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Published by water and sanitation working group. First edition on August 2003

Published by water and sanitation working group. First edition on August 2003

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  • 1. Surabaya Green and Clean: Toward Healthy Surabaya City Edition IV, 2010 Information Media of Water Supply and Environmental Sanitation Habitat Day Toward better City and Better Life
  • 2. Information Media on Water Supply and Environmental Sanitation Table of Published by: ContentsWater Supply and Environmental Sanitation Working Group (WSES Working Group) From the Editor ………………………………………………………………………….................... 3 Your Voice ………………………………………………………………….……………...................... 4 Main Report Responsible Person World Habitat Day 2010 Toward Better City and Life ………………………........ 5Housing and Settlement Director of Bappenas World Habitat Day, Increasing Concern on Urbanization Challenges …..…. 9 Environmental Sanitation Director of the Habitat, Day, Water and Sanitation ...………………………………………............. 11 Health Ministry Habitat National Secretariat of Indonesia …………………………………............ 13 Water Supply Development Director of the Regulation Public Work Ministry Agenda 21 ……………………………….………………………………….......................... 15Natural Resources Improvement and Efficient Habitat Agenda ……………………………………………………………......................... 17 Technology Director of Domestic Affair Lesson Ministry Surabaya Green and Clean: Toward Healthy Surabaya City ………….…............. 19 Director of Spatial and Environmental Facili- Testimony tation of the Domestic Affair Ministry dr. M. Basyir Ahmad, Pekalongan Mayor. House is Human Right ………... 22 Different Side Head of editorial staff 1,2 billion World Population are living in Unsuitable Settlements ……….. 24 Oswar Mungkasa Discourse Right to Water and Housing (second paper – finished) ……………………..... 30 Editorial Staff Interview Maraita Listyasari Suharso Monoarfa, Public Housing Minister ...........................................…..... 30 Innovation Managing Editor Clearing Water With Moringa Leaves Seed ………………………..……............. 32 Eko Budi Harsono Turning Air into Water ……………………………………..……………....................... 4 3 Reportage Design and Production 15 Asia Pacific Journalists Visited Tambora Slump Area ……………….......... 6 3 Agus Sumarno 2010 Sanitation Jamboree, Sanitation Ambassador Met Sofyar with the Vice President …………………………………………………………………....... 38 Youth Urban Forum, Youth Involvement in Urban Development……….... 40 Circulation/Secretariat Book Launching and Review in the Main Event of Agus Syuhada 2010 World Habitat Day ………………………………………………........................ 43 Nur Aini 2010 UNICEF WES Program National Coordination Meetin …………......... 45 WSES Development Evaluation and Planning for the year 2010-2011 ... 46 Editorial Address Workshop of Banten Province WSES Development Synergy …………....... 47 Jl. RP Soeroso 50, Central Jakarta, Guidance Ph/Fax: (021) 31904113 Toilet Alternatives as Options …………………………………………….................... 8 4 Website: http//www.ampl.or.id Books Info ….……………………………………………………………………..…...................... 50 e-mail: redaksipercik@yahoo.com CD Info … ….…………………………………………………………………………........................ 52 redaksi@ampl.or.id Website Info ………………………………………………………………………..…..................... 54 WESE Literatures …………………………………………………………………..….................... 5 5 Editors accept external papers/article Factsconcerning water supply and environmental Why is Toilet in Your House Must Be Healthy? ……………..…………..................... 56 sanitation. Climate Change and Cities ……………………………………………….............................. 59
  • 3. From the Edisi IV, 2010 EditorI t has become a routine since 1986 that every infrastructures, facilities and utility (PSU). Partial first Sunday of October is commemorated handling will not result in maximum result. This is all around the world as Habitat Day. This the message to be conveyed through Habitat Day year, Habitat Day has fallen on 4 October commemoration for the past 10 years. 2010 with theme of toward better city and In the spirit of integration, this edition of Percikbetter life. Habitat Day is often commemorated in has raised the theme of Habitat Day in the hope thatIndonesia, however misguided still occurs where future housing and settlement developments can behabitat day commemoration is considered to be only more integrated; not only in concept, but also in thefor the settlement development stakeholders. This implementation on the field. Hopefully.is actually inappropriate considering close relation The year 2010 will soon be behind us, webetween housing and settlement (water supply and certainly welcome year 2011 with new ideas, targets,environmental sanitation). It has been proven for and hopes. The same goes for us in Percik editorialexample, from the theme of 2003 Habitat Day staff and supporter. Hopefully Percik will continuewhich was Water and Sanitation for Cities. to be published with brilliant theme and able to Integration between WSES development and satisfy reader’s expectation. Therefore, we are stillsettlement is a necessity, especially with regard to opening our door for theme proposal to be includedcity development. As we all know, slump areas have in the year 2011. With that reason, relation betweenbecome the ‘trade mark’ of almost every city, thus us is more than just reader and editor, but morethe management has become common agenda of than that. We have always tried to make Percik toall cities. Slump areas problems are mainly adjacent be an interactive communication media amongto house and environment quality along with stakeholders. Let’s realize this hope together. (OM) POKJA 3
  • 4. Your Voice ronmental Sanitation Working Group. Plant Trees Ennoble But, for the past couple of months we no longer acquire the magazine. Water I got the latest Percik Magazine in- I am concern about the vanishing advertently from one of my friends in forests in this country due to illegalPercik Appearance logging. Natural disaster will occur Lebak Kabupaten Health Agency dur-continues to be better ing my visit to the agency. I finally bor- during the rainy season, and drought My name is Wardi, water supply rowed the magazine to be copied for will occur during the dry season. Thisand environmental sanitation ob- our library. may actually prevented if we care forserver. I live at Pasar Minggu, Jakarta To Percik editors, we are hoping the forest and ennoble water.Selatan. I’m a loyal reader of Percik to get this magazine regularly. If fee Natural disaster in this countryMagazine since I first got the maga- is needed, I’m happy to subscribe. should be a warning for us to care andzine back when I was still working at Thank you for your kind attention. pay more attention to nature. GrowingRegional Development Management Sukemi number of illegal logging have causedDirectorate General of the Domestic Kampung Rukun Rt06/Rw07 landslides because the rain water can-Affair Department in 2004. Desa Bojongsari Serang, Banten not be adsorbed by the forest, I would like to thank managers Without water we will not survive,of Percik Magazine for the informa- Thank you for your attention and thus, let’s ennoble water such as wetion and valuable lessons that I have for being loyal reader of Percik. Your ennoble ourselves. Rain water shouldgot with regard to Water Supply and name and address have been submit- acquire its rightful place. Let’s plantEnvironmental Sanitation. I am im- ted as regular reader. We will send the trees that can adsorb water, so we arepressed with the new appearance of magazine to you regularly. Hope you not lacking of water. If the rain waterPercik Magazine with better design. enjoy the magazine.The content of this magazine can be is being adsorbed, our homes will becompared to commercial magazine in save from flood and other natural di-the level of Tempo Magazine. Water is a Gift saster. I hope, Percik Magazine may con- We have started to find difficulty Ahmad Riyadi Umartinue to exist in providing numbers in acquiring water supply, especially Bojonegoro, Jawa Timurof information and lesson as well as during the drought season. Withoutcommunity empowerment in WSES us knowing, water is turning into lux- Don’t Use Watersector. Bravo Percik Magazine. ury good, whereas we will have diffi- Excessively Mawardi culties in acquiring them because it is The benefit of water as life support Kalibata Tengah Pasar Minggu getting scarce or expensive. must be well managed in the use. Its Jakarta Selatan We can already see the symptoms existence as God’s gift must be recog- of water as luxury good. One is the nize and utilized maximally. The grate- Thank you very much for your kind loss of ground water recharge due to fulness should not only come out ofattention and appreciation to Percik deforestation, worsened by narrow- our mouth, but should also come outmagazine. We will keep trying to en- ing river area as water reserve due to through series of actions or wise andhance and improve information quality change of use into settlement. just attitude toward water utilization,and magazine appearance so it may be Two, water contamination that in accordance with the requirementwell accepted by the people. Hopefully was not seriously handled. The con- standard.this magazine will continue to exist and taminants are certainly the main As we know, water is un-renew-provide the best information. cause of inconsumable water. Three, able natural resources. Effective and water privatization. Water that govern efficient use is greatly important inSubscription to the lives of many is owned only by cer- anticipating excessive water use.Percik Magazine tain groups that can manipulate water The excessive attitude is also forbid It has been almost one year since management. Everyone have right to by religion because it is belong in themy friends and I, Environment and water. By privatization, not everyone’s category of “isyraf”. Especially becauseCommunity Empowerment activists of right to water is recognized. water is certainly includes the lives ofPelangi Dunia at Sungai Ciujung, Ban- Therefore, from now on, water many, and environment in general.ten acquired Yunior Percik and Percik management must be fixed. Don’t let Thus, management tool for the peoplemagazine from our friends from Ban- it become disaster, but a gift. in proper use of water is required. ten Province Water Sup- Thomas Sutasman Muhammad Erfan ply and Envi- Cilacap, Jawa Tengah Ciputat, Tangerang 4
  • 5. Main Report 2010 World Habitat Day Toward Better City and Better lifeH ISTIMEWA abitat is a crucial mitment to implement the agreed Day is also one of the methods to issue to be re- Global Act Plan. Several activities in remind world population about the garded by many relation to the Habitat Agenda have phenomena and challenges of the parties due to its been actively followed by the gov- urban people. relation with the ernment, such as Habitat5+ in New One of the world challenges todayfulfillment efforts of people’s pros- York on 2001 and biannual meeting is rapid growing of urban areas (cities).perity. In dealing with habitat-relat- of Governing Council of UN Habi- If before, vast majority of the worlded issues, countries in the world have tat in Nairobi. Prof. Johan Silas as population are living in the rural ar-showed their concern commitment KIP (Kampong Improvement Pro- eas, today, over half of world popula-through several agreements namely gram) initiator has received Habitat tion are living in the urban areas and1976 Vancouver Declaration and Scroll of Honours for his commit- this number is estimated to increaseHabitat Agenda that was established ment and dedication for settlement into two-third by 2030. With the lim-in Istanbul, Turk in 1996. development, especially for poor ited resources management capacity The Habitat Agenda that was people. in the city, many negative impacts willsigned by 171 countries (includ- The content of Vancouver Dec- arise, from growing problem of theing Indonesia) contains more than laration and Habitat Agenda is the lack of proper settlement, grow-100 commitments and 600 recom- message to be conveyed to people ing slump areas, pollution, traf-mendations. Every country that has through annual commemoration of fic jams, social gaps,signed the Habitat Agenda has com- World Habitat Day. World Habitat etc. 5
  • 6. Main Report ized at Cengkareng flats, Jakarta and (5) Improving cultural involvement. Data and Facts of the theme was selected to remain The above steps are expected to act Urban Areas: people about Millennium Develop- as important catalyst in realizing n Fifty percent of world population is ment Goals that were launched five better life for all. currently living in the city years before. World Habitat Day commemo- n Three billion of world population is living in the city. 1 billion of which By rising the theme of “Better ration this year, such as the years is living in slump areas. In Sub- City, Better Life” for 2010, this before, was held jointly by Public Sahara Africa area, 70% of the city population is living in slump areas. year’s commemoration tries to em- Housing Ministry and Public Work n In 2005, there is 1,4 billion more people in the cities compare to year phasize on the importance of city Ministry. In the press conference 1980. quality in supporting better life, of 2010 World Habitat Day that n Urbanization is found more in developing countries. In contrary, that will encourage opportunities fell on Monday, 4 October 2010, Europe countries are experiencing and potencies, reducing gap, and Public Housing Minister, Suharso decline due to the advance transportation and communication providing proper settlement for all Monoarfa has stated that livable that has reduced population layers of community. house is an issue of Human Right concentration in one place. In the global message of UN that requires special attention from Sumber:The State of the World Atlas Habitat presented by Inga Björk- the government and better settle- Klevby (Assistant Secretary-General ment is collective responsibility for of the United Nations and Deputy the future. This statement is in line Toward Better Executive Director, UN-HABI- with the mission of Habitat Agenda, City and Better Life TAT), it was said that for better liv- which is proper settlement for all This year, in relation to World ing, smarter city is required. Inga and sustainable urbanization.Habitat Day Commemoration, said, only smart cities can provideIndonesia has resume participa- their citizens with better life. In 2010 World Habitat Daytion such as prior years. In 2008, order to accomplish smarter city Activities in IndonesiaWorld Habitat Day commemora- for better life, there are five strate- In Indonesia, 2010 World Habi-tion was held at Bali and in 2009 gic steps that were encouraged by tat Day was commemorated for theat Palembang City. For global com- UN Habitat namely: (1) Improving purpose to increase concern of allmemoration, Indonesia has hosted a life quality, (2) Investing in human parties, namely central and local2005 World Habitat Day with The capital, (3) Encouraging sustain- governments, private sector, uni-Millennium Goals and the City as able public economy growth, (4) versities, and community. Anothertheme. That year, World Habitat Improving politic participation, and purpose is to encourage new think-Day commemoration was central- ing on current condition of settle- ment. Furthermore, 2010 World Habitat Day was commemorated to provide understanding to the people on housing and settlement issues as well as encouraging participation of housing and settlement stakehold- ers in activities to improve compre- hension of World Habitat Day and implementation of Habitat Agenda, especially among the youth because future responsibility of earth sus- tainability is on their hands. 6
  • 7. Edisi IV, 2010 KEMENPERA presented speakers among others are ex-Kimpraswil (Housing and Regional Infrastructure) Minister, Erna Witoelar, Urban Sociology Observer Imam B. Prasodjo, Head of Indonesia Planning Expert Asso- ciation (IAP), Iman Soedrajat, and also government representatives of Yogyakarta, Manado, and Palem- bang. With regard to sanitation, on 12- 16 October 2010, Cipta Karya Di- rectorate General held a Sanitation Jamboree at Wisma Hijau Cimanggis with the theme of “Concern of Sani- Public Housing Minister, Suharso Monoarfa (middle) and Public Work Minister, Djoko tation, Concern of Water Quality”. Kirmanto (right) together with the book writer of “Pestering Housing and Environmental Participants of Sanitation Jamboree Implementation Order”, Tjuk Kuswartojo. comprised of 128 students from 32 It is only appropriate that World by 2010 Habitat National Seminar provinces in Indonesia. In the open- Habitat Day commemoration was “Better City, Better Life” that was ing ceremony, Public Worl Minis- filled with Seminars and Workshops, held at Sultan Hotel, Jakarta on 30 ter Djoko Kirmanto revealed that Sanitation Jamboree, Book Launch- September 2010. Seminar with the Sanitation Jamboree is a national ing as the main event and also Youth theme of Management Concept of campaign that focused on children Urban Forum for the youth in ITS Sustainable and Humanist Urban as central point. They are expected Surabaya. Beside the above activities, Housing and Settlement discussed to be the agent of development in World Habitat Day was also intro- the city from the aspect of livable their own areas. As series of Sanita- duced to public through television, – namely the aspects of social, eco- tion Jamboree, a tour was held to radio, printed media, and internet. nomic, safety and environment. Lippo Karawaci Waste Water Treat- Series of 2010 World Habitat Seminar that was held by Public ment with participation of Elemen- Day Commemoration was initiated Housing Ministry Formal Deputy tary School students from schools in Cimanggis for the purpose of earlyNumbers of World Population who lives in the Cities, 1990-2030 (%) introduction to waste water treat- ment. Region 1990 2000 2009 2010* 2020* 2030* Meanwhile, on Sunday morn- World 42.6 46.4 50.1 50.5 54.4 59.0 ing, 17 October 2010, Habitat Fun Asia 31.5 36.8 41.7 42.2 47.2 52.9 Bike Activity was held. This activity Oceania/ 70.7 70.4 70.2 70.2 70.4 71.4 was led by Public Housing Minis- Pacific ter and followed by approximately Europe 69.8 70.8 72.5 72.8 75.4 78.4 150 participants, both from higher North America 75.4 79.1 81.9 82.1 84.6 86.7 level officials in the Ministry and Latin America 70.3 75.5 79.3 79.6 82.6 84.9 staffs of Public Housing and Africa 32.1 36.0 39.6 40.0 44.6 50.0 Public Work Ministries. This*Prediction, Source: UN casual biking was 7
  • 8. Main Reportstarted on 6.30 am (West Indonesia knowledge on settlement as the base classes in this workshop, which istime – WIB) taking the start from toward better city. This book launch- the class of “Organizing BuildingsPublic Housing Ministry’s yard ing was also marked by speech from and Environments toward Qualifiedthrough Senayan Circle (Bundaran Public Work and Public Housing City” and “Organizing Slump AreasSenayan), Sudirman Street through Ministers followed by official book in Answering the Challenge of Cli-HI Circle (Bundaran HI) and back launching to the stakeholders in- mate Change”.to the Ministry’s office. When in cluding development implementer, As the closure of this year’s seriesHI Circle, participants distributed academician, NGOs, media and the of World Habitat Day commemo-stickers of 2010 World Habitat Day elders and followed by book review ration, Youth Urban Forum was(HHD) to the people for them to that presenting linguists of all com- held at ITS Surabaya. In this twobetter understand World Habitat munities. days event on 8-9 November 2010,Day. Other activities in the series of Public Housing Minister Suharso The peak of 2010 World Habi- 2010 World Habitat Day com- Monoarfa and Surabaya Mayor Tritat Day took place on 18 October memoration is the National Work- Rismaharini gave general lecture to2010 and marked by launching, ex- shop that was held by Directorate of approximately 300 students. Thishibition, and book review of “Flash- Housing Development and Direc- lecture is then followed by discus-back on Settlement 1900-2000” torate of Environmental Building sion among the students and fieldand “Pestering Settlement and En- Order, Cipta Karya, of Public Work visit to Tempe kampong, Sukoma-vironmental Management Order”. Ministry that was held on October nunggal, Surabaya. Youth UrbanPublic Housing Minister hopes that 26th 2010 at Public Work Ministry. Forum as the closure of Worldlaunching of this book may inspire The workshop with the title of “City Habitat Day commemoration se-youth to plan and design a more in- Support Capacity and Adaptation to ries has affirmed the fact that worldnovative and creative housing and Climate Change” presented speakers cities continuity is in the hands ofsettlement. Main event of book namely Onno W. Purbo and Imam youth, for better city and betterlaunching was targeted to increase B. Prasodjo. There are two parallel life. (LNP) HARSYA PAMBUDI Participants of Youth Urban Forum are listening to general lecture from the Mayor of Surabaya 8
  • 9. Edisi IV, 2010 ISTIMEWA World Habitat Day Increasing Concern onUrbanization ChallengesE very year, the world always persuades all organization both inside and outside commemorates World Habitat Day on the UN system to support the national efforts of the first Monday of October. World projects planning, formulation implementation, Habitat Day is one of international and evaluation to improve settlement quality. The days that was established by the UN Vancouver conference has also based establishmentand commemorated as realization of our concern to of United Nations Human Settlements Programfulfillment of proper housing and settlement for all. (UN-HABITAT), UN commission for settlementsOther purpose of World Habitat Day is to remind sector.people on the need of collective responsibility for the Approximately 9 years latter, in the year 1985,future of human habitat. in Commission on Human Settlement Resolution The origin of World Habitat Day cannot be dated 8 May 1985, proposal of World Habitat Dayapart from Habitat I conference or Habitat: United was submitted. This proposal was then adoptedNation Conference on Human Settlement in and established in UN Court Resolution in theVancouver, Canada, back in 1976. In the conference year 1985 (Resolution 40/202 of 17 Decemberthat was held 34 years ago, the world has started 1985) thus World Habitat Day has started to beto realize the growing phenomena of urbanization commemorated in the year 1986. The start of Worldalong with its impacts, especially in developing Habitat Day commemoration on 1986 was alsocountries. Before, the problem of urbanization and marking 10 years commemoration of Habitat I.its impacts have almost never been UN priority. In the first commemoration that was held inHabitat I Conference has become the first UN Nairobi, Kenya, the selected theme was Shelterconference in the sector of settlement and resulted in is My Right. Ten years latter in 1996,Vancouver Declaration on Human Settlements that Habitat II conference 9
  • 10. Main Reportwas held at Istanbul, Turk which resulted in the which are Adequate Shelter for All and SustainableHabitat Agenda. Habitat Agenda is commitment Urbanization. World Habitat Day commemorationof 176 head of countries including Indonesia to has become momentum to promote main messagessupport better future of human habitat. of Habitat Agenda. Habitat Day commemoration Habitat II conference has become some sort from one year to the next has become moreof turning point on the focus of settlement issue. important. Thirty-four years ago, during Habitat IThemes of World Habitat Day commemoration in era, two-third of world population are still living inthe prior years have emphasized more on ‘shelter’. rural areas. Today, the proportion has been reversed,Since 1996, World Habitat Day theme has shifted more than half world population are living in urbanto city (see box). This tendency may arise due to areas and in 2030 it was estimated that two – thirdthe thinking that settlement problems are problems of world population will live in the city. This willof city and urban. Habitat Agenda as the output certainly have bigger consequence.of Habitat II has reflected manifestation of this For 2010, World Habitat Day fell on Monday, 4tendency. Through Habitat Agenda, countries in the October 2010 with the theme of “Better City, Betterworld are trying to accomplish Adequate Shelter for Life”. This theme emphasized on the importanceAll and Sustainable Urbanization. of city quality in supporting better life, which will The theme of World Habitat Day encourage potency and opportunity, reducing gapcommemoration is always different from year and providing proper settlement for all.to year, however the theme selected is always inline with two main messages of Habitat Agenda, LNP from various sources. Themes of World Habitat Day 2010 – Better City, Better Life 2009 – Planning Our Urban Future 2008 – Harmonious Cities 2007 – A Safe City is a Just City 2006 – Cities, Magnets of Hope 2005 – The Millennium Goals and the City POKJA 2004 – Cities – Engines of Rural Development 2003 – Water and Sanitation for Cities 2002 – City-to-City Cooperation 2001 – Cities without Slums 2000 – Women in Urban Governance 1999 – Cities for All 1998 – Safer Cities 1996 – Urbanization and Human Solidarity 1995 – Our Neighborhood Curitiba 1994 – Home and the Family 1993 – Women and Shelter Development 1992 – Shelter and Sustainable Development 1991 – Shelter and the Living Environment 1990 – Shelter and Urbanization 1989 – Shelter, Health and the Family 1988 – Shelter and Community 1987 – Shelter for the Homeless 1986 – Shelter is My Right 10
  • 11. Edisi IV, 2010 POKJA Habitat Day, Water and SanitationE very year, UN Habitat has facilities, especially for low income in his message that cities will un- become UN committee to people, women, and those who are deniably be the center of activities organize World Habitat Day considered as vulnerable and mar- and opportunities, however, with-commemoration. UN Habitat is ginalized groups. out proper settlement and adequateperforming its mandate based on Specifically, World Habitat Day basic facilities, city environment willVancouver Declaration on Human has once raised the theme of Water be the most dangerous environmentSettlements document, along with and Sanitation in the year 2003. In on earth.other documents such as the Habitat that year, World Habitat Day has In the world where half of theAgenda and the Millennium Decla- focused on urban water condition population lives in the cities, thereration. These documents empha- and sanitation crisis. A situation far are at least 1 billion people in dan-sized on proper settlement for all. worse than existing statistics. ger in relation to the lack of ad-Proper settlement and its services are In 2003 World Habitat Day equate water supply and sanitation.human right where the government global message, Anna Tibaijuka, In Asian cities, there are 700 millionis obligated to assist low income UN Habitat Director at the mo- people are lacking water and 800people in acquiring settlements. ment has stated that sustainable million are without proper sanita- Proper settlements for all cannot development is started from health. tion. Moreover, in many regions,be apart from provision and condi- Therefore, sustainable condition poor people tend to pay more fortion of water and sanitation. It was cannot be fulfilled without sustain- water compare to richer peo-stated in the Habitat Agenda to spe- able investment in water supply and ple.cifically promote access to safe water basic sanitation. Meanwhile, Kofi With regard tosupply, sanitation and other basic Annan as the Secretary General said 2003 11
  • 12. Main Report Data and Facts on Water Supply and Sanitation - Almost half of world population is experiencing water shortage. - Almost one billion of world population is without access to proper water supply. - In developing countries, almost one of every four people has no access to sanitation, even the most basic one. - Women have the biggest burden in acquiring water for household purposes. - Central areas in big cities generally have access to water and sanitation, however, city’s poor people usually is not included in the service coverage. Illegal city settlements have the worst and unhygienic conditionSumber: UN Habitat Urban World - Juni 2010 POKJAWorld Habitat Day, at the moment, “Slum to Neighborhood” which Rudimentary Housing, and “Accel-global commemoration with the was initiated in the year 1993. Ur- eration of Water Supply and Sanita-theme of “Water and Sanitation for ban Minister of Brazil at the time tion Provision for Low Income Peo-Cities” was held at Rio De Janeiro city has said that better access to water ple in 1.500 Kampong/Kelurahanof Brazil. Participants from all over and sanitation has become Brazil Every Year”.the world visited Cajú area, a slump priority in fulfilling basic needs of Today, in the year 2010, waterarea resided with approximately 800 urban poor community. This com- and sanitation issues have remain tofamilies. This area represents typical mitment has shown seriousness of be crucial issues, especially when onlyslump areas in other part of the city Brazilian government in providing 5 years left to the year 2015 wherewhere almost 20 percent population right equality on city to urban poor targets of MDGs must be achieved.of Rio de Janeiro lives. Interestingly, community. From water provision point of view,in Cajú, people have very good ac- Meanwhile, in Indonesia, 2003 there are more people who have ac-cess to water and sanitation, electric- World Habitat Day commemora- cess to proper water supply and evenity, transportation, and social servic- tion was held at Denpasar, Bali. The more people have access to sanita-es. Located on the riverside, Cajú is President of Indonesia Republic at tion facilities. However, in order to a positive result of city’s initia- the time, Megawati Soekarnoputri, achieve MDGs targets, the effort tive example of had the opportunity to proclaim must be doubled. Development of 1.000.000 units of 12
  • 13. Edisi IV, 2010 Habitat National Secretariat for Indonesia Improving Knowledge and Network of Urban Development and Housing SectorT he issue of settlement and urban are complex known as Habitat Seknas was established in 2008 and multi-disciplines issues. Capacity building by Joint Decree of Public Work Minister and Public of Government and other stakeholders to Housing Minister to support inter-agency cooperationbetter plan and manage the city is necessary. For that (government and non-government) as well as programreason, knowledge improvement of housing and urban implementation in relation to Habitat Agenda indevelopment sectors is required, as well as a strong Indonesia. Habitat Seknas is expected to resumenetwork for information exchange and cooperation. previous role of Habitat National Committee. In 1981, a Housing National Secretariat has been Habitat Seknas retain the function of knowledgeestablished to coordinate international organization hub of urban development and housing sector. Habitatactivity in relation to housing and planning in Seknas is expected to be the knowledge center in theIndonesia. It functions as clearing house that sector of housing and settlement, and common houseaccommodates and channel profession association that for practitioners, academicians, and other developmentrelates with the activity of planning and housing. actors to discuss and criticize issues of housing and ISTIMEWA Twenty years later, in 2001, HabitatII Agenda National Committee wasestablished by Indonesia Republic Presidentwith the task of assisting implementationof Habitat II Agenda in Indonesia andproviding consideration and advice to theGovernment regarding implementation ofHabitat II Agenda. Indonesia Habitat National Secretariat With the above background, IndonesiaHabitat National Secretariat or better Vision Improving knowledge and network of urban development and housing sector. Mission - Improving knowledge of urban development and housing sector through information documentation and best practices as well as publication through website and printed material. - Improving network of urban development and housing sector through information exchange and discussion forum. - Providing inputs on strategic issues for policy makers. - Supporting national and international implementation in relation to Ha­ bitat II Agenda 13
  • 14. Main Reportsettlements, providepolicy input andharmonize activityprograms. ‘Common house To support inter- for practitioners,agency cooperation, academicians, and otherHabitat Seknas has development actors toinvolved 8 ministries discuss and criticizenamely Public Work issues of housing andMinistry, Public settlements …’Housing Ministry,CoordinatorMinistry of Public Welfare Sector, ForeignAffair Ministry, PPN/Bappenas Ministry,Domestic Affair Ministry, Environmental Ministryand Health Ministry to sit as Steering Team, OperatorTeam, and Daily Team. Steering Team is currently led by Cipta KaryaDirectorate General, Budi Yuwono with deputy fromPublic Housing Ministry Secretary, IskandarSaleh. Operator Team underthe Steering Team is led eknas abitat Sby Cipta Karya Directorate Indon esia’s H 68 ya I no.General Secretary, Susmono and Jl. Wija 710 12assisted by two representatives Jakarta -21-7226530 .or.id ax: 62 donesiaof the Head of Planning and Ph/F a bitat-in info@h indonesia.or.idBudget Bureau of Public Housing Email: abitat- :h ISTIMEWA Website and APMCHUD BureauMinistry, Oswar Mungkasa andDirector of Bina Program Cipta Meeting. In the meeting,Karya, Antonius Budiono. At the officials from Asia Pacific countries have gathered tomoment, Head of Daily Team and Seknas Habitat discuss the issue of housing and settlement.who responsible for daily Seknas activities is Dr. Lana Other than international activities, Seknas has alsoWinayanti of Public Housing Ministry, assisted by published several publications such as Country ProfileDr. Hadi Sucahyono of Public Work Ministry as her Indonesia in housing and settlement that was divideddeputy. into 5 sectors and several times carried out thematic discussions by involving different elements such as Seknas Activities governments, academicians, students, NGOs, and Scope of work Habitat Seknas has includes research institutes.mainstreaming Habitat Agenda, supporting Every year, Habitat Seknas has also taken roleinternational activities, documentation of best in Habitat Day commemoration. In 2009, Wordpractices and monitoring and controlling national/ Habitat Day commemoration was held at Palembang,international habitat activities. Sumatera Selatan with the theme of Planning Our Habitat Seknas role in realizing its vision and Urban Future and in 2010 the commemoration wasmission is evident among others through Asia Pacific focused in Jakarta with the theme of Better City, BetterMinisterial Conference on Housing and Urban Life. 2010 commemoration was marked by book Development (APMCHUD) at Solo launching in accordance with Habitat Seknas’ function on 22-24 June 2010 as knowledge center in housing and settlement sector. 14
  • 15. Regulation Edisi IV, 2010 Agenda 21Humanity stands at a defining moment in history. Agenda 21 tries to ensure sustainable future whichWe are confronted with a perpetuation of disparities requires bigger awareness from all of us to find solutionsbetween and within nations, a worsening of poverty, to the problems.hunger, ill health and illiteracy, and the continuing With its substance, Agenda 21 has become somedeterioration of the ecosystems on which we depend for sort of blue print for global partnership to realizeour well-being. However, integration of environment high quality environments and healthy economic forand development concerns and greater attention everyone on this planet. Agenda 21 discusses criticalto them will lead to the fulfillment of basic needs, issues that we are facing as global community such asimproved living standards for all, better protected ecosystem degradation, increasing poverty, hunger andand managed ecosystems and a safer, more prosperous poor health, growing world population and illiteracy.future. No nation can achieve this on its own; but Agenda 21 consists of 40 chapters that identified everytogether we can - in a global partnership for sustainable challenge and provides realistic and simple solutiondevelopment. to sustainable development in fulfilling today’s requirements without reducing the future generation’s Agenda 21, paragraf 1.1 ability to fulfill their own needs. Agenda 21 consists of 5 parts with the total of 40 chapters. Preliminary part is Preamble (chapter 1.1- 1.6). The next part is Part 1 (chapter 2.1-8.54) thatA genda 21 is a comprehensive action plan to contains relation between social and economic aspects. be applied locally, nationally, or globally by This part emphasizes the importance of international organizations in the systems of UN, cooperation to implement and accelerate effortsgovernment and related groups on every toward sustainable development.aspect with impact on environment. The next part is Part 2 (chapter 9.1- Agenda 21 together with Rio Declaration 22.9) containing resources conservationon Environment and Development and and management for development ‘Agenda 21 hasStatement of Principles for the Sustainable become a blue which includes among otherManagement of Forests are documents that print for global mountain conservation, preventionwere adopted by 178 Governments in United partnership of deforestation, protection of waterNations Conference on Environment and to realize sources, solid waste, waste water,Development (UNCED) or Earth Summit high quality and radioactive management, andthat was held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 3-14 environment protection of oceans. Part 3 of Agenda and healthyJune 1992. economic.’ 21 describes role strengthening Agenda 21 offers hope, invites is to plan of majority group (chapterand take current action to preserve heritage 23.1-32.14). This chapterto be inherited by the future generation. contains a 15
  • 16. Regulationstatement that sustainable development is the main this demand through integral approach can also beresponsibility of every government, but commitment the capital to improve life quality, productivity, healthand involvement of every social group is important to quality, and reducing investment cost in term ofrealize effective implementation of every government’s curative medication and assisting the effort of povertypolicy that relates with Agenda 21. eradication. The last part of Agenda 21 is Part 4 containing The target in Agenda 21 in relation to this issue ismore specific matters of implementation actions and fulfillment of infrastructure properly by the year 2025.how to initiate the action plans (chapter 33.1-40.30). Therefore, it is important for every developing countrySeveral underlined matters in this chapter among other to integrate capacity development in term of humanis the use of technology, improving public awareness resources, funding or technical into each nationalthrough education, data and information sharing to strategy.support decision making. In achieving the target, implementation is required in term of: (1) financing and expenditure based evaluation, (2) utilization of science and technology through research acceleration in integral policies, environmental impact analysis, and effective demand measurement method, as well as (3) human resources capacity building through improvement of awareness, skill training, institutional strengthening, and adoption of proper regulatory instrument. Follow Up of Agenda 21 All over the world, government, business community, non-government organization POKJA and other elements have placed Water, Sanitation, Drainage, Agenda 21 ideas into each plan or policy. This includes and Waste Management Indonesia which in 1997 has formulated Indonesia’s Water, sanitation, drainage, and waste management Agenda 21: national strategy for sustainable developmentare some of the aspects that were specifically discussed that was published by Environmental Ministry. Today,in Agenda 21. It was emphasized regarding these issues almost 20 years later, Agenda 21 is still very crucialin Agenda 21 that the effort to improve infrastructure and implementation requires multi-fold efforts withprovision of water, sanitation, drainage, and waste growing challenges. For that reason, cross-elementalmanagement need to be integrated. Infrastructure involvement in implementing Agenda 21 is veryfulfillment is important because minimum important. This task requires not only leadership andinfrastructure, especially in developing countries funding from government and business communities,may lead to disease and death. Moreover, developing but also vision and cooperation of every citizen.countries have challenges where infrastructure Sustainable development will never be achieved fulfillment exceeds the growth of the without cooperation of all sectors of community. demand. Whereas fulfilling 16
  • 17. Edisi IV, 2010 Habitat AgendaAdequate Shelter for All vision of sustainable settlement – where everyoneSustainable Urbanization will have proper settlement, healthy and comfortable environment, basic service, and productive andT he world is facing rapid urbanization and liberating job. Habitat Agenda will be guidance for many governments in many countries are all efforts in order to change this vision into reality. not ready to handle this phenomenon. In general, Habitat Agenda has two mainEven so, in 1996 there is one turning point in the messages which is Adequate Shelter for All andinternational world to promote the effort in realizing Sustainable Urbanization. Habitat Agenda offerssustainable city, both from social and environmental positive vision for cities with practical road map onaspects. the world that has been impacted by urbanization. On June that year, the United Nations’ 1996 Other important message from Habitat AgendaConference on Human Settlements was held at is that good governance is a requirement forIstanbul, Turk. The purpose of this sustainable cities and poverty eradication.conference is to assess progress of the Beside the two main messages of Adequatepast two decades since establishment of Shelter for All and Sustainable Urbanization,Vancouver Declaration on 1976, and Habitat Agenda also discuss otheralso to establish a more suitable goal in ‘…good related issues such as health, nutrition,welcoming the new millennia. governance is and water and sanitation. Habitat The conference is a conference with Agenda relates urban problems andrelatively new approach because it a requirement poverty eradication as well as joboffers a more integrated, inclusive, and for sustainable addition and special attention toparticipative policy, strategy, and action cities and poverty women and marginalized groups.toward safe, healthy, and just world eradication.’ The output of Habitat Agendacities. This conference involves not is a comprehensive strategy thatonly government representatives, but encourages new partnership to act inalso non government organization, private sector, local, national, or international levels.academician, and cooperation groups. Habitat Agenda consists of The conference that was also called Habitat 241 paragraphs that were divided intoII has resulted in Istanbul Declaration and 4 parts. First part is Introduction (paragraph 1-21).also Habitat Agenda which was signed by 171 This part underlines global challenge of housingcountries, including Indonesia. Habitat Agenda and encourages nations to face the challenges. Theconsists of more than 100 commitments and 600 second part of this document contains Goals andrecommendations. Every country that has signed Principles (paragraph 22-36) that provides directionthe Habitat Agenda is committed to implement the to target policies as government’s action andagreed Global Action Plan. strategy to achieve it. The strategy also relates with cooperation, participation, information sharing, Habitat Agenda and supervising. The third part contains Habitat Agenda is a global shout-out to act in Commitment (paragraph 37-52) underlinesevery layer. In every target framework, principles, agreement of the internationaland commitment, Habitat Agenda offers positive communities in 17
  • 18. Regulation Source: Cities and Homes for All: The Habitat Agenda, UN Habitat, 1996 discuss action plan in infrastructure and basic services. Infrastructure and basic services include water, sanitation, waste management, social welfare, transportation and communication facilities, health, school, safety and open space. Habitat Agendaachieving proper settlement for all, sustainable emphasize that government,housings, public sector, private, and community community, and private need to cooperate in orderinvolvement, in housing development, gender to fulfill the basic need.equality, housing financing, and international Central government will have a share incooperation. supporting local authority in management, Global Action Plan is the last part of Habitat operation, and maintenance of infrastructureAgenda. This is the biggest part of this document and basic services. On other side, private sector,(paragraph 53-241). There are 5 strategy actions in community, and non government organization canthis part in order to achieve: (1) proper settlement participate in service provider and managementfor all, (2) sustainable housing, (3) capacity building under coordination of the government. Governmentand institution development, (4) international must also provide infrastructure access and basiccooperation and coordination, and (5) supervision services especially for poor and marginalized peopleand implementation of Habitat Agenda. as well as involving local community in establishing standard and priority. Infrastructure and Basic Services In paragraph 84-87, Habitat Source: Cities and Homes for All: The Habitat Agenda specifically Agenda, UN Habitat, 1996, from various sources. 18
  • 19. Learning Edisi IV, 2010FOTO-FOTO: HARSYA PAMBUDI Surabaya Green and Clean: Toward Healthy Surabaya City S urabaya as the 2nd largest metropolitan Surabaya City Government thought of an alternative city in Indonesia with population of way to handle solid waste and decided to apply over 2 million people has turned out to community based solid waste management program only have one final disposal site (TPA which also known as Green and Clean program. - landfill), which is Keputih TPA that In the year 2004, with the support of local receives waste from 155 temporary disposal sites NGO, Surabaya City has initiated public education (TPS) in Surabaya. However, solid waste at Keputih program of solid waste management. The purpose is not well managed and have caused of this program is to introduce bad odor that bothered the surrounding alternative ways of solid waste sorting neighborhood and has been forced to and management from the cycle base close in the year 2001. In consequence, on household level, while the strategy solid waste has kept piling up at TPS’ being use is by introducing accurate sites and moreover, solid waste can be technology along with instruction on seen at every corner of the city. In the how to apply it at household level, the year 2004 in the city of Surabaya, there substance of the education program are approximately 2.610 tons of solid includes how to sort organic and non- waste every day. organic waste, how to utilize waste by applying 3R This horrible situation has convinced Surabaya principles of Reduce, Reuse, Recycle. city, NGO, and community to start dealing with The program has built public awareness solid waste more seriously and to find solution on the importance of community based solid together. After identifying that the main source of waste management (through reduce, solid waste in Surabaya came from the household, reuse, and recycle) and 19
  • 20. Learningencouraged their participation in the process. This to win these 2 competitions in the same year, Kotaprogram has also built network and partnership with Government will provide incentive as a reward inrelevant stakeholders for a more collaborative action. maintaining clean environment.This small action has gained popularity among In 2007, there is 18,6% decrement of solid wasteSurabaya people. to be transporter to the final disposal site compare to In general, the program consists of various the previous year prior to Green and Clean initiative.activities and initiatives in solid waste management Solid waste has been reduced into 1.480 tons.such as Solid Waste Management and Education, Green and Clean has inspired people to take part inGreen and Clean Competition, Cleanest Kecamatan conserving environment and managing solid wasteCompetition, Zero Waste Competition and independently. This has made Surabaya City into aInitiation of Independent Solid Waste Management. better city to live in. Several remarkable results of In 2005, in order to motivate people and to this program are:attract broader participants, Surabaya City – • Awareness of Surabaya’s people on thesupported by several partners has seriously worked importance of solid waste management hason the competition in introducing the concept of resulted in 6.500 environmental cadres whosereward and punishment and in managing their task is to inform people in their neighborhood onsurrounding environment. how to manage their waste; Green and Clean was • In Surabaya, thereat first carried out at the are 750 environmentallevel of environmental groups that have appliedgroups. The main criteria is independent communityenvironmental cleanliness based solid waste(including mosquito larvae management – by makingin houses). In 2006, due to compost, and also use itthe increasing awareness of as fertilizer for their ownsolid waste management, environment;the criteria is broaden to • Plenty of tress andinclude waste management other plants have beenand recycle initiative. HARSYA PAMBUDI planted in the housing There are several categories in the Green and areas, some of which became famous such asClean competition: 1. Solid Waste Management Orchard Kampong, Adenium Kampong, Aloe(solid waste sorting to compost treatment/making, Vera Kampong, etc;solid waste management facilities, and solid waste • In general, green space in Surabaya has increasedsystem monitoring), 2. Solid Waste Recycle (creativ- from 269,29 hectare in 2006 to 274,44 hectareity, art value, and economic value), 3. Cleanliness in 2007;(of streets and environments, condition of waste • There are at least 15 small-medium scaledisposal site and drainage), 4. Reforestation (biodi- companies for recycle products (umbrella, bags,versity, the use of compost in forestation process), 5. wallet, and lamp shade) under the support ofCondition of toilet/bathroom that includes cleanli- UNILEVER CARE. Therefore, the people canness, whether mosquito larvae can be found or not, benefit from the sales of non-organic waste andto public knowledge in preventing dengue fever. thus created new work field; ‘Waste Free’ program is almost similar with • Strengthening social capital due to active‘Green and Clean’ competition. Green and Clean participation of the people – including womenAward will be awarded on May (anniversary of and elderly – in this program;Surabaya City) while “Waste Free’ Award will be • The program has said to inspire and has been awarded on August during Independence replicated in other big cities such as Jakarta and Day. If an area manages Yogyakarta; 20
  • 21. Edisi IV, 2010• Surabaya City has started to be a better place to Bubutan kecamatan (Tembok Dhuwur area) Surabaya. live (greener, cleaner and healthier). Before, this kampong is known to be ‘black’ area. Surabaya City has also awarded as recognition Surabaya people even call it bromo corah kampongon the effort. Some of the awards are Energy Globe (where criminal lives); from gambling (pigeonAward (EGA) from Austria (2005) for the category race), drunk, to people with high criminal record.of Water and Environment, Green Apple & Green In 2005, change occurred when community leaderOrganization from London (2007) and United Muhammad Sugiarto is elected to be Head of RukunNation Economic and Social Commission for Asia Tetangga (neighborhood).Pacific (UNESCAP) Award (2007) for the category Prior to his election, he asked for people’sof City Quality Improvement. agreement to conduct change and this request has acquire positive respond from all residents. Even Orchid Kampong (Kampung Anggrek) – after serving as Head of RT, the man who is better Cleanest and Greenest Kampong known as Abah Giarto made an innovation by Pesona Anggrek Kampong, Jl. Kertajaya IV-C, asking everyone to sign some sort of agreementRT 07 RW XIII, Kertajaya Kelurahan, Gubeng for certain matters, such as no clothes wringingKecamatan, is the winner of Surabaya’s Green and improperly thus creating slum image, unlessClean Competition in 2006. Based on the very long guest, there is no parking in front of the houselist of criteria, all judges have finally agreed to choose thus obstructing other street’s user, and obligatingthis kampong that was full of orchids, as the cleanest resident to sort their waste. Interestingly, there arekampong. Thus, this kampong has the right to certain days to sun-dried their mattress together.receive gratification money of 25 million IDR. That was not all; Margorukun kampong also One unique thing of this kampong is orchid enforced greenery in every house and independentlyin every single house. This was possible due to builds Waste Water Treatment Installation (IPAL).solidarity and consistency of its residents. This can This IPAL is eventually reused by the people toalso be seen in people’s behavior in solving solid water their plants of which have made the kampongwaste problems. The people managed their solid green. Thanks to persistent and consistent effort ofwaste well and they have composter to treat organic Margorukun people, Margorukun kampong haswaste into compost. become a very comfortable place to live in. Beside clean, this kampong has also succeeded in moving Margorukun Kampong its residents to build social capital in preserving their Gg. VI – Kampong with MoU environment. (David, from various sources) This kampong is located in Gundhi kelurahan, PUTU MAHENDRA 21
  • 22. Testimony Interview with Pekalongan Mayor dr. M. Basyir AhmadHouse isa Human RightP ekalongan is not only known as Batik City, but That’s why I made a step. Where is actually the tip that also as Slum Area-Free City. How is that possible? makes government succeed? The tip is actually person per To answer this, Percik had the opportunity to person. When the people are good, the government willinterview dr. M. Basyir Ahmad (Pekalongan Mayor) at his automatically be good. The smallest organization in thehouse. The interview is summarized below. community is family. I push families to be good. When Pekalongan City has won many awards. What is the the families are good, RT will be good. When RT is good,secret? RW will be good, etc. until finally the city will also be My first secret is intention. When campaigning for good. In order to perform this step, I must strengthenedMayor, what was the intention? Inna ma amalu bin niyat existing institution in kelurahan. It is difficult to(all depends on the intention). I’m intent to benefit as coordinate a city, thus we start from the bottom. Wemany people as possible. That was my first intention. coordinate kelurahan with its Lurah, PKK, LPM, BKM-asAfterward, we certainly know how the government goes? product of PNPM, and Karang Taruna. This is the pillarFirst, how to increase human resources index. This is that finally turned into Working Group. There is Housingregarding welfare. Second, we talk about fairness, how and Environment Working Group. Coordinators ofpeople are treated equally. Whether they are poor or LPM, BKM, in the city level are also involved, alsorich, in order to get something, they must be treated Health Agency, PU, BPN. Further commitment and highequally. The next step is always community based. Those willingness will open up opportunities.are the main philosophy. Then, in order for the peopleto be good, they must be empowered, coordinated, and How did you gain support from the people?accompanied by. This is the brief look; this is the line of First is trust. When the people trust us, they will bethought. easy to talk to. From the beginning, I tried to make my Then there is another matter, according to the program get in touch with the people and I always triedofficials, regions must be made autonomic. There is no to talk to people. Every Monday and Thursday I do radioway for a country as big as Indonesia to be centralistic. interview. The program is titled Mayor Answers andThe authority obviously should be given to the region. everyone easily meet me in my office. I communicate,Well, I also gave my authority to my subordinate. For thus they can talk about something and we can giveexample, for permitting matters, I don’t need to sign them something. With communication eventually peopleanything, because my subordinate can do that. Thus, will know that I am not a difficult person. And also,I’m sharing my authority. We build good institution, we communication must be done in groups, not with everyfind good partner and we provide the fund. With the single person, it is not possible. I communicate withthree elements, program orientation is no longer project. the groups that were established by the people, not byProject will not last, but program continue to sustain. myself, such as LPM, Art Board, Worker Union, etc. theyWhen this is done, everyone is asked to work, and will decides. I will not touch or interfere, let it come fromwork, the result will be maximum. It’s impossible for us the bottom. If something happens, nobody can say that Ito work alone. When we autonomic, by involving the engineered or made it difficult. people that we led, everything will run. Last, there’s this thing called Is housing development apart from sanitation coordination. Coordination development? is easier said than done. At first, housing and environment are not included 22
  • 23. Edisi IV, 2010in sanitation. We were guided to establish Sanitation funding source?Working Group in order to make the White Book and I designed one program called acceleration program.City Sanitation System (SSK). We didn’t know where At the time, it was only Mayor Decree then it becomeit will led. Because from housing and environmental Pekalongan Local Regulation (Perda) No 11 Year 2008.point of view, I was thinking, no slum areas. No slum The Perda has 5 points. Acceleration for poor families tocould mean no water puddle, drainage is available, then receive education as high as possible, to obtain the bestforestation is also available; that was my line of thought. health service, to work, acceleration of environmentalAfter we understand about sanitation, we were surprised and poor families’ housing improvement to prevent slum,because it must be sustainable and integrated, not too and acceleration of institution strengthening. Because it ismany teams. So, there will be Housing and Sanitation already Perda, the Local Council (DPRD) must provideWorking Group. the budget. I have made budget plot that was managed by and from the people. The initial value was 2,5%. Why Why only focusing on the slum area, whereas there are 2,5%, because I thought of it as alms. APBD must bemore aspects to the city than slum? made alms. The purpose of alms is to take care of the We touched every aspects, slum is only one of them. poor people, managed by them. But after that, I toldI’ve counted number of household in Pekalongan. There them that 2,5% is not enough. Where is the infaq shod-are 67.000 households. Then we sort it, how many have aqoh (charity), thus I made it 5%. Currently is still 4%.a house and how many without a house. It turned outthat there are 6.000 households without house. Now, Which city inspires you in eradicating the slum?for those who already have a house, which one is livable, My inspiration was the Public Housing Minister.which one is not, which is slum, which one is not. The When elected to be Pekalongan Mayor, I have problemresult surprised me. 5.068 houses are unlivable with no of slum. Then I met Pak Yusuf Asy’ari. In his office hetoilet, no water supply, not even plaster. No ventilation, said: “Pak Basyir, can you free your city from slum?” Heno partition between father and children. Try to imagine then provides depiction. The apostle said Baiti Janati –a house without partition between father and children. My house, My heaven. Slum house will not be heaven,Then I was thinking, house is a human right. It is a either physically or spiritually. Then I said, “OK, I will doserious matter in UUD 1945, then I made a commitment it”. So, I wasn’t triggered by a place but by Public Housethat during my official period, I must finish 5.068 houses. Minister.It turned out to be completed in 3 years using the above In dealing with slum, are there any unsolved matters?methods. Involve the people, establish group, decide What were the challenges?which one is slum, and then those who help, we give Yes, there is. Actually, of all achievements, there arefund, while we too seek for funds. 2.000 unmanaged houses, when we suddenly got ROB (high tide). So in the North, houses that have been fixed What should be fixed first in handling the slum, the are back to slum again. I have a target of fixing approxi-people or the physical condition? mately 6 million IDR. We will provide the 2 million, In my opinion, the physic should be fixed first. I loan the 2 million and the other 2 million must be fromfeel that if a house is not livable, people will not live them. So, we will not fix everything, because then, theyin the house. The children will all run to the street. will not have sense of ownership. There are 270 slumWhen they already run, they will be educated on the communities. By the end of last year, 150 of it were ablestreet. Simultaneously, I made a program where every to be managed. This year I will try to manage up to 200Elementary School must have TPQ, all using the model communities, thus only 80 or 90 that are left. We willof Islam education. What kind of Islam education model? finish this in 2 years, 2011 and 2012 because slum areasWe want every Moslem to commit, must pray, must use are harder to deal with than housing. My challenge isMoslem clothes. We taught them this since early start, only one, I have just begin to understand sanitation prob-and on certain hour we teach them to read and write lem. We want to make the house to be efficient, or maybeQuran, because every Moslem must be able to read and building the house with proper, but communal septicwrite Quran, thus we can pray. Pray is Innas salata tanha tank. The most ideal will be when water supply is entirelyanil fahsha wal munakar, keeping wickedness away. I’m served by PDAM. No better in Pekalongan. I have ahoping they will stay at home, educated at home. The dream that in 10-15 years, Pekalongan will not usemethod is simultaneous like that. well anymore. Even when the sanitation is not proper yet, at least water sup- To eradicate slum is not cheap, where did you find the ply is available. (DVD) 23
  • 24. Different Side ISTIMEWA 1,2 Billion of World Population are Living in Unsuitable ShelterS helter is still a problem, faced not only by movement from rural to urban areas, but also means Indonesia, but also the world. Unsuitable higher water supply requirement. shelter leads to unsuitable housing, especially Furthermore, changes due to the development in the city; thus making city housing/ have altered village’s status into city. Other than high settlement a worrisome issue. It is clear that urbanization rate, we are also facing high populationdevelopment of an area was not in accordance with growth. Therefore, mature planning is required inproper housing quality. Hence, plenty of people cannot developing an area so that everyone may have accessafford proper housing yet. According to UN Habitat, to healthy and proper Water Supply and Environmentalcurrently in the world, there are at least 1,2 billion people Sanitation.living in unsuitable areas, whereas in major cities of The core of housing development according to theIndonesia, approximately 12,5 million people are living Law mandate is to build an area accordingly with Law Noin slum areas with the total area of 57.000 hectare and 8 26 Year 2007 on Spatial. Every region must have a spatialmillion people are without proper housing. plan (RTRW) which was made accordingly with natural This has clearly showed that Indonesia is one of condition of the region. However, most people and localthe countries that must deal with problems of physical governments have not applied their RTRW with properand infrastructure sectors of settlement, namely discipline and have not revised their RTRW.high urbanization, poor quality of settlements, and Anna Tibaijuka as the Executive Director of UN Habitatlarge number of cities without sanitation, and water has stated that in the past 10 years, numbers of peopleinfrastructures. At the moment, only approximately 49% who are living in slum areas have increased from 780 of the population is without water supply. The high million to 820 million. Thus, the last data of UN Habitat number of urbanization does not in year 2010 has stated that there are 1,2 billion of world only mean population population are living in a very unsuitable environment. 24
  • 25. Edisi IV, 2010 For that reason, UN Habitat has established two Challenges that must be faced by cities in the world inprograms. One is World Urban Campaign Program, which the future due to rapid growth of urbanization, especiallyis cooperation program between UN Habitat and public in the last few decades include reducing poverty thread,and private sectors, as well as civil community to raise the improving access to public basic facilities (water supply,issue of sustainable urbanization into governance agenda settlement, sanitation, friendly environment), andall around the world. Two is cooperation with the Coca sustainable city growth.Cola Company in providing 1 million USD for pure water In Indonesia, according to Public House Ministerdevelopment in Asia, Africa, and Latin America areas. The (Menpera) Suharso Monoarfa, who is also the Headpurpose of this program is to preserve water resources of APMCHUD, since 2007, approximately 50% of theand assisting water use efficiency as well as recycle population lives in the city. Moreover, 58,6% of the totalprocess of turning waste water into water supply which population lives in Java Island which area only representwas expected to be completed in the next 2 years. 7% of the total area in Indonesia, 17% housings in natural Rapid urbanization due to population explosion and disaster vulnerable areas, and poverty rate that hasuneven distribution of population has become crucial reached 14,15% or approximately 32,53 million peopleissues that attracted attention of the world. According have made APMCHUD an important forum to shareto UN’s estimation, in the next 50 years, 2/3 of world experience and information with member countries ofpopulation will be living in the cities. Urbanization APMCHUD while seeking for the best solution.increment has caused a domino effect that will eventually In cities of the developing countries, the problem iscaused big detriment for people and environment. a lot more complicated, due to faster population growthPopulation explosion and uneven distribution of the compare to developed countries. Formal settlementpopulation are also factors of imbalance between urban provision capacity such as real estate, and housing fromand rural areas which in turn, increase urbanization rate. the government or private is very limited and has onlyThe rapid urbanization growth in the urban areas has touched middle to upper class of the society. Meanwhile,caused many problems, one of which, slum areas in the low income communities have not been touched andcity. left to find their own solution. The consequence is rapid Therefore, the world has become more concern in growth of informal settlements which in Indonesia isthe management of urban and housing development, better known as kampong, with typical characteristicsand this was marked by three series of important events, of dense, slum, squalid, not following official rules, andsuch as World Urban Forum 5 (WUF), World Shanghai majority of the residents are poor.Expo 2010, and 3rd Asia Pacific Ministerial Conferenceon Housing and Urban Development (APMCHUD). Source: UN Habitat and Kemenpera.go.id ISTIMEWA 25
  • 26. Wacana Issue of Right to Water and Housing (Second Paper – Finished)Dr Cekli Setya Pratiwi, SH.,LL.M. holder. Moreover, in providing raw water, private companies will not invest in low income areas andP roviding opportunity for private companies topographically difficult areas because these, will in raw water provision for the people will present difficulty in returning their investment. This clearly eliminates the country’s power over is the reason of why raw ware provision in remotewater resources. As profit-oriented institution, areas has been neglected. Looking at stipulationprivate companies will only invest when guarantee in Section 33 of UUD 1945 which not so clearlyof investment rate of return is present. Thus, guaranteeing the people’s right to water has openedcompanies require guarantee, either on political risk up opportunities for derivative law products to beor performance risk, the guarantee issue is being further away from guaranteeing citizen’s right tocharged to people through compensation payment water as proven in Law No 7 Year 2004. Meanwhile,from government and tariff adjustment. Tariff in the context of local autonomy, instead of adjustment was completed by applying full cost formulating local regulation that protected the recovery, to ensure steady rate of people’s right to water, many regulations have turned return for contract out to only added more burden for the people 26
  • 27. Edisi IV, 2010 community access to water especially drinking water from government to private sector, has caused more practice of water commoditization and commercialization. In environmental ethic perspective, treating water as commodity and later commercializing it is clearly a violation. It is clear than, that in term of right to water and right to housing, of different regulations in Indonesia, although there is recognition on the right to live prosperously, but the formulation in UUD 1945, Human Right Law, and Water Law have not yet in accordance to Section 11 of CESCR. Recognition of UUD 1945 Section 28I Verse (4) that fulfillment of human right is the responsibility of the country, especially government. However, in the derivative laws and regulations, there is evident of denial by transferring the responsibility by providing more room for privatization practices or returning the responsibility back to the people.and have oriented in increasing local revenue by POKJA Indicator of Right Fulfillmentissuing retribution or permitting Fulfillment of right to water must at least complyregulations which substance do not with three indicators of (1) healthy and safe drinkinginclude the aspect of people’s right water availability, (2) existence of mechanism toto water. guarantee continuity of water availability for people’s requirement, (3) affectivity Basically, government has ‘Basically, government mechanism implementation.fundamental obligation to fulfill has fundamentalbasic need of its people, including obligation to fulfill IV. Strategy of Enforcing the People’swater supply. This has become basic need of itsone of manifestation of the social people, including Right to Water and Housingcontract between country and its water supply’ The first strategy that must be donecitizen. Water supply management immediately is consequent implementationprivatization has clearly transferred of CESCR as logical consequence ofthe basic service provision from public sector to accepting CESCR as part of positiveprivate sector. With the transfer, the next problem law in Indonesia, thus the Law that waswould be water utilization allocation change. Poor assessed substantially is denial on economic, social,and marginalized people are being more neglected as and cultural rights and must be put in agenda forother implication of privatization policy. Poor and immediate change. On this case, several methods canmarginalized people will not be served because they be done; first, by empowering the legislatives (DPRdon’t have political strength or representative and and DPRD) in comprehension and recognitioncertainly no economic strength to pay the high price of Human Rights especially economic, socialdue to privatization policy, and cultural rights. With strong awareness Responsibility transfer to guarantee of legislatives members of the importance of 27
  • 28. Discourse POKJA support, especially from Law Faculty is very important. This is very important to be done, considering that people who are directly impacted by the policy from local government, often do not fully realize the importance of their active participation in the process of policy making from planning, design, discussion, establishment to the process of implementation. People who don’t realize their rights to participate in law and governance will certainly increase opportunity to be neglected. On the other side, law protection on public access to law information in the form of local regulation and implementation regulations are still significantly lowHuman Right protection as part of the country thus people are only considered as the object in localresponsibility, then in implementing their development. For that reason, it is also important tothree functions, which is legislative function, persuade formulation of Local Regulation on Publicmonitoring function, and budget function, they Participation or People’s Right to Public Informationwill put forth citizen’s right guarantee. Through Access. By empowering the people, potency oflegislation authority or establishment of Law or regulations including local budget that may violateother regulations, for example, hopefully there heir rights can be reduced as such.will be more Law and/or Local Regulations which The third is dissemination of Human Rightscome from legislative initiative which substanceis categorized in protecting public interest. Thisis very important, considering that in differentregions, there are more Local Regulations whichsubstance only regulating local administrativetask, or retribution to increase their local revenue(PAD) without equal reciprocity of building publicfacilities. Another proof of DPRD’s helplessness is whenthe monitoring function is ineffective. DPRDin general is no more powerful than monitoredexecutives both in implementing local regulationsand allocating local budget. DPRD has presentedthemselves as no more than rubber stamp. Thus,the people who are already burdened with variousretributions have never felt equal reciprocation. Inbudget sector, DPRD has never made people’s needsa budget priority. The second step is to improve people awarenesson Human Right especially economic, social, andcultural rights through various law counseling, training, partnership or Human Right advocacy where University 28
  • 29. Edisi IV, 2010values, especially economic, social, and cultural law enforcers, attorneys and advocates regardingrights to law enforcers by socializing CESCR to all economic, social, and cultural rights throughacademic communities and people by emphasizing training of economic, social, and cultural rights forthat economic, social, and cultural right are also police officers, attorneys, and judges by universitiesincluded in the category of or Law and Human Right Instructor Coalition inrights that can be demanded Indonesia.in the court of law, and hence, The third strategy, for the sake of credible courtwith stronger awareness of the system, in the next 5 to 10 years,people on their rights especially ‘..dissemination of Human there is requirement for law en-economic, social, and cultural Rights values, especially forcers with high sensitivity onrights, they will independently economic, social, and cultural the importance of recognition andable to take law actions such as rights to law enforcers by guarantee on fulfillment of eco-judicial review to the Constitution socializing CESCR to all nomic, social, and cultural rights,Court upon meeting law academic communities and thus, the law enforcers candidatesregulation that was considered people by emphasizing that who are currently studying at Lawto violate the constitution or economic, social, and cultural Universities all over Indonesiaother action such as Citizen Law right are also included in the need to sharpen their skill and lawSuit when country’s policies category of rights that can be knowledge through education and demanded in the court of law.’are considered to violate their training of economic, social, andrights. This effort can be done cultural rights.easily with equal socialization to VII. Closure ISTIMEWA Indonesia commitment to respect rights of economic, social, and cultural especially in protecting, respecting, and guaranteeing the citizen’s right to water and housing through CESCR ratification is still in the level of ideas, and have not been realized in term of positive law and program implementation from central to local level. The failure to guarantee economic, social, and cultural rights and silence behavior of the country will have potency to violate Human Right in the omission context. The strategy that must be done to overcome this problem is improving awareness of policy makers, community, and law enforcers on the importance of economic, social, and cultural rights through regulation, education, training or advocacy. Writer: Director of Human Right Study Center (satuHAM). Law Faculty of Malang Muhammadiyah University. Email: c.s.pratiwi@gmail.com 29
  • 30. InterviewWacana Suharso Monoarfa: A House is Not Just House, but Also HomeS ince last year, Habitat Day has been commemorated regularly in Indonesia. Host of this commemoration has been agreed to rotate between Public Housing Ministry and Public Work Ministry. This year, the host of commemoration is Public Housing Ministry.The following is summary of Percik’s interview with PublicHouse Minister Suharso Monoarfa. What is the benefit of World Habitat DayCommemoration in the context of Housing inIndonesia? The world’s theme this year is BetterCity, Better Life. As I like to say in manyoccasions, city is a symbol of whatpeople call settlements, even thoughcity is a lot broader than settlement.What I’m trying to say is thatwhen we are able to provide goodsettlement, good living will alsopresent. This will provide goodfeedback as well on housing,although in reality, bettercity depends on betterhome. So, better home,better city, better life.Better life itself is actuallycivilization. A house is not just ahouse but also infrastructure, facilities, and utilities ISTIMEWA 30
  • 31. Edisi IV, 2010(PSU) such as water, sanitation and solid waste. How is present. Some even solve everything with money.do you integrate this with a house? This is not right. We can imagine a house without PSU. Thequality will certainly decline. Slum will occur; people In one of the events of World Habitat Day, you havewill not be comfortable with their environment. So explained Housing Provision for the First Labor Force.it is obvious that without good PSU, it is impossible What is the actual concept?to create a house that can be called home. The answer is simply save money. There is no other way but save money. When you safe money, During the press conference of Habitat Day, you don’t wait until it piled up high, but see to it untilhave explained the different in housing development the capacity can be rationally used. In order to bebetween House and Home. What is the fundamental an effective saving, don’t just leave it. If you saveddifference between the two? enough to buy small house, start from there. That is Well, house is physical building. Home is called saving. Once we can, move to a bigger house,imaginary building of values, civilization. So for etc. Thus, it forever correlates with one’s capacity.example, when people talk about missing theirkampong, they will say coming home, not coming Youth are potential force to work together with andhouse. So people always want to come home, to be a bridge between government and people. As extheir home country because he feels at home there. activist of Student Council, how do you perceive this?A house is only a place to live; people’s shelter. Good, student should be, not only bridge, butSo, the spirit nuance between house and home is even the motor. And most importantly, youthdifferent. I hope our houses can be truly be homes, are willing to learn and find new innovations,not just houses that we bought. A house may be which according to their era, their condition, theirbig, completed with swimming pool, even spa, etc. perspective, is more fitting than before. This is onebut it will remain to be a house, because it didn’t of the challenges, and I think youth can contributecreate anything in it. Only household dictatorship greatly in it. ISTIMEWA Before elected as Public Housing Minister, Suharso Monoarfa was a member of the National Legislative DPR of 2004-2009 periods, from PPP fraction of Gorontalo constituency, and Deputy to the Head of Budget Com- mittee of DPR RI. Moreover, the man who was born in Mataram on 31 October 1954 was also the General Treasury of DPP PPP and actively involved in different organizations. 31
  • 32. Innovation areas. Even if it is available it will be unaffordable for local people. One of the alternatives is the use of natural coagulant from plants around us. Research by Clarifying The Environmental Engineering Group of Leicester University Water England has long studied potency of natural coagulant in small, medium, and large scale water with Moringa treatments. Their research was focused on coagulant potency of Leave Seed flour from Moringa oleifera seed. This plant can be found widely inW northern part of India, but now it can be found everywhere in the ater and its sources as one of tropical area, including Indonesia. natural treasures is an absolute In Indonesia the plant is known as kelor plant with requirement for living creatures small leaves. in supporting their lives and maintain their health. Water Moringa Oleifera:that covers more than two-third of the earth’s Kelor (in Indonesia, Java, Sunda, Bali, Lampung);surface provides living space 300 times wider than Kerol (Buru); Marangghi (Madura); Moltongthe land, however, most of the water cannot be (Flores); Kelo (Gorontalo); Keloro (Bugis); Kawanoused directly. Only 1% can be use as water supply, (Sumba); Ongge (Bima); Hau fo (Timor).even still have to go through a process. The plant is also known as ‘drumstick’ plant due The technology that is currently applied starts to the long shape of the seed, although some callsfrom raw water collection, water treatment into it ‘horseradish’ because the root tastes like ‘radish’.clean water that greatly depends on the quality of Kelor (moringa oliefera) is included in the familyraw water source, then through the distribution of clump plant with height of 7-11 meters. In Java,system through the pipes to the service area. Kelor is often used as yard plants because it canWater treatment was done for raw water that was also be used as medicine. Kelor tree is not very big.basically do not comply with the current water The branch is only few and easily break but it hassupply standard, thus, incompliance elements need a strong root. The main stem is gray. The leavesto be removed or reduced, in order for the water are small in the shape of egg oval and stacked into comply with the standard. This was completed compound in one single stack. Kelor can grow wellby water treatment. Water treatment technology in areas 300-500 meters above thegreatly depends on the raw water quality. sea water surface. The Large scale urban water treatment treats water flower is yellowish whiteby adding coagulants into the raw water. With with green color stem.this method, dissolved particles in the water will ‘Only 1% of water Kelor flower grows allbecome bigger flogs and will settle. Then, the clean can be used as year long with fragrantupper part of the water is removed to be use for water supply’ scent. Kelor fruit is shaped daily needs. However, it is difficult to like long triangle called find coagulant in remote klentang (Java). It also 32
  • 33. Edisi IV, 2010 mixed. That way, chemical compound activation processes occur in kelor seed powder. Then filter the solution with kelor seed power coagulant through gauze cloth. Put the filtrated water in previously prepared 20 liters (jerry can) water, and then mix it slowly for 10-15 minutes. During the mixing, the dissolved seed will bind and coagulate the dissolved solid particles in the water along with the microbe and germs/viruses into bigger flogs which will easily be settled to the bottom. After 1 hour, the clean water can be removed to be used for daily needs. The clarification process according to the research is able to remove up to 90-99,9% bacteria in the dissolved solid particles and clarify the water which relatively safe (for limited LIPI condition) and can be use as drinking water forshapes like string bean and hard, with green color local people.and 120 cm long. The sap that has turned into However, there are still some pathogenicbrown color is called blendok (Java). microbes that cannot be settled and still remain in Cultivation of moringa or kelor requires very the water, especially when the raw water is highlyminimal maintenance and can survive long contaminated. Ideally for drinkable water, furtherdrought. It will quickly grow into 4-10 meters purification is still required, either by boiling or byheight, bloom, and bear fruit in 1 year after using simple sand filtration.plantation. The plant will grow quickly both fromseed and from cutting, even when planted in dry Other Benefitunfertile land. Thus it is a good plant for critical Kelor leave is small, but in one stalk usuallylands with long drought season. there are plenty of leaves. These leaves have been used by our ancestor. Madura people call Clarification Process it Maronggih. In Sunda and Malay, it is known as Kelor seed is left to ripe on the tree and kelor, in Aceh murong, Ternate people call it kelo,harvested when it has dried. Its seed wing is very in Sumba kawona, while in Minang land it is calledlight and the skin can be easily removed leaving munggai.white seed. When it got really dry in the tree, the This kelor plant tasted a little bitter, neutralseed will break and the seed will fly everywhere. nature and non toxic. The root skin contains The skinless seed will then crushed and ‘behen’ oil containing myrosine, emulsine, bitterpounded into fine powder of Moringa seed. and non toxic alkaloida, and vitamin A, B1, B2, andNumbers of moringa seed required for water C on certain cells. Pharmacologist effect of kelor istreatment depends on concentration of water anti-inflammation, anti-pyretic, and anti-scorbutic.contaminant. To treat 20 liters water (1 jerry can), Kelor leaves are usually used as vegetables.2 grams of kelor seed powder or approximately 2 In Madura, it usually made into soup for lunch,teaspoons (5 ml). known as Ghangan Marongging (Kelor Soup). Add a little bit of clean water to the powder thus However, beside vegetables, root, leaves,make it into paste. Put the paste into clean bottle and seed can also be used to cure someand add another one cup (200 ml) of clean water, diseases. (eko/Lipi.go.id)then shake it for five minutes until it perfectly 33
  • 34. Innovation Turning Air Into WaterA ll life form in this blue planet will need water to survive. This is why we see the world in persuadingindividual to save every drop of water,because water could be very valuable Watermill Developed by Element Four, Watermill generates water to be filtered thus generating drinkable water. The company promised that this tool can generate up to 3,2 gallon fresh drinking water per day in idealfor those who need it. Due to the condition that should be enough for a family of six.large number of contaminated watersources, designers are trying to finda way to change moist air into waterto satisfy the thirst of million. Thefollowing are several best tools toharvest water out of thin air. Max Water An Australian inventor has developed a tool thatcan generate water unlimitedly from the air. Supportedby wind, this tool can also use the same source forwater. Max Water, according to the inventor willgenerate large volume of water by the use of lowhumidity air. This rectangle-shaped tool can extractapproximately 7.500 liters of water per day. Ersa The designer in Ersa industrial (Scott Norrie) has designed this tool as an independent system, sustainable product that uses solar energy to make water out of air. The design is also use solar panel to operate the hand tool and recharge vehicle battery. foto dan ill. RISTEK/BPPT 34
  • 35. Edisi IV, 2010 Ecoloblue elements so that they can grow 10-20 inches and The EcoloBlue Atmospheric Air Generator (AWG) surrounding the younger plant and at night an isolationprovides up to 7 gallons of clean water every day plate may generate water through condensation.out of the surrounding humid air. Developer of thisproduct said that this tool works great in 50 percenthumidity, but also in lower humidity of 30%. However,if the air is not humid enough, you can still attach it tothe tap water to filter your drinking water. Operationalcost of this EcoloBlue is approximately 20 cent USD pergallon of clean water. DropNet Designed by student of Muthesius Academy of Artand Design in Germany. Imke Hoehler has created asystem that can generate water out of thin air and fog. Solar-Powered System toIt is called DropNet and can generate up to 20 liters of Generate Portable Waterclean water every day. A series of several structures Scientists at Institut Fraunhofer for Interfacialwill be able to provide drinking water for the whole Engineering and Biotechnology (IGB) believe that invillage. average humidity of 64 percent, one cubic meter of air contains about 11,5 ml or water that can be extracted and solve the problem of billion people living in the rural area. The system utilizes hygroscopic salt water to absorb humidity. The air is then flowed to the tower unit, absorbing water from the air which further contain in the vacuum tank. Solar power will then heat the water and changed it into steam, which later condensed and collected. Groasis Waterboxx Made by a Dutch businessman Pieter Hoff, thisGroasis Waterboxx can generate water even in thedriest place on earth. Inspired by bird drop, this toolreplicates the way of protecting the digested seed inbird drop, providing humidity and protection from 35
  • 36. ReportageReportase FOTO-FOTO POKJA 15 Asia Pacific Journalists Visited Slum Kampong of TamboraP ekojan poor and slum area, Tambora kecamatan Asukar Surbakti (SBS TV Australia), Dennus of Jakarta Barat was visited by 15 Asia Atkins (The Courier Mail), Mai Dwong (Vietnam Pacific journalists from Papua New Guinea, Television), Lina Nursanty (Harian Pikiran Rakyat),Japan, Vietnam, China, and Australia. “We are very Nur Iskandar (Borneo Tribune), Zhu Ping (Chinaimpressed by the effort of Indonesian government Daily), Nigel Mc Garth (The Daily Yomiuri),to overcome poverty problems in slum areas. This Katherine Polh (ABC News Australia), Alex Kennedyis an interesting news and information for us to (Asic Pacific Journalism Center).bring home so that the problem of poverty and poor In the meeting with the journalists, Nugrohosanitation can be a learning experience for us,” said honestly admitted that environmental sanitation inMai Dwong, journalist from Vietnam Television to Indonesia is still considerably low. “ApproximatelyPercik at Jakarta, Tuesday (23/11). 30 percent of Indonesia’s population still defecates The 15 Asia Pacific journalists were welcomed on the river, rice field, beach, dam, and other openby Bappenas Director of Housing and Settlement spaces,” he said.Nugroho Tri Utomo, accompanied by Rewang Sanitation in Indonesia is still far fromBudiyana of Water Resources and Accurate expectation. With domestic waste water serviceTechnology Directorate of Domestic Affair Ministry coverage of 51,9 percent in 2010, in Asia region,and Handy B. Legowo representing Environmental Indonesia is only better than Laos and TimorSanitation Directorate of Public Work Ministry. Leste. Solid waste management is also still an issue. The 15 journalists who visited Environment and Of 400 Final Disposal Site (TPA), only 10 areSanitation program are Karen Kissane (The Age environmentally friendly – generally using sanitary Melbourne News), Michalel Asagoni (NBC landfill. The rest is still practicing open dumping. TV Papua New Guinea), Whereas Law No 18/2008 on Solid Waste 36
  • 37. Edisi IV, 2010Management have mandated time line of 2013 to worsen the environmental sanitation, it will cost usstop the open dumping practice. Improvement of 36 IDR.environment sanitation also requires a lot of hard This is one examples of the poor condition ofwork. There are 22.500 hectare of strategic areas in sanitation in this country. The poor condition of100 cities that are still experiencing water puddle due environmental sanitation, according to him, was notto rain that must be dealt with until 2014. mainly caused by industrial waste, because 80 percent The above condition cannot be apart from the of it was caused by domestic waste. This includeslong history of low collective awareness on the open defecation, or defecation on improper WCimportance of sanitation development in this country. (Water Closet). Thus, plenty or people still not awareThe thinking that sanitation is a personal problem of the sanitation crisis.– thus people will find their own way to fulfill their It is also said by Nugroho, another impact ofneed – has brought less attention from government open defecation is that 75 percent of rivers in thecompare to other sector. cities of Indonesia are inconsumable, because it has According to Nugroho, every day, rivers, dams, become waste water. For that reason, PDAM all overlakes, beaches, and rice fields are filled with 14.000 Indonesia have to work extra hard to treat wastetons of human feces. This number is equal with water to be consumable water.14.000 elephants. Whereas, there are not that many Because of poor sanitation, PDAM must provideelephants in this country. High number of open 15-30 percent extra funding – compare to thedefecation has caused inadvertent impact on the condition where sanitation is well maintained. This is,condition of environmental sanitation. “We can according to Nugroho, what we call sanitation crisis;no longer able to overcome the problem, because which includes individual sanitation by human feces,it closely related with early mental attitude of the solid waste, or ditch or drainage. This is the conditionpeople who are not aware of healthy sanitation,” he that has not been realized by most governmentsaid. officials, private, or people in general. One of the inadvertent impacts of poor sanitation Sadder still, until today, government has onlyis 50 out of 1.000 babies do not reach the age of five allocated too little fund for sanitation improvement.years. This was caused by very poor sanitation. But Only 1 percent in APBD I and II. APBD isaccording to Nugroho, “If we are aware and donate around eight per thousand. Thus, attention1 IDR for sanitation improvement, in return, we will toward environmental sanitation is still veryget benefit with the value of 11 IDR. However, if we little. EKO 37
  • 38. Reportage 2010 Sanitation Jamboree Sanitation Ambassador Accepted by the Vice President FOTO-FOTO: POKJAA round 228 participants, 128 of which are Wives (SIKIB). Elementary and Junior High School students It was said by Djoko, that sanitation problem from 32 provinces have participated in 2010 cannot be dealt only by government. Therefore, throughSanitation Jamboree that was held by the Public Work Sanitation Jamboree supported by community’s activeMinistry through Directorate General of Cipta Karya at role it is expected that adequate/proper sanitation can beWisma Hijau Mekarsari, Cimanggis, Depok. This event achieved to improve community’s health. “The purpose ofis part of 2010 World Habitat Day commemoration this Jamboree is to increase concern in the importance ofseries from 12-16 October 2010. Also present was 40 sanitation,” he said.people from 3R (Reuse-Reduce-Recycle) Community According to Djoko, the children that haveEmpowerment Group (KSM) and 60 counterparts. The participated in the jamboree will become ambassadorproblem is that poor sanitation condition will also affect in each of their region. Moreover, he added, childrenwater quality. have high spirit in absorbing new ideas and knowledge. “Improper sanitation condition will cause Eventually, these ambassadors will influence thecontamination and very bad impact on water quality. surrounding environment.This has caused various diseases such as cholera, diarrhea, “They will eventually be an icon in each region anddysentery, and other dangerous diseases,” said Public will accompany head of the region in the campaignWork Minister Djoko Kirmanto to reporters after the of sanitation improvement. The children as sanitationopening ceremony of 2010 Sanitation Jamboree at ambassadors from 33 provinces were accepted by theDepok, Tuesday (12/10). The event was attended by President, Thursday (14/10),” add Djoko. numbers of Minister’s wives who have united On this occasion, Public Work Minister revealed in Solidarity of United Cabinet that sanitation problem is a serious problem. Because 38
  • 39. Edisi IV, 2010of 100.000 toddlers’ deaths per year, 30% of it make it so that people’s comprehension on sanitation willwas caused by diarrhea due to poor sanitation. The be the same as comprehension of ‘4 healthy 5 perfect’ (4National Sanitation Jamboree is the main event of sehat 5 sempurna).2010 International Sanitation Year campaign series that Participants of this Sanitation Jamboree are thewas established by UN Board. Sanitation is the key to students who have won Competition of Sanitation Postersustainable life and growth of children in the developing and Paper. Beside them, 40 people from 3R (reuse-countries. Until date, in all of those countries, most reduce-recycle) KSM (community empowerment group)population has not enjoyed adequate sanitation. have also participated in the event that was first held on According to Mrs. Agung Laksono, with the National 2008.Sanitation Jamboree, children will be able to convey the This event is also acted as national campaign bysanitation message in a very simple way. Children are making children as central point. Participants of 2010central communication point and nation’s future element Sanitation Jamboree are expected to convey sanitationthat will be affected by sanitation condition. message to the community and become the next “The Jamboree will provide new lesson for the generation who care about sanitation.children regarding sanitation. This activity will trigger “Children usually have high spirit in absorbingus, and the community to improve the environment,” new knowledge and ideas. They can be an example andshe said. According to her, the jamboree is part of the influenced their families, friends, and environment,” addcampaign to improve sanitation life as an important Djoko. Ekoelement in the continuity of children lives. On that occasion, Mrs. Lies Djoko Kirmantohopes that the children will eventually able to changeparadigm or daily behavior since early beginning, suchas disposing garbage properly. That is why she welcomesgood initiative of Directorate General of Cipta Karya topromote awareness on the importance of sanitation to FOTO-FOTO: POKJA 39
  • 40. Reportage Youth Urban Forum Youth Involvement in Urban Development Young people are not only the leaders of tomorrow; roles with regard to the urban problems. After they can play a leading role in the development of their officially opened, the event was continued by communities today. Let us hope that their good works general lecture session from Mrs. Tri Rismaharini, today blossom into lifelong commitments that will the Mayor of Surabaya. In the general lecture benefit all the world’s people”. (Kofi Annan). attended by approximately 300 students, Risma shared the condition of Surabaya and explained theY outh Urban Forum (YUF) of Indonesia that environmentally friendly spatial plan of Surabaya comprises of college students who care about City. Example that was given by Risma among urban has been initiated on June 2010, at others is planting mangrove for nature conservation,the same time as the third APMCHUD (Asia Pacific waste and pollution management as well as buildingMinisterial Conference on Housing and Urban parks in pollution-dense areas as well as on theDevelopment) at Solo, Jawa Tengah. Four months river side. Risma who is not ashamed to call herselflater, to commemorate 2010 World Habitat Day, “Wagiman” (Walikota Gila Taman – Mayor whothe youth in YUF Indonesia have met again for is crazy about park) expect participation from allmore concrete follow-up. The two days meeting layers of community in creating an environmentally-on 8-9 November 2010 was held at ITS (SepuluhNopember Institute of Technology) Surabaya. Selection of Surabaya as location for YUFmeeting is not without reason. Surabaya city hasseveral good practices in solving problems of housingand urban that which was done way before throughKampong Improvement Program (KIP). Moreover,ITS as meeting location is also where Johan Silas(one of the best expert on urban and housing inIndonesia) came from. YUF activities that were doneon early November were also thick with patrioticspirit in commemorating Hero Day, in harmonywith spirit and passion of the youth. The first day meeting of YUF was openedofficially by the Head of 2010 World HabitatDay Commemoration Team, Oswar Mungkasa.In his speech, Oswar Mungkasa conveys his hope that YUF can be a smart organization for youth in discussing their 40
  • 41. Edisi IV, 2010friendly city. from the process of tempe making. YUF event was then followed by general lecture After field visit, YUF participants who camefrom Public Housing Minister, Suharso Monoarfa from ITS Surabaya, Sebelas Maret Universityon Housing Provision for the First Labor Force. Surakarta, Brawijaya University Malang, AirlanggaIn his presentation, Monoarfa emphasized the University Surabaya, and Muhammadiyah Universitychoice on cheaper and more efficient flats. On Surakarta return to ITS. The event was continuedthis occasion, Monoarfa also convey his hope that by presentation on the Spirit of YUF Indonesia byYUF Indonesia will not only stop on gathering and Special Staff of Public Housing Ministry, Kemalcommunication forum, but can be optimized in Taruc and YUF Coordinator Aris Rizky Kurniawan.assisting the government to accommodate people’s This session presented youth involvement inaspiration and solve housing and urban problems. the development scenario and student’s effort inThe Public House Minister also reminded the assisting to solve the housing and urban problems.university to take a role, take a lead in housing and Presentation of Spirit of YUF Indonesia is expectedurban development. to be a good start in initiating effort to solve current The YUF activity was then followed by a visit to housing and urban problems.Tempe kampong at Sukomanunggal, Surabaya Barat.During the visit, Public House Minister, Suharso Four Area DiscussionsMonoarfa also visited three locations of temper Toward the evening of the first day of YUFproduction. People of this kampong expressed their activity, there is one discussion session with thechallenges such as poor drainage that has caused theme of Utilization of Geographic Informationflooding. Moreover, people also showed him location System (GIS) for Housing and Urban Development.of tempe production that has used waste water First presentation was presented by John Taylortreatment installation (IPAL) to treat waste water and Ahmad Rifai from Solo Kota Kita who have HARSYA PAMBUDI completed mapping of Solo city. John Taylor in his presentation also reminded the youth who is full of new ideas and innovation to responsible and participate in the future urban development. On the second presentation, Prof. Bangun Mulyo from ITS Geomatics emphasized 4 things, namely space, housing, disaster, and civilization. Even with advanced technology, including GIS, youth is reminded to never disregard local philosophy. The next day, first discussion was led by speaker Retno Hastijanti from 17 August University Surabaya who raised topics of conflict spaces on urban housing and Dra. Yuningtyas from Atma Jaya University of Yogyakarta who discuss improvement of slum area through community empowerment. On the next session, ex Program Manager of UN Habitat for Indonesia, Dodo Juliman and Head of Architecture Department of ITS led presentation on 41
  • 42. Reportage HARSYA PAMBUDI Design of Youth Program CategoryAbout youth Data, information and Data base, problem research on youth status mapping, bench and perception markingFor youth Activities to improve Training, skill health, economic and improvement education conditionYouth empowering Activities to improve Student exchange, youth comprehension on conference, forum the importance of change and improve ability to Follow-up of YUF Indonesia influence their future. On the second day post 4 sector discussions,Youth-led Activities that Micro credit, youth of YUF participants discussed and tried todevelopment were designed and cooperation, climate implemented by youth change team, clarify position of YUF Indonesia and what role to improve life and advocacy community sustainability could possibly involve the youth. The meeting wasWith youth Activities where youth are Services by youth held again to remind collective commitment on equal partner as mature family the importance of youth involvement in urban development. sustainable self-reliance. In his presentation, Dodo Between discussions, Daily Head of Habitat Juliman emphasized management of social and Seknas (National Secretary), Lana Winayanti collaboration diversity, while Purwanita Setijanti presented the framework of youth program category emphasized 5 basic capitals toward sustainable self- which was divided into 5 things, moreover, Lana reliance, which are human capital, natural capital, Winayanti also hope that YUF may continue to financial capital, social capital and physical capital. contribute well and to be welcomed by the peole. Next session presented Dr. Rachmah Ida from The problem in Tempe kampong that was visited Airlangga University who raised housing and urban on the first day has become the main attention of development in the perspective of social, cultural friends from YUF. As the first step, YUF has agreed and integration of science discipline. Young sociolo- to conduct real action for housing and urban that gy Pramudina Anggraini who better known as Anggi will be started from Tempe kampong itself. The Arifin then led presentation on research for urban discussion was then closed by Kemal Taruc and Prof. development. In her presentation, Anggi emphasized Bangun Mulyo all at once also closed the two days the concept of mindfulness in performing a research. series of YUF activities. YUF activities as the closure Anggi also add that a research requires clear target in of 2010 World Habitat Day is expected to bring order for it to be a qualify research. Indonesia’s urban toward better direction. 42
  • 43. Edisi IV, 2010 Launching and Book Review in main event of 2010 World Habitat Day ‘Flashback on Public Housing 1900-2000’ and ‘Pestering with Settlement and Environmental Management Order’ Red Jacket don’t you ever leave history Launching of the books was held at Bina Karna Bung Karno Auditorium, Bidakara Complex, Jakarta on 18 October 2010. The launching was begin with a speech There is no civilization without book from Public Work and Public Housing Ministers. In his speech, Public Work Minister Djoko KirmantoD iffer with previous years’ commemoration, expressed his support on UN Secretary General 2010 World Habitat Day was marked by regarding urban infrastructure service improvement. book launching activity. There two books that “In 2010, urban population in Indonesia has reachedwere launched, namely ‘Flashback on Public Housing 54%. It was estimated that in 2025, the number will1900-2000’ wrote by Ark. Djauhari, Cor Passchier and increase to 68%. This is the reason why more peopleBambang Eryudhawan, and ‘Pestering with Settlement are living in the cities and concentrated in Java Island,”and Environmental Management’ wrote by Tjuk he said.Kuswartojo with the purpose of increasing knowledge Meanwhile, Public House Minister Suharsoof settlement toward better city. Monoarfa explained the concept of ‘Balanced Urban The Head of 2010 World Habitat Day Development’ as solution to the problems of housingCommemoration Team, Oswar Mungkasa explained and settlement. The point is that development shouldthat book launching in 2010 HHD commemoration involve people. Monoarfa emphasized, lest housing andwas hoped to be advantageous and have impact in settlement development caused new slum area. Afterthe long term especially in housing and settlement his speech, Public Housing and Public Work Ministersmanagement. Moreover, book publishing is a start in then officially launched the books by book submissiondealing with our biggest weakness in documenting from Tjuk Kuswartojo, the author of “Pestering withprocesses and results of housing and settlement Environment and Housing Management” and thendevelopment. followed by “Flashback on Public Housing 1900- KEMENPERA 43
  • 44. Reportage2000” book submission to stakeholders that comprises substance that has not been noted in the book such asof development actors, academician, NGO, media, the gait of National Housing Public Company (Perumand elders. Public Housing Minister then also visited Perumnas) or housing institutions that can furtherexhibition that contains the essence of the two books perfect the book.at the same location. Pestering with Environment and Housing Flashback on Public Housing 1900-2000 Management The first Book Review discussed ‘Flashback on Second session of the Book Review is discussion onPublic Housing 1900-2000’. Attended as presenter is the book “Pestering with Environment and Housing”Bambang Eryudhawan and Ark Djauhari Sumintardja which was written by Kuswartojo Budiharjo or betterwith Prof. Sandi Siregar of Parahyangan Catholic known as Tjuk Kuswartojo, ITB architecture lecturer.University and Dr. Ing. Jo Santoso of Tarumanegara The second session of book review presented panelistsUniversity as panelists. The first review was moderated of Prof. Bakto Setiawan of UGM and Drs. Andrinofby Dr. Eko D. Heripoerwanto, Chaniago M.Si of UI andas Assistant Deputy of WSES-related Article Hetifah Sjaifudian MPP,Infrastructures, Facilities, and In the book of Pestering with Environment and PhD who is also a member ofUtilities to Formal Housing Housing Management, several articles are directly Commission X DPR RI andDeputy of Public Housing connected to WSES development. This is normal acting as moderator.Ministry. considering housing and settlement have become The book Pestering with Flashback on Public an inseparable unity. Such as paper of ‘Develop- Environment and HousingHousing 1900-2000 was the ment that Rest on Community who talks a lot Management consistswork of writer team comprises about community involvement in the develop- of 2 volumes which wasof Ark Djauhari, Bambang ment process. Regarding Slum Housing in Bandung packed in 1 box. Volume IEryudhawan and Cor Passchier city, namely paper on Slum Area Management at discusses Development andand discuss housing in several Bandung City. Meanwhile matter of flooding was Environment, while Volumeperiods of the 20 century th also discussed in ‘Flood, Marginalized Housing, II discusses Housing andin Indonesia. The book and Spatial Room’ (OM) Settlement. In Book reviewwas divided into three part session on 19 October 2010,with the first part compiled the author specifically coveredby Cor Passchier that focuses on the effort of the Volume II that contains articles on governmentalDutch Government in solving problems of public role as important element of implementation andhousing. The second part was compiled by Bambang management of environment, cities and housing.Eryudhawan who uses the form of anthology that The book which is a collection of Tjuk Kuswartojo’schronologically presents selected papers in dynamic articles since the 1980s until early 21st century wasof public housing history. The last part was written by considered by Prof. Bakti Setiawan or better knownArk Djauhari, contains investigation on public housing as Bobi, as proof of consistency of Tjuk Kuswartojodevelopment an the end of independence up to the and has positive meaning to improve thinking line in20th century. housing and settlement implementation. Meanwhile Prof. Sandi Siregar as panelist said that although the Andrinof Chaniago said that this book is the essencebook still requires perfecting and correction, especially of Tjuk Kuswartojo’s thought which is still relevantin inter-chapter harmonization, the book is basically a and very important to know by, not only housinggood book to read, not only limited to housing sector stakeholders, but also people in general due to its inter-stakeholders, but it can also be a reference for different disciplinary nature.communities. Meanwhile, Jo Santoso provides critics In question and answer session, audienceon the importance of explanation and confirmation appreciated the book. This book is considered perfectof time period in the book description. In question to be addressed by government agency or stakeholders and answer session, most of audience appreciated of housing and settlement sector. There was even the book; however, there are plenty suggestion for this book to not only stop at “pestering” on inputs regarding level, but continue to the “sue” level. 44
  • 45. Edisi IV, 2010 National Coordination Meeting of 2010 Water and Environmental Sanitation (WES) Program of UNICEFI n order to realize efficient coordination in the 2006-2010. The program is supported by Swedish program planning and evaluation of Indonesia and Dutch Government with the fund of 23 million Republic (RI) – Unicef cooperation program, series USD. WES program as one of community based waterof events is required to discuss the growing strategic supply and environmental sanitation programs alsoissues and all developments in kabupaten that has contributes in achieving target of water supply andimplemented WES program to be met in one forum, sanitation development through effective and efficientalso, together with National WSES Working Group, community based water supply and environmentalshare various achievement and problems that have sanitation model approach which was expected to beoccurred during WES Program implementation at adopted and further developed by Local Government.their local area. WES-Unicef program was completed at 6 provinces, Taking place at Lombok Raya Hotel – Mataram, 25 kabupaten and 5 cities at Eastern Indonesia.on 30 November – 2 December 2010, 2010 Unicef ’s WSES Program National Coordination Meeting isWES Program National Coordination Meeting was basically a national level coordination for the purposeheld with the theme “Government and Community, of synergizing WES program implementation, fromTogether Performing Change”. central to local, identifying and developing alternative In his speech, H. Ahyar Abduh (Mataram Mayor) solution for strategic issues and problems that haverevealed that with strategic cooperation between Uni- arose during program implementation, as well ascef and Local Government, Mataram has become one sharing experiences, lessons, innovation and bestof supporters of three prominent programs imple- practices among program implementer. mentation which benefit was truly felt by the people The National Coordination Meeting was attendedof Mataram City, among others are improvement of by Central Government, Local Government, Donorcommunity’s health degree, improvement of commu- Agencies, and Counterparts. Several latest presentationnity’s revenue through compost production and seed/ regarding prominent practices was presented by 6vegetable plants, and improvement of urban infra- selected Kabupaten/Kota. Moreover, we are hopingstructures’ quality and quantity by built drinking water that from the National Coordination Meetingfacilities, environmental sanitation facilities, as well as (Rakornas), synergic work plan between implementerssolid waste facilities. in the national, provincial, and kabupaten level will WES-Unicef program is one of eight programs be resulted for better 2011-2015 WES Programunder the umbrella of RI-Unicef cooperation year implementation strategy. (dw) POKJA 45
  • 46. Reportage Evaluation and Planning Meeting of 2010-2011 WSES DevelopmentW ater supply and environmental sanitation held at Inna Kuta Bali Hotel on 14-16 November development does not only relate to one 2010. certain aspect but represent an integration The purpose of Planning and Evaluation is to:of several aspects, namely technical, institutional, • Evaluate the past 2010 activities and formulatingfunding, social, and environmental. Based on that follow-up plans of the activities to be carried out byconcept, to improve coordination in developing each Ministry of WSES Working Group members.these aspects, Water Supply and Environmental • Consolidate inter-institutional program with other partners (donor, project, etc).Sanitation Working Group (WSES Working Group) • Discuss 2010 WSES Working Group Activity andwas established, that includes ministries of related Budget Plan.main tasks and functions (tupoksi) such as Domestic The event was opened by Maraita ListiasariAffair Ministry (Bina Bangda Directorate General), from Bappenas, representing Bappenas Director ofHealth Ministry (PPPL Directorate General), Public Housing and Settlement who couldn’t make it to theWork Ministry (Cipta Karya Directorate General), first day meeting. Attending participants comprisesFinance Ministry (Budget Directorate General) and of representatives from WSES-related directoratesEnvironmental Ministry and under the coordination of from Bappenas, Public Work Ministry, HeathBappenas. Ministry, Domestic Affair Ministry, Finance Ministry, Thus, an evaluation to 2010 activities of WSES WASPOLA Facility, TSSM, PPSP, WASAP-E, WESWorking Group is required along with the follow- UNICEF, Plan, Simavi, Pamsimas, ProAir STBM,up. In order to realize this, a 2010-2011 WSES WES-UNICEF Secretariat and WSES Working GroupDevelopment Planning and Evaluation Meeting was Secretariat. (MCH) FOTO-FOTO: POKJA 46
  • 47. Edisi IV, 2010 Banten Province WSESW ater supply and sanitation have big community awareness on the importance of PHBS, influence on poverty reduction, child and low community empowerment activities. While mortality rate reduction, national budget supporting potencies of WSES development amongsaving and women productivity increment. For those others are: existence of special allocation funds (DAK)reasons, Banten Provincial Government has adopted for Water Supply and Sanitation, adequate surfaceWSES program since 2002 and has established water sources, improvable PDAM service coverage,Provincial WSES Working community empowermentGroup in 2004. To support potency, private involvement2010-2014 RPJMN in CSR, and other sanitationaccomplishment and 2015 project support.MDGs targets, on 18-20 In 2009, average water supplyNovember 2010, Banten service coverage in BantenProvince WSES Working Province is 69,48%, whileGroup in cooperation for sanitation is 57,99%. Inwith Waspola Facility held order to support WSES sectora ‘WSES Development development at Banten Province, POKJASynergy Workshop of Banten several activities have beenProvince’ that took place at Jayakarta-Anyer Hotel. carried out such as Water Supply DAK and Sanitation WSES development at Banten Province DAK. Beside DAK support, there is also Pamsimasneeds to give more attention to areas with low water activity that was carried out in 2 Kabupaten of Lebaksupply and environmental sanitation coverage, natural- and Serang, with 12 regular villages each.disaster-vulnerability (of drought, flood), and socially Some of the challenges in Banten Province waterKLB (breakouts –such as diarrhea, polio)-vulnerable supply provision are:areas due to poor lifestyle of the people (isolated areas, • Raw water limitationurban and rural slum). • Decentralization, by establishment of new PDAM Through participative process, the output of the that may increase conflict and reduce serviceworkshop is: coverage.1. Drafts of working Group organizational strategy • Human resources competent and its active role in WSES development of Banten • Large investment Province. Other WSES-related activity at Banten Province is2. Comprehension improvement on WSES national PPSP program (Settlement Sanitation Development policies and the implementation at the local. Acceleration). PPSP was implemented at Banten3. Establishment of coordination and communication Province among others by providing counterpart in flow between Provincial and Kabupaten/Kota SSK formulation at Serang Kabupaten, as well as WSES Working Groups. establishing 2011 target kabupaten/kota of: Pandeglang Some of the final conclusions of Banten local and Kabupaten, South Tangerang City, and Serang City.provincial WSES development are: not all areas have These kabupaten/kota must have commitmentinstitution that manages water/drinking water/, low in preparing WSES Working Group, workingallocation/budget support for WSES activities, position group operation fund, and fund for supportingrotation that can influence WSES performance, low studies. (AWI) 47
  • 48. Guidance Toilet Alternatives that can be an OptionBy Arifin Dananjaya 1. Pit latrine/Soak Pit (Cubluk)Engineering Faculty Lecturer at 10 November Institute Pit latrine or soak pit cubluk is a hole/pit in theSurabaya ground with seeping water walls. Thus cubluk is a hole toI contain human waste water from toilet, and it functions ndonesia took the third place of Southeast as feces settlement and also infiltration media of the Asian countries with the worst sanitation entering fluid. (domestic waste water treatment) system after When land is available, two cubluk (twin cubluk) can Laos and Myanmar. According to the Indonesia be built. When one hole is full, it must be covered and Environmental Status data in 2005, no less than left alone for at least 1 (one) year so that the dried mud400.000 m3/day of domestic waste water are being can be further used for fertilizer (organic one).disposed directly to rivers and ground without prior Beside twin cubluk, only one cubluk can be built.treatment. 61,5% of it occurred at Java Island. Feces Basically it has same function, but one cubluk might bewaste is usually removed by several methods namely the preferable due to the cost. The other one can wait untiluse of septic tank, direct disposal to river or lake, direct it really needed. However, a place for the second cublukdisposal to ground, and direct disposal to pond or beach. must be prepared and cannot be used for permanent In some rural areas in Indonesia, there are still plenty building.of poor people with very minimum sanitation. People Cubluk is relatively cheap and easier to build andare still practicing open defecation on rivers because maintain compare to septic tanks.they don’t have special disposal line for domestic waste Material:water or waste water from the bathroom. Sometimes 1. Bamboopeople still even defecate on their own yard. Beside of 2. Woodeconomic factor, habit and low education factors have 3. Roof tilebig influence in people’s lifestyle. 4. Wall/cover material Several reasons as to the need of using various 5. Nailstechnology alternatives are: Tools: 1. Help to know suitable sanitation system. 1. Hoe/ground digger 2. Help to decide suitable sanitation system in 2. Saw accordance with the people’s demand. 3. Machete 3. The right tool for planning that was initiated by 4. Hammer and other carpentry tools community. 4. As general information on options to sanitation 2. Squat toilet technology. Swan neck toilets or flush toilet or squat toilet is The following is information on sanitation system suitable for areas with easy access to water supply. Themain component options: construction is pretty simple and strong. Only Swan Neck toilet and Septic Tank is required to contain the waste. Toilet It is usually placed inside or outside the house by using There are several types of toilet alternative, swan neck system to avoid odor and insects. Feces are each with its own advantages and flushed using water scoop. disadvantages: 48
  • 49. Edisi IV, 2010 Material: water line to keep it clean. 1. Concrete brick Maintenance: 2. Swan neck bowl 1. Use carbon and antiseptic when cleaning the floor. 3. Roof tile 2. Do not flush soap water, detergent or like 4. Cement substances to keep decomposing material active. 5. Wood 3. Floor and toilet appearance should be kept clean. 6. Board or stone wall 4. Avoid using hard cleaning brush to keep the toilet materials such as river from breaking. stone and gravel 5. Do not flush un-dissolvable waste (such as plastic, ISTIMEWA 7. Big and small PVC pipes tissue, paper, cloth, etc) in the water Tools: Advantages: 1. Saw 1. The common toilet. 2. Carpentry and Stoner Tools 2. Relatively cheap construction, operation, and Direction: maintenance cost. 1. Flush water on swan neck bowl to prevent 3. No requirement for expert or special design stickiness during construction. 2. Squat or sit above the toilet to defecate 4. Can be placed anywhere. 3. After finished, flush it with water adequately to 5. Very cozy, clean, and healthy when water is flush the feces available constantly. Maintenance: Disadvantages: 1. Use carbolic acid to clean the floor to prevent 1. Requires adequate amount of water supply. germs and bacteria. 2. Requires piping system and suction when it’s full. 2. Avoid flushing soap into the toilet in order to keep the decomposing bacteria active. 4. Ecosan 3. Floor and toilet must always being kept clean. Ecological sanitation (ecosan) is also a popular 4. Do not use hard scrubber to keep the toilet from technology in several European countries such as breaking. Germany. The principle of ecosan technology is using 5. Do not flush un-dissolvable waste (such as paper, domestic waste into something useful for environment. cloth, etc) in the water. This method will separate feces, urine, and bath/wash Advantages: water. 1. The most commonly found toilet in Indonesia. 1. Feces are then put into a filter tank which was 2. Cheap construction, operation and maintenance equipped with filter to filter the dissolved solid. cost. The filtrated water can be use to water plants. 3. Does not require expert skill. Solid feces can be used as ready-to-use fertilizer 4. It can be placed anywhere. using composting method. 5. Cozy, clean, and healthy if water is available 2. Bath and wash water can also be put into filter constantly. tank and use for trial plants. Disadvantages: 3. Urine will be put into urine container. The tank 1. Water is required consistently. will then be kept for one and a half month and 2. Requires piping and waste water treatment can be tested directly to plant without any special system. treatment. The ecosan concept is very suitable for Indonesia. 3. Sitting toilet This is an effort to release farmers’ dependency to Sitting toilet is suitable for areas with easy access to chemical fertilizer. Moreover, water requirement forwater supply. It usually placed in houses, hotels, offices, an area can be supplied by brown water ecosan. As weand also shopping malls using swan neck system to avoid know, human’s and animal’s secretion have importantodor and insect. role in nature to build good soil condition and provide Direction: valuable nutrition for plants. Products of one 1. Swan neck or toilet hole should be flushed often. organism (excreta), is used as raw material for 2. It is recommended that defecation is done sitting other organism. Conventional sanitation disposed down, not squatting down. these valuable nutrients and cut off 3. After finish defecating, flush the swan neck and the natural circle. 49
  • 50. Book Review Pestering with Housing and Environment ManagementI n the main event of 2010 World Habitat contains 26 articles that were divided into three Day commemoration in Jakarta on last parts. Early portion of the first part tries to entangle 18 October 2010, there were two books paradigmatic aspect of sustainable development and being launched. One of the book is environment development. The paradigmatic aspect “Pestering with Housing and Environmental analysis is then followed by concrete ideas of howManagement” which was written by Kuswartojo sustainable and environment developments can beBudiharjo or better known as Tjuk Kuswartojo who carried out. The next portion of the first part focuseshas served the housing and settlement sectors for on the more technical aspect of how AMDALyears. The book is a collection of Tjuk Kuswartojo’s (Environmental Impact Assessment) can be anwriting in quite long period of time since mid 1980s environmental control instrument. In the third part,to early 21st century. Tjuk Kuswartojo’s writings focus on natural disaster The book ‘Pestering with Housing and management and strategic environment analysis.Environment Management’ consists of two volumes City and Housing becomes the title of thewhich was packed into one. The first volume is second volume of ‘Pestering with Housing andtitled “Development and Environment” which has Envrionmental Management’. The second volumegreen covers and consists of 322 pages. This volume with brownish-red cover is thicker than the first ISTIMEWA ISTIMEWA 50
  • 51. Edisi IV, 2010 Title: Pestering with Housing and Environment Management Author: Tjuk kuswartojo Publisher: Policy Development and Planning Architecture School of Housing and Settlement Expertise, Banding Institute of Technology, 2010 Supporting Publisher: Public Housing Ministry Volume 1: Development and Environment (322 pages) Volume 2: City and Housing (514 pages)containing 47 articles with the total 514 pages. Thevolume contains three parts plus one extra part inthe closure with the title of ‘Pestering Architecture, efforts to fulfill community’s welfare/prosperity.Architecture Education and Design in Indonesia”. The articles in this part of the book discuss the Here, Tjuk Kuswartojo expresses that housing importance of self-supported housings, provisionand settlement can be seen as a case of how of affordable housing and implementation ofsustainable and environmental developments participative development which rests on the(should) be done and carried out. The author also community.initiated the role of government, community and This City and Housing volume is closed withother sector in it. numbers of articles on architecture education First part of this volume describes the author’s reorientation, architectural design and architectureview on concept and nature of a city as well as profession. These articles are in line with Tjukcity development which not only depends on the Kuswartojo’s profession as lecturer in architecturaldemography aspect but also historical aspect and sector. Although they were written within differenteconomic base. The second part of the volume is time period, this part basically showed the red linethen tries to describe the role of government as an between the author’s perspective on environmentalimportant element of environment, urban, and development and what must be acted upon byhousing management and implementation. This is architectural design profession.the part that was reviewed in book review activity on This is a complete book in term of time period18 October 2010. Andrinof Chaniago as panelists and discussion coverage. This book is expected to besaid that this book is not only important for housing able to provide positive contribution in sustainablestakeholders, but also for people in general due to and environment developments as well asits inter-disciplinary nature. Moreover, this issue implementation of housing and settlement.is important to be noted by many parties because (LNP)the issue of housing and settlement relates with the 51
  • 52. CD Info STBM-SToPS Programs at Sembung Village of Perak-Jombang Kecamatan The 35 minutes duration CD that was made by Jombang Kabupaten Health Agency is a story about Jombang Kabupaten people’s high spirit toCTPS Competition in PHBS Civilizing for accelerate the process toward Open Defecation-Kindergarten Students of Jombang Kabupaten Free Jombang Kabupaten. A breakthrough inYear 2009. The CD contains socialization of realizing clean and beautiful environment throughWashing Hands with Soap (CTPS) program that Community Bases Total Sanitation at Jombangwas packaged in CTPS competition. Duration of Kabupaten will be faster whenthis CD is 25 minutes documented numbers of 4 seen from the spirit of to 5 years old Kindergarten students who the people. In 2010, practice the proper way 10% targets of of washing hands Open Defecation with soap. Free (ODF) of Community Based Total Sanitation have been accomplished. Of 184 hamlets (dusun) that have been triggered or intervened, 84 hamlets and 5 villages have accomplished ODF. The five villages are Temuwulan village – Perak, Glagahan village – Perak, Sembung village – Perak, MancarOpera van Jamban – StoPS/STBM Program of village – Peterongan, and Mojotrisno village –Peterongan Kecamatan, Jombang Kabupaten. Mojoagung.One of the latest triggering strategy is a comedyplay “Opera van Jamban” (opera of toilet). Theplay was a creation of several sanitarian and staffs Video Presentation Suddenly Got Stomachache II.of Jombang Kabupaten Health Agency for the The video is about a family who doesn’t own apurpose of health promotion, especially sanitation. toilet, thus health, cleanliness, and comfort of theOpera van Jamban is a parody of a similar comedy family is disturbed. From harassment (peeked byshow in one of national private TV. Every play others) during defecation, until children and babiesalways involves several actors. Such as people who easily got sick because they who practices open defecation, don’t practice washing hands with head of the village, soap (CTPS) after eat or in other sanitarian and owner important moments for CTPS. of material store. In Moreover, the video also order to perform describes direction professional art to construct proper performance, toilet. The CD was every actor is made by SToPS in using a specific the year 2010. costume accordingly to the role. 52
  • 53. Book Edisi IV, 2010 Info awareness internalization for early age accountability side. While from the child is completed through knowledge opposite side, we learn that there’s improvement of the parents and edu- a public right that should have been cators on environmental management, there but was taken away. The double considering that parents and educa- dimensions made comprehensionWater: Environmental Education for tors are the closest persons who can of water unaccountability into a keyEarly Age Educator convey environmental messages and word of NRW’s (Non Revenue Water)Author: Dra. Masnellyarti Hilman, provide examples of environmentally- important role in water supply service.MSc. friendly behavior and attitude. There are three main goals ofPublished Year: 2010 The book of environmental this book. One, is raising the issueAuthor: Environmental Ministry, 80 management for educators of early that NRW is the core problem ofpages. age with water as the topic is one the most important service quality of reading materials for parents and improvement, however it is often educators of early age that can be used delayed (gained less priority). This as reference for educators in improving did not only occur in Jakarta, but also awareness of early age children. With in many regions of the world. Two, proper knowledge on water, it is Jakarta has plenty of experiences in expected that parents and educators reducing NRW, and it is important to can transfer the knowledge through be capitalized by fellow water supply examples, tales, songs or games. managers in Indonesia. Three, provide learning for Jakarta and other cities Water Unaccountability Decline: on what to be prioritized in NRW Jakarta’s Experience after decrement strategy in the future, the Government-Private Sector Water most important thing is improving Supply Service Cooperation 1998- support and role of Local Government. 2008 One of the cases revealed in this Author: Irzal Djamal, and friends book is the case of Bogor City Pakuan Published Year: 2010. Publisher: Tirta PDAM’s water unaccountability Jakarta, DKI Jakarta’s Water Supply that reached the average of 30%. Service Regulator Board. Based on the research, the causing 124 pages thick. factor of Bogor City Pakuan Tirta Different policies and programs PDAM’s water unaccountability isof environmental preservation have physical leaks, namely inaccuracybeen launched, but we must admit of the main meter, inaccuracy ofthat environmental contamination costumer’s meter, faulty reading ofand degradation have not been able the meter, etc. Physical leaks areto be reduced optimally. This issue mostly caused by porous pipes (overcannot be ignored because it will 20 year technical years) and also dueeventually disturb life continuity of to road digging by other agencies,Indonesian people or eliminates all namely Telkom, PLN, or gas. Thenatural resources. An environmental challenge is that with traffic density,awareness improvement effort that pipe maintenance can only be done atinvolves government, business world night. Therefore, it is clearly time forand people in general is required. inter-agencies coordination. Awareness improvement effort Moreover, water accountability ison the importance of environmental also caused by water thievery frommanagement will have better meaning the service pipes, because the waterwhen done since early age, considering meter is being cut off due to 3 monthsthan during this age, potency of each Water accountability can be arrears. Sanction on the water thieverychild can be developed optimally when seen from two sides: from the is direct sealing of the distributionpositively stimulated. When environ- loss itself and from the opposite pipe, of which prior to the sealing,mental introduction was done since side of no loss. Comprehension of service pipe was sealed. A fine willearly age, environmental values are these two dimensions has provided also be given as much as 10 timesexpected to internalize and eventually us with a depiction that water highest bill plus the cost of newinfluence the child’s behavior, percep- unaccountability is a default of the installation to be registered astion and attitude to be environmen- whole water supply service process. customer again.tally friendly. One of environmental This is an assessment from water 53
  • 54. Site InfoUN-HABITAT Housing for Marginalized Communitywww.unhabitat.org www.housing-the-urban-poor.net This site contains numbers of publication, learning, and numbers of regulation options that was summarized in a series of Housing the Urban Poor in Asian cities. The existing housingThrough this site, visitor may gain different information policies certainly need good financial support from thein the form of alphabetically order-features. Moreover, government. The city’s effort to ensure land availabilitythis blog also sells different publication materials such for housing also presented challenge and issue thatas books. Visitors can also freely downloaded periodic acquire attention in this site.report and publication materials. This site is managedby UN-HABITAT, UN agency which was mandated 15 Countries Habitatby UN Secretary General to promote social and http://www.habitat.net environmental issues for sustainable city for the purpose This site is the world’sof providing adequate shelter for all. habitat portal contains numbers of pagesPublic Housing Ministry from 15 countries inwww.kemenepra.go.id the world including Various public house Indonesia. Some of the ministry activities in cities in it are Belgium, relation to program Luxemburg, New and regulations within Zealand, Norwegia, Poland, Portugal, Spain, Swedish, Public Housing Turk and England. Ministry are available here. The documents Habitat for Humanity can be downloaded www.habitat.or freely by visitors.Moreover, visitors can also find information regardingscope of work and function of Public House Ministryalong with its complete history. The site is managedby Public Housing Ministry as the ministry that helpspresident in implementation of public housing sectorgovernance. Function of the Public Housing Ministryis to formulate national, implementation and technicalpolicies in the sector of public work and housing,governance in accordance with its task, managing This site contains stories, discourses and interestinggovernment assets under its authority, monitoring of the publications regarding housing and humanity. House istask and reporting evaluation, advice and consideration a safe and comfortable shelter having social and cultural of each task and function for the president. meaning for people. 54
  • 55. WSES Edisi IV, 2010 Literatures Percik Edition I English, 2010 “PIN Birth AMPL”Book ReportDebt for Nature Swap: Al- Bappenas-Plan Cooperationternative Funding Oppor- STBM Communication Mate- Guidancetunities, Reducing Debt, rial Implementation Report Urban Sanitation StrategySaving Environment. Publisher: Jakarta WSES Development Manual Series:Author: Jenni Shannaz, Working Group Secretariat Phase C of Urban Sanitationpublished year 2005. Pub- Published date: June 2010, Strategy Document Formula-lisher: Jakarta, Bappenas 120 pages thick. tion. LeafletEnvironmental Director- Author: J. Sinarko Wibowo, Healthy House, publishedate, 110 pages thick. Cees Keetelaar, Rix Dierx. by Housing Development Published year 2010, pub- and Research Center, lished by: Sanitation Develop- Development and ment Technical Team (TPPS), Research Board, of Public 2010, 124 pages thick. Work Department, 4 Final Observation Report pages thick. year 2009 for 2006-2010 RI-UNICEF CooperationLocal Financial and Program Area.Fiscal Decentralization in Publisher: Jakarta, LocalAutonomy. Development DirectorateAuthor: Juli Panglima General, of DomesticSaragih. Publish year: Affair Department “The heart” Secretariat of2003. Publisher: Jakarta, Year 2009, 87 pages thick. Magazine National Water ResourcesGhalia Indonesia, 175 Yunior Percik Edition 16, Board. Published bypages. November 2010 “Let’s National Water Resources Act” Board Secretary, of Public Work Ministry, year 2009, 6 pages thick. Case Study Communal Sanitation Sys- tem Case Study at Aceh Besar Kabupaten, Nan- Percik, Edition II, 2010 groe Aceh Darussalam. “Multi-villages WaterLists of Location and Publisher: Jakarta, Envi- Supply”Allocation of Community ronmental Services Pro- PosterDirect Assistance of gram (ESP), 1 page. Come On Wash Hands!Independence Community Published by Sumatra’sEmpowerment National Healthy School Program/Program. SHSP in cooperation withAuthor: Steering Team of MercyCorps – USDA –PNPM Mandiri. Starbucks Coffee, yearPublished on October Percik Edition III, 2010 20102009, 226 pages thick. Good Practices of Community “Right to Water” Based Environmental Activities in Indonesia. Publisher: Jakarta, Japan Bank for International Cooperation, March 2008, 42 pages thick. 55
  • 56. Facts Why is the Toilet in Your House Must be Healthy?W ater is the most where drinking water is a luxury and often fundamental and vital traded. Unlike 20 years ago where drinking matter for our lives. water can be obtained easily and always found Everyday we need water in abundance because at that time, there was for the purpose of drinking, not much water and air pollution. The pollutioncooking, bathing, washing, etc. Clean water will has also caused different taste and color.certainly help us to avoid disease. As we know, The cause of environmental contaminationdrinking water is a rare matter in our beloved is mostly caused by human. Water and groundcountry, especially in big cities like Jakarta, contamination is contamination on water such Example of unhealthy Defecation ILL. ITS 56
  • 57. Edisi IV, 2010as river, stream, lake, ground water, etc. While Microorganism in solid waste and wasteground contamination is contamination on water can be decomposing or disease-causinglands both in urban and rural areas. organisms. Poor solid waste and waste water Nature has the ability to restore the such as waste water disposal to open ducts, orcontaminated water condition either by damaged duct’s walls and base due to the lacknatural purification process using soil, sand, of maintenance.stone, and microorganism around us. Mass Waste disposal to the ducts will causepollution by human has overwhelmed nature’s plugging and puddles that will accelerate theability to restore the nature condition into growth of microorganism or disease-causinginitial condition. Nature has lost its ability bacteria, insect and disease-causing mammalsto purify pollution. Waste and other non such as fly and rats.environmentally-friendly substances such as The following are diseases that were causedplastic, DDT, detergent and etc. will worsen by poor sanitation and poor solid waste andnatural degradation. waste water disposal: Diarrhea, Dengue Fever, There are several factors that have caused Dysentery, Hepatitis A, Cholera, Typhoid,water and ground contamination, namely Malaria and Vermin.erosion and high rainfall, growing pile of solidwaste from housing and settlement, as well as Why Should Defecation be Healthy?chemical substance distribution from houses, What is the reason for our toilet to befarms, industries, etc. healthy? This may never cross the minds of Solid waste and waste water contains various our rural communities. From the aboveelements such as dissolved gasses, dissolved explanation, it is clear that there are lotssolid, oil and grease as well as microorganism. of diseased that were 57
  • 58. Factscaused by unhealthy defecation and toilet. water can be decomposing or disease-causingToilet itself is a container for human feces that organisms. Poor solid waste and waste waterwas made intentionally to secure it, for the such as waste water disposal to open ducts, orpurpose of: damaged duct’s walls and base due to the lack 1. Preventing direct distribution of hazardous of maintenance. substances for human due to human Waste disposal to the ducts will cause defecation. plugging and puddles that will accelerate the 2. Preventing carrier vector to distribute growth of microorganism or disease-causing disease to the users and surrounding bacteria, insect and disease-causing mammals environment. such as fly and rats. Flies that perched on the waste and the Water body such as rivers and sea hassurface of waste water or sewer rat that got certain decomposing capacity. When wasteinto the waste water duct may bring numbers water is being disposed into without priorof disease-causing germs. When the fly or treatment, environmental contamination willrat touched food or beverage, there is large eventually occur. Contamination will occurpossibility that the people who drink or eat the when waste decomposing capacity in thefood will suffer one of the above diseases. Such ISTIMEWA water body is exceeded,is the case for children who were playing near thus the water bodyor directly contacted with the waste water and can no longer performsolid waste. They too may caught the above its natural treatment ordiseases, especially if they don’t clean up first. decomposition. Waste water can be categorized The said conditioninto 2, namely water from the sink is called septic oror floor that was used to wash the contaminated conditiondishes, clothes, and bathwater; and and was marked by badfeces sludge from toilet or water ‘One’s health odor, dark water color, andcloset (WC). will be good if large numbers of dead or floating Septic tank or centralized waste the surrounding fish or other water organisms.water treatment unit is required to environment is Clean and healthy life cantreat waste water prior to disposal also good’ be perceived as living in anto a water body. Besides preventing environment with standardcontamination, including disease- of cleanliness and health, andcausing organism, waste water treatment was completing clean and healthymeant to reduce contamination burden or pattern or lifestyle. One’s health will be gooddecomposing contaminants thus it will comply if the surrounding environment is also good.with the standard. In the contrary, one’s health will be bad if Solid waste and waste water contains various the surrounding environment is also bad.substances such as dissolved gasses, dissolved Application of clean and healthy life can be solid, oil and grease as well as microorgan- started by realizing a healthy environment. ism. Microorganism in solid Healthy environment has the characteristic of waste and waste healthy house and environment. 58
  • 59. Edisi IV, 2010 Climate Change and the CitiesA lthough there haven’t been any science as abrasion, sea water surface increment, and off that can provide exact forecast of climate course, a more extreme storm. Impact for Indonesia change, the tendency is going to the negative people will be bigger because there are more thandirection. Higher temperature can cause extreme 75% populations who are living in the proximity ofweather conditions such as drought, flood, storm, 100 km from the coast line.and heat wave. Climate change is also believed to be The following are several facts regarding coastalthe cause of sea surface temperature increment and cities of the world in relation with the climatethe change of rain pattern and river flow. change: Impact of climate change will be obvious by 1. New Orleans, USAalmost all of world population and though some The low lying city was impacted by horriblereceived positive impact, most of the impacts are Katrina Storm on August 2005. The storm hasnegative. The negative impact will be suffered caused great flood and causing the damage ofmore by the poor people because they have high over 50 billion USD.vulnerability due to less good governance and 2. New York, USAimproper infrastructure. Climate change impact may New York City that is located next to thealso cause political conflict and instability. shore is facing potencies of sea water surface − From 2000 to early 2008, there are 2.947 increment that can damage the underground weather-related natural disasters. train system, sanitation facilities, power plants, − Water shortage may become the biggest and factories. problem in relation to climate change impact. 3. Japan’s harbors Community may even need to migrate across As adaptation on the rise of sea water surface, the country’s border in order to obtain water Japan’s harbors need to change construction in and food. order to remain functioning and this has cost 40 percent of world population is living in 100 km them 110 billion USD.distance from the beach. They have bigger risk on 4. Mumbai, Indiastorm disaster, one of extreme condition that was Mumbai has 22,6 million population with verybelieved to have caused by climate change. Coastal high population density. Without adaptation,areas are areas with high economic growth thus one meter raise of sea water surface willinviting urbanization; but it also has problems such thread most of Mumbai area and endanger ISTIMEWA the lives of the people. 5. Venice, Italy The flood that occurs more often has damaged the building structures at Venice city. The flood is worsened by the rise of sea water surface. 6. Sukothai and Ayuthayya, Thailand Flash flood that has happened in Thailand has heavily damaged Sukothai as the first capital of Thailand Kingdom. Flood has also damaged Ayuthayya which was Thailand capital in the 14-18 A.N centuries. Source: The State of The World Atlas, 2008 The Atlas of Climate Change, 2007 59
  • 60. Toward Better City and Better Life World Habitat Day 4 October 2010 Commemorating World Habitat Day Jakarta, 4 October 2010Series of World Habitat Day Events in Indonesia- ‘Better City, Better Life’ Seminar on 30 September 2010 Humanist and Sustainable Urban Housing and Settlement Management Concept- Press Conference of the Public Housing Minister 4 October 2010- Photo Exhibition 4-8 October 2010- Waste Treatment Tour for Elementary School Students – 15 October 2010- Sanitation Jamboree 12-16 October 2010- Habitat Fun Bike 17 October 2010- MAIN EVENT Bina Karna Auditorium, Bidakara Complex, 18 October 2010 Launching, Book Review, and Book Exhibition ‘Flashback on Public Housing 1900-2000’ and ‘Pestering with Housing and Environmental Management’- National Workshop “City Support Capacity and Climate Change Adaptation” 26 October 2010- Youth Urban Forum. 10 Nopember Institute of Technology, Surabaya 8-9 November 2010