Indonesia Water and Sanitation magazine

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Published by water and sanitation working group. First edition on August 2003

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Indonesia Water and Sanitation magazine

  1. 1. Surabaya Green and Clean: Toward Healthy Surabaya City Edition IV, 2010 Information Media of Water Supply and Environmental Sanitation Habitat Day Toward better City and Better Life
  2. 2. Information Media on Water Supply and Environmental Sanitation Table of Published by: ContentsWater Supply and Environmental Sanitation Working Group (WSES Working Group) From the Editor ………………………………………………………………………….................... 3 Your Voice ………………………………………………………………….……………...................... 4 Main Report Responsible Person World Habitat Day 2010 Toward Better City and Life ………………………........ 5Housing and Settlement Director of Bappenas World Habitat Day, Increasing Concern on Urbanization Challenges …..…. 9 Environmental Sanitation Director of the Habitat, Day, Water and Sanitation ...………………………………………............. 11 Health Ministry Habitat National Secretariat of Indonesia …………………………………............ 13 Water Supply Development Director of the Regulation Public Work Ministry Agenda 21 ……………………………….………………………………….......................... 15Natural Resources Improvement and Efficient Habitat Agenda ……………………………………………………………......................... 17 Technology Director of Domestic Affair Lesson Ministry Surabaya Green and Clean: Toward Healthy Surabaya City ………….…............. 19 Director of Spatial and Environmental Facili- Testimony tation of the Domestic Affair Ministry dr. M. Basyir Ahmad, Pekalongan Mayor. House is Human Right ………... 22 Different Side Head of editorial staff 1,2 billion World Population are living in Unsuitable Settlements ……….. 24 Oswar Mungkasa Discourse Right to Water and Housing (second paper – finished) ……………………..... 30 Editorial Staff Interview Maraita Listyasari Suharso Monoarfa, Public Housing Minister ...........................................…..... 30 Innovation Managing Editor Clearing Water With Moringa Leaves Seed ………………………..……............. 32 Eko Budi Harsono Turning Air into Water ……………………………………..……………....................... 4 3 Reportage Design and Production 15 Asia Pacific Journalists Visited Tambora Slump Area ……………….......... 6 3 Agus Sumarno 2010 Sanitation Jamboree, Sanitation Ambassador Met Sofyar with the Vice President …………………………………………………………………....... 38 Youth Urban Forum, Youth Involvement in Urban Development……….... 40 Circulation/Secretariat Book Launching and Review in the Main Event of Agus Syuhada 2010 World Habitat Day ………………………………………………........................ 43 Nur Aini 2010 UNICEF WES Program National Coordination Meetin …………......... 45 WSES Development Evaluation and Planning for the year 2010-2011 ... 46 Editorial Address Workshop of Banten Province WSES Development Synergy …………....... 47 Jl. RP Soeroso 50, Central Jakarta, Guidance Ph/Fax: (021) 31904113 Toilet Alternatives as Options …………………………………………….................... 8 4 Website: http//www.ampl.or.id Books Info ….……………………………………………………………………..…...................... 50 e-mail: redaksipercik@yahoo.com CD Info … ….…………………………………………………………………………........................ 52 redaksi@ampl.or.id Website Info ………………………………………………………………………..…..................... 54 WESE Literatures …………………………………………………………………..….................... 5 5 Editors accept external papers/article Factsconcerning water supply and environmental Why is Toilet in Your House Must Be Healthy? ……………..…………..................... 56 sanitation. Climate Change and Cities ……………………………………………….............................. 59
  3. 3. From the Edisi IV, 2010 EditorI t has become a routine since 1986 that every infrastructures, facilities and utility (PSU). Partial first Sunday of October is commemorated handling will not result in maximum result. This is all around the world as Habitat Day. This the message to be conveyed through Habitat Day year, Habitat Day has fallen on 4 October commemoration for the past 10 years. 2010 with theme of toward better city and In the spirit of integration, this edition of Percikbetter life. Habitat Day is often commemorated in has raised the theme of Habitat Day in the hope thatIndonesia, however misguided still occurs where future housing and settlement developments can behabitat day commemoration is considered to be only more integrated; not only in concept, but also in thefor the settlement development stakeholders. This implementation on the field. Hopefully.is actually inappropriate considering close relation The year 2010 will soon be behind us, webetween housing and settlement (water supply and certainly welcome year 2011 with new ideas, targets,environmental sanitation). It has been proven for and hopes. The same goes for us in Percik editorialexample, from the theme of 2003 Habitat Day staff and supporter. Hopefully Percik will continuewhich was Water and Sanitation for Cities. to be published with brilliant theme and able to Integration between WSES development and satisfy reader’s expectation. Therefore, we are stillsettlement is a necessity, especially with regard to opening our door for theme proposal to be includedcity development. As we all know, slump areas have in the year 2011. With that reason, relation betweenbecome the ‘trade mark’ of almost every city, thus us is more than just reader and editor, but morethe management has become common agenda of than that. We have always tried to make Percik toall cities. Slump areas problems are mainly adjacent be an interactive communication media amongto house and environment quality along with stakeholders. Let’s realize this hope together. (OM) POKJA 3
  4. 4. Your Voice ronmental Sanitation Working Group. Plant Trees Ennoble But, for the past couple of months we no longer acquire the magazine. Water I got the latest Percik Magazine in- I am concern about the vanishing advertently from one of my friends in forests in this country due to illegalPercik Appearance logging. Natural disaster will occur Lebak Kabupaten Health Agency dur-continues to be better ing my visit to the agency. I finally bor- during the rainy season, and drought My name is Wardi, water supply rowed the magazine to be copied for will occur during the dry season. Thisand environmental sanitation ob- our library. may actually prevented if we care forserver. I live at Pasar Minggu, Jakarta To Percik editors, we are hoping the forest and ennoble water.Selatan. I’m a loyal reader of Percik to get this magazine regularly. If fee Natural disaster in this countryMagazine since I first got the maga- is needed, I’m happy to subscribe. should be a warning for us to care andzine back when I was still working at Thank you for your kind attention. pay more attention to nature. GrowingRegional Development Management Sukemi number of illegal logging have causedDirectorate General of the Domestic Kampung Rukun Rt06/Rw07 landslides because the rain water can-Affair Department in 2004. Desa Bojongsari Serang, Banten not be adsorbed by the forest, I would like to thank managers Without water we will not survive,of Percik Magazine for the informa- Thank you for your attention and thus, let’s ennoble water such as wetion and valuable lessons that I have for being loyal reader of Percik. Your ennoble ourselves. Rain water shouldgot with regard to Water Supply and name and address have been submit- acquire its rightful place. Let’s plantEnvironmental Sanitation. I am im- ted as regular reader. We will send the trees that can adsorb water, so we arepressed with the new appearance of magazine to you regularly. Hope you not lacking of water. If the rain waterPercik Magazine with better design. enjoy the magazine.The content of this magazine can be is being adsorbed, our homes will becompared to commercial magazine in save from flood and other natural di-the level of Tempo Magazine. Water is a Gift saster. I hope, Percik Magazine may con- We have started to find difficulty Ahmad Riyadi Umartinue to exist in providing numbers in acquiring water supply, especially Bojonegoro, Jawa Timurof information and lesson as well as during the drought season. Withoutcommunity empowerment in WSES us knowing, water is turning into lux- Don’t Use Watersector. Bravo Percik Magazine. ury good, whereas we will have diffi- Excessively Mawardi culties in acquiring them because it is The benefit of water as life support Kalibata Tengah Pasar Minggu getting scarce or expensive. must be well managed in the use. Its Jakarta Selatan We can already see the symptoms existence as God’s gift must be recog- of water as luxury good. One is the nize and utilized maximally. The grate- Thank you very much for your kind loss of ground water recharge due to fulness should not only come out ofattention and appreciation to Percik deforestation, worsened by narrow- our mouth, but should also come outmagazine. We will keep trying to en- ing river area as water reserve due to through series of actions or wise andhance and improve information quality change of use into settlement. just attitude toward water utilization,and magazine appearance so it may be Two, water contamination that in accordance with the requirementwell accepted by the people. Hopefully was not seriously handled. The con- standard.this magazine will continue to exist and taminants are certainly the main As we know, water is un-renew-provide the best information. cause of inconsumable water. Three, able natural resources. Effective and water privatization. Water that govern efficient use is greatly important inSubscription to the lives of many is owned only by cer- anticipating excessive water use.Percik Magazine tain groups that can manipulate water The excessive attitude is also forbid It has been almost one year since management. Everyone have right to by religion because it is belong in themy friends and I, Environment and water. By privatization, not everyone’s category of “isyraf”. Especially becauseCommunity Empowerment activists of right to water is recognized. water is certainly includes the lives ofPelangi Dunia at Sungai Ciujung, Ban- Therefore, from now on, water many, and environment in general.ten acquired Yunior Percik and Percik management must be fixed. Don’t let Thus, management tool for the peoplemagazine from our friends from Ban- it become disaster, but a gift. in proper use of water is required. ten Province Water Sup- Thomas Sutasman Muhammad Erfan ply and Envi- Cilacap, Jawa Tengah Ciputat, Tangerang 4
  5. 5. Main Report 2010 World Habitat Day Toward Better City and Better lifeH ISTIMEWA abitat is a crucial mitment to implement the agreed Day is also one of the methods to issue to be re- Global Act Plan. Several activities in remind world population about the garded by many relation to the Habitat Agenda have phenomena and challenges of the parties due to its been actively followed by the gov- urban people. relation with the ernment, such as Habitat5+ in New One of the world challenges todayfulfillment efforts of people’s pros- York on 2001 and biannual meeting is rapid growing of urban areas (cities).perity. In dealing with habitat-relat- of Governing Council of UN Habi- If before, vast majority of the worlded issues, countries in the world have tat in Nairobi. Prof. Johan Silas as population are living in the rural ar-showed their concern commitment KIP (Kampong Improvement Pro- eas, today, over half of world popula-through several agreements namely gram) initiator has received Habitat tion are living in the urban areas and1976 Vancouver Declaration and Scroll of Honours for his commit- this number is estimated to increaseHabitat Agenda that was established ment and dedication for settlement into two-third by 2030. With the lim-in Istanbul, Turk in 1996. development, especially for poor ited resources management capacity The Habitat Agenda that was people. in the city, many negative impacts willsigned by 171 countries (includ- The content of Vancouver Dec- arise, from growing problem of theing Indonesia) contains more than laration and Habitat Agenda is the lack of proper settlement, grow-100 commitments and 600 recom- message to be conveyed to people ing slump areas, pollution, traf-mendations. Every country that has through annual commemoration of fic jams, social gaps,signed the Habitat Agenda has com- World Habitat Day. World Habitat etc. 5
  6. 6. Main Report ized at Cengkareng flats, Jakarta and (5) Improving cultural involvement. Data and Facts of the theme was selected to remain The above steps are expected to act Urban Areas: people about Millennium Develop- as important catalyst in realizing n Fifty percent of world population is ment Goals that were launched five better life for all. currently living in the city years before. World Habitat Day commemo- n Three billion of world population is living in the city. 1 billion of which By rising the theme of “Better ration this year, such as the years is living in slump areas. In Sub- City, Better Life” for 2010, this before, was held jointly by Public Sahara Africa area, 70% of the city population is living in slump areas. year’s commemoration tries to em- Housing Ministry and Public Work n In 2005, there is 1,4 billion more people in the cities compare to year phasize on the importance of city Ministry. In the press conference 1980. quality in supporting better life, of 2010 World Habitat Day that n Urbanization is found more in developing countries. In contrary, that will encourage opportunities fell on Monday, 4 October 2010, Europe countries are experiencing and potencies, reducing gap, and Public Housing Minister, Suharso decline due to the advance transportation and communication providing proper settlement for all Monoarfa has stated that livable that has reduced population layers of community. house is an issue of Human Right concentration in one place. In the global message of UN that requires special attention from Sumber:The State of the World Atlas Habitat presented by Inga Björk- the government and better settle- Klevby (Assistant Secretary-General ment is collective responsibility for of the United Nations and Deputy the future. This statement is in line Toward Better Executive Director, UN-HABI- with the mission of Habitat Agenda, City and Better Life TAT), it was said that for better liv- which is proper settlement for all This year, in relation to World ing, smarter city is required. Inga and sustainable urbanization.Habitat Day Commemoration, said, only smart cities can provideIndonesia has resume participa- their citizens with better life. In 2010 World Habitat Daytion such as prior years. In 2008, order to accomplish smarter city Activities in IndonesiaWorld Habitat Day commemora- for better life, there are five strate- In Indonesia, 2010 World Habi-tion was held at Bali and in 2009 gic steps that were encouraged by tat Day was commemorated for theat Palembang City. For global com- UN Habitat namely: (1) Improving purpose to increase concern of allmemoration, Indonesia has hosted a life quality, (2) Investing in human parties, namely central and local2005 World Habitat Day with The capital, (3) Encouraging sustain- governments, private sector, uni-Millennium Goals and the City as able public economy growth, (4) versities, and community. Anothertheme. That year, World Habitat Improving politic participation, and purpose is to encourage new think-Day commemoration was central- ing on current condition of settle- ment. Furthermore, 2010 World Habitat Day was commemorated to provide understanding to the people on housing and settlement issues as well as encouraging participation of housing and settlement stakehold- ers in activities to improve compre- hension of World Habitat Day and implementation of Habitat Agenda, especially among the youth because future responsibility of earth sus- tainability is on their hands. 6
  7. 7. Edisi IV, 2010 KEMENPERA presented speakers among others are ex-Kimpraswil (Housing and Regional Infrastructure) Minister, Erna Witoelar, Urban Sociology Observer Imam B. Prasodjo, Head of Indonesia Planning Expert Asso- ciation (IAP), Iman Soedrajat, and also government representatives of Yogyakarta, Manado, and Palem- bang. With regard to sanitation, on 12- 16 October 2010, Cipta Karya Di- rectorate General held a Sanitation Jamboree at Wisma Hijau Cimanggis with the theme of “Concern of Sani- Public Housing Minister, Suharso Monoarfa (middle) and Public Work Minister, Djoko tation, Concern of Water Quality”. Kirmanto (right) together with the book writer of “Pestering Housing and Environmental Participants of Sanitation Jamboree Implementation Order”, Tjuk Kuswartojo. comprised of 128 students from 32 It is only appropriate that World by 2010 Habitat National Seminar provinces in Indonesia. In the open- Habitat Day commemoration was “Better City, Better Life” that was ing ceremony, Public Worl Minis- filled with Seminars and Workshops, held at Sultan Hotel, Jakarta on 30 ter Djoko Kirmanto revealed that Sanitation Jamboree, Book Launch- September 2010. Seminar with the Sanitation Jamboree is a national ing as the main event and also Youth theme of Management Concept of campaign that focused on children Urban Forum for the youth in ITS Sustainable and Humanist Urban as central point. They are expected Surabaya. Beside the above activities, Housing and Settlement discussed to be the agent of development in World Habitat Day was also intro- the city from the aspect of livable their own areas. As series of Sanita- duced to public through television, – namely the aspects of social, eco- tion Jamboree, a tour was held to radio, printed media, and internet. nomic, safety and environment. Lippo Karawaci Waste Water Treat- Series of 2010 World Habitat Seminar that was held by Public ment with participation of Elemen- Day Commemoration was initiated Housing Ministry Formal Deputy tary School students from schools in Cimanggis for the purpose of earlyNumbers of World Population who lives in the Cities, 1990-2030 (%) introduction to waste water treat- ment. Region 1990 2000 2009 2010* 2020* 2030* Meanwhile, on Sunday morn- World 42.6 46.4 50.1 50.5 54.4 59.0 ing, 17 October 2010, Habitat Fun Asia 31.5 36.8 41.7 42.2 47.2 52.9 Bike Activity was held. This activity Oceania/ 70.7 70.4 70.2 70.2 70.4 71.4 was led by Public Housing Minis- Pacific ter and followed by approximately Europe 69.8 70.8 72.5 72.8 75.4 78.4 150 participants, both from higher North America 75.4 79.1 81.9 82.1 84.6 86.7 level officials in the Ministry and Latin America 70.3 75.5 79.3 79.6 82.6 84.9 staffs of Public Housing and Africa 32.1 36.0 39.6 40.0 44.6 50.0 Public Work Ministries. This*Prediction, Source: UN casual biking was 7
  8. 8. Main Reportstarted on 6.30 am (West Indonesia knowledge on settlement as the base classes in this workshop, which istime – WIB) taking the start from toward better city. This book launch- the class of “Organizing BuildingsPublic Housing Ministry’s yard ing was also marked by speech from and Environments toward Qualifiedthrough Senayan Circle (Bundaran Public Work and Public Housing City” and “Organizing Slump AreasSenayan), Sudirman Street through Ministers followed by official book in Answering the Challenge of Cli-HI Circle (Bundaran HI) and back launching to the stakeholders in- mate Change”.to the Ministry’s office. When in cluding development implementer, As the closure of this year’s seriesHI Circle, participants distributed academician, NGOs, media and the of World Habitat Day commemo-stickers of 2010 World Habitat Day elders and followed by book review ration, Youth Urban Forum was(HHD) to the people for them to that presenting linguists of all com- held at ITS Surabaya. In this twobetter understand World Habitat munities. days event on 8-9 November 2010,Day. Other activities in the series of Public Housing Minister Suharso The peak of 2010 World Habi- 2010 World Habitat Day com- Monoarfa and Surabaya Mayor Tritat Day took place on 18 October memoration is the National Work- Rismaharini gave general lecture to2010 and marked by launching, ex- shop that was held by Directorate of approximately 300 students. Thishibition, and book review of “Flash- Housing Development and Direc- lecture is then followed by discus-back on Settlement 1900-2000” torate of Environmental Building sion among the students and fieldand “Pestering Settlement and En- Order, Cipta Karya, of Public Work visit to Tempe kampong, Sukoma-vironmental Management Order”. Ministry that was held on October nunggal, Surabaya. Youth UrbanPublic Housing Minister hopes that 26th 2010 at Public Work Ministry. Forum as the closure of Worldlaunching of this book may inspire The workshop with the title of “City Habitat Day commemoration se-youth to plan and design a more in- Support Capacity and Adaptation to ries has affirmed the fact that worldnovative and creative housing and Climate Change” presented speakers cities continuity is in the hands ofsettlement. Main event of book namely Onno W. Purbo and Imam youth, for better city and betterlaunching was targeted to increase B. Prasodjo. There are two parallel life. (LNP) HARSYA PAMBUDI Participants of Youth Urban Forum are listening to general lecture from the Mayor of Surabaya 8
  9. 9. Edisi IV, 2010 ISTIMEWA World Habitat Day Increasing Concern onUrbanization ChallengesE very year, the world always persuades all organization both inside and outside commemorates World Habitat Day on the UN system to support the national efforts of the first Monday of October. World projects planning, formulation implementation, Habitat Day is one of international and evaluation to improve settlement quality. The days that was established by the UN Vancouver conference has also based establishmentand commemorated as realization of our concern to of United Nations Human Settlements Programfulfillment of proper housing and settlement for all. (UN-HABITAT), UN commission for settlementsOther purpose of World Habitat Day is to remind sector.people on the need of collective responsibility for the Approximately 9 years latter, in the year 1985,future of human habitat. in Commission on Human Settlement Resolution The origin of World Habitat Day cannot be dated 8 May 1985, proposal of World Habitat Dayapart from Habitat I conference or Habitat: United was submitted. This proposal was then adoptedNation Conference on Human Settlement in and established in UN Court Resolution in theVancouver, Canada, back in 1976. In the conference year 1985 (Resolution 40/202 of 17 Decemberthat was held 34 years ago, the world has started 1985) thus World Habitat Day has started to beto realize the growing phenomena of urbanization commemorated in the year 1986. The start of Worldalong with its impacts, especially in developing Habitat Day commemoration on 1986 was alsocountries. Before, the problem of urbanization and marking 10 years commemoration of Habitat I.its impacts have almost never been UN priority. In the first commemoration that was held inHabitat I Conference has become the first UN Nairobi, Kenya, the selected theme was Shelterconference in the sector of settlement and resulted in is My Right. Ten years latter in 1996,Vancouver Declaration on Human Settlements that Habitat II conference 9
  10. 10. Main Reportwas held at Istanbul, Turk which resulted in the which are Adequate Shelter for All and SustainableHabitat Agenda. Habitat Agenda is commitment Urbanization. World Habitat Day commemorationof 176 head of countries including Indonesia to has become momentum to promote main messagessupport better future of human habitat. of Habitat Agenda. Habitat Day commemoration Habitat II conference has become some sort from one year to the next has become moreof turning point on the focus of settlement issue. important. Thirty-four years ago, during Habitat IThemes of World Habitat Day commemoration in era, two-third of world population are still living inthe prior years have emphasized more on ‘shelter’. rural areas. Today, the proportion has been reversed,Since 1996, World Habitat Day theme has shifted more than half world population are living in urbanto city (see box). This tendency may arise due to areas and in 2030 it was estimated that two – thirdthe thinking that settlement problems are problems of world population will live in the city. This willof city and urban. Habitat Agenda as the output certainly have bigger consequence.of Habitat II has reflected manifestation of this For 2010, World Habitat Day fell on Monday, 4tendency. Through Habitat Agenda, countries in the October 2010 with the theme of “Better City, Betterworld are trying to accomplish Adequate Shelter for Life”. This theme emphasized on the importanceAll and Sustainable Urbanization. of city quality in supporting better life, which will The theme of World Habitat Day encourage potency and opportunity, reducing gapcommemoration is always different from year and providing proper settlement for all.to year, however the theme selected is always inline with two main messages of Habitat Agenda, LNP from various sources. Themes of World Habitat Day 2010 – Better City, Better Life 2009 – Planning Our Urban Future 2008 – Harmonious Cities 2007 – A Safe City is a Just City 2006 – Cities, Magnets of Hope 2005 – The Millennium Goals and the City POKJA 2004 – Cities – Engines of Rural Development 2003 – Water and Sanitation for Cities 2002 – City-to-City Cooperation 2001 – Cities without Slums 2000 – Women in Urban Governance 1999 – Cities for All 1998 – Safer Cities 1996 – Urbanization and Human Solidarity 1995 – Our Neighborhood Curitiba 1994 – Home and the Family 1993 – Women and Shelter Development 1992 – Shelter and Sustainable Development 1991 – Shelter and the Living Environment 1990 – Shelter and Urbanization 1989 – Shelter, Health and the Family 1988 – Shelter and Community 1987 – Shelter for the Homeless 1986 – Shelter is My Right 10
  11. 11. Edisi IV, 2010 POKJA Habitat Day, Water and SanitationE very year, UN Habitat has facilities, especially for low income in his message that cities will un- become UN committee to people, women, and those who are deniably be the center of activities organize World Habitat Day considered as vulnerable and mar- and opportunities, however, with-commemoration. UN Habitat is ginalized groups. out proper settlement and adequateperforming its mandate based on Specifically, World Habitat Day basic facilities, city environment willVancouver Declaration on Human has once raised the theme of Water be the most dangerous environmentSettlements document, along with and Sanitation in the year 2003. In on earth.other documents such as the Habitat that year, World Habitat Day has In the world where half of theAgenda and the Millennium Decla- focused on urban water condition population lives in the cities, thereration. These documents empha- and sanitation crisis. A situation far are at least 1 billion people in dan-sized on proper settlement for all. worse than existing statistics. ger in relation to the lack of ad-Proper settlement and its services are In 2003 World Habitat Day equate water supply and sanitation.human right where the government global message, Anna Tibaijuka, In Asian cities, there are 700 millionis obligated to assist low income UN Habitat Director at the mo- people are lacking water and 800people in acquiring settlements. ment has stated that sustainable million are without proper sanita- Proper settlements for all cannot development is started from health. tion. Moreover, in many regions,be apart from provision and condi- Therefore, sustainable condition poor people tend to pay more fortion of water and sanitation. It was cannot be fulfilled without sustain- water compare to richer peo-stated in the Habitat Agenda to spe- able investment in water supply and ple.cifically promote access to safe water basic sanitation. Meanwhile, Kofi With regard tosupply, sanitation and other basic Annan as the Secretary General said 2003 11
  12. 12. Main Report Data and Facts on Water Supply and Sanitation - Almost half of world population is experiencing water shortage. - Almost one billion of world population is without access to proper water supply. - In developing countries, almost one of every four people has no access to sanitation, even the most basic one. - Women have the biggest burden in acquiring water for household purposes. - Central areas in big cities generally have access to water and sanitation, however, city’s poor people usually is not included in the service coverage. Illegal city settlements have the worst and unhygienic conditionSumber: UN Habitat Urban World - Juni 2010 POKJAWorld Habitat Day, at the moment, “Slum to Neighborhood” which Rudimentary Housing, and “Accel-global commemoration with the was initiated in the year 1993. Ur- eration of Water Supply and Sanita-theme of “Water and Sanitation for ban Minister of Brazil at the time tion Provision for Low Income Peo-Cities” was held at Rio De Janeiro city has said that better access to water ple in 1.500 Kampong/Kelurahanof Brazil. Participants from all over and sanitation has become Brazil Every Year”.the world visited Cajú area, a slump priority in fulfilling basic needs of Today, in the year 2010, waterarea resided with approximately 800 urban poor community. This com- and sanitation issues have remain tofamilies. This area represents typical mitment has shown seriousness of be crucial issues, especially when onlyslump areas in other part of the city Brazilian government in providing 5 years left to the year 2015 wherewhere almost 20 percent population right equality on city to urban poor targets of MDGs must be achieved.of Rio de Janeiro lives. Interestingly, community. From water provision point of view,in Cajú, people have very good ac- Meanwhile, in Indonesia, 2003 there are more people who have ac-cess to water and sanitation, electric- World Habitat Day commemora- cess to proper water supply and evenity, transportation, and social servic- tion was held at Denpasar, Bali. The more people have access to sanita-es. Located on the riverside, Cajú is President of Indonesia Republic at tion facilities. However, in order to a positive result of city’s initia- the time, Megawati Soekarnoputri, achieve MDGs targets, the effort tive example of had the opportunity to proclaim must be doubled. Development of 1.000.000 units of 12
  13. 13. Edisi IV, 2010 Habitat National Secretariat for Indonesia Improving Knowledge and Network of Urban Development and Housing SectorT he issue of settlement and urban are complex known as Habitat Seknas was established in 2008 and multi-disciplines issues. Capacity building by Joint Decree of Public Work Minister and Public of Government and other stakeholders to Housing Minister to support inter-agency cooperationbetter plan and manage the city is necessary. For that (government and non-government) as well as programreason, knowledge improvement of housing and urban implementation in relation to Habitat Agenda indevelopment sectors is required, as well as a strong Indonesia. Habitat Seknas is expected to resumenetwork for information exchange and cooperation. previous role of Habitat National Committee. In 1981, a Housing National Secretariat has been Habitat Seknas retain the function of knowledgeestablished to coordinate international organization hub of urban development and housing sector. Habitatactivity in relation to housing and planning in Seknas is expected to be the knowledge center in theIndonesia. It functions as clearing house that sector of housing and settlement, and common houseaccommodates and channel profession association that for practitioners, academicians, and other developmentrelates with the activity of planning and housing. actors to discuss and criticize issues of housing and ISTIMEWA Twenty years later, in 2001, HabitatII Agenda National Committee wasestablished by Indonesia Republic Presidentwith the task of assisting implementationof Habitat II Agenda in Indonesia andproviding consideration and advice to theGovernment regarding implementation ofHabitat II Agenda. Indonesia Habitat National Secretariat With the above background, IndonesiaHabitat National Secretariat or better Vision Improving knowledge and network of urban development and housing sector. Mission - Improving knowledge of urban development and housing sector through information documentation and best practices as well as publication through website and printed material. - Improving network of urban development and housing sector through information exchange and discussion forum. - Providing inputs on strategic issues for policy makers. - Supporting national and international implementation in relation to Ha­ bitat II Agenda 13
  14. 14. Main Reportsettlements, providepolicy input andharmonize activityprograms. ‘Common house To support inter- for practitioners,agency cooperation, academicians, and otherHabitat Seknas has development actors toinvolved 8 ministries discuss and criticizenamely Public Work issues of housing andMinistry, Public settlements …’Housing Ministry,CoordinatorMinistry of Public Welfare Sector, ForeignAffair Ministry, PPN/Bappenas Ministry,Domestic Affair Ministry, Environmental Ministryand Health Ministry to sit as Steering Team, OperatorTeam, and Daily Team. Steering Team is currently led by Cipta KaryaDirectorate General, Budi Yuwono with deputy fromPublic Housing Ministry Secretary, IskandarSaleh. Operator Team underthe Steering Team is led eknas abitat Sby Cipta Karya Directorate Indon esia’s H 68 ya I no.General Secretary, Susmono and Jl. Wija 710 12assisted by two representatives Jakarta -21-7226530 .or.id ax: 62 donesiaof the Head of Planning and Ph/F a bitat-in info@h indonesia.or.idBudget Bureau of Public Housing Email: abitat- :h ISTIMEWA Website and APMCHUD BureauMinistry, Oswar Mungkasa andDirector of Bina Program Cipta Meeting. In the meeting,Karya, Antonius Budiono. At the officials from Asia Pacific countries have gathered tomoment, Head of Daily Team and Seknas Habitat discuss the issue of housing and settlement.who responsible for daily Seknas activities is Dr. Lana Other than international activities, Seknas has alsoWinayanti of Public Housing Ministry, assisted by published several publications such as Country ProfileDr. Hadi Sucahyono of Public Work Ministry as her Indonesia in housing and settlement that was divideddeputy. into 5 sectors and several times carried out thematic discussions by involving different elements such as Seknas Activities governments, academicians, students, NGOs, and Scope of work Habitat Seknas has includes research institutes.mainstreaming Habitat Agenda, supporting Every year, Habitat Seknas has also taken roleinternational activities, documentation of best in Habitat Day commemoration. In 2009, Wordpractices and monitoring and controlling national/ Habitat Day commemoration was held at Palembang,international habitat activities. Sumatera Selatan with the theme of Planning Our Habitat Seknas role in realizing its vision and Urban Future and in 2010 the commemoration wasmission is evident among others through Asia Pacific focused in Jakarta with the theme of Better City, BetterMinisterial Conference on Housing and Urban Life. 2010 commemoration was marked by book Development (APMCHUD) at Solo launching in accordance with Habitat Seknas’ function on 22-24 June 2010 as knowledge center in housing and settlement sector. 14
  15. 15. Regulation Edisi IV, 2010 Agenda 21Humanity stands at a defining moment in history. Agenda 21 tries to ensure sustainable future whichWe are confronted with a perpetuation of disparities requires bigger awareness from all of us to find solutionsbetween and within nations, a worsening of poverty, to the problems.hunger, ill health and illiteracy, and the continuing With its substance, Agenda 21 has become somedeterioration of the ecosystems on which we depend for sort of blue print for global partnership to realizeour well-being. However, integration of environment high quality environments and healthy economic forand development concerns and greater attention everyone on this planet. Agenda 21 discusses criticalto them will lead to the fulfillment of basic needs, issues that we are facing as global community such asimproved living standards for all, better protected ecosystem degradation, increasing poverty, hunger andand managed ecosystems and a safer, more prosperous poor health, growing world population and illiteracy.future. No nation can achieve this on its own; but Agenda 21 consists of 40 chapters that identified everytogether we can - in a global partnership for sustainable challenge and provides realistic and simple solutiondevelopment. to sustainable development in fulfilling today’s requirements without reducing the future generation’s Agenda 21, paragraf 1.1 ability to fulfill their own needs. Agenda 21 consists of 5 parts with the total of 40 chapters. Preliminary part is Preamble (chapter 1.1- 1.6). The next part is Part 1 (chapter 2.1-8.54) thatA genda 21 is a comprehensive action plan to contains relation between social and economic aspects. be applied locally, nationally, or globally by This part emphasizes the importance of international organizations in the systems of UN, cooperation to implement and accelerate effortsgovernment and related groups on every toward sustainable development.aspect with impact on environment. The next part is Part 2 (chapter 9.1- Agenda 21 together with Rio Declaration 22.9) containing resources conservationon Environment and Development and and management for development ‘Agenda 21 hasStatement of Principles for the Sustainable become a blue which includes among otherManagement of Forests are documents that print for global mountain conservation, preventionwere adopted by 178 Governments in United partnership of deforestation, protection of waterNations Conference on Environment and to realize sources, solid waste, waste water,Development (UNCED) or Earth Summit high quality and radioactive management, andthat was held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 3-14 environment protection of oceans. Part 3 of Agenda and healthyJune 1992. economic.’ 21 describes role strengthening Agenda 21 offers hope, invites is to plan of majority group (chapterand take current action to preserve heritage 23.1-32.14). This chapterto be inherited by the future generation. contains a 15
  16. 16. Regulationstatement that sustainable development is the main this demand through integral approach can also beresponsibility of every government, but commitment the capital to improve life quality, productivity, healthand involvement of every social group is important to quality, and reducing investment cost in term ofrealize effective implementation of every government’s curative medication and assisting the effort of povertypolicy that relates with Agenda 21. eradication. The last part of Agenda 21 is Part 4 containing The target in Agenda 21 in relation to this issue ismore specific matters of implementation actions and fulfillment of infrastructure properly by the year 2025.how to initiate the action plans (chapter 33.1-40.30). Therefore, it is important for every developing countrySeveral underlined matters in this chapter among other to integrate capacity development in term of humanis the use of technology, improving public awareness resources, funding or technical into each nationalthrough education, data and information sharing to strategy.support decision making. In achieving the target, implementation is required in term of: (1) financing and expenditure based evaluation, (2) utilization of science and technology through research acceleration in integral policies, environmental impact analysis, and effective demand measurement method, as well as (3) human resources capacity building through improvement of awareness, skill training, institutional strengthening, and adoption of proper regulatory instrument. Follow Up of Agenda 21 All over the world, government, business community, non-government organization POKJA and other elements have placed Water, Sanitation, Drainage, Agenda 21 ideas into each plan or policy. This includes and Waste Management Indonesia which in 1997 has formulated Indonesia’s Water, sanitation, drainage, and waste management Agenda 21: national strategy for sustainable developmentare some of the aspects that were specifically discussed that was published by Environmental Ministry. Today,in Agenda 21. It was emphasized regarding these issues almost 20 years later, Agenda 21 is still very crucialin Agenda 21 that the effort to improve infrastructure and implementation requires multi-fold efforts withprovision of water, sanitation, drainage, and waste growing challenges. For that reason, cross-elementalmanagement need to be integrated. Infrastructure involvement in implementing Agenda 21 is veryfulfillment is important because minimum important. This task requires not only leadership andinfrastructure, especially in developing countries funding from government and business communities,may lead to disease and death. Moreover, developing but also vision and cooperation of every citizen.countries have challenges where infrastructure Sustainable development will never be achieved fulfillment exceeds the growth of the without cooperation of all sectors of community. demand. Whereas fulfilling 16
  17. 17. Edisi IV, 2010 Habitat AgendaAdequate Shelter for All vision of sustainable settlement – where everyoneSustainable Urbanization will have proper settlement, healthy and comfortable environment, basic service, and productive andT he world is facing rapid urbanization and liberating job. Habitat Agenda will be guidance for many governments in many countries are all efforts in order to change this vision into reality. not ready to handle this phenomenon. In general, Habitat Agenda has two mainEven so, in 1996 there is one turning point in the messages which is Adequate Shelter for All andinternational world to promote the effort in realizing Sustainable Urbanization. Habitat Agenda offerssustainable city, both from social and environmental positive vision for cities with practical road map onaspects. the world that has been impacted by urbanization. On June that year, the United Nations’ 1996 Other important message from Habitat AgendaConference on Human Settlements was held at is that good governance is a requirement forIstanbul, Turk. The purpose of this sustainable cities and poverty eradication.conference is to assess progress of the Beside the two main messages of Adequatepast two decades since establishment of Shelter for All and Sustainable Urbanization,Vancouver Declaration on 1976, and Habitat Agenda also discuss otheralso to establish a more suitable goal in ‘…good related issues such as health, nutrition,welcoming the new millennia. governance is and water and sanitation. Habitat The conference is a conference with Agenda relates urban problems andrelatively new approach because it a requirement poverty eradication as well as joboffers a more integrated, inclusive, and for sustainable addition and special attention toparticipative policy, strategy, and action cities and poverty women and marginalized groups.toward safe, healthy, and just world eradication.’ The output of Habitat Agendacities. This conference involves not is a comprehensive strategy thatonly government representatives, but encourages new partnership to act inalso non government organization, private sector, local, national, or international levels.academician, and cooperation groups. Habitat Agenda consists of The conference that was also called Habitat 241 paragraphs that were divided intoII has resulted in Istanbul Declaration and 4 parts. First part is Introduction (paragraph 1-21).also Habitat Agenda which was signed by 171 This part underlines global challenge of housingcountries, including Indonesia. Habitat Agenda and encourages nations to face the challenges. Theconsists of more than 100 commitments and 600 second part of this document contains Goals andrecommendations. Every country that has signed Principles (paragraph 22-36) that provides directionthe Habitat Agenda is committed to implement the to target policies as government’s action andagreed Global Action Plan. strategy to achieve it. The strategy also relates with cooperation, participation, information sharing, Habitat Agenda and supervising. The third part contains Habitat Agenda is a global shout-out to act in Commitment (paragraph 37-52) underlinesevery layer. In every target framework, principles, agreement of the internationaland commitment, Habitat Agenda offers positive communities in 17
  18. 18. Regulation Source: Cities and Homes for All: The Habitat Agenda, UN Habitat, 1996 discuss action plan in infrastructure and basic services. Infrastructure and basic services include water, sanitation, waste management, social welfare, transportation and communication facilities, health, school, safety and open space. Habitat Agendaachieving proper settlement for all, sustainable emphasize that government,housings, public sector, private, and community community, and private need to cooperate in orderinvolvement, in housing development, gender to fulfill the basic need.equality, housing financing, and international Central government will have a share incooperation. supporting local authority in management, Global Action Plan is the last part of Habitat operation, and maintenance of infrastructureAgenda. This is the biggest part of this document and basic services. On other side, private sector,(paragraph 53-241). There are 5 strategy actions in community, and non government organization canthis part in order to achieve: (1) proper settlement participate in service provider and managementfor all, (2) sustainable housing, (3) capacity building under coordination of the government. Governmentand institution development, (4) international must also provide infrastructure access and basiccooperation and coordination, and (5) supervision services especially for poor and marginalized peopleand implementation of Habitat Agenda. as well as involving local community in establishing standard and priority. Infrastructure and Basic Services In paragraph 84-87, Habitat Source: Cities and Homes for All: The Habitat Agenda specifically Agenda, UN Habitat, 1996, from various sources. 18
  19. 19. Learning Edisi IV, 2010FOTO-FOTO: HARSYA PAMBUDI Surabaya Green and Clean: Toward Healthy Surabaya City S urabaya as the 2nd largest metropolitan Surabaya City Government thought of an alternative city in Indonesia with population of way to handle solid waste and decided to apply over 2 million people has turned out to community based solid waste management program only have one final disposal site (TPA which also known as Green and Clean program. - landfill), which is Keputih TPA that In the year 2004, with the support of local receives waste from 155 temporary disposal sites NGO, Surabaya City has initiated public education (TPS) in Surabaya. However, solid waste at Keputih program of solid waste management. The purpose is not well managed and have caused of this program is to introduce bad odor that bothered the surrounding alternative ways of solid waste sorting neighborhood and has been forced to and management from the cycle base close in the year 2001. In consequence, on household level, while the strategy solid waste has kept piling up at TPS’ being use is by introducing accurate sites and moreover, solid waste can be technology along with instruction on seen at every corner of the city. In the how to apply it at household level, the year 2004 in the city of Surabaya, there substance of the education program are approximately 2.610 tons of solid includes how to sort organic and non- waste every day. organic waste, how to utilize waste by applying 3R This horrible situation has convinced Surabaya principles of Reduce, Reuse, Recycle. city, NGO, and community to start dealing with The program has built public awareness solid waste more seriously and to find solution on the importance of community based solid together. After identifying that the main source of waste management (through reduce, solid waste in Surabaya came from the household, reuse, and recycle) and 19
  20. 20. Learningencouraged their participation in the process. This to win these 2 competitions in the same year, Kotaprogram has also built network and partnership with Government will provide incentive as a reward inrelevant stakeholders for a more collaborative action. maintaining clean environment.This small action has gained popularity among In 2007, there is 18,6% decrement of solid wasteSurabaya people. to be transporter to the final disposal site compare to In general, the program consists of various the previous year prior to Green and Clean initiative.activities and initiatives in solid waste management Solid waste has been reduced into 1.480 tons.such as Solid Waste Management and Education, Green and Clean has inspired people to take part inGreen and Clean Competition, Cleanest Kecamatan conserving environment and managing solid wasteCompetition, Zero Waste Competition and independently. This has made Surabaya City into aInitiation of Independent Solid Waste Management. better city to live in. Several remarkable results of In 2005, in order to motivate people and to this program are:attract broader participants, Surabaya City – • Awareness of Surabaya’s people on thesupported by several partners has seriously worked importance of solid waste management hason the competition in introducing the concept of resulted in 6.500 environmental cadres whosereward and punishment and in managing their task is to inform people in their neighborhood onsurrounding environment. how to manage their waste; Green and Clean was • In Surabaya, thereat first carried out at the are 750 environmentallevel of environmental groups that have appliedgroups. The main criteria is independent communityenvironmental cleanliness based solid waste(including mosquito larvae management – by makingin houses). In 2006, due to compost, and also use itthe increasing awareness of as fertilizer for their ownsolid waste management, environment;the criteria is broaden to • Plenty of tress andinclude waste management other plants have beenand recycle initiative. HARSYA PAMBUDI planted in the housing There are several categories in the Green and areas, some of which became famous such asClean competition: 1. Solid Waste Management Orchard Kampong, Adenium Kampong, Aloe(solid waste sorting to compost treatment/making, Vera Kampong, etc;solid waste management facilities, and solid waste • In general, green space in Surabaya has increasedsystem monitoring), 2. Solid Waste Recycle (creativ- from 269,29 hectare in 2006 to 274,44 hectareity, art value, and economic value), 3. Cleanliness in 2007;(of streets and environments, condition of waste • There are at least 15 small-medium scaledisposal site and drainage), 4. Reforestation (biodi- companies for recycle products (umbrella, bags,versity, the use of compost in forestation process), 5. wallet, and lamp shade) under the support ofCondition of toilet/bathroom that includes cleanli- UNILEVER CARE. Therefore, the people canness, whether mosquito larvae can be found or not, benefit from the sales of non-organic waste andto public knowledge in preventing dengue fever. thus created new work field; ‘Waste Free’ program is almost similar with • Strengthening social capital due to active‘Green and Clean’ competition. Green and Clean participation of the people – including womenAward will be awarded on May (anniversary of and elderly – in this program;Surabaya City) while “Waste Free’ Award will be • The program has said to inspire and has been awarded on August during Independence replicated in other big cities such as Jakarta and Day. If an area manages Yogyakarta; 20
  21. 21. Edisi IV, 2010• Surabaya City has started to be a better place to Bubutan kecamatan (Tembok Dhuwur area) Surabaya. live (greener, cleaner and healthier). Before, this kampong is known to be ‘black’ area. Surabaya City has also awarded as recognition Surabaya people even call it bromo corah kampongon the effort. Some of the awards are Energy Globe (where criminal lives); from gambling (pigeonAward (EGA) from Austria (2005) for the category race), drunk, to people with high criminal record.of Water and Environment, Green Apple & Green In 2005, change occurred when community leaderOrganization from London (2007) and United Muhammad Sugiarto is elected to be Head of RukunNation Economic and Social Commission for Asia Tetangga (neighborhood).Pacific (UNESCAP) Award (2007) for the category Prior to his election, he asked for people’sof City Quality Improvement. agreement to conduct change and this request has acquire positive respond from all residents. Even Orchid Kampong (Kampung Anggrek) – after serving as Head of RT, the man who is better Cleanest and Greenest Kampong known as Abah Giarto made an innovation by Pesona Anggrek Kampong, Jl. Kertajaya IV-C, asking everyone to sign some sort of agreementRT 07 RW XIII, Kertajaya Kelurahan, Gubeng for certain matters, such as no clothes wringingKecamatan, is the winner of Surabaya’s Green and improperly thus creating slum image, unlessClean Competition in 2006. Based on the very long guest, there is no parking in front of the houselist of criteria, all judges have finally agreed to choose thus obstructing other street’s user, and obligatingthis kampong that was full of orchids, as the cleanest resident to sort their waste. Interestingly, there arekampong. Thus, this kampong has the right to certain days to sun-dried their mattress together.receive gratification money of 25 million IDR. That was not all; Margorukun kampong also One unique thing of this kampong is orchid enforced greenery in every house and independentlyin every single house. This was possible due to builds Waste Water Treatment Installation (IPAL).solidarity and consistency of its residents. This can This IPAL is eventually reused by the people toalso be seen in people’s behavior in solving solid water their plants of which have made the kampongwaste problems. The people managed their solid green. Thanks to persistent and consistent effort ofwaste well and they have composter to treat organic Margorukun people, Margorukun kampong haswaste into compost. become a very comfortable place to live in. Beside clean, this kampong has also succeeded in moving Margorukun Kampong its residents to build social capital in preserving their Gg. VI – Kampong with MoU environment. (David, from various sources) This kampong is located in Gundhi kelurahan, PUTU MAHENDRA 21
  22. 22. Testimony Interview with Pekalongan Mayor dr. M. Basyir AhmadHouse isa Human RightP ekalongan is not only known as Batik City, but That’s why I made a step. Where is actually the tip that also as Slum Area-Free City. How is that possible? makes government succeed? The tip is actually person per To answer this, Percik had the opportunity to person. When the people are good, the government willinterview dr. M. Basyir Ahmad (Pekalongan Mayor) at his automatically be good. The smallest organization in thehouse. The interview is summarized below. community is family. I push families to be good. When Pekalongan City has won many awards. What is the the families are good, RT will be good. When RT is good,secret? RW will be good, etc. until finally the city will also be My first secret is intention. When campaigning for good. In order to perform this step, I must strengthenedMayor, what was the intention? Inna ma amalu bin niyat existing institution in kelurahan. It is difficult to(all depends on the intention). I’m intent to benefit as coordinate a city, thus we start from the bottom. Wemany people as possible. That was my first intention. coordinate kelurahan with its Lurah, PKK, LPM, BKM-asAfterward, we certainly know how the government goes? product of PNPM, and Karang Taruna. This is the pillarFirst, how to increase human resources index. This is that finally turned into Working Group. There is Housingregarding welfare. Second, we talk about fairness, how and Environment Working Group. Coordinators ofpeople are treated equally. Whether they are poor or LPM, BKM, in the city level are also involved, alsorich, in order to get something, they must be treated Health Agency, PU, BPN. Further commitment and highequally. The next step is always community based. Those willingness will open up opportunities.are the main philosophy. Then, in order for the peopleto be good, they must be empowered, coordinated, and How did you gain support from the people?accompanied by. This is the brief look; this is the line of First is trust. When the people trust us, they will bethought. easy to talk to. From the beginning, I tried to make my Then there is another matter, according to the program get in touch with the people and I always triedofficials, regions must be made autonomic. There is no to talk to people. Every Monday and Thursday I do radioway for a country as big as Indonesia to be centralistic. interview. The program is titled Mayor Answers andThe authority obviously should be given to the region. everyone easily meet me in my office. I communicate,Well, I also gave my authority to my subordinate. For thus they can talk about something and we can giveexample, for permitting matters, I don’t need to sign them something. With communication eventually peopleanything, because my subordinate can do that. Thus, will know that I am not a difficult person. And also,I’m sharing my authority. We build good institution, we communication must be done in groups, not with everyfind good partner and we provide the fund. With the single person, it is not possible. I communicate withthree elements, program orientation is no longer project. the groups that were established by the people, not byProject will not last, but program continue to sustain. myself, such as LPM, Art Board, Worker Union, etc. theyWhen this is done, everyone is asked to work, and will decides. I will not touch or interfere, let it come fromwork, the result will be maximum. It’s impossible for us the bottom. If something happens, nobody can say that Ito work alone. When we autonomic, by involving the engineered or made it difficult. people that we led, everything will run. Last, there’s this thing called Is housing development apart from sanitation coordination. Coordination development? is easier said than done. At first, housing and environment are not included 22
  23. 23. Edisi IV, 2010in sanitation. We were guided to establish Sanitation funding source?Working Group in order to make the White Book and I designed one program called acceleration program.City Sanitation System (SSK). We didn’t know where At the time, it was only Mayor Decree then it becomeit will led. Because from housing and environmental Pekalongan Local Regulation (Perda) No 11 Year 2008.point of view, I was thinking, no slum areas. No slum The Perda has 5 points. Acceleration for poor families tocould mean no water puddle, drainage is available, then receive education as high as possible, to obtain the bestforestation is also available; that was my line of thought. health service, to work, acceleration of environmentalAfter we understand about sanitation, we were surprised and poor families’ housing improvement to prevent slum,because it must be sustainable and integrated, not too and acceleration of institution strengthening. Because it ismany teams. So, there will be Housing and Sanitation already Perda, the Local Council (DPRD) must provideWorking Group. the budget. I have made budget plot that was managed by and from the people. The initial value was 2,5%. Why Why only focusing on the slum area, whereas there are 2,5%, because I thought of it as alms. APBD must bemore aspects to the city than slum? made alms. The purpose of alms is to take care of the We touched every aspects, slum is only one of them. poor people, managed by them. But after that, I toldI’ve counted number of household in Pekalongan. There them that 2,5% is not enough. Where is the infaq shod-are 67.000 households. Then we sort it, how many have aqoh (charity), thus I made it 5%. Currently is still 4%.a house and how many without a house. It turned outthat there are 6.000 households without house. Now, Which city inspires you in eradicating the slum?for those who already have a house, which one is livable, My inspiration was the Public Housing Minister.which one is not, which is slum, which one is not. The When elected to be Pekalongan Mayor, I have problemresult surprised me. 5.068 houses are unlivable with no of slum. Then I met Pak Yusuf Asy’ari. In his office hetoilet, no water supply, not even plaster. No ventilation, said: “Pak Basyir, can you free your city from slum?” Heno partition between father and children. Try to imagine then provides depiction. The apostle said Baiti Janati –a house without partition between father and children. My house, My heaven. Slum house will not be heaven,Then I was thinking, house is a human right. It is a either physically or spiritually. Then I said, “OK, I will doserious matter in UUD 1945, then I made a commitment it”. So, I wasn’t triggered by a place but by Public Housethat during my official period, I must finish 5.068 houses. Minister.It turned out to be completed in 3 years using the above In dealing with slum, are there any unsolved matters?methods. Involve the people, establish group, decide What were the challenges?which one is slum, and then those who help, we give Yes, there is. Actually, of all achievements, there arefund, while we too seek for funds. 2.000 unmanaged houses, when we suddenly got ROB (high tide). So in the North, houses that have been fixed What should be fixed first in handling the slum, the are back to slum again. I have a target of fixing approxi-people or the physical condition? mately 6 million IDR. We will provide the 2 million, In my opinion, the physic should be fixed first. I loan the 2 million and the other 2 million must be fromfeel that if a house is not livable, people will not live them. So, we will not fix everything, because then, theyin the house. The children will all run to the street. will not have sense of ownership. There are 270 slumWhen they already run, they will be educated on the communities. By the end of last year, 150 of it were ablestreet. Simultaneously, I made a program where every to be managed. This year I will try to manage up to 200Elementary School must have TPQ, all using the model communities, thus only 80 or 90 that are left. We willof Islam education. What kind of Islam education model? finish this in 2 years, 2011 and 2012 because slum areasWe want every Moslem to commit, must pray, must use are harder to deal with than housing. My challenge isMoslem clothes. We taught them this since early start, only one, I have just begin to understand sanitation prob-and on certain hour we teach them to read and write lem. We want to make the house to be efficient, or maybeQuran, because every Moslem must be able to read and building the house with proper, but communal septicwrite Quran, thus we can pray. Pray is Innas salata tanha tank. The most ideal will be when water supply is entirelyanil fahsha wal munakar, keeping wickedness away. I’m served by PDAM. No better in Pekalongan. I have ahoping they will stay at home, educated at home. The dream that in 10-15 years, Pekalongan will not usemethod is simultaneous like that. well anymore. Even when the sanitation is not proper yet, at least water sup- To eradicate slum is not cheap, where did you find the ply is available. (DVD) 23
  24. 24. Different Side ISTIMEWA 1,2 Billion of World Population are Living in Unsuitable ShelterS helter is still a problem, faced not only by movement from rural to urban areas, but also means Indonesia, but also the world. Unsuitable higher water supply requirement. shelter leads to unsuitable housing, especially Furthermore, changes due to the development in the city; thus making city housing/ have altered village’s status into city. Other than high settlement a worrisome issue. It is clear that urbanization rate, we are also facing high populationdevelopment of an area was not in accordance with growth. Therefore, mature planning is required inproper housing quality. Hence, plenty of people cannot developing an area so that everyone may have accessafford proper housing yet. According to UN Habitat, to healthy and proper Water Supply and Environmentalcurrently in the world, there are at least 1,2 billion people Sanitation.living in unsuitable areas, whereas in major cities of The core of housing development according to theIndonesia, approximately 12,5 million people are living Law mandate is to build an area accordingly with Law Noin slum areas with the total area of 57.000 hectare and 8 26 Year 2007 on Spatial. Every region must have a spatialmillion people are without proper housing. plan (RTRW) which was made accordingly with natural This has clearly showed that Indonesia is one of condition of the region. However, most people and localthe countries that must deal with problems of physical governments have not applied their RTRW with properand infrastructure sectors of settlement, namely discipline and have not revised their RTRW.high urbanization, poor quality of settlements, and Anna Tibaijuka as the Executive Director of UN Habitatlarge number of cities without sanitation, and water has stated that in the past 10 years, numbers of peopleinfrastructures. At the moment, only approximately 49% who are living in slum areas have increased from 780 of the population is without water supply. The high million to 820 million. Thus, the last data of UN Habitat number of urbanization does not in year 2010 has stated that there are 1,2 billion of world only mean population population are living in a very unsuitable environment. 24
  25. 25. Edisi IV, 2010 For that reason, UN Habitat has established two Challenges that must be faced by cities in the world inprograms. One is World Urban Campaign Program, which the future due to rapid growth of urbanization, especiallyis cooperation program between UN Habitat and public in the last few decades include reducing poverty thread,and private sectors, as well as civil community to raise the improving access to public basic facilities (water supply,issue of sustainable urbanization into governance agenda settlement, sanitation, friendly environment), andall around the world. Two is cooperation with the Coca sustainable city growth.Cola Company in providing 1 million USD for pure water In Indonesia, according to Public House Ministerdevelopment in Asia, Africa, and Latin America areas. The (Menpera) Suharso Monoarfa, who is also the Headpurpose of this program is to preserve water resources of APMCHUD, since 2007, approximately 50% of theand assisting water use efficiency as well as recycle population lives in the city. Moreover, 58,6% of the totalprocess of turning waste water into water supply which population lives in Java Island which area only representwas expected to be completed in the next 2 years. 7% of the total area in Indonesia, 17% housings in natural Rapid urbanization due to population explosion and disaster vulnerable areas, and poverty rate that hasuneven distribution of population has become crucial reached 14,15% or approximately 32,53 million peopleissues that attracted attention of the world. According have made APMCHUD an important forum to shareto UN’s estimation, in the next 50 years, 2/3 of world experience and information with member countries ofpopulation will be living in the cities. Urbanization APMCHUD while seeking for the best solution.increment has caused a domino effect that will eventually In cities of the developing countries, the problem iscaused big detriment for people and environment. a lot more complicated, due to faster population growthPopulation explosion and uneven distribution of the compare to developed countries. Formal settlementpopulation are also factors of imbalance between urban provision capacity such as real estate, and housing fromand rural areas which in turn, increase urbanization rate. the government or private is very limited and has onlyThe rapid urbanization growth in the urban areas has touched middle to upper class of the society. Meanwhile,caused many problems, one of which, slum areas in the low income communities have not been touched andcity. left to find their own solution. The consequence is rapid Therefore, the world has become more concern in growth of informal settlements which in Indonesia isthe management of urban and housing development, better known as kampong, with typical characteristicsand this was marked by three series of important events, of dense, slum, squalid, not following official rules, andsuch as World Urban Forum 5 (WUF), World Shanghai majority of the residents are poor.Expo 2010, and 3rd Asia Pacific Ministerial Conferenceon Housing and Urban Development (APMCHUD). Source: UN Habitat and Kemenpera.go.id ISTIMEWA 25

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