Table                  Information Media for Water Supply and Environmental Sanitation                                    ...
F ROM THE EDITOR  T          he development of facilities      hygienic drinking water is the right      this media will b...
MA I N F E A T U R E WASPOLA: Giving Birth to National Policy   for Development of Community-Based Water Supply and Enviro...
MAIN FEATURE        Water As Economic Goods        W                  ater in indispensable to          water can never fu...
MAIN FEATURE  Demand  Responsive  Approach  R    esponsive Approach places the demand of the       community as a determin...
M AIN FEATURE                           Participatory                             Approach C          onstructing is easie...
I       NTERVIEW                    Ir. Basah Hernowo, MA :      Director of Human Settlement and Housing, Bappenas       ...
I        NTERVIEW                                                                                                   Richar...
O PINION  Field Trial for the Implementation of National  Policy for Development of Community-Based   Water Supply and Env...
O PINION     The preliminary understanding phase          ability of a WSES facility. All the regions             It can b...
M ISCELLANEOUS    National Policy for Development of         Community-Based WSES PURPOSE                                 ...
F   IELD VISIT        Annual Coordination Meeting of         DCT and PCT WSLIC-2 ProjectR            epresentatives from 3...
B OOK INFO      The Contribution of Peoples        Participation Evidence  from 121 Rural Water Supply Project            ...
WEBSITE INFO Conclusions and Important Conferences        During the Last 30 Years                                http://w...
M IRROR           Having a toilet, it is hard in          the beginning but at the end               we are proud of it   ...
M IRROR out which of the materials were already available and what the remaining still need to be bought. Loan from SEHAT ...
MI R R O R "Imagine how comfortable it is, now we       Lingkungan and Kimpraswil.                  environmental sanitati...
Indonesia Water Supply and Sanitation Magazine. 'PERCIK' First Edition August 2003
Indonesia Water Supply and Sanitation Magazine. 'PERCIK' First Edition August 2003
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Indonesia Water Supply and Sanitation Magazine. 'PERCIK' First Edition August 2003

  1. 1. Table Information Media for Water Supply and Environmental Sanitation of Advisor: Director General for Urban and Contents Rural Development, Ministry of Settlement and Regional Infrastructure Director of Human Settlement and Housing, National Development Planning AgencyFrom the Editors 1 Republic of Indonesia Director of Water and Sanitation, Ministry of HealthMain Feature: Director of Urban and Rural Eastern Region, Ministry of Settlement and RegionalWASPOLA: Giving Birth to National Policy for InfrastructureDevelopment of Community-Based Water Director of Natural Resources and AppropriateSupply and Environmental Sanitation 2 Technology, Director General on Village and Community Empowerment, Ministry of Home AffairsInterview: Director for Facilitation of Special Planning"We Need a National Policy" 6 Environment Management, Ministry of Home AffairsOpinion: Chief Editor: Oswar MungkasaField Trial of the National Policy forCommunity Based Water Supply and Board of Editor:Environmental Sanitation 8 Hartoyo, Johan Susmono, Budi Susilo, PoedjastantoMiscellaneous: Editor: Maraita Listyasari, Rewang Budiyana, RheiddaNational Policy for Development of Community BasedWater Supply and Environmental Sanitation 10 Pramudhy, Joko Wartono, Essy Asiah, Mujiyanto Design:Field Visit 11 Rudi Kosasih 12 Production:Book Info Machrudin 13 Distribution:Website Info Anggie Rifki Address:Mirror: Jl. Cianjur No. 4, Menteng, Jakarta PusatHaving a toilet, it is hard in the beginning but Phone: 62-21-31904113in the end we are proud of having one 14 e-mail: Unsolicited article or opinion items are welcome. Please send to our address or e-mail. Dont forget to be brief and accompanied by identity.
  2. 2. F ROM THE EDITOR T he development of facilities hygienic drinking water is the right this media will be instrumental in the for water supply and environ- for everyone. All the above comprise establishment of a WSES network mental sanitation has been the statement concluded by the UN among stakeholders. implemented for a considerable Committee on Economic, Social and Whats in a name, so says length of time. A considerable result Cultural Affairs. Shakespeare. But what would it be has been achieved but at the same As an awareness of the impor- like if an information media is with- there also shortcomings and con- tance of water supply and environ- out a name, it is like a head without a strains that make the development mental sanitation is increasing, one face. The process of selecting a name result less than the expected. Apart of the striking issues that needs to be is not as easy as it seems. There were from all these, it is noted that during dealt with is the indifference and lack many prospects coming into mind the last few years the attention given of interest from among the commu- that made it difficult to choose. PER- to this sector indicates an increasing nity and the stakeholders. Examining CIK becomes the final choice. One tendency. further into the barrier, it is deemed might question the meaning behind A number of cases mark the mile- necessary to build and improve the the name. Percik literally means stones of these changes. One, in participation of the stakeholders in water splash. A splashed water that September 2000 in a UN-sponsored WSES development. Their participa- touches the surrounding indicates its Millennium Meeting the world lead- tion greatly helps speeding up the existence. We, from this viewpoint, ers agreed to a set of measurable achievement of the target and objec- try to signify water splash as a meta- goals and targets in fighting poverty, tive of the WSES development pro- morphosis of public campaign. A diseases, illiteracy, environmental gram. task this media will undertake. degradation and gender inequity. One of the most important strate- As it is with a new information This document is later known as gies is through a public campaign. media, there is a lot of improvement Millennium Development Goals Such a campaign will enable to create to be made before PERCIK can reach (MDGs). With regard to water supply a condition in which water supply an acceptable standard. Toward this and environmental sanitation it is and environmental sanitation deve- end, we would appreciate any com- agreed halve by 2015 the proportion lopment is placed in priority scale of ment and suggestion from the read- of people without sustainable access the government and the community ers. to safe drinking water. Two, in alike. One means of campaign is As the wise man says, a big leap is Johannesburg Summit 2002, the through an information media. This preceded with an initial step. An ini- water supply target was further information media will become the tial step has been taken, we hope this sharpened while in sanitation by means for interaction of at least the will become the beginning of a jour- 2015 half of the population that are government agencies, universities, ney toward the fulfillment of our currently without it must be able private sector, donor agencies/coun- common obsession. access its service. Three, safe and tries, and the community. It is hoped Photos Gallery Source: Ministry of Health 1 Percik August 2003
  3. 3. MA I N F E A T U R E WASPOLA: Giving Birth to National Policy for Development of Community-Based Water Supply and Environmental Sanitation A prolonged dry season has caused severe drought in many areas of Java and Madura. The people have difficulties to get water they need. The dry season which is estimated to last till October 2003 will aggravate the availability of water for consumption and sanitation needs. If the problem water scarcity is not solved in time the inci- dence of diarrhea, skin infection and di- seases of the respiratory tract will cer- tainly widespread. The government agencies involved are currently busy finding ways to over- come the scarcity of water for drinking and sanitation needs. This is indeed only an incidental case caused by natural disturbance. However, this is also an indication that the environmental quality is so poor that makes the availability of water for consumption so scarce. It is ironical, though, similar cases ty service not sustainable. The facility is development is determined based on keeps on coming back from time to time, not used effectively because it was built technology choice and a management and it is always the poor who suffers. In for them based on supply driven unit elected in democratic manner. other words, in terms of quantity, the approach. Many of the investment is not Eventually user community will coverage of WSES development is still in used by the community because they develop a capacity to pay for any service a very limited scale. A level of coverage dont need it, but on the other hand as long as the service satisfies their that is not enough to cope with the there are many who need one but they demand. User really care about the qua- increasing demand as a consequence of arent given any services. lity and wiling to pay as long as the ser- population growth. From the implementation of a number vice meets their demand. Up to this time it is estimated that of donor and central government funded A study by World Bank on 121 WSES 100 million of Indonesian population do WSES related programs one could summa- facilities around the world which was not have access to water supply and rize that effective use and sustainability of conducted by various institutions and sanitation service. Most of them are the service is better if the community is organizations indicates that an active poor and those living in the rural areas. involved during the development phases. community participation in decision The number indicates a growing tenden- User management involving all compo- making and in development processes cy every year. nents in the community and decision ma- has resulted in effectively used and sus- Experience from the past indicates king by the local institution, will result in a tainable WSES service. that water supply and sanitation sys- greater community participation during the The analysis on the result of study on tems/facilities constructed are not func- post construction O&M. 121 water supply facilities indicates that tioning properly. The reason for this A balanced involvement of women, 20 of the facilities are highly effective. failure is, that community was not under-privileged group (poor, disabled, Two of the 20 highly effective services involved in planning, construction, and etc.) in decision making process and in are in Indonesia. The two systems which operation and maintenance activity. O&M, will improve effective use and sus- the World Bank indicates as highly effec- Limited technology option also makes it tainability of service. Effective use and tive are the ones handled by an NGO difficult for the community to choose sustainability of service will be achieved who involved the community participa- which of the facility complies with the because the choice of technology and its tion throughout their development pha- demand, culture and capacity for mana- funding consequences are determined ses. gement and the local condition. Lack of directly at household level in the com- The development strategy consists of community involvement has led to facili- munity. Community contribution in establishment of an institution involving 2 Percik August 2003
  4. 4. MAIN FEATURE Water As Economic Goods W ater in indispensable to water can never fulfill the need of water is expected to enable to change human life. We are quite everyone. For a community who is community habit in water use: aware that water constitutes now being under prolonged dry sea- exploit water resource more wisely, the origin of life. The manifestation son, for instance, water is no more a use water more efficiently, willing to regarding role of water to human public good. A big sacrifice must be sacrifice to obtain water. life, unfortunately, gives rise to the given in exchange to water. They Water is obviously valuable, and notion that water is solely a public have to deepen their wells, fall in everyone must sacrifice something in good: it can be obtained at no cost. line and wait for hours until water order to obtain water. The more so As a consequence, the communi- level to increase for the pail to be because water supply and environ- ty does not regard water as a scarce filled, or even they have spend mental sanitation system needs resource which has economic value. money for water. operation and management cost for They exploit water freely and exces- A public campaign needs to be its sustainability. Sustainable ser- sively. The community also tends to organized to introduce a change in vice can materialize only if there is disregard environmental and water the community viewpoint. All com- equity in the amount to be paid, resources, both quality or quantity. ponents of the community must be value of water in the eyes of the user, Other consequence is a stagnation in educated that water is a scarce and the amount of cost of service. In developing knowledge and technolo- resource with economic value and accordance with its nature as an eco- gy for reuse and recycle of water. need sacrifice -money or time- in nomic good, the main principle in The viewpoint may be right for as order to get water. A new communi- WSES service is "user must pay for long as there is enough water avail- ty awareness in relation to the the service". able. But in fact the availability of adherence of economic value in all components of the community; appli- the community, without an effort to have and Regional Infrastructures. The daily cation of participatory approaches in their significant involvement the accept- activities are handled by a Working Group problem solving; provision of training in ability and sustainability of the develop- represented by members from the same management, design, construction, O&M ment is difficult to achieve. This indi- agencies. Both institutions are coordinated and hygiene behavioral aspects. The cates that the current approach applied by Bappenas. The principle of partnership indicator of success for the two systems by the government in WSES develop- approach is not practiced among the central includes: ment needs be revised thoroughly. level agencies only, but also extends to the Applied technology design which is Learning from the experiences of the local governments, multi-lateral and bila- acceptable to all components of the past "both from domestic and abroad" a teral donor agencies, local NGOs, and the community including women, a sim- program called Water Supply and community in general. ple but quite reliable system. Sanitation Policy Formulation and The implementation of the five-year The project is acceptable to the com- Action Planning (WASPOLA) was program has come to an end in July munity and its able to motivate them designed and implemented. The five- 2003. A document called National Policy to actively participate, including in year program consists of 3 main compo- for Development of Community-Based financial aspect. nents: learning process, policy formula- Water Supply and Environmental The community is motivated and is tion and implementation activity. The Sanitation has been produced. This poli- capable of running O&M activity. program is focused to water supply and cy has become a new paradigm. The The community pays for water sup- sanitation facility managed by user com- donor countries even have adopted it. ply service based on an agreed upon munity. In the policy formulation Now, a number of new challenges are tariff. WASPOLA operates under the leader- awaiting. When the policy has gained Women are involved in each phase of ship of the Government of Indonesia formal legal recognition, there will be a project development, though still with financial support from the long list of works to be done in order to limited in decision making process. Australian Government (AusAID) and put the policy into the real nationwide Time saving for women so that they the World Bank, through Water and implementation. Whether the national can do other things. Sanitation Program for East Asia and the policy will be able to respond to the chal- Women are active members of water Pacific (WSP-EAP). lenges in the Millennium Development users group. At central government level the mana- Goals? How about the UN challenge The community build toilet from gement is handled by Central Project Com- which states that drinking water is the ones own sources, high rate of toilet mittee consisting of cross-sectoral govern- right for everyone? It seems that the job use. ment agencies, National Development of the Working Group has not quite fi- Women become active members of Planning Agency (Bappenas), Ministry of nished yet. Their opinion and hard work health related groups. Home Affairs, Ministry of Health, Ministry is still needed. WSES development is basically for of Finance and Ministry of Settlement 3 Percik August 2003
  5. 5. MAIN FEATURE Demand Responsive Approach R esponsive Approach places the demand of the community as a determinant factor in decision making including financial aspect. This makes the community participation in the whole process begin- ning from planning, funding, construction and mana- gement of the system in accordance with demand and A Glimpse Of funding capacity of the community. This approach calls for a substantial reform in the ways of project handling by stakeholders, whether community, NGO, WATER SUPPLY AND private sector and government. ENVIRONMENTAL The main features of the approach comprise: The community decides on the choice about: SANITATION WORKING Whether or not to participate in the activity? Technology choice and system coverage based on GROUP willingness to pay How and what format of system How fund is to be managed and accounted T he working group was formed on the ground that WSES development is not the responsibility of one particular sector but rather it must be a combination of How O&M will be managed various aspects, technical, institutional, financial, social The government functions as facilitator by making and environmental. Based on this consideration that available a national policy and strategy, enhances WSES Working Group was formed consisting of the consultative atmosphere among stakeholders and related government departments, Home Affairs, Health, facilitates human resources development and Finance, Settlement and Regional Infrastructures, and learning process. coordinated by Bappenas. Creating a conducive atmosphere for participation Beside its relation with WSES related projects of various stakeholders in any initiative emerging (WASPOLA, WSLIC-2, Pro-Air, CWSH, SANIMAS) the within the community. Provision of sufficient Working Group is also involved in formulation of information to the community and standard pro- National Policy for WSES Development Policy. Up to cedure to help the decision making process jointly this time only the National Policy for Development of made within the community. Community-Based Water Supply and Environmental Sanitation is completed, whereas the Institutionally Based National Policy on Water Supply and Environmental Sanitation is in preparation, at the same time also the field test for the application of the policy in the regions and public campaign on the subject of water supply and environmental sanitation, through the publi- cation of journal on WSES, posters, and animation. It is hoped that more members would join the Working Group so that more activities related to increa- sing access to drinking water and sanitation services could be done. In addition, it is hoped that this collabo- rative pattern could be duplicated by the regions (provin- cial and kabupaten/kota) to enhance drinking water and sanitation development to enhance the fulfillment of demand of the community. 4 Percik August 2003
  6. 6. M AIN FEATURE Participatory Approach C onstructing is easier than main- of estimating the sustainability of a WSES What are the requirements for using taining. The proof to this state- facility. MPA? ment could easily be found in MPA utilize a set of public specific MPA is open for a variety of uses. many physical development projects by indicators to measure sustainability, The qualitative information obtained the government. WSES development demand, gender, and poverty sensitive- from visual observation can easily be projects are no exceptions, many of them ness. Each is measured in accordance converted into numerical process or met with apprehensive failure. They are with the participatory tool for the com- graphical presentation. The resulting not effectively used and their sustainabi- munity, the implementing agency and the community level graphs can be obtained lity was cut off because the community policy maker. The result of community immediately after the application of par- cannot operate and maintain them pro- level assessment is brought up by the rep- ticipatory tools to the community groups, perly. resentatives of user community and the men, women, rich, poor, and then pre- It is the Methodology for Participatory implementing agency to the stakeholder sent them before and be verified by the Assessments (MPA) that can guarantee meeting for the purpose of evaluating the community. Similar data from different the effectiveness and sustainability of the institutional factors that are responsible times or from other communities, after facility. MPA represents a tool developed for project impact and sustainability at consolidation can be used to help mana- to enable the policy makers, program the field level. The result of the institu- ger or project personnel see the tendency managers, and local community assess tional assessment is used for reviewing and analyze its causes. Assessment and monitor the sustainability of the faci- national as well as program level policies. results from a number of projects after lity and decide on a corrective action as MPA produce an aggregate of vil- being consolidated at program or natio- necessary. lage level qualitative data, some of them nal level can be used for policy analysis. This methodology proposes the ways are quantified into ordinal system by the What are the requirements for using how women and poor families may parti- community members themselves. Then MPA? cipate and benefit from a facility together the quantitative data can be statistically MPA is designed as an integral part with men and wealthy families of the analyzed. of a project, not as an accessory or as community. It also indicates the keys In this way we can conduct an inter- something independent. That is why toward a successful community managed community, inter-project and time series MPA need a funding agency who feels WSES project. At the same time it also analysis and at the program level. obliged to design a new or an on-going enables us to make a quantitative aggre- Therefore, MPA can produce a manage- project applying the participatory assess- gation of community level monitoring ment information for large scale project ments. data so that it can be applicable at the and suitable data for program analysis. Although in many countries there are program and policy maker levels. Who can benefit from MPA? many experienced facilitators in the MPA make use Participatory Rural MPA is open for a variety of uses. The application of participatory methodolo- Appraisal (PRA) and Self Esteem, Asso- qualitative information obtained from gies, they still need a specific training in ciate Strength, Resourcefulness, Action visual observation can easily be converted using MPA. First, MPA add an analytical Planning, Responsibility (SARAR) which into numerical process or graphical pre- framework that enhances sustainability are known effective in stimulating com- sentation. The resulting community level and provide possibility for the conver- munity participation. But MPA addition- graphs can be obtained immediately after sion of participatory data into quantita- ally include the following characteristics: the application of participatory tools to tive codes for use in sustainability analy- MPA is targeted to the implemen- the community groups, men, women, sis. Second, since the whole characteris- ting agency and the community as well in rich, poor, and then present them before tics are participatory MPA enhance the the light of a sustainable and effectively and be verified by the community. learning process of the participants. A community managed facility. MPA is Similar data from different times or from skilled and gender- and poverty-sensitive designed to involve all the main stake- other communities, after consolidation facilitator is the key to enhancing the holders and conducting analysis of the can be used to help manager or project cycle of learning process and actions at role of 4 important components of the personnel see the tendency and analyze all levels. community: poor women, rich women, its causes. Assessment results from a poor men, and rich men. Therefore MPA number of projects after being consolida- Source: National Policy for Develop- puts the gender and poverty analysis ted at program or national level can be ment of Community-Based Water Supply framework into operation for the purpose used for policy analysis. and Environmental Sanitation Document 5 Percik August 2003
  7. 7. I NTERVIEW Ir. Basah Hernowo, MA : Director of Human Settlement and Housing, Bappenas We Need a National Policy" W hat is behind the birth of WASPOLA program? Actually, up to the present time we Why should it be that way? We have three patterns, each with different level of complexity. We started do not have a national policy for from the easiest, i.e. the community water supply and environmental based. This has been started since Pelita sanitation. That is why we are fre- I and II. Under the umbrella of Inpres quently wielded over by the donor Sarana Kesehatan. It was supply driven, agencies. Thus, we need such a though. What do the villagers need, we policy, which we could use as gui- made the logical allocation. There was dance in dealing with the donor then an empowerment component agencies. Thank God if we could embedded within the project, though in fund it on our own, but at the minor format. The current becomes moment it seems unlikely since we stronger after the reform that makes it a are still in shortage. At that time requirement that community empower- we could say this is our national ment must be strengthened. Yet at that policy. If you could accept it we time there was no tools for that purpose. could sit together and negotiate, Then we looked for the most suitable but if not we have to say we are tools. It turned out that supply driven is sorry, and thank you for your kind not suitable for this purpose. This attention and help. In that way we approach leads to low sense of belong- could be more focused. the problems of the rural are left behind. ingness within the community. Now we As an example, in bilateral relation- Is it that we want? Finally we look at it change into demand driven approach, ships, the donor countries have a prefe- in terms of function, some facilities are depending on the real demand of the rence to specific location. Australia, for managed by an institution while others community. Even then it is still not instance. They prefer Indonesia Timur. by the community. It so happens that enough because this does not guarantee Why? Why dont they like Indonesia this almost coincides with urban-rural the growth of sense of belongingness. Barat, anyway there a great variety of phenomenon. Generally in urban the Therefore there must be community con- problems in Indonesia. Germany, is management is done by an institution tribution. This is one way in developing another example. For Transmigration while in rural areas by the community. the sense of belongingness. This is what Area Development (TAD) they prefer We do not start from urban and rural, we compile into policy and strategy for- Kalimantan Timur. Why not SE. Maluku because we want to avoid discrimination mula. We tried to accommodate the or SE. Sulawesi? Similar situation is issue. Such as town population get this interest of all the stakeholders whether encountered with the World Bank and amount and villagers get that amount. they are from inside or outside the local other donors. Who decides those numbers? In the past governments and the community. What I believe that if they have the same the town people got 100 liters per se- we did was providing facilitation until we vision with us in solving WSES develop- cond, the villagers got 60 liters per se- came to the present formulation. In ment problems, they should not have cond. Who justifies those? Why this dis- terms wording it seems that the formula preference to any specific location. Why crimination in level of service? That is does not mean anything to the bureau- not we deal it as equals? why we do not want to start from there. cracy but from the view of the communi- We want to start from the management ty it proves excellent. The nuance is no Seeing it as something new, how institution. By an institution and by the more instructive, rather it opens new was the program in the beginning? community. If possible both are dealt perspective. When we started with the design, we with simultaneously. were somewhat at a loss because water How about the institutionally supply and environmental sanitation How far is WASPOLAs achieve- based? basically encompass a very wide horizon. ment? This is more complicated because insti- Whether it would be based on rural and Up to this time what has been com- tutional is often linked to the corporate cul- urban, or what? If it is based on areas, pleted is the national policy for the com- ture of each sector especially one that is rural and urban, it is but logical that munity based. We are now moving already managed by a public company, urban areas are growing rapidly so that toward the institutionally based. such as local government owned company. 6 Percik August 2003
  8. 8. I NTERVIEW Richard Hopkins, Team Leader WASPOLA Project "There are still many things to do" I n the beginning WASPOLA was faced with many barriers because this program applies a different approach, i.e. the focus is placed on the process and formal as well as informal inter-agency coordi- nation/collaboration as the basic foundation for the policy formulation. In the early stages, WASPOLA moved very slowly, and it was caused We would expect that we would not be by the common understanding in implementing the program has not taken its shape, especially po- wielded by the donor agencies any more. licy development through a process approach Another matter that happened during the early We could become self reliant. It could be stages was frequent changes in members of the better if we could fund through APBN, working group, so that it needed a relatively extra effort in order to maintain consistency and without loan. But it seems unlikely. progress of the overall WASPOLA activities. It turned out that the approach was successful in It turns out that the amount of Indonesia. It means that we should building sense of belongingness and commitment NPL (non performing loan) is so provide 10 trillion rupiahs per of the government, and this is showed from the big that it is not possible to solve it annum. Thats a problem…. hectic schedule of WASPOLA activities during the with only one policy. The Therefore, we have to conduct last two years, especially those related to institu- approach must be multi-sectoral some sort of "marketing" and at tionally based policy formulation, coordination including legislative, Ministry of the same time also we are required with local governments, and lessons learned from Finance, and local governments. to explain to the local government each districts. By the end of the second year the Need a common effort in finding about something like better refrain activity found its acceleration, at the time when a solution. Therefore we have to from buying service vehicles and working group from related departments began to approach it in phases leading to a instead put the money for WSES show interest in WASPOLA activities. This was national policy for institutionally development. And increase in lo- enhanced by the fact that pursuant to regional based. We have to work harder cal government budget from e.g. autonomy the responsibility for WSES sector because there are too many inte- 3% to 8%. And if we find some development is relinquished to local government. rests and stakeholders involved. regions with a strong willingness In the third through the concluding (2003) years but they do not have enough mo- was noted with an increasingly more productive What is the future outlook ney we are ready to share the costs. activities by the Working Group. Not only in poli- once the national policy is cy discussion but also in field activities that sup- completed? The program approach calls port policy reform. This indicates a marked We would expect that we would for a change in paradigm. improvement in sense of belongingness of the go- not be wielded by the donor agen- What barriers are expected? vernment. In the end, all those involved, especial- cies any more. We could become Many. One and foremost is ly the inter-sectoral working group came to realize self reliant. It could be better if we resistance to change, especially from that policy formulation through participatory could fund through central govern- the bureaucrat. Secondly, sectoral methodology, though in the beginning was seem- ment budget, without loan. But it egoism. Everyone wants to be leader ingly dull and loathsome, but in the end produces seems unlikely. Currently the in his sector. The third relates to something very useful. At the most important budget for human settlement sec- institutional structure. Needs a thing that the policy is acceptable to the stakehol- tor is Rp. 1,35 trillion per annum. reform in the manner such as a go- ders, because all of them participated during the Thats not enough to meet the vernment sincerely plays a true facili- development process. Although many things have demand. Up to 2009, we need 50 tator role, not just a lip service. This been achieved yet still many more are awaiting to trillion Rupiahs for filling up the needs a cultural reform and a serious be done. gap of WSES provision in common effort. 7 Percik August 2003
  9. 9. O PINION Field Trial for the Implementation of National Policy for Development of Community-Based Water Supply and Environmental Sanitation A new approach in policy development Background cipate in the policy formulation that cer- Starting from the fact that the By: Sofyan Iskandar tainly has nothing to do with physical responsibility for WSES sector develop- development project. In general, the ment is now relinquished to district go- WASPOLA Project Coordinator regions would only be interested in phy- vernment, WASPOLA Working Group sical development or something that tried to introduce a new breakthrough in would be followed with physical develop- policy formulation, especially for WSES ment. On the contrary, WASPOLA does development. Through an involvement for the regions to voice out willingness or not bring physical project at all. It would of a wide variety of stakeholders, espe- reluctance in the program offered. contain policy dialogues, and it could be cially at district level, its hoped that the Therefore each of the districts selected produce boredom. district aspiration, could be accommo- must be able to provide their best contri- But the presumption was entirely date and finally the policy could be bution in policy development process, mistaken, because all 10 kabupatens implemented in the districts. and it was also expected that the policy invited to a seminar in Yogyakarta 9-12 After the basic idea accepted at the would be directly adopted to the formula- October 2002 were present and National Working Group forum, several tion of WSES development policy and expressed willingness to participate. basic questions emerge, what is the planning of their respective districts. The success in convincing the dis- amount of resources for providing facili- tricts that WSES development need a tation to the regions all over the country, Selection of Districts special attention was born from an open who will do it, in what mechanism, how From a series of discussions within and participatory effort. In this opportu- long is the time it will take, and so on. the national working group it was agreed nity an introduction was given about the It is indeed not easy to facilitate to invite several potential districts to objectives of the field trial, and what kind about 400 districts within a relatively enrich the policy which was being formu- of activities were involved in the exercise. short time, while the National Policy for lated. The selection was based on the Besides, the districts also discuss among Development of Community-Based Wa- existence of similar activities within the themselves how this policy could be ter Supply and Environmental Sanitation scope of policy implementation, such as a applied in their respective areas. document must be finalized by the mid- project which applies the principles con- Including the site selection criteria for dle of 2003. Under the consideration of tained in the policy, for instance WSLIC- the localities to participate in the field limited resources it was concluded that in 2, UNICEF sanitation project, KfW/GTZ trial, if such a selection is required. the initial stage only several regions were water supply project. Specific attention Out of 10 interested districts only 4 to participate, later in the future this was also paid that the regions selected kabupatens were selected. This is might be done in a larger scale combined sufficiently represent the geographical because the limited resources available with the necessary improvement to the distribution. with the WASPOLA Working Group. The policy, taking lessons learned from this There was uncertainty in the begin- four kabupatens are Sumba Timur, initial stage. ning of whether the regions would parti- Subang, Musi Banyuasin, and Solok. It was not even easy to decide on the number of districts Field Trial Process to participate, since there was an In broad line, the objectives of the Field Trial for In broad line the field trial apprehension, whether the par- the Implementation National Policy for process consists of three phases, ticipation was based solely on Development of Community-Based Water Supply preliminary understanding, the obedience to the central go- and Environmental Sanitation in the districts are: advancement, and independent vernment, rather than awareness practice. Facilitation support that of the importance of WSES 1. Obtaining inputs from the districts for policy provided by the WASPOLA development. On the other improvement Secretariat/Working Group up to hand, WASPOLA being the party 2. Adoption of the basic policies contained in the the second phase, while in the promoting the demand respon- national policy into the development of districts third the district has had sufficient sive approach also tried to avoid policy capacity to work independently in unilateral appointment pattern 3. Obtaining inputs for marketing the policy to developing their district policy and which dismiss the opportunity other districts in Indonesia its implementation. 8 Percik August 2003
  10. 10. O PINION The preliminary understanding phase ability of a WSES facility. All the regions It can be assumed that while the consists of introduction of the impor- understand that all components are formal version is not yet available, the tance of WSES sector to key stakeholders interrelated but each region sees that district might be able to start adopting in the district, conducted through formal there is a specific factor fulfilled if the the main policy guidelines for their own and informal visit, discussions, meetings, social barrier, i.e. the social structure of a purposes because substantively the and concluded with a seminar. The main given community, could be exploited guidelines are acceptable and well under- optimally. In Kab. Subang, however, the stood. This of course does not deny the technical factor is considered more influ- importance of the legal format. Kabupatens invited to ential, since geologically the region can seminar of national WSES be divided into 3 categories, mountain- policy formulation: ous, moderately flat and coastal plains. The criteria for site selection The selection of an appropriate approach according to the participants and suitable technology option become of the seminar: 1. Sumba Timur, East Nusa Tenggara 2. Sumba Barat, East Nusa Tenggara the focus of interest in Subang. In Solok, 3. Timor Tengah Selatan, the role of institutional factor is more East Nusa Tenggara dominant, when the nagari holds a 4. Wonosobo, C. Java strategic position in the sustainability of 1. Availability district administra- 5. Garut, W. Java WSES service provision. As it is in tion support, as indicated with a 6. Subang, W. Java Subang, Musi Banyuasin also sees that formal letter from the head of 7. Musi Banyuasin, S. Sumatra technology option is the most dominant, the district 8. Sawahlunto Sijunjung, this relates to tidal swamps and river 2. Commitment to participate in W. Sumatra banks which make up a substantial por- the activities, as indicated in the 9. Solok, W. Sumatra tion of the district area. willingness to form and func- 10. Pasaman, W. Sumatra There is a common recognition tionalize districts technical team that in the general the basic policies can 3. Condition of the area in relation be understood, and can be used as refe- to complexity of issues and geo- activities undertaken in all the participa- rence in WSES sector development by graphical distribution ting districts consisted of a review of the the region. In Kab. Subang the district performance of WSES service in the past, working group were able to formulate the at present, and its outlook in the future. vision and mission of WSES program of In this way the regional stakeholders will the district, entitled Subang Sehat 2008. identify the issues, the challenges and the The Musi Banyuasin Working Group take Concluding remark opportunity for WSES sector develop- time to review the Muba Sehat 2005. Once the National Policy for Develop- ment in their respective districts. Solok Working Group formulated Solok ment of Community-Based Water Sup- Further the stakeholders may start with Sehat 2010. Sumba Timur Working ply and Environmental Sanitation docu- drawing a rough planning for WSES Group enriched the understanding about ment is finalized and legally acknow- development of their districts. vision and mission of the kabupaten ledged the next step will be its imple- In the advancement phase which rep- especially in WSES sector. mentation at a national scale. What is resents the continuation of the previous Though it was understood, yet the left for the National Working Group to activities the stakeholders are invited to present document still needs some do is to decide how this can be effectively study the substantive matters of the improvement, especially in the use of undertaken. Whether it will be precisely national policy. The process contains specific terms with ambiguous meaning. like the field trial in 4 locations, with an participatory discussions about the policy There is an increasing communica- implication that a big amount of guidelines in the district context. To tion intensity among stakeholders in the resources would be needed, especially broaden the perspective, a review is also district, therefore the efficiency WSES funding and availability of qualified faci- made to a successful project and one that sector development will be increase. litators. It is deemed necessary to find met with a failure. Through a field visit The introduction of participatory new ways to endorse the implementation and an interview with the user, the methodology in policy development at of this policy so that it is not only formal- findings are brought up to a kabupaten district level contains an attraction for ly accepted, but it is also put into the real level discussion. the districts, because it is a substantive practice. Besides, it is no less important improvement, and can also be applied for is the flexibility in the part of the Field Trial Result development planning in general. This National Working Group in accommo- The regional stakeholders have methodology is considered very effective dating additional inputs from the regions come to understand that 5 factors, name- for collecting information and ideas from which may be too valuable to miss for the ly social, institutional, financial, technical a wide range of sources within a relative- future improvement of the policy. and environmental influence the sustain- ly short time. 9 Percik August 2003
  11. 11. M ISCELLANEOUS National Policy for Development of Community-Based WSES PURPOSE intake, through distribution and treatment objects, but rather as subjects in the WSES 1. General systems, and the ultimately to the final development process. This policy aims to Improvement of people welfare household distribution network should fol- enhance community ownership of infra- through sustainable management of low the rules and regulations pertaining to structures and community awareness of water supply and environmental sanita- environmental conservation. Likewise, the sound management principles early in the tion. development of environmental sanitation process. Therefore, WSES development infrastructures, especially those built to should foster transparency and openness, 2. Specific manage waste should abide by environmen- providing the opportunity for all stakehol- a. To improve development, provi- tal rules and regulations. ders to contribute according to their capaci- sion and maintenance of WSES infra- ties during the process beginning from structures and services. Hygiene Education planning, implementation, operation and b. To improve manageability and sus- Sustained WSES management requires maintenance, to service improvement. tainability of WSES infrastructures and WSES development to be comprehensive services. and capable of stimulating change for better Government as Facilitator community hygiene behavior to improve Facilitation should not be translated as POLICY GUIDELINES quality of life. Initiative to change behavior provision of physical infrastructure or direct Water as an Economic Good and should emphasize comprehensive proper subsidy, but rather the role of government Social Good hygiene and healthy living education as a in providing continuously technical and non Until today, some communities per- compulsory and principal component of technical assistance to enhance community ceive water as an social/public good with future WSES development, development empowerment in order to enable them to no economic value, obtained and used planning and implementation should not plan, construct and manage their own at no cost to the user. This belief has led focus strictly on the physical construction of WSES system and other support activities. to the lack of communitys motivation to infrastructures. conserve environment and other related Community Participation water resources (both quantitatively and Poverty Focus All members of the community must be qualitatively), excessive exploitation and In principle, every individuals in actively involved in each phase of the deve- unchecked use of water coupled with Indonesia has the right to receive adequate lopment. However, considering the limita- slow progress in the development of skill and sustained WSES services. Therefore, tion of time and space the involvement is and technology for water reuse and recy- the limited capacity of the government, implemented through a democratic repre- cle have persisted. WSES development must focuses on the sentation mechanism and reflects the accom- In order to drive reform in such poor and other disadvantaged member of modation of the demands of the majority. existing public perceptions and to con- the community and that requires them to firm that water in an rare commodity be active participants and decision-makers. Optimum Service and Right Target requiring a degree of sacrifice, either So that their demands could be fulfilled Optimum means a service that satisfies with money or time to obtain and use, fairly and properly. the demand, equitable and ease of access. public campaign effort targeting all le- Right target means as a coverage complies vels of the community should be imple- Active Role of Women in Decision with the scope of issues within the communi- mented. The underlying principle of Making ty. WSES as an economic good is that the Women play a prominent role in the user pays for service. daily activities to meet the demand for Application of Cost Recovery Principle household WSES, therefore it is natural The financial capacity of the govern- Informed Choice as a Basis for that woman actively participate in WSES ments (central as well as regional) is insuffi- Demand Responsive Approach development. According to UNICEF and cient to continuously develop and build To improve effectiveness of the appro- World Bank studies of WSES project in WSES systems for all communities. In sup- ach the government which plays as facilita- Indonesia, womens involvement in the port a sustainable service development it is tor is required to offer the community with development process of WSES systems, necessary that the construction and manage- informed choices covering every aspect of from planning, through implementation ment of WSES system be based on the prin- WSES system development, including tech- and to management, evidently increase the ciple of cost recovery. nological, financial, environmental, socio- sustainability of the system. In this connection, information cultural and management institution. regarding the cost recovery obligation Accountability in the Development must be made available and open to all Environmentally-Based Development Process stakeholders, especially the user commu- Development of water supply infra- The era of decentralization and trans- nity, so that they are aware of the size of structure, starting from raw water source parency no longer positions communities as their investment. 10 Percik August 2003
  12. 12. F IELD VISIT Annual Coordination Meeting of DCT and PCT WSLIC-2 ProjectR epresentatives from 33 dis- participants were brought to several develop themselves. " Based on this tricts and 7 provinces gathered project sites in Kab. Malang. responsibility the government exercise a together for annual DCT The opening was made by Suyono strong commitment to help in strength- (District Coordination Team) Dikun Ph.D, IPM, Deputy for ening the regional capacity."and PCT (Provincial Coordination Infrastructure, Bappenas, who delivered In connection with WSLIC-2 projectTeam) coordination meeting at Hotel a keynote speech. In his speech Dr it is recommended that the regions allo-Hilton, Surabaya, 20-22 August 2003. Dikun stresses the importance of regio- cate sufficient counterpart funds for theThe purpose was to improve coordina- nal diversity and specific demand be local goverment budget for cross-sectoraltion among DCTs and PCTs in the imple- taken into consideration. This means activities since the national budget is inmentation of WSLIC-2 (Water and sani- that regional development must be shortage.tation for Low Income Communities geared to the aspiration of the communi- After the in-house meeting the par-Phase 2) project, evaluation of imple- ty and regionally based. The central gov- ticipants are brought to visit WSLIC-2mentation activities, and planning for ernment will only provide direction and projects in Malang.the future. For comparative study the relinquish all power to the regions to A bit of hope in PagelaranI n first week of August 2003 WSES lion from the local government of Kab. The reason being, his RT is located Working Group visited Pagelaran Bogor. Then the community started in the highest location of the village. But Village, Kec. Ciomas, Bogor. This vil- moving to look for their own water he also found out there is a lot of waterlage is a field laboratory for trial the source. A water spring was located on uselessly wasted because there is no on-implementation of National Policy for 290 m2 land area at Desa Pasir Erih, off mechanism in the homes.Development of Community-Based Wa- Kec. Tamansari. The discharge is about From the community responses,ter Supply and Environmental Sanitation. 10,6 litre per second and located 13 m Suprapto, with his specific style, summa- The village has its uniqueness. In the higher than Desa Pagelaran. In earlymiddle of the village lies the Ciburial 2003 water was beginning to flow rized several technical shortages such aswater spring, as raw water source for through a very simple piping system. the need to enlarge the water intake,PDAM Kab. Bogor, but its population is "The community began practicing some firmer construction, improvement toin constant water shortage especially du- changes. From a habit of bathing in the management system.ring dry season. The most difficult situa- river, they now do it in a bathroom", the When asked about contribution theytion is experienced by those who live in village chief said. stated their willingness to contribute RpRW 8 to the south of the spring and its In an MPA discussion facilitated by 5000 per month. The government willlocated at a higher elevation. Suprapto from the WSES Working Group contribute pipes and cement. The chief of village, H. Achmad Tohir it was revealed that the management is As a beginning the community aresaid that in May 2000 the community still in poor condition. Only one man is requested to prepare a social map andwas hit by a serious diarrhea. This was doing that. "Sometimes water flows nice- piping network. It is hoped that all thecaused by insufficiency of water supply ly, another time it is choked," A Suhardja,system and unfavorable environmental one of RT chairmen said. This happens RW 8 population could enjoy the service.condition. "It was in the news every- because water is not evenly distributed. The community is enthusiastic. In thewhere," he added. Even then, many of the community near future the Group will return to the Because of that disaster the village members feel satisfied. This was village and see what the villagers arewas then given a compensation of 20 mil- expressed Endih, another RT chairman. doing. 11 Percik August 2003
  13. 13. B OOK INFO The Contribution of Peoples Participation Evidence from 121 Rural Water Supply Project U p until recently the practice of decision making process could enhance WSES system development is the success of a development project. Title: based on supply driven However, since the empirical data sup- The Contribution approach that ends up in inefficiency. porting this conclusion are qualitative of People’s Many of the constructed systems are left many development practitioners reserve Participation unattended because they are not in con- some doubt. This report tries to explain Evidence From formance with the demand of the com- this conclusion through three important 121 Rural munity. By the year 2000s together questions. First, how big does communi- Water Supply with the acceptance of National Policy ty participation contribute to project Project for Development of Community-Based effectiveness? Second, what kind of Water Supply and Environmental community and government characteris- Author: Sanitation the system development is tics can speed up the process? Third, Deepa Narayan beginning to put forward the application how can community participation be Publisher: of demand responsive approaches. enhanced through community managed Environmentally Sustainable In the above context, this book water supply development policy and Development Occasional Paper Series No.1 The World (though has been in circulation for some technical design in 49 developing Bank Washington DC, time) is still very relevant as guidelines nations? The result indicates that com- July 1995 for WSES system development by the munity participation indeed provides viii + 108 pages stakeholders. contribution to project effectiveness. It is generally understood that the benefit of community participation in Private Participation in Infrastructure ; Trend in Developing Countries in 1999-2001 Energy, Telecommunication, Transportation, Water I Title: t is generally acknowledged that found through private sector participa- Private infrastructure is key to economic tion. This condition made an increasing Participation in Infrastructure; development. Since 1950 through of private sector participation since Trend in 1990 most of the developing nations 1980s. It this context this report Developing depend on the government investment becomes very useful in explaining objec- Countries in for infrastructure development especially tively based on trend analysis the private 1999-2001 energy, telecommunication, transporta- participation phenomenon in infrastruc- Energy, Telecommunication, tion and water supply. But we are also ture development especially energy, Transportation, Water Author: aware that the speed is decreasing. It is telecommunication, transportation and Ada Karina Izaguire etc. estimated that 1 billion people do not drinking water in developing nations Publisher: have access to water supply, and 1,2 bil- during 1990-2001. There were at least The World lion are without basic sanitation facility. 2.500 private infrastructure projects Bank and Public Private Infrastucture In addition to that rate of inefficiency is developed in 132 developing nations with Advisory Facility (PPIAF), 2003 high. total investment of USD754 billion on xiii + 160 pages The above constraints together with which this report is based. government lack of fund way out must be 12 Percik August 2003
  14. 14. WEBSITE INFO Conclusions and Important Conferences During the Last 30 Years Information in this website represents a part of UNESCO (United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization) website. During the last 30 years there are several important events and milestones that are related to Water Supply and Environmental Sanitation: 1980-1990 International Water Supply and Environmental Sanitation Decade 1992 International Conference on Water and Environment in Dublin This conference produces a statement known as Dublin Statement on Water and Sustainable Development that places attention to economic value of water, involvement of women, and poverty. UNCED Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro This conference produces Rio Declaration on Environment and Development that highlights issues on collaboration, community participation, water supply and sanitation, human settlement, sustainable development. Agenda 21 was formulated. 1997 First World Water Forum in Marrakech This forum produces Marrakech Declaration that highlights water supply sanitation, integrated water management, ecosystem conservation, gender quality, and efficient use of water. 2000 Second World Water Forum In this forum it was agreed World Water Vision, Marketing Water Everybodys Business that states that water has various uses and importance for domestic, food and irrigation. In this it was also declared UN Millennium Declaration which contains Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), one of which being reducing by half the number of population without access to drinking water and sanitation in year 2015. 2002 World Summit on Sustainable Development in Johannesburg In this meeting the world leaders emphasize their commitment to MDGs 2003 Third World Water Forum in Japan This forum is commemorated with the publication of First Edition of the World Development Report. 13 Percik August 2003
  15. 15. M IRROR Having a toilet, it is hard in the beginning but at the end we are proud of it An experience of SEHAT Indonesia Foundation, Sidoarjo, E. Java "W hy should we have to have a toilet?" That is used to be said by population in village Ental Sewu when we asked them about construc- ting a toilet. The same statement we got from the neighboring village. What they had in mind was that building toilet cost a lot of money because a toilet is identical to a big septic tank. Thats why they preferred to defecate in river or drainage canal. Whereas their village is located just in a cor- ner of a big town of Sidoarjo. This condition made Sutrisno Hadi (56 years), a retired government employee and motivator of Sehat Foundation in Ental Sewu promise himself to change the local community. Based on a survey conducted in year 2001 by the Foundation in Mlaten hamlet of Sidokepung there are only 7 households with a toilet out of 90, while in village Ental Sewu there are only 340 toilets in a total of 700 households. The Foundation considers this situation must change otherwise it will produce an adverse effect to health condi- tion of the whole community in the future. go to a toilet, where would you take him? nity, many of the constructed facilities are However, it was understood that to break a To the river?" Beside the above method left unattended and never been functioning. hard habit is not an easy thing. message after message was delivered in In other words, in terms of toilet and envi- Sutrisno had an idea that awareness writing reminding the community "not to ronmental sanitation, community motiva- must be built starting from family level and defecate in the open". The various methods tion for building awareness and empower- moving gradually to a common awareness proved effective in building the awareness. ment must be considered as equally impor- in the whole community, from domestic In Sutrisnos mind, if not now when will tant as the physical construction itself. (household to household) approach gradu- hygiene behavior be promoted? Should we Focus on physical construction and you are ally into a systematic process. The aware- wait for government subsidy? Isnt it the sure to come to problems. ness building was conducted through the community really capable? An indeed, the And the idea is right. Toilet construc- Jamban Keluarga (family latrine) and community is capable of buying more tion is not necessarily expensive and the Pembuangan Limbah Keluarga (family se- expensive belongings. Isnt it by having a community, indeed, can afford it. To fur- werage) Programs. With patience he talked toilet also a way to build ones honor? The ther convince them, Sutrisno asked the to convince the community the importance problem lies in awareness. And therefore community to make calculation, how many of having a toilet, through door to door visit, the awareness is to be grown and nurtured. families to use one toilet, plan to be emp- speaking in RT meeting, and in any gathe- All this time, according to Sutrisno, tied once in how many years, what kind of ring. With a joke but deeply convincing he theres a lot of government effort made to construction materials to be used. With a talked to families with a adolescent girl but introduce household toilet program but simple calculation it was septic tank that is have no toilet he would say: "if some day since the introduction was made through best and most economical. To again con- someone came to you proposing your project without initiative from the commu- vince them, observation was made to find young lady and it happens that he needs to 14 Percik August 2003
  16. 16. M IRROR out which of the materials were already available and what the remaining still need to be bought. Loan from SEHAT Indonesia Foundation As it was stated above, the communi- ty is actually has the resources they needed, but for a toilet they feel so thrifty and reluctant to spend anything except if there was a loan which they will pay back in installments. From an initial capital of Rp3.250.000, derived from contribution of the foundation officers in September, the fund was revolving and in July 2003 has grown to Rp8.530.000 and has served more than 80 households including loans for repair of sewerage. Average loan is Rp300.000 to 600.000 and repayment period of 4 to 8 months. In its implementation the Foundation and the borrowers agree to a loan agreement. Each borrower is charged with an added value of 1,5% per month in order to guarantee that the lat- garbage disposal through placement of The SEHAT Indonesia Foundation ter borrower and those in the waiting list garbage bins in mosque and mushallas has an obsession, i.e. to make toilet and get materials of similar value. The value by the Foundation. sewerage a family pride. The message added is not an interest like that of the Since the beginning of the first len- that says: "I am proud having a toilet" ordinary bank, it is only to guarantee the ding on 10 Sept. 2000 till July 2003 the seems fit for it. This is evidenced from sustainability of the service. However, growth of service for toilet and other several borrowers who got excited from many of those in the village say that the sanitation facilities are as the following: seeing their neighbors and asked how Foundation is practicing usurious len- Creating pride they could borrow from the Foundation. ding. Only after some explanation that they began to understand. The lesson learned from this is how important it is to conduct a continuous socialization in Growth of service coverage for toilet and sewerage a suitable format and in the right place SEHAT Indonesia Foundation so as to make those who oppose under- stand the essence. Period of 2000/2003 Not only toilet The steps in toilet development No. borrowers Growth of service coverage Month apparently lead to the growth of commu- Toilet Sewerage Toilet Sewerage nity awareness to improve the quality of Feb 2001 10 10 18 10 infrastructure for hygiene behavior. In Aug 2001 18 2 36 12 the beginning the members of the com- munity came to borrow for toilet con- Feb 2002 9 3 47 15 struction but later they also want it to Aug 2002 5 7 52 23 repair the sewerage to dispose of waste- Feb 2003 4 6 56 29 water from their kitchen. Others even Jul 2003 4 10 60 39 borrow to add a window to allow light and fresh air flows into their house and 58 38 269 128 also repair of the floor. Hygiene mes- sages continue to transmit from SEHAT 30 September 2000 31 July 2003 Indonesia Foundation, beside toilet also a reminder to prevention of careless Rp. 3.350.000 Rp. 8.530.000 15 Percik August 2003
  17. 17. MI R R O R "Imagine how comfortable it is, now we Lingkungan and Kimpraswil. environmental sanitation which is not dont have to go to the river any more", Performing partnership with Kab. limited in ideas and opinions only but that was the expression of some who Sidoarjo in facilitating community par- also includes financial scheme in the have built toilet. They are proud that ticipation for the development of sanita- light of program sustainability. now they have a toilet. tion facility in 4 kelurahans. The approach as applied by the Alternatives for partnership with SEHAT Indonesia Foundation: Constraints SEHAT Indonesia Foundation 1. Build awareness of the importance As an institution dealing with envi- Grant fund to increase coverage of of environmental sanitation infrastruc- ronmental sanitation a number of con- environmental sanitation to be managed ture. straints come on the way: as a revolving fund by the community 2. Enhance family interest to own a How to change the critical aware- under the supervision and facilitation of toilet and put it as top priority. ness of the community from the habit of the Foundation. 3. Create a condition in which the individualistic thinking into systemic. Provision of loan without interest community is able to put value to their How to change the partners per- by government or other stakeholder for sanitation facility and compare it with spective especially the government environmental sanitation development the condition before they own one or employees who behave like a contractor expansion. Fund management is fully in with those who do not have one. looking for a project. the hands of SEHAT Indonesia 4. Create a condition where the com- How to exploit financial resources Foundation and will be paid back within munity is proud of his facility therefore to fund activities that up to now are 3 years at least. use it and maintain regularly. entirely based on voluntary commit- Provision of soft loan to be paid 5. Enhance other families to adopt ment. back in installments for at least 5 years with or with outside assistance based on How to convince and enhance the with one year grace period. awareness and understanding about the government and other stakeholders to Provision of technical assistance importance of a sanitation system for develop a holistic partnership scheme for environmental-sanitation-related them. with SEHAT Indonesia Foundation for projects. Ideals for the future Although the scale is still relatively small but what has been accomplished by SEHAT Indonesia Foundation con- tains a strategic meaning. The Foundation hopes that in the future: Someone would adopt and improve the community initiative approach in environmental sanitation system development activity. Inclusion of community participa- tion approach through the role of a com- mitted and environmental-sanitation- related NGO into the development stra- tegy of the Local Government. There still many villages with problems in environmental sanitation, therefore a partnership with an NGO like SEHAT Indonesia Foundation could be considered as a sustainable model. SEHAT Indonesia Foundation wishes to become partner to various parties in village/kelurahan and area development strategy for environmental sanitation. The efforts made by SEHAT Indonesia Foundation Sharing of experience with govern- ment of Kabupaten Sidoarjo especially with Dinas Kesehatan, Dinas 16 Percik August 2003