Private Sector Contribution in Water and Sanitation. PERCIK. Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine. October 2005

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Private Sector Contribution in Water and Sanitation. PERCIK. Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine. October 2005

  1. 1. Information Media for Water Supply and From the Editor 1 Environmental Sanitation Your Voice 2 Published by: Main FeatureWorking Group for Water Supply and Sanitation PWSS Implementation Awaiting Private Sector Contribution 3 Advisor: What do we mean by Corporate Social Responsibility? 4 Director General for Urban and Rural Development, Department of Public Works Private Sector Cares, Is Beginning 6 Board of Trustee: Interview Director of Human Settlement and Housing, CFCD Chairman, Thendri SupriatnoNational Development Planning Agency Republic of Indonesia Synergy for Community Empowerment 7 Director of Water and Sanitation, Report Ministry of Health Director of Water Supply Development, Green City Green Community Department of Public Works An Urge to Care to Waste 9 Director of Natural Resources and Appropriate Technology, Director General on Village and Article Community Empowerment, Department of Home Affairs Regional Waste Management, Why Not? 15 Director for Facilitation of Special Planning Megumi, Drinking Water from an Unlimited Source 18 Environment Management, Department of Home Affairs Water, Between the Principles of Sustainability and Demand for Prosperity in the Midst of Shortage and Need Chief Editor: Oswar Mungkasa Between the Monopolistic Rights of the Present Generation and Board of Editor: Inheritance to the Future Generations 20 Ismail, Johan Susmono, Studies Indar Parawansa, Poedjastanto Analytical Study on Kabupaten Level WSS Service in Editor: the Era of Decentralization Maraita Listyasari, Rewang Budiyana,Rheidda Pramudhy, Joko Wartono, Essy Asiah, Kaleidoscope Mujiyanto, Andre Kuncoroyekti Sanimas (Sanitation for the Community). Design/Illustrator: Between Hope and Reality 25 Rudi Kosasih Around WASPOLA 28 Production: Around WWES 32 Machrudin Innovation Distribution: Water Pump Without Engine 41 Meiza Aprizya, Agus Syuhada Institution Address: Training Centre for Housing Scale Water Supply and Environmental Jl. Cianjur No. 4, Menteng, Jakarta Pusat Phone/Fax.: 62-21-31904113 Sanitation Facility (BPAB-PLP), Bekasi Revival from listlessness 42 http://www.ampl.or.id e-mail: redaksipercik@yahoo.com Book Info 43 redaksi@ampl.or.id CD Info 44 oswar@bappenas.go.id Website Info 45 Unsolicited article or opinion items IATPI Clinic 46 are welcome. Please send to our address or e-mail. Dont forget to be brief and Agenda 47 accompanied by identity. WSS Bibliography 48 This magazine can be accessed at Water Supply and Environmental Sanitation Website This magazine is a translation of the official Bahasa version. at www.apml.or.id
  2. 2. F R O M T H E E D I TO R Dear readers, Percik is distributed free of charge to message of community self-reliance. Time flies so fast. We did not realize all regional governments in Indonesia. Lets hope this free distribution is notPercik is now 2 years old. This magazi- Dear readers, today Percik is pa- against the principles of communityne was published for the first time in education. We are deeply contempla-August 2003 carrying with it the Natio- ting on it. Perhaps the reader may comenal Policy for Water Supply and Envi- up with a brilliant idea that helps to ma-ronmental Sanitation Development in ke Percik sustains with the readersits main feature. At that time, the participation.facing was still so simple. The What is certain is, we arecontents were not too ma- continuously puttingny. The rubrik consists things into order so thatof main feature, in- we can offer you withterview, opinion, vi- the best. This timesist, mirror, book in- we appear with afo, website info, slightly differentand miscellane- design. We hopeous. this change co- From time to uld make ourtime we gradu- eyes more fo-ally make im- cused in rea-provement. In ding it. Besi-second and third des, we alsoeditions, changes add new ru-were made, both briks, innovati-in terms of facing on, study andand the rubrik, institution. WePercik is trying to consider there arefind its form. It was things worthy of no-in the fourth edition, te from the new ru-along with organizational briks. Several new ru-development, Percik finds briks are being contem-its present form. There is, ho- plated for appearance in thewever, some modification here following editions. This is mere-and there but none of it is significant. ly for the sake of information dis- We are quite pleased that in spite of semination to all WSS stakeholders. Itits still relatively young in age Percik is obvious, the existing rubriks are stillhas attracted the readers attention, es- cing into the third year of its life. We unable to satisfy the issues and pro-pecially those connected to water supply realize that many are still left to be done blems and recent development takingand environmental sanitation from the to put this segmented magazine into place around us.buraucracy (central and regional levels), order. Many things we still have to Changes may not cease simply be-university, NGO and the general com- think together. Including how long this cause good deed has been done. The-munity. At least this is evidenced from magazine will survive, considering that refore, we are continuously looking for-the incoming letters, article writing and up to now Perciks existence relies fully ward to inputs and comments as well ase-mails addressed to the editor. This co- on government subsidy, therefore it can support from you. For without you thisuld happen because of the efforts exer- be distributed gratis. It not impossible, magazine is nothing. Lets work toge-ted by each and everyone of WSS Wor- some day the budget is discontinued. ther to put it forward so that Percik mayking Group members who acts as From the side of readers empowerment, contribute to the development of waterPercik "marketing officer" in any WSS distribution for free is unsuitable becau- supply and environemntal saniationrelated event he/she presents. Besides, se Percik always tries to convey the sector in Indonesia. Best regards. Percik October 2005 1
  3. 3. Y O U R VO I C E Suggestion for a New Rubrik buy it from vendors. Percik really intends to become a Through this media, we would like means for information sharing in the Acknowledge with thanks receipt of to tap the knowledge/field experience subject of water supply and environ-Percik ed. July 2005. Percik is indeed from any one to process brackish water mental sanitation. Your request will beoffering very valuable information to its into drinkable water. Considering the complied with by our distribution sec-community of readers. We would pro- economic condition of the population tion. (Editor)pose to add more rubriks consisting of the most possible means of doing this isregional report, art and culture (short through an applied technology. We ho-story, review and poem), and article pe Percik would facilitate in fulfilment Request for Copies of Percikwriting competitition for Percik annual the expectation of south Pati communi-commemoration. We know exactly that ty. I am an activist of an environmentalthe three items have ever been pre- related institution in Yogyakarta. Idsented. We would be ready to help and Ir. Budi Waluyo appreciate if I could have copies ofbe a correspondent when needed. Kasubdin Cipta Karya Percik for our reference. Diskimpras Kab. Pati Sulaiman Pirawan Central Java Tri Apriyadi Jl. Danau Sintarum Gg. H. Namawi 68 Yayasan DAMAR Kel. Sui Bangkong. Pontianak 78116 We hope with the publication of this Karanggayam CT VIII/26A, information some competent stakehol- Depok, Sleman Thanks for your input. As for regio- der will get excited in helping you solve Yogyakarta 55281nal rubrik we admit that up to now it is the problem. (Editor)still missing, however, we continuouslypublish successes and failures of activi- Similar requests come from Yudhities taking place in the regions within Relevant Content Kristian Jl. Sadang Subur 1/48,the existing rubrik. Regarding art and Sadang Sari RT 2/14, Sadang Serang,culture, for the time being it seems I am a student studying on a fellow- Bandung 40134; Ida Sukmawati Jl.rather difficult for us to fulfill it consid- ship at ITB (Bandung Institute of Tech- Akar Wangi II/17 Kompleks Pertanianering Percik is dedicating itself in wa- nology). I am quite interested after re- Atsiri Permai, Citayam, Depok; Arieter supply and sanitation. Article wri- ading Percik of July 2005 edition in Istandar, USAEP Indonesia, Plaza DMting competition is quite interesting, the campus library. The information is 18th floor, Ste 1807, Jl. Jend. Sudirmanand WSS WorkingGroup has organized quite relevent with our lectures in con- Kavling 25, Jakarta 12910; Dinasone last year. The feedback looks excel- nection with development of the villa- Lingkungan Hidup, Kebersihan danlent. (Editor) ges, especially in Workshop subject Pertamanan, Sawahlunto City, Jl. matter, where in the field we are faced Lubang Tembok, Kelurahan Saringan, Info on Brackish Water with problems widely discussed in this Kecamatan Lembah Segar, Sawahlun- magazine, such as poor sanitation, to City, Sumatra Barat; Robert Ainslie, We acknowledge with thanks receipt water source polluted with domestic John Hopkins University-Centre ofof Percik of May 2005 edition. Hope and industrial wastes. Percik serves as Communication, Tifa Bldg 5th floor, Jl.Percik would unceasingly increase its a valuable reference for knowing pro- Kuningan Barat 26 Jakarta. We willquality and will become a means for blems related to other areas. send copies to all of them.sharing of information among water Therefore, I would highly appreciate Beside inputs and above requestssupply and environmental sanitation it if I could subscribe this magazine star- we also received acknowledgement andobservers. ting from the first edition. If the hard thanks for the Percik we sent them. We would like to inform you that our copy is out of print the soft copy will ser- The senders are among others De-region, Pati, especially the southern part ve my purpose. Pray to God that Per- puty for Environmental Pollution Con-covering 8 kecamatans, 72 villages, and cik will survive. trol, State Ministry of Environment,163.381 inhabitants are in shortage ofdrinking water. The existing water so- Arfianto Ahmad Regional Secretary Kabupaten Batangurce is brackish with high calcium con- Rural Development Management Division Hari, and PDAM of the City of Se-tent. As such this water is not used for Dept. of Architecture ITB marang. And many others. Labtek IX B Building (Editor)drinking and cooking. The community Jl. Ganesa 10,Bandunghave to take water from other villages or 2 Percik October 2005
  4. 4. MAIN REPORT WSS Implementation, Awaiting Private Sector Contribution Development paradigm has changed. No more pivoted The condition of the world popula- tion, especially in the poor and develo- on economic growth, rather it is now on sustainable development. ping nations, does not move up in pro- The industrial sector is also changing its basic thinking. portion to the progresses made in the No more simply profit oriented, rather it is environmental care, industrialized nations. Data of 2000 natural as well as social economical. Has it touched water supply indicates that 2,4 billion of world popu- and environmental sanitation sector? lation has no access to acceptable sani- tation, 81 percent of whom live in rural villages. Besides, 1,1 billion people have no access to water supply, 86 percent of them in villages. We should not be sur- prised this causes diseases such as diar- rhoea and so on. It is estimated that in 2015 the world will be inhabited by 7 billion people. The biggest population growth takes place in the developing nations. The ad- ditional population will increase the num-ber of people living without access to acceptable sanitation by 3,4 billion in 2015. WHO estimates 150 million addi- tional world population must have ac- cess to sanitation annually. Indonesian situation is not too far from the above picture. Data from 2002 indicate that Indonesian population who have a basic sanitation facility made of pit or septic tank is only 63,5 percent. In the villages the proportion is somewhat lower, 52,2 percent while in rural areas 77,5 percent. The figures indicate the available proportion without telling us what the quality is really like. Therere is strongF ive years ago in Sep- improve health and welfare of all the doubt if the above data tell us the real tember, UN General As- population. Two years later, in the condition. The real fact may be much sembly mandates Millen- World Summit on Sustainable Deve- worse. It is estimated that many of the nium Development Goals lopment, the United Nations recon- basic sanitation facilities do not meet (MDGs) as the targets for firmed MDGs and adds a special target the environmental and sanitationglobal community to reduce poverty and on sanitation and hygiene. requirement anymore. Percik October 2005 3
  5. 5. MAIN REPORT If this situation is connected to and mission. The CEOs put corporate consist of (1) fairness to all stakeholdersMDGS target what Indonesia has to do social responsibility and corporate sus- (not limited only to shareholders), (2)to reach the target is something diffi- tainability as part of Good Corporate proactive and acts as agent of change incult, indeed. Especially if the financial Governance. The seed of this awareness community empowerment within theburden is imposed solely on govern- emerged in 1992 World Summit in Rio area of operation; (3) efficient, carefulment - which actually should be the de Janeiro, Brazil. against unnecessary spending especiallycommunitys - considering the govern- Today the global environment has in relation to problem solution focusedment has admitted that it does not have undergone changes, corporate reputa- on stakeholders in the area of operation.enough development budget. Worse tion and image is not viewed singly from What then is implementable by thestill is the fact that water supply and the profit side but to also include (1) corporate? The corporate can launch asanitation sector does not obtain the financial competence, (2) quality of community development (CD) pro-attention it deserves from the policy product and service, (3) customer focus, gramme; relation development (RD)makers including from the legislatures. (4) human resources excellence and programme targeted to (1) empower- sensitiveness, (5) reliability, (6) innova- ment of local human resources (inclu-Private Sector Contribution tiveness, (7) environmental responsibi- ding students and youth); (2) strength- A new development paradigm ari- lity, (8) social responsibility, and (9) ening of economic condition of the sur-ses, especially in the developing nations, Good Corporate Governance. The rounding community; (3) developmentthat all involved parties must take share efforts to achieve the above objectives of public facilities; (4) communityand care in development process. Thestate, as much as possible, is limited to What do we mean by Corporatefacilitation function. The state also sho-uld embrace the private sector and thecommunity. From the side of the com-munity, there is emerging a community Social Responsibility?empowerment programme to make it Ccapable of developing itself with less orporate Social Responsibility Through CSR program a company cangovernment support. (CSR) is synomym to Good contribute to directly the community for Whereas with the private sector,there was formerly reluctance to direct- Corporate Citizenship (GCC) has a poverty reduction, equity, participation,ly deal with the community. This was broader connotation than corporate influ- peace, and security, and environmentalnatural because they considered that ence to the community for the benefit of protection. The company that develops athey have paid taxes and other levies to the corporation and the community in gen- new business model will become a businessthe government, therefore it is the lat- eral (Marsden and Andriof. Warwick leader of the 21th century (Mark M. Brown,ters job to work with community deve- Business School UK, 2001). While in UNDP in Business and Poverty; Bridging thelopment. But, as it finally turned out, Indonesia Business Link, CSR is mentioned Gap, 2002).the private sector has no choice but to as business decision related in business From there emerged a term corporateget involved, because of the differentinterests. What is expected by the pri- ethic that is not motivated merely on mar- philantrophy which means how big andvate corporations does not necessarily keting, public relations, or other commer- small companies provide cash contributioncomply with the government pro- cial benefits. for various social, economical etc. as partgramme. Therefore, in the decade of CSR is considered capable of providing of the overall corporate citizenship strate-1970s the change in business paradigm competitive superiority for the company gy.did occur. They did not think singly in and may help in improving its financial There are many benefits can be ob-terms of profit (single bottom line), but performance and access to capital, im- tained from CSR such as improveing brandalso care for the environment, natural as proving brand image and sales, mainta- image, reducing poverty, resolving con-well as social economical. The para-digm changes from shareholders res- ining quality of work power, improving de- flicts, environmental conservation, socialponsibility to stakeholders responsibili- cision making in critical issues, handiling investment, and sustainable development.ty. risk more efficiently, and reducing long (MJ) This fact stimulates the industrial term costs.world to review their corporate vision 4 Percik October 2005
  6. 6. MAIN REPORT SOURCE: WWEShealth improvement; (5) socio culturalactivities, etc. In this case the corporate may playan important role in triggering watersupply and sanitation development. Itis undeniable, that WSS condition is stillfar from expectation. Therefore theopportunity for the industrial sector togain respect from the community isopen wide. The more so, the govern-ment is ready with a national policy forWSS development which substantivelycontains community development prin-ciples. With synergy between the go-vernment and the industrial sector, bothprivate and public, the target for WSSsector development could be appro-ached.Era of Autonomy Potentially the regional governmenthas a big opportunity to trigger commu-nity empowerment in water supply andenvironmental sanitation sector. It candevelop a program in collaboration withthe industrial sector. The business cor-porations may no more function as more competent for field activities com-source of donation for an empowerment pared to government employees whoprogram. The corporate must be invited used to deal with bureaucratic matters.to directly involve. Potentially the regional As it was brought forward by government has a big Concluding RemarkThendri Supriatno, Chairman of Corpo- opportunity to trigger At any rate all corporations wish torate Forum for Community Develop- community empowerment survive. What is important is how toment (CFCD) the corporations are build an excellent communicationpleased for cooperation with the regio- in water supply and between the government and the indus-nal government. The corporations environmental sanitation trial sector. They have social invest-members of the forum expect that the sector. It can develop ment. The questtion is how to spendPemda would act as facilitator and regu- a program in collaboration this fund effectively for an equitable col-lator to make community empower- with the industrial laboration development activities in-ment process flow smoothly. sector volving three parties - government, pri- Pemda should realize that the indus- vate sector and community. This pat-trial sector will find difficulty to allocate tern is expected to benefit all of thefund for charity purposes. They realize three parties. The corporation can havethat by mere extending gifts will only a favourable business atmosphere, thecreate dependency and therefore un- be exploited from the business corpora- government can proceed with its pro-educative. They also realize that a facil- tion is the entrepreneural spirit and grammes and obtains an added valueity will be sustained if the community is excellent organization. The industrial from the business, and the communitysdirectly involved from the very begin- sector has a big supply of skilled human welfare is improving. More than that,ning, in planning, implementation, eva- resources that could be utilized e.g. for the development target, especially waterluation and maintenance. poverty reduction and propelling peo- supply and environmental sanitation, is One more opportunity that should ples economic gear. They are naturally achieved. (MJ) Percik October 2005 5
  7. 7. MAIN REPORT Private Sector Cares, Is BeginningT he effort made by the private At the same time, the cadres started vo- Yayasan is also collaborating with local sector to care for the surroun- luntarily treat their waste right from the NGOs to form coordination forum to ding environment, including house. The result, sufficiently good. improve community care to environ-water supply and sanitation is begin- Gradually the rate pollution is decrea- ment. The local Dinas Kesehatan actsning. However, because of the limited sing and the community begins to imi- as facilitator.size and area, the echo seems inaudible. tate what the environmental cadres are In addition to the Yayasan, UnileverTake PT Unilever Indonesia Tbk for doing. During all this process, Unilever has a brand image related programme.instance, one that has a Corporate So- acts as facilitator. For instance, Lifebuoy has a diarrhoealcial Responsibility (CSR) programme "Early 2005 this program started reduction programme, hygiene impro-implemented through Yayasan Unilever rolling in 5 RWs (25 RTs)," said Silvi. vement through MCK development inPeduli (Unilever Care Foundation). The Dissemination was done through road Bandung, Makassar, and Yogyakarta.Yayasan operates in four programme show by the cadres to other RWs. This Pepsodent has a programme that pro-areas, namely environment, UKM process produced 70 new cadres making motes twice a day toothbrushing habit(small and micro enterprises), com- the whole total of 120 cadres. to reduce toothache which is quite com-munity health improvement, and huma- To instill dynamic and programme mon in Indonesia. "The focus is on he-nitarian assistance. sustainability, continued Silvi, a com- alth, i.e. Integrated Health Promotion Silvi Tirawaty, Environment Pro- petetion was held to select the best RT Program," explained Silvi.gram Manager PT Unilever Indonesia in waste and sanitation management. On air garbage care program is alsoTbk, explained that in terms of environ- This activity managed to trigger the transmitted by Delta-Female Radio Net-ment her company is handling waste community to make the environment work (JDFI). This company organizesproblem. "We have a deep concern with clean and hygienic. Besides, the the Green Ciy Green Community (GCGC)the condition of river Brantas especially community begins to benefit from the program in Jakarta.the part that flows past the city of separation of their wastes. Inorganic The program is implemented in col-Surabaya. Approximately 60 percent is waste can be sold. In this process, Uni- laboration with Dinas Kebersihan DKIcaused by by domestic wastes," she said lever develops a connecting link bet- Jakarta, InSWA (Indonesian Associa- The corporation tries to educate the ween the community and the recycling tion of Waste Materials), Ministry offamilies to care to waste material. industry. The proceeds are used to de- Environment, Yayasan Kirai (a JakartaDuring the early phase, the yayasan velop medicinal herb garden. based NGO that provides help to deve-tried its activity in RW 3 of Jambangan To boost further community care, lop scavengers), Carrefour, and Uni-village, Surabaya city. Several members according to Silvi, her company is work- lever (producer of Lifebouy). For detailsof the community were recruited as ing together with the biggest Jawa Ti- please read Report.cadres. They are individualas with mur newspaper to launch an environ- PT Merck Tbk, a pharmaceuticalstrong environmental inclination. They mental campaign entitled Surabaya corporation, has an anaemia free cam-were given 3-day training on the subject Green and Clean and environmental paign programme. It works togetherof waste material, regreening, sanita- competition in the city of Surabaya. with Yogyakarta government in Healthytion, and personality development. The This campaign is featured for 3 conse- Yogya 2005 programme. This companywife of the Mayor was involved in the cutive months in the paper. From this educates the community to take irondedication of the cadres. campaign 8 nominators were selected to containing diet. This campaign is con- In carrying out its mission the join the next Unilever programme. ducted as a response to the high preva-yayasan works together with a universi- Currently, according to Silvi, her lence of anaemia in Indonesia.ty in Surabaya. This university contri- company has a running program in 14 Those are a few examples of compa-buted its knowledge is composting unit villages (51 RTs) covering approximate- nies that care to community, particular-made from used drums to let domestic ly 11 thousand inhabitants. "If this co- ly in water supply and environmentalwaste decomposes naturally. uld roll on, it will reduce garbage bur- sanitation. It does not imply that many Within a month these cadres were den to the river Brantas," she explained. other companies that are not mentionedexpected to influence their neighbours. Besides the above programme, the here are not doing the same. (MJ) 6 Percik October 2005
  8. 8. I N T E RV I E W Chairman of CFCD, Thendri Supriatno Synergy for Community Empowerment That is what we call social investment. It might be only few who know of a forum of business companies in Indonesia Imagine we are producing dangerous that dedicates itself to community empowerment. The forum is called Corporate product, and there is a case where we Forum for Community Development (CFCD). Established on 24 September 2004, face a trial before the court, how much the forum membership consists of big companies (mining, oil and gas, estate will it cost to the company? This does plantation, steel industry, fertilizers, consulting firm, forestry, paper industry, food, telecommunication, and cross sectoral). The vision of this forum is corpo- not count closure of the company and rate social responsibilty in community empowerment and sustainable corporate face a public court. Currently the awa- growth. The misson is to act as a multistakeholder network centre and the fore- reness of community civil rights is gro- most CSR/CD learning centre. wing. In Indonesian context, in the era This forum has a big potential to go together with the government, central as of regional autonomy with human rights well as regional, to undertake community empowerment efforts. In order to reveal what swe mean by Community Social Responsibility Percik made an inter- issue and public education, legal reform, view with Thendri Supriatno, CFCD Chairman, last September. The following the all has increased the community aware- excerpts of the discussion: ness of the rights. Gone are the days of lying to public, cheating and non ethical SOURCE:MUJIYANTO business practices. That was the past. corporate social responsibility (CSR). The choice is within the changing envi- But CSR is not limited to this aspect, it ronment. If we do not change ourselves also includes for instance selling da- we will be crushed down because the ngerous products yet without polluting paradigm has also changed. Based on the environment. such consideration we establish among ourselves a Corporate Forum for Who are the targets of CSR pro- Community Development (CFCD). gramme? We are interested in how to coexist How much is the budget allo- with the community around us. In oil cated by the company? industry we have the so-called ring 1, In public companies there is the so- ring 2 and ring 3. If we cannot make called PKBL at 1,5 - 2,0 percent pur- harmony with ring 1, one cannot expect suant to SK 236. In private companies that we can do it with ring 2 and ring 3. this amount varies greatly because there Ring is the internal kabupaten where is no rule on that. Take Medco Energy the company is operating, ring 2 the for instance, during normal times it sets surrounding kabupatens, ring 3 up to aside 2 percent. But during the tsunamiC ould you briefly explain the di- fference between CorporateSocial Responsibility (CSR) and the province. This means, if the compa- ny has its activities in the region it must take into consideration the said three disaster it set aside up to Rp 18 billion. What does the company getCommunity Development (CD)? rings. from implementing CSR pro- CSR embraces a more extensive sco- gram?pe than community development bacau- What is the importance of CSR Actually there many things. Eachse CD is one aspect of CSR. Business to the company? company has a different intention fromcompanies undertake CD activities wi- There are many examples around us the other. But the benefit is that we canthin the framework of implementing its that CSR is beneficial to the company. exist together the community that even- Percik October 2005 7
  9. 9. I N T E RV I E Wtually creates a favourable atmosphere It is still below expectation, but the But in Riau, the governor understandsfor doing business. Once I was accused movement towards it is beginning. At fully the CFCD movement and willinglyof being ill-intentioned. A company can least there are several regional govern- supports it. The provincial officers andlegimately obtain coexistence with the ments that begin to build contacts with CFCD representatives do sit together incommunity. Some company puts it as us. The best thing to do is for the head a team for poverty alleviation and othersupreme intention, i.e. seeking Gods of administration, the governor, to take programmes. Indeed the outcome isfavour. Some disburse it as zakat a serious attention about this matter. If still yet to be seen. But the effort(tithe). We take it from the earth, there- they couldcreate a favourable business towards that direction is indeed begin-fore we have to return it to the commu- climate the friction with the community ning. Therefore I often call upon ournity. Some merely for the sake safe- can be brought to a minimum. The im- colleagues, if some regional governmentguarding against nuisance. Motivation pact is, regional revenue increases. This may have no budget for its staff todoes vary widely. At least the company is a sample of supreme government attend a particular CSR training, whybecomes safe. Good image. That is the intention. The next intention is com- not help them. We hope that a betterimplication and not the objective. If a munity development because the gover- understanding is growing so that thecompany has a good image it has no nor must realize that he will not be able government officers will better under-friction with the community, and as a to do it alone because of budget limita- stand and therefore we can speak thegood company, wouldnt investors take tion. That is why, let us cooperate, try same language. Some regions thata look at it? The investors would not be which one is more effective. attended the training said that inwilling to invest in a risky company. So, essence there is no difference, what isthe other objective is to build investrors With the misunderstanding different is the funding source. CFCDconfidence, especially for public compa- from some companies about CSR follows a tripartite concept. How tonies. For non public companies, this is programme, what has been (will work in synergy among the government,to safeguard its shareholder value. be) done to straighten it out? corporation and the community. With the varied understanding, se- What is (are) the consequen- veral colleagues from other companies How to develop synergy direct-ce(s) for companies not conduc- and myself are taking a community ly with the community?ting CSR? development course in University of To be honest, the community has There are many cases where compa- Indonesia to establish a group. That is been mistakenly educated. Sometimesnies not willing to do this are suffering CFCD. From there we conduct training the corporate also makes a wrong move,from losses. For example, an unnamed from a simple one up to conflict resolu- giving fish rather than teach them topaper industry, was experiencing a na- tion in a company. Then we will share fish. This is what we call Santa Clausgging problems that cost hundreds of the knowledge and experience to others. Syndrome. Eventually there is a backmillion dollars to resolve. But if the fire because of the mistake in education.AMDAL is implemented properly, How do you see the govern- And worse even, because there are manymeaning not polluting the environment, ment understanding about com- irresponsible persons, repeat offenders.it may have to spend 10 million dollars. munity development? It also frequently happens, that because Regional governments each have it is charity program, some individuals What is (are) the constraint(s) their own characteristics. Some region who call themselves community leadersin implementing CSR? has less disciplined officers or lack of make use of the situation. Besides, Not all companies are conducting it. understanding. What is meant by CD or charity will lead to dependency. The-Those conducting some are just for the what is CSR. Sometimes they come to a refore, the community must be involvedsake of courtesy, not looking it as some- company only for collecting CD budget early on since the planning stage.thing beneficial. Some consider that un- for them to manage. In this case this isdertaking CD is only for image building. not a corporate CD and certainly will not What do you expect the govern-This is because of lack awareness and un- achieve its purpose. Let the community ment should do to make CSR pro-derstanding. Among the various com- know that this activity is initiated by the gramme successful?panies CSR understanding vary widely. corporation. No self contemptuous is There must be a change in mindset. intended. But this is our form of care. Give a more favourable atmosphere, How far is the synergy between As for the government, it is their job better regulation, and act as a fair regu-CSR and government program- because we pay taxes, and so forth. lator. The government must educate themes? There is still this kind of understanding. public together with us. (mujiyanto) 8 Percik October 2005
  10. 10. R E P O RTA G E Green City Green Community An Urge to Care to Waste SOURCE:MUJIYANTOA middle aged lady parked her fi- ne car exactly in front of a tent bearing a banner that reads"Green City, Green Community". A pileof bundled old newspapers was carriedout of her car. An officer from the tentcame out to lend a hand. One by one thebundle was weighed using a scale tied toa tree branch. "Is the voucher the same as usual,"asked the lady. "I am sorry to say, it haschanged maam. Since 13 July the vo-ucher has been increased to 50 kgs. Not10 kgs as it was before," said the officer. "In that case, I wont give it to you.Id rather sell it to a scavenger," said thelady. At last the pile is reloaded to her car.And off she went in her nicely polishedcar. This attitude may represent Jakartacitizens. Everything is valued in termsof money regardless it is for the sake of said Ujang Nugraha, JFDI corporate focusing on Jakarta scavengers deve-common interest. "Indication of care to secretary, in Jakarta last August. lopment), Carrefour, and Unilever (pro-fellow citizens is still way from expecta- GCGC came into being as a form the ducer of Lifebuoy).tion. What is obvious is business sig- radio networks concern about the There are two main activities in thisnal," said Anom who monitors the amount of garbage that is continuously program. First, off air by stimulatingGreen City Green Community (GCGC) increasing and garbage handling ma- the community to directly participate inprogramme at Carrefour Lebakbulus, nagement is still much to be desired. collecting inorganic waste at certainsite of the scene. More than that, community care to se- locations. Second, on air through talk What has happened is in obvious parate domestic waste materials is still show about waste material invitingcontrast to the expectation of the pro- wanting. What happens is still far competent resource persons in thisgramme designer. This programme behind that in other countries. "This is field.which was initiated by Delta Female a complex problem involving a multi- The programme which started on 16Indonesia Netwok (JFDI) -a radio com- tude of sectors. We also want this to be June made available a garbage bin eachmunication nework- expects GCGC overcome, therefore we try to take a role in all Carrefour compunds in Jakartacould improve community care, espe- to play and at the same time invite the (Lebak Bulus, MT Haryono, Dutacially the upper middle class, about interested parties to get involved," Merlin, Cempaka Putih, Puri Mall, andwaste material. Especially so, consider- Udjang further explains. Mega Mall Pluit). Next to the garbageing daily garbage production in Jakarta The parties involved in this pro- bin, a 2x2 m2 tent is erected in the par-is 7 thousand tons. "We hope this pro- gramme are JDFI, Dinas Kebersihan king area and is attended by two offi-gramme would produce a snowball Jakarta, InSWA (Association of Waste cers. Garbage collection is done everyeffect for garbage handling manage- Material Indonesia), Ministry of En- Wednesday and Saturday from 10.00 toment in Indonesia, especially Jakarta," vironment (KLH), Yayasan Kirai (NGO 16.00 hours. In the afternoon the Percik October 2005 9
  11. 11. R E P O RTA G Egarbage is transported to the scavengers community care, this programme iscentre. The waste material is not considered futile, but from the objectivedumped to Final Disposal Site, rather it aspect this is well targeted. Accordingis brought to scavengers for them to to him, educational level highly deter- Based on anmake benefit from. "This is a reduce mines level of care.effort since the very beginning," said evaluation, admittedly Roesdan Sjah Alam Perdana, GCGCAnom. or not, the awareness Chief Officer, considers a positive impli- In the beginning of the programme, of upper middle class cation has been revealed by this activity,one who brought in 10 kgs of waste was is still in a low that cooperation among the involvedgiven Rp 10 thousand shopping voucher position. What parties. "In the beginning the coopera-from Carrefour and 3 pieces of Lifebouy tion was quite difficult to build. Now becomes obvious is ansoap. Since the launching of the pro- the communication is flowing smoothlygramme the amount of garbage coming indication of strong and intensively," said he further.in was steadily increasing. The peak business motive Besides, the care of those who werewas in 9 July when the total waste involved in this attempt is also incre-reached 6,815 tons from 101 members of asing.the community. The daily average was What becomes certain is, the activi-3,732 tons. Most of the waste is in the ties that was initially to last for threeform of paper. JDFI radio. Some exemplary partici- months is now extended up to the end of Somehow the amount was then pants are there, however, those who the year. This is because the sponsorsdecreasing. This was because on 13 July deliberately come to dispatch their consider this program should be conti-the ceiling was changed from 10 kgs to garbage without expecting any incentive nued in order to improve community50 kgs of waste. From that day the and refuse to accept the voucher. They, care to waste material. And, not theamount collected went down to 1,767 according to Anom, are very few in least important, this program has built atons a day on average. The number of number and mostly students. good image to the involved parties,participants was also decreasing from a Therefore, from the aspect building especially the sponsors. (mujiyanto)daily average of 53 to 34. SOURCE:MUJIYANTO The ceiling increase, according toUdjang, was intended to measure thecommunity awareness. Whether theybring their garbage to the bins becausethey care or because of some other rea-son. Based on an evaluation, admittedlyor not, the awareness of upper middleclass is still in a low position. Whatbecomes obvious is an indication ofstrong business motive. The facts re-vealed by Anom explain the phenome-non. Several times it was found someonewho tried to cheat the weighing. Anomtold a story that he found a used watercontainer filled with water, a rockwrapped in rag, and inserting engineblock into the garbage. "This indeedmakes no sense," he said. Roughly speaking, the charactrisicof the participants are upper middleclass families who have a car and cameto know about the programme from10 Percik October 2005
  12. 12. A RT I C L E An Ideal Type of Community Based WSS Development is There on the Shore of Lake LimbotoT he village of Dembe I is a settle- lowish coloured, smelly and bacteria By: Alma Arief *) ment located along the shore of containing water from Lake Limboto. It Lake Limboto. At a glance this is said, according to participants of avillage is similar to other villages else- the sense that it is capable of solving its discussion, the inhabitants were infes-where. Friendly, highly religious and water supply problem and capable of ted with skin disease, and many diar-socially cohesive people, quite respon- maintaining facility properly in the rhoeal cases, and other water borne di-sive to any foreigner looking for help. midst of scores WSS projects of the past seases. While those who live in the up-There is a mosque in this village indica- (built and funded by the government in per section, on the mountain slopes,ting the religiosity and a school orga- 1995/6) are currently standing as mo- find it difficult to dig a well becausenized by Muhammadiyah identifying numents. water table is too deep, 30 metres andthat the people are followers of modern deper.Islam teaching. Taking the above apprehension as On 18 August 2005 the Governor of point of departure, Umar Latif who wasGorontalo, Ir Hj. Fadel Muhammad, Microbiological then the secretary of LKMD (village re-accompanied by Chairman of Bappeda, examination silience council) and presently Muham-and officials from 4 kabupatens and conducted by madiyah orgnization held a discussionkota (municipality), led a group of with his neighbours to identify the pro-Bappenas officials (WSS Working Health Agency blems and to find the possible way out.Group Jakarta) to this village. He wan- indicates that It came to a conclusion to find a cleanted to show to the road show partici- water from the water source, which was actually not toopants of no leass than 30 people that difficult. Somewhere around 2,5 kmGorontalo has a WSS development wells in Dembe from the village mosque there is a watermodel that conforms to the national po- does not meet source located at Gunung Batu Didia.licy. The governor said that: "…..Dembe health One with sufficiently big dischargewill be made a model for community capacity, though Umar cannot expressbased WSS development throughout requirement how big it is. He only says that the noiseGorontalo." What the complete story of water splash can be heard from thelooks like a paper written on the basis of distance of 50 m.historic time lines method will reveal it. In 1998 he and his friends conduc- In the past Dembe was also encum- ted more intensified meeting to make aFormerly having shortage of clean bered with water supply problems. planning. This planning involved otherwater supply Prior to 1999, Dembe community used elements of the community: village ad- In the midst of WSS development well water for their daily need, in spite ministration, community leaders, reli-problems faced by Gorontalo and other of its inferior quality. Microbiological gious leaders, youth leader, business-regions in Indonesia, the village of examination conducted by Health men, and fishermen of Lake Limboto,Dembe springs up with its specific uni- Agency indicates that water from the women representatives. It was conclu-queness and superiority, though some wells in Dembe does not meet health re- ded from the meetings to lay down aother viallges may have something com- quirement. The wells have been pol- water supply facility using bamboo asparable. Dembe is highly self reliant, in luted from intrusion of murky and yel- conveyance. Percik October 2005 11
  13. 13. A RT I C L E SOURCE:OSWAR MUNGKASA With a capital of 650 bamboo rodsdonated by Jafar Sulaiman, the com-munity worked out constructing a con-veyance line down to the foot of the fort(Otanaha Fort). At this place a reservoirwas built and it is still standing up tonow. The bamboo conveyance line wasfunctioning since 1998 and is used by150 families. Bamboo construction was only theinitiation of a bteer construction thatfollowed. This was only to show thatthey have done something, and theywere now confident enough to build abetter quality water supply piping sys-tem covering a larger segment of thecommunity. In the meetings that fol-lowed it was concluded to submit a pro-posal for construction of a water supplysystem to the Mayor. The proposal wassubmitted in 2000 and was approved in2001. The village was given a subsidy ofRp 200 million for the piped water sup-ply system construction.Operational Stage The construction was done by a con- At this moment there are still many Dembe familiestractor, the community contributed cannot subscribe to the established facility.labour for hauling materials. Those who They are requesting for services,worked as paid labourers were given but we have to consider the available capacitywage at a half rate of Rp 20.000 a day,the other half is considered as contribu-tion. In August 2002 the constructionworks started and was finished inOctober the same year. The new facility ment the community met to elect a used. Now that the flow meter was to bewas inaugurated by the Mayor and Drinking Water Management Com- affixed to all users. The tariff was set atChairman of DPRD in January 2003. mittee, this Committee was given train- Rp 800/m3 for home connection, and The new system serves 188 home ing by PDAM (Regional Utility/Water Rp 500/m3 for social service (less pri-connections or 2.850 pepople plus pu- Company). The training participants viledged families, mosque, school, etc.).blic hydrant users. Since there are still consisted of five members of the Com- This tariff level is half of the PDAM.many families cannot enjoy the service, mittee, three (3) in administrative and During the meetings there are prosmore hydrants were built for the benefit two (2) in technical matters. and cons, but the majority are willing toof the public, the poorer families, the Realizing that the facility will not obey. The cons claimed that the facilitymosque and the school. sustain unless there is a contribution was a contribution from the Mayor for For 23 months the community could the Committee chaired by Umar Latif the less previlleged families. Accordingenjoy water supply service for free. But invited all the users into a meeting. A to Umar Latif who currently is theit was later realized that the facility series of meetings held in the mosque Chairman of Muhammadiyah Youth ofneeds maintenance and repair, thus and the village hall cama to a conclusion Dembe, those who were in disagree-using without collecting any payment that each customer including the social ment and put the case as pretext are thewill led to disfunction if the facility is facility is levied with a payment in more prosperous members of the com-broken someday. To run the manage- accordance with the quantity of water munity. Quite amazing, indeed.12 Percik October 2005
  14. 14. A RT I C L EExpansion and Maintenance hydrant and a drum collector, in Sector ledged may make private arrangement At this moment there are still many I there are 15 families and are given one with the neighbour or use the public hy-Dembe families cannot subscribe to the hydrant. The other members of the drant. The principle is, the well to doestablished facility. They are requesting community particularly the less privi- help the poor. At this time there are ma-for services, but we have to consider the ny outstanding requests for new homeavailable capacity. Up to now, those connection, but we cannot comply withwho have no home connection may use the requests. At the most there are onlythe hydrants or make a private arrange- three additional home connections to bement with a neighbour to get water from The problem made.him. Some customer pays a monthly mostly comes from To make a home connection, in ac-contribution up to Rp 70.000, and when technical and cordance with the regulation as set forthasked why it was so high the owner said: environmental together, the user is charged with a total"…our neighbours living behind our aspects, also cost at Rp 480.000 of which Rphouse make connection from ours…." 150.000 is paid in advance. The balance social. As for When asked how many families have is payable in 10 installments. This flowno home connection, and how they get institutional and meter and other accessories we have towater service, Latif provides us with the financial related ask the services of PDAM, payable infollowing details: the village consists of problems they are installments.7 sectors. In Sector II there are 153 mostly not sofamilies without home connection, they prominent Problem and solutionhave got one hydrant, Sector III there Because of the requests for neware 9 families and they are given one home connections, Latif is contempla- SOURCE:WWES ting on building an additional facility from a different water source. But this is still in mind considering the high costs involved. Up to now, the money collected from monthly dues is still used for the repayment of the water flow meters. The Committee members work vo- luntarily without salary. They may re- ceive some payment when they do some real job such as fixing a breakdown. And the amount is quite meager. If the- re is a breakdown, the community wo- uld lend their hands to fix it, and this happens quite often. To do this they may work all day, and they only get a lit- tle pocket money. For youth (5 repre- sentatives were present in the discussi- on) the pocket money is Rp 20.000 and for the Committee members Rp 60.000. The problem mostly comes from technical and environmental aspects, al- so social. As for institutional and finan- cial related problems they are mostly not so prominent. From the technical aspect there are two things frequently occur, they are broken pipe because of excessive water Percik October 2005 13
  15. 15. A RT I C L E SOURCE:WWESpressure and the shifting of waterspring. When asked why they do not fixa pressure release, Latif only said thatthey have failed to affix an automaticpressure release. While the shifting ofwater spring also happens frequently.When it happened the community wo-uld gather to fix it together, expand thewater capture structure. Several timeswater spring moves out of the existingwater capture structure. Basically the socially related pro-blem can be resolved internally. Forexample, refusal to pay contributionwhich was brought up into the meetingwas later resolved, and also a customerwho refused to have a flow meter affixedto his home connection. This customerdeliberately broke the device, but imme-diately the Committee responded byclosing down the service to his dwelling,and for days he did not have water ser-vice. Finally the customer, who hap-pens to be a government employee, water use for unintended purpose (fish 3. Being rich is no guarantee that hecame to the Committee crying for his re- pond), and so on that the community at submits to a payment system and apentance. The Committee forgave him the tail end got no water and refused to poor does not always mean he isand his connection was resumed. pay. This was then followed by the unable to pay. The strict action taken by Dembe other, and finally all the payment sys- 4. Documentation of activities includesCommittee against disobedience of a tem came to disorder. proper financial recording.commonly agreed regulation is a must As far as institutional aspect is con- 5. Strict Committee action against diso-otherwise it will lead to other disobedi- cerned everything seems to run well. bedience to regulation is a mustences such as paying contribution, using The committee consists of 12 members otherwise it will lead to further diso-water as one likes, etc. Several cases of which five of them run the day to day bediences.such as in Talumelito, Lonuo (Goron- activities. Contribution runs relatively 6. Technical and environmental difficul-talo) and Banyu Mudal (Kebumen) indi- smoothly and is well recorded in the ties should be anticipated early on,cate that service failure and facility dis- Committee office. The office was for- and preventive models must be inte-function start from disobedience that is merly a storage house owned by the vil- grated in facility construction, such asnot promptly and properly handled by lage administration. shifting of the water spring, releasethe respective committee. valves, etc. The villages of Lonuo and Talu- Lessons learned 7. Regeneration of committee officersmelito in an evaluation conducted by UI There are several lessons learned and upholding of regulation must beResearch Centre and the World Bank in from the Dembe WSS development: inherited. The Committee has been1998 were considered as two of the best 1. The community as well as the govern- involving the younger generations (5four villages in facility management. ment are in agreement in the applicati- high school graduates) to be includedThis is based on well kept record keep- on of demand responsiveness approach. in the team.ing and well functioning water users Community participation is invited inmanagement committee (UPS and 2. all phases of the process beginning *) -Active in Water and Sanitation PolicyKPS). from concept formulation, planning, and Action Planning Project at Gorontalo Peresently the facility in these two implementation of pilot project, pro- -Researcher at Center forvillages is not functioning any more, it posal submission, facility construc- Science and Technology, University of Indonesiabegan with disobedience such tapping, tion and management.14 Percik October 2005
  16. 16. A RT I C L E Regional Waste Management, Why Not?M an for his lifetime is always By: Muhamad Zainal Arifin*) tion is, when will this land condemna- followed by waste problem. tion for city waste dumping ground of Waste problem is actually struction, the TPA was designed for 16 Surabaya come to an end? Is there nopart of life consequences because each years of effective use at a maximum pile better and elegant solution to this wasteactivity produces waste or garbage. The height of 32 metres (Kompas Jatim 15 problem?fall of a mountain of garbage at TPA (Fi- March 2005). Waste material problem does notnal Disposal Site) Leuwigajah taking the Looking at the apprehensive situa- only relate to TPA. Waste managementlives of 140 people is one of the most tion related to waste management, the system involves a multitude of stake-tragic disasters in the history of a city step taken by Kabupaten Sidoarjo holders. It includes garbage producer,waste management. It is not only in administration is apparently similar to management, policy maker, informalBandung, but waste management in that of Surabaya city, i.e. adding new sector, scavengers, and the communitymany cities is also in critical condition. land space. According to Hariadi subject to management impact. Kompas Jatim of 14 July 2005 wrote Purwantoro, Head of Dinas Kebesihan Consequently, the solution calls for anthat domestic waste management in the and Pertamanan, Kabupaten Sidoarjo is involvement of the related stakeholderscity of Sidoarjo is in a critical condition. currently preparing 2 ha new land at and applying a variety of differentCurrently TPA at Tambak Kalisogo Kupang village to replace the present approaches.which started operation in 2002 has TPA (Kompas Jatim 14 July 2005). Additionally, waste material is alsoexceeded its initial capacity. Garbage is Surabaya city administration does connected to different aspects, political,now piling as high as 7 m or 70.000 cu. not want to be left behind. A plan has social, economical, cultural, and envi-m. whereas the fence is built only 4 m been set to enlarge TPA Benowo to 140 ronmental. We have to admit that inhigh. Only 60 percent of total Sidoarjo ha from currently 26 ha. Then the ques- many places garbage is not treatedwaste is dumped in this TPA. The daily SOURCE:WWESwaste material production is 3.677 m3only 2.200 m3 is dumped to TPAs ofKalisogo and Barengkrajang each has 2ha surface area. The condition of TPA Benowo of Su-rabaya is also equally apprehensive. Aland area of 26 ha is designed to last for16 years and at current pile of 20 m highit is estimated to last only up to 2008.According to the record in DinasKebersihan of the city of Surabaya, theaverage waste dumped to TPA Benowois 6.000 m3 daily. With 6.000 m3 dum-ped into the area the height rises by 2,3cm a day. In a month it raises to 69 cmor 8,28 m a year. With an averageshrinking rate of 25percent the yearlyheight increase is 6,21 m. This means in16 years it will reach the height of 99,6metres. Whereas, according to Wahyo-no Hadi of ITS Surabaya, Leader of Con-sultant Team for the TPA Benowo con- Percik October 2005 15
  17. 17. A RT I C L E SOURCE:WWESexhaustively, it consists merely of co-llecting, transport, dump, merely forsake of removal for ones immediatesurrounding. Management disorderarises as a consequence of an accumula-tion of prolonged destructive steps,beginning from choice of technology,incomptetent operation, city manage-ment misunderstading, till communitycarelessness to material problem. Therefore, waste management ofplaces like Surabaya and other cities inIndonesia, the only way out is usingregional approach. With the stipulationof regional autonomy does not meanthat one particular region does no careabout the problem of others. Severalregions must collectively take care oftheir common problem, such as wastematerial. Waste material management basi-cally knows no administative boundary,sector nor department. In an absence of To unify of the visions and missions ofcooperation amongst municipality- the involved parties, the establishmentkabupaten-province that are actually With the stipulation of of a National Body for Wasteinterdependent and influence each regional autonomy it does Management is a pressing requirement.other, waste material problems become not mean that one particu- It is expected this Body will act asmore and more complex along with the lar region does no care policy maker in anyting related to wasteincrease of population. And besides management. The task of thi Bdy is to about the problem ofwith cooperation the burden of manage- coordinate through integration of thement costs will become lesser for each of others. Several regions interests of the various different sectors,the parties involved. must collectively take care areas, agencies, community and stake- To support regional waste material of their common problem, holders related to waste management.management, there are several steps to such as waste material It is expected that this National Bodytaken into consideration. First, the li- will be able to formulate a more inte-gislature needs to develop a Waste grated policy and strategy for wasteMaterial Law. With the Law as a legal ment is under way. With the establish- material management in Indonesia.umbrella it is expected that the manage- ment of Jabodetabek Waste In other countries formation ofment will be viewed from a holistic Management Corporation (JWMC) a waste maerial management body hasapproach. Without a legal umbrella the new cooperation era in regionally been done long time ago. In themanagement will always be based on aproached waste management is begin- Philippines for instance, A Nationalpartial aproach and a reactive underta- ning. Wth the rising trend such as Committee for Waste Management wasking. JWMC there is a need for a national pol- established by ther Presidential Office. An absence of a national legal icy to embrace all the intr- The members of the Committee consistumbrella may, additionally, trigger con- kabupaten/kota and inter provincial of 14 government representatives, and 3flict of interests between two or more intersts in the context of cooperation in private sector is chaired by Minister ofregions in waste management. At the waste management. Environment and Natural Resources.regional level such as Jakarta, Bogor, Second step is formation of body or In Canada there is also FederalDepok, Tangerang and Bekasi instituion with national authority in Committee on Environmental Mana-(Jabodetabek) a collaborative waste connection with waste management and gement System (FCOMS) one of itsmaterial management system develop- is directly responsible to the President. tasks is waste management policy.16 Percik October 2005
  18. 18. A RT I C L E SOURCE:WWES The third step, is waste managementprivatization. It has been a public secretthat the government is incapable of han-dling garbage problem. Whereas if wesee it from business angle, waste ma-nagement is actually a promising busi-ness. Take Jakarta as an example, thedaily waste production is 6.000 m3, andis dumped to 108 ha TPA BantarGebang in Bekasi. Besides causing anumber of problems, the sea of garbageis at the same a sea of blessing for thescavengers, and currently also a pro-mising business for mwaste manage-ment enterprise. The profir collected byPT Wira Guna Sarana (WGS) with acapacity at 2.000 tons of waste daily at aprocessing caost of Rp 53,000/tonequals to Rp 106 million/day. Therefore, in order to preventwastes produced in the regions frombeing a useless waste and only to causedisaster, we need to contemplate an example in Monterey an area in Mexicointergrated waste management system. has transformed a sea of garbage intoThe system must be effective, efficient, blessing. In the area, an institutionand reliable using an environmentally Many countries have called Simeprodeo has managed to con-friendly technology. The system must privatized waste vert waste material into power for onebe able to serve the entire community management. Private third of the street lighting. At an invest-and provide the opporunity fotr the sector involvement in ment of USD 11 million the profit gainedpriveate sector to participate. Commu- reaches USD2 million per annum management andnity empowerment that enables them to (Kompas, 18 May 2005).separate, which is organic waste whih is financing will create a For some extent the Dinas Kebersihaninorganic is key to success in integrated better performance in Surabaya has actually implemented priva-waste material management. waste management tization of waste management. A Rp 4,1 In an integrated hi-tech waste ma- billion contract is awarded to a privatenagement the role of private sector is company to carry out street and garbagehighly necessary. There are several cleaning operation. Again however, theunderlying reasons why private sector step taken by the Dinas Kebersihan goesinvolvement must be put forward in government in infrastructure develop- back to implementation of collecing,waste management. First, government ment. transport and dumping philosophy. Theorganization is too fat that makes it too Private sector involvement in waste paradigm is "provided it is away from ourlazy to deal directly with waste pro- management is believed to create a direct eyesight" then the waste materialblems. Second, privatization is to return more efficient government, because pri- problem is considered solved.the true role of the government as state vate companies use business reference We hope that with a regional wastecontroller rather than implementer. in management and can be focused in management in the future IndonesiaThird, privatization will benefit the con- the solution of inferior performance and will be free from garbage problem.sumers of stakeholders because the pri- low productivity. Many countries have Finally, regional waste management,vate sector implemnts an incentive privatized waste management. Private why not?!mechanism. Fourth, privatization sti- sector involvement in management and * Student of Law Departement,mulates competence thus leads to effi- financing will create a better perfor- Airlangga University 1st winner PPRI LIPI 2003ciency. Fifth, privatization will help the mance in waste management. As an (Pemilihan Peneliti Remaja Indonesia) Percik Oktober 2005 17

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