, commit-by itself. Most of the health problems Vietnam (8,1 percent). Therefore, ted regional government to such deve-come from outside health sector," he according to Dede, it is important that lopment thus willing to set aside coun-says. He further descrides the factor everyone must support all effort to terpart budget.outside health sector consist of physical improve health status of the community In the meantime, Basah Hernowo,environment, chemical, biological, through improvement of community ac- the Director of Housing and Settlementsocio-economic, cultural, and political. cess to health services. System of Bappenas, described the pre-Besides, there are also factor that inher- The programme of the workshop sent condition of water supply and sani-ent within an individual, behaviour, and consisted among others of presentation tation and the national policy for com-life style. "Water and sanitation are fac- by Director General for PP & PL of the munity based WSS development thattors that are connected to behaviour/life Dept. Health, Director of Housing and has been formulated. He stressed thestyle that determines health status," he Settlement Systems, Bappenas, and pre- importance of building a united move-says. sentation of experiences by the Head of ment among the central, provincial and Dede reveals, the fact from the re- Jawa Timur Provincial Health Agency kabupaten governments to work toge-sult of WHO study that investment and Bupati of Sambas, Kalimantan Ba- ther for the achievement of MDGs tar-made to children (early age) will reduce rat. gets.mortality. If access to drinking water The Director General for PP & PL in Included into the agenda was filedincreases by 10 percent infant mortality his presentation emphasized that water visit to 4 villages of Kabupaten Malang,will reduce by 3-4 percent. While 10 supply tends to reduce diarrhoea preva- namely Jambearjo, Kalisari, Tlogosari,percent increase in health sector budget lence by 35 percent, toilet utilizing by 28 and Petungsewu. (MJ) Percik December 2005 43
  • 49. AROUND WSS Workshop on the Evaluation of Sanitation by the Community (SANIMAS) Project Implementation SOURCE:MUJIYANTOW orkshop on Sanitation by the Community (SANIMAS) Pro- ject Implementation Evaluati-on was held on Wednesday, 8 December2005 in Surabaya. The event was offi-cially opened by Ir Susmono, Director ofEnvironmental Sanitation Developmentof the Dept. of Public Works. In hisopening speech he stated that commu-nity based sanitation is a developmentpattern that must be applied in Indo-nesia today. "This is intended to makeIndonesia free from defecation in theopen by 2009," he stressed. Accordingto him, with directorate has pro-grammed to develop Sanimas in 100locations. He hopes this programme will acceleration lags behind. "More than of all the stakeholders even beyonf ad-obtain support from the regional gov- 100 millions of our population have no ministrative boundaries.ernments and other stakeholders. We access to acceptable sanitation system," At the future, he added, the agendaneed to develop coordination and syn- he explains. On the other hand, he con- will include development of an integra-chronization," he further emphasized. tinued, sanitation development need ted strategy, efficient funding sources The workshop agenda consisted amount of investment. UP to 2009, at management, provision of technicalamong others of presentation by Basah least we need Rp9 trillion (approxi- assistance, and institutional support.Hernowo, Director of Housing and Set- mately Rp1,8 trillion a year) for sani- "All the stakeholders must work toge-tlement Systems, Bappenas who specifi- tation development. Whereas, the go- ther in synergy and simultaneneously"cally highlighted sanitation condition of vernment is presently in no position to he stressed.urban areas of Indonesia. According to set aside such an amount. Therefore, we The workshop agenda also includedhim, the total combined percentages of need to explore investment potentials presentation by Frank Fladerer BORDAfamilies using septic tank and pit well from within the private sector and the Representative Indonesia) and Sururtoilets in towns and cities is 80,5 per- community. Wahyudi (CBS Programme Coordinator)cent (without seeing the quality conditi- Basah described further the experi- about SANIMAS programme and itson of each of the facility). From this fi- ence obtained from sanitation develop- achievement. In addiion, there is also pre-gure 73,13 percent of the families use ment, they are (i) sustainability of a sys- sentation by the regional government ofhousehold toilet, and 16,9 percent com- tem is influenced several aspects consis- Blitar representing the region imple-munal or public toilet. While there are ting of institutional, financial, social, menting the programme and SANIMAS10 cities with sewerage system by 13,9 % techological, and environmental; (ii) management from a selhelp organizationservices from total population. community participation is key to susta- of Miji Serasi from Mojokerto. The reason are, according to Basah, inability; pre sanitation project develop- The SANIMAS programme was testedlack of community awareness to sa- ment a community facilitation process in 2003 to 3 kabupaten/kota in Jawanitation, the systems already construct- costs a lot of time and money; (iv) com- Timur and one in Bali. In 2004, the activi-ed did not sustain, lack of budget allo- munity based sanitation facility must be ty was relicated in the same locations. Incation for sanitation sector develop- managed at the lowest level of the com- 2005, The replication was continued in 6ment, and lack of policy framework and munity; (v) communication among sta- cities in Jawa Timur plus 4 cities in Jawaregulatory framework. Moreover, the keholders increases development effici- tengah , 2 kabupatens of Yogyakarta andrapid population growth made the water ency; (vi) in some cases sanitation sys- one city in Bali. (MJ)supply and sanitation development tem management needs ainvolvement44 Percik December 2005
  • 50. AROUND WSS Workshop of Activities Partnership between Government of Indonesia - Plan InternationalR SOURCE:OSWAR MUNGKASA egarding the MoU bet- need to increase the synergy, ween Bappenas and Plan broaden WSES network by International, POKJA increasing the involvement of nonAMPL and Plan was conducting a GOI stakeholder, and searching forworkshop in Hotel Aryaduta alternative funding to WSES deve-Jakarta on Wednesday (21/12). lopment (from community, donor,This workshop has an objective to NGO, or private sector).implement MoU in real action and There are group discussions inwas attended by POKJA AMPL, this workshop to formulate thePlan Indonesia, and WASPOLA. activities that will be applied by Workshop opened by Direktur GOI-Plan Indonesia in year 2006-Perumahan dan Permukiman 2008. The scope of activities areBappenas, Ir. Basah Hernowo, include: (1) Pilot/implementingMA. In his opening speech he said WSES, (2) Technical Assistance,that Government of Indonesia is not GOI role could be changed from (3) Knowledge Networking and Ma-able to allocate a sufficient budget to all provider to facilitator. NGO has a skill in nagement, (4) Communication Strategydevelopment of WSES. It is need to empowering communities and sustain- and Development, (5) Support Researchinvolve all of stakeholder. NGO as a able technology, also mobilizing funding and Development, (6) Quality Assurancegrass root organization could be a medi- resource and human resource. and Inspection (QA & I), (7) Joint Planningator between GOI and communities. In future, he said, all stakeholder and Periodic Monitoring/ Review. (MJ) Communication Synergy Meeting and WSS Stakeholders Partnership NetworkI n the framework establishing synergy ority. This is evidenced from national and policy makers in innovative approach, amongst the WSS development rela- budget allcoation for housing and settle- technical and funding, stimulating sus- ted stakeholders, Directorate General ment is less that 10 percent, whereas in the tained casmpaign through mass media,for Bina Bangda of Dept. Home Affairs regional; budget is close to zero. "Spe- education and consumers product, andheld a follow up meeting with partner cifically with WSS developemnt it is even improving synergy between the govern-stakeholders in Jakarta on 18 October lower," he stressed. ment, private secttor and NGOs.2005. Present in the meeting were 37 par- Therefore, according to him, it is The agenda of the meeitn also inclu-ticipants representing NGOs, government important to invite the participation of the ded presentations by NGOs and the pri-and private sector. The meeting was community. It has been proven that the vate sector. The first presentation wasopened by Oswar Mungkasa of the community is able and willing to con- made by Surya Aslim of Islamic Relief In-Directorate of Housing and Settlement tribute and participate. He hopes the pivate donesia on updating of sanitation issues.System, Bappenas. In his opening speech sector would increase their care throgh the The next presentation was by Kuwat Sur-he discussed about the low community social responsibility agenda. Because, yadi of PCI discussion about behaviouralaccess to water supply and sanitation in according to him, this step could create a change within the poor communityIndonesia. The existing facilities do not better brand image. through sanitation. The last presetationmeet thechnical and hygienic require- He hopes this meeting would be able to was given by the Chairman of Corporatements. On the other hand, the sanitation develop a common perception amongst the Forum for Community Developmentsector has not been given government pri- WSS staheholders, the field level executors, (CFCD), Thendry Supriatno. (MJ) Percik Desember 2005 45
  • 51. BOOK INFO Solution without PrivatizationP DAMs of Indonesia, currently vernment could take rather than being more than 300 in number, are in TITLE: RECLAIMING being drifted by privatization current. generally in a condition that le- PUBLIC WATER, Lessons learned from many parts of theaves much to be desired. Only 10 percent SUCCESS STORIES, world are discussed in this book such as FIGHTS AND VISIONS OFof them are in healthy condition. The ma- cooperative movement in Bolivia, waer in VARIOUS COUNTRIESjority are suffering from various ailments, Porto Alegre in Brazil, community mana- AUTHORS:managerial, human resources, and capi- Belen Balanya, Brid gement in Kerala, India, in Penang, Ma-talization. Curative measures have been Brennan, Olivier laysia, and in Savelegu, Ghana. The suc-taken and on-going, yet the result has not Hoedeman, Satoko cessful experiments seldom attract a suffi-been up to what is expected. In the midst Kishimoto, dan Philipp Terhost cient attention. These important lessonsof this condition, certain parties try to PUBLISHER : Amrta Institute for Water could become a valuable inspiration forpush to have the PDAMs privatized in ac- Literacy water resources management in Indone-cordance with globally whipping current Year of Publication : 2005 sia.that has been seething since 1990s. It Pages : 318 halaman One thing in this book deserves seri-seems that privatization is the only way to ous attention is that the blame for failureremedy the public service company, in- of a public company is not always takenspite of the bad experience from privatiza- mise to improve water supply service. Be- solely on the company itself. There are ation case in Jakarta. cause private companies focus their atten- number of influencing factors that are This book tries to present a different tion on profit, they increase the tariff, sig- related to the prevailing government sys-perspective about the danger of privatiza- nificantly to a level the poor community tem, such as dictatorship, in total disre-tionespecially for the poor community. In could not reach. gard of human rights, and intransparent.it a number of examples of failures in Through this book the team of authors A public company can only survive in adrinking water management by multina- wish to demosntrate that there are other climate where good governance is beingtional coporations in several countries. interesting and implementable alternati- practised. ? (MJ)The corporations failed to fulfil their pro- ves the bureaucratic and inefficient go- Integrated Water Resources ManagementW ater crisis that hits Indonesia TITLE : Therefore, a wise, integrated and is a general phenomenon and INTEGRATED WATER wholesome watwer resources manage- is happening almost every- RESOURCES ment becomes a compelling demand.where across the globe. Unsprisingly, MANAGEMENT The integratedness reflects interlinkagestherefore, the theme for Water Day com- PENULIS : of the various aspects and stakeholdersmemoration last March 2004 was "Water Robert J. Kodoatie, Ph.D and various disciplines. Wholesomeness dan Roestam Sjarief,Ph.Dand Disaster". The international commu- reflects a wide coverage, across resources Penerbit : Penerbit Andi Yogyakartanity is now aware how the world is boundaries, inter location, upstream and Tahun Terbit : 2005presently being faced with water imbal- downstream, among various conditions, Tebal : xiii + 357 halamanances. This happens as a consequence of land use types, covering many aspectsa considerable environmental degrada- and multidisciplinary. Water resourcestion. Water is scarce in the dry season, autonomy that tends to be abusive at the management calls for holistic and envi-and disastrously excessive during the regional/city level. On the other hand ronmentally sensitive approach. Everyrainy moonsoon. water supply service has not reached the discipline is involved and interdepen- Water resources protection is con- most needed community level both in vil- dent, be it social, economic, technical,strained with many factors such as limi- lages and in towns, and the drainage sys- environmental, legal, and even political.ted government fund, high population tem development that looks like a patch- Water is the concern of all, so shall be thegrowth especially in the urban areas, eco- work program rather than an integrated philosophy to be borne in mind. ? MJnomic crisis, and euphoria from regional wholesome programme.46 Percik December 2005
  • 52. CD INFO Replication of Sanimas 2004S ANIMAS is short for sanitasi holders, the community, and guideline oleh masyarakat (sanitation by to community self-selection, guideline the community). This program- for community level planning, trainingme was initially a pilot project conduct- guideline for community and selfhel or-ed in 2001-2003 sponsored by AusAID ganization, and guideline facility O&Mthrough WSP-EAP and was supported by the community.by the government of Indonesia. In the With this CD BORDA wishes to sha-field this project was implemented by re the experience in handling SANIMASBORDA in seven kabupatens/kotas of and its complicacies. SANIMAS I is oftwo densely populated provinces, name- course different from SANIMAS II. Inly Jawa Timur and Bali. This pilot proj- terms of process SANIMAS II is betterect was completed in 2003. Then in conceived than SANIMAS I. Besides,2004 the programme was replicated in this CD also provides valuable inputs forthe same kabupaten/kotas. All the pro- the government, central as well as regio-jects have been completed and officially nal, in its participation to support theinaugurated. sons learned from this project. Even project. And more interesting is how the SANIMAS is a new programme ap- with this replication BORDA was suc- lessons were learned during the proces-plying new approaches and new funding cessful in formulating a promotional ses of kampung selection, planning, andsystem. Therefore there are many les- and presentation guideline to the stake- implementation. (MJ) Water for AllW ater is vital for human life. It cases studies, thematic working papers, cannot be replaced by any- activity reports, statistic, and regional thing else. Unfortunately study report. Actually, ADB has publis-though, not all of us have the same ac- hed published these materials in bluecess to water supply and environmental prints, of which several series have beensanitation. Based on Asian Develop- discussed in this magazine. This CDment Bank record, one of three Asians comes in soft copy. The readers mayhas not access to water supply system, also obtain the hard copy throughwhile half the population living in Asia http://www.adb.org/water.and the Pacific has not access to acept- Several of titles contained in this CDable basic sanitation facility. This condi- are: Water and Poverty; Poverty andtion is obviously quite apprehending. It Water Security; The Water and Povertyis therefore natural there are many Initiative; Water and Poverty in the 3rdkinds of water and sanitation related World World Water Forum; Bringingdiseases. Water to the Poor; Past Experience and Through this CD the Asian Develop- Future Challenges; Small Pipe Waterment Bank publishes water issues rela- tries members of ADB. CD with athe ti- Network; Water Voices Documentari-ted to poor community in several coun- tle "Water for All" contains 15 titles of es; and An Agenda for Change. (MJ) Percik December 2005 47
  • 53. WEBSITE INFO 2006. It is estimated that participants Australia. Concurrently the 4th interna- World Water Forum from 40 countries will be attending the tional conference on Water Sensitive conference. They will consist of rese- Urban Design will also be undertaken.http://www.worldwaterforum4.org.mx archers, educators, government offici- These conferences will be organized by /home/cuartowwf06.asp?lan= als, consultants, managers, community International water Association (IWA). figures, and others who are interested The conferences will discussed two and connected to the subject of waste main topics related to drainage models materials. The topics to be discussed and water supply design in urban set- will vary widely covering policy, regula- ting. These activities are designed for tion, education, economic, up to techni- those related directly to city manage- cal matters such as recycling, techno- ment and planning, either at the level of logy innovation, and case study. policy makers, city planners, water sup- ply and sanitation practitioners, an so on. World Water Agenda 2006 http://www.conferencealerts.com/T he fourth World Water Forum water.htm will be held in Mexico on 16-22 March 2006. For one week thisforum will discuss a number of topicssummarized in a workplan. The topicsare among others, water supply and sa- T his website specifically presents water agenda from November 2005nitation, water for agriculture, and envi-ronment and risk management. Thetopics will will discussed in parallel eachday. There are 150 sessions planned,with average time allowed 2 hours foreach. The main presenter will present Conference on Urbanhis/her paper. Drainage Models Together with the forum a WorldWater Expo will also be held. The Expo- http://www.icms.com.au/sition will exhibit various new innova- UDMandWSUD/tions in the filed of technology, equip-ment, and water related problem sol-ving. Commpanies related to the deve-lopment from various nations will take T he 7th International Conference on Urban Drainage Models will be held on 3-7 April in Melbourne,part in the event. Waste Technology and up to November 2006. The activities are Management Conference to take place in many parts of the world. Each activity item to be held includeshttp://www2.widener.edu/~sxw0004/ time frame for sending the paper and call.html participant registration. Though the topic is about water, the agenda -- in li-T he 21st Waste Teknologi and Ma- nagement Conference will be heldin Philadelphia, US on 26-29 March mited number- also includes sanitation, such as conference on dry toilet, energy conference, and marine. (MJ)48 Percik December 2005
  • 54. I N N O VAT I O N Rahmat (Blessed) Water Converting Clean Water to Drinking WaterA new breakthrough is being ma- SOURCE:MUJIYANTO de in water purification techni- que. Rahmat (Blessed) Water,so it is called. Rahmat is short for murah(cheap, non costly), mudah (easy, sim-ple) and hemat (economical). This wateris a drinking water purification solutioncontaining 1,25 percent sodium hypo-chlorite. This solution can increase wa-ter guality from clen water to drinkable(potable) water without boiling. This water is produced, distributedand marketed by Aman Tirta, a con-sortium consisting of PT Tanshia Con-sumer Products, PT. Dos Ni Roha,LOWE Worldwide, Jon Hopkins Bloom-berg School of Public Health/Center forCommunication Programs (CCP), CAREIndonesia, and supported by USAID. Rahmat water works as desinfac-tant, killing water born microorganismein drinking water. This is because of thechlorine content that is effectively putsto end the activity of most of living mi-croorganisme that causes diarhoea tohuman bening. ners have conducted Safe Water SystemUsage Rahmat Water is applicable to programs to reduce diarrhoea incidence Rahmat Water is applicable to fresh fresh water that is usually in African, Asian and Latin Americanwater that is usually taken for drinking. taken for drinking. It can be countries using the same solution. Sur-It can be used easily by mixing with the vey in those countries indicates that this used easily by mixing with thewater in accordance with direction. For program is able to reduce diarrhoeaexample, 3 ml Rahmat Water for every water in accordance with incidence by 50 percent.20 l of drinking water. Mix or stir the direction. For example, 3 mlmixture and let it stand for about 30 Rahmat Water for every 20 l How to getminutes. Rahmat water will kill all the of drinking water. Mix or stir For the time being it is produced forbacteria, virus and other parasites. the mixture and let it stand for a limited circulation. In December it isWater is ready for drinking, without launched in Banten and Sumatra Utara. about 30 minutes. Rahmatboiling it first. It is estimated the by next January this Rahmat Water is believed to safe fuel water will kill all the bacteria, product will reach the communities inand time. One package is sold at Rp4.000. virus and other parasites. Jawa Barat, Sumatra Barat, Jakarta Me-The bottle containing 100 ml is enough to tropolitan, and Jawa Timur. The dis-purify 600 l of water, water consumption has undergone testing in Tangerang, tribution will go through the traditionalfor a family of four for one month. NTB, and Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam network system (store, kiosk, sundry (NAD). The result is sufficiently effecti- store, drug store) and non-traditional Field testing ve. Previously, the US Centers for Di- (NGO, midwives, health cadres, etc.) Before launching, Rahmat Water sease Control and Prevention and part- MJ Percik December 2005 49
  • 55. I N N O VAT I O N Germ free water filter Ceramic Water FilterD uring the dry season some peo- SOURCES:EXCLUSIVE ple in many areas have to use turbid water for drinking.Though they have tried to filter it withcloth, the water remains turbid. This isof course an ineffective and non hygien-ic practice. While using a more modernappliances, the price is beyond theirability to pay. Therefore, several effortshave been tried to produce a not onlyeffective but also hygienic water filter.To answer this demand ceramic workersof Plered, Purwakarta have been succes-ful in producing ceramic water filter. This device serves as a drinkingwater dispenser and is equipped withmicroscopically porous ceramic filterwith a permanently fixed silver particlelayer from a dried silver colloid thatworks as desinfectant. The product hasbeen tested for effectivy in the RegionalEnvironmental Management Agency ofJakarta Provincial Government. The test indicates that the silver la-yered water purifier ceramic is quiteeffective in killing bacteria so that thefiltered water is good for drinking. 850°C for Plered soil or 1200°C forWhile the non silver layered device is Sukabumi soil.unable to eliminate bacteria from the This ceramic water purifier consistsfiltered water. of two main parts, i.e. a filter tube and a filter tube receptacle. Water filled in to the tubeConstruction will seeps through the filter pores down The purifier is made from clay mixed ceramic filter into the receptacle. This water is readilywith incinerated material during the drinkable. Generally drinkable waterburning process and leaves microscopic can be obtained from the second roundpores in its place. They generally come of filtering process, since water re-in red colour because of the Plered clay receptable sulting from the first filtering still hasbeing used as raw material. To create smells. This is because of the residualporous ceramic, sawdust is chosen as filtered water ash from the ceramic burning processadmixture. and of the colloidal silver sticking with Now the ceramic may come in white the ash. After the first round of, the nextcolour for esthetic reason. It is prepared create the desirable pore size. The batch of filtered water is clear, fromby using soil taken from Sukabumi ceramic filter is molded with hydraulic from bacteria, and drinkable. (MJ)mixed with diatomite and wheat flour to press, dried and burned in a kiln at50 Percik December 2005
  • 56. AGENDADate Month Activity11 November Preliminary meeting on National Policy Talk Show in TV15 November Kick off meeting: Study of sanitation for Poor Urban Community16 November Preparatory Review of World Bank Loan for NPCWSS Project17 November Talk Show on Institutionally Based WSS Development in Metro TV21-24 November Visit to CLTS Field Trial Sites in Sambas, Muaro Jambi and Bogor21 November WSS Working Group Meeting on CLTS workshop training conducted by Plan International24 November WSS Working Group meeting to review survey instrument for study of Sanitation for Poor Urban Community Talk Show on Institutionally Based WSS Development in TVRI28-30 November Worshop on Monitoring of CLTS Field Trial Implementation in Indonesia MPA/PHAST Training and its Application to Planning and Monitoring of Community Based WSS Projects in Solo WASPOLA Midterm Review28-29 November Workshop on WSS Database Development in Gorontalo29-30 November Workshop on WSS Database Development in Kab. Bone Bolango and Kab. Pohuwato29 November Workshop for the Preparation of Infrastructure Summit30 November Meeting with AusAID PSP Review Working Group Meeting1-2 December MPA/PHAST Training and its Application to Planning and Monitoring of Community Based WSS Projects in Solo Review of Working Paper on Drinking Water and Poverty at LIPI1-10 December WASPOLA Midterm Review1 December Meeting with Plan International on Preparatory Meeting for Formulation of PoA WSS Working Group Meeting with AusAID, ADB, Bangda and WASPOLA Review of Working Paper on Drinking Water and Poverty at LIPI2 December WSS Working Group Meeting: WSS Working Group Activity Planning Roadshow of National Policy for Community Based WSS Development to Sumbawa, NTT5 December Meeting on Donor Harmonisation Study6-8 December Disseminaton of CWSH and CLTS Projects to Provincial and Kabupaten Coordination Teams in Surabaya6-9 December Socialization of Manual for Management of WSS Facilities for Provincial and Kabupaten Level Government Officials in Palembang7-8 December Dissemination of the Method of Drinking Water Tariff Calculation7 December WSS Working Group Meeting on the first survey in Bandung8 December Workshop on the evaluation of SANIMAS and Dissemination of Waste & Drainage Guideline, 20058-10 December Workshop on WSS Strategy Plan for Banten Province13-17 December Socialization of Manual for Management of WSS Facilities for Provincial and Kabupaten Level Government Officials in Senggigi, Mataram13-16 December CLTS Training in Cooperation with PCI in Padeglang14 December WASPOLA Annual Plan15 December Workshop on the Implementation of UNDP CCF 2001-200519 December Meeting on Presentation of Assessment of the Status of Sanitation Preliminary Meeting for Workshop on Formulation of Cooperation between Indonesian Government and Plan International WWS Working Group-WASPOLA Coordination Meeting on evaluation of WASPOLA activity implementation21 December Workshop on Formulation of Cooperation between Indonesian Government and Plan International Percik December 2005 51
  • 57. WSS BIBLIOGRAPHYB O O K R E P O R TWASTEWATER ENGINEERING. TREATMENT AND REUSE Report of Coordination Meeting onPublisher: McGraw-Hill Science/Engineering/Math, Maret 2002 the Implementation of National Po- licy with Program Partners & Work-WATER AND WASTEWATER CALCULATIONS MANUAL shop on the Implementation of Natio-Publisher: McGraw-Hill Professional, Mei 2001 nal Policy for Community Based WSS Development in the Regions for NGOSURVEY RESEARCH METHOD. REVISED EDITION Partners and Related InstitutionsPublisher: PT. Pustaka LP3ES Indonesia, 1995 (in Indonesian) Publisher: Dirjen Bangda - Depdagri, 2005PEOPLE’S WELFARE INDICATOR 2004Publisher: Central Bureau of`Statistic (in Indonesian) Global Water Supply and Sanitation Assessment 2000 Report Publisher: World Health Organization and United Nations Childrens Fund, 2000 R E G U LAT I O N Summary of SANIMAS Replication COMPENDIUM OF REGULATIONS Implementation Report 2000 ON ENVIRONMENTAL Publisher: MANAGEMENT, 2002-2004 BORDA, 2005 Publisher : CV. Eka Jaya Jakarta, 2005 (in Indonesian) CASE STUDY Small Scale Water Service in Indonesia. Palembang, Jakarta Utara, Bandung Metropolitan, Subang Publisher : Water and Sanitation Program-EAP, 2005 (in Indonesian) M A G A Z I N E JENTERA W O R K I N G P A P E R Publisher: Directorate of Housing and Settlement Systems, Bappenas MODIFICATIONS TO WATER UNDERTAKERS EXISTING CONDITIONS OF APPOINTMENT AIR MINUM (DRINKING WATER) Author : Water Act 2003 - Water Supply Licensing, 2004 Edition 120, September 2005 CHOICES WATER ALLOCATION IN THE BRANTAS RIVER BASIN Vol. 13 No. 4 December 2004 CONFLICTS AND ITS RESOLUTIONS Publisher: UNDP Author : Aris Harnanto & Fahmi Hidayat, 2003 NOTE ON THE HEALTH IMPACT OF WATER AND SANITATION SERVICE - CHM WORKING PAPER SERIES - PAPER NO.WG5:23 Author : Commission on Macroeconomics and Health, 200152 Percik December 2005
  • 58. G L O S S A RYLevel of Services (LOS)Number or amount to quantitfy the rate of service of a sanitation facility within a service area or territory.Loss of headLoss of water pressure pressure potential either through friction with the channel media, resistance from the flow regula-tor, barrier by a drop structure, etc.LyeAlkaline containing liquid - one of leachate components.ManholeA cavity constructed in a facility structure or in a network system for man to enter to examine or work a repair to the sys-tem.Manhole ChamberA channel located at the lowest floor of a chamber (bathroom, kitchen, wet operation room, and so on) that serves to col-lect and discharge wastewater through a control dip into wastewater drainage; this is to keep the floor always dryMarble TestA practical testing method to measure stability of water sample, especially for alkaline content.Mass diagram of reservoirA diagram illustrating the accumulated discharge entering a reservoir over time.Maximum allowable toxicant concentration (MATC)The maximum allowable toxic compound concentration to be produced or released to the environment by an industry oforganization.Maturation stabilization pondAerobic wastewater stabilization of low contaminant containing pond.Maximum contaminant level (MCL)The maximum allowable contaminant concentration to be produced or released to the environment.MethaneA simple hydrocarbon compound produced from decomposition process of organic wastes. In can be used as fuel if mixedwith 90 percent air.MicroscreenA wastewater treatment ficility consisting of a rotaing cylinder wrapped with perforated plate forming a screen.Wastewater enters through the axis of the cylinder and spreads around the perforated cylinder.Mottled enamelTooth disorder caused by habit of taking water with flouride content in excess of 1,5 ppmMoveable intakeA movable raw water catchment structure or facility that can be shifted in horizontal or vertical direction. It is made as anadjustable construction. It is eqpped with a rope to adjust it to the best position in a relatively large and deep water source. Dikutip dari Kamus Istilah & Singkatan Asing Teknik Penyehatan dan Lingkungan. Penerbit: Universitas Trisakti.