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Key Indicators for Asia and Pacific 2012. 43rd Edition
 

Key Indicators for Asia and Pacific 2012. 43rd Edition

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ADB, 2012

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    Key Indicators for Asia and Pacific 2012. 43rd Edition Key Indicators for Asia and Pacific 2012. 43rd Edition Presentation Transcript

    • Key Indicators for Asia and the Pacific 2012 KEY INDICATORSKey Indicators for Asia and the Pacific 2012, the 43rd edition of this series, is a statistical data book KEY INDICATORSpresenting economic, financial, social, and environmental indicators for the 48 regional members of theAsian Development Bank (ADB). This issue of Key Indicators presents in Part I a special chapter—GreenUrbanization in Asia—followed by statistical tables in Parts II and III with short, nontechnicalcommentaries on economic, financial, social, and environmental developments. for Asia and the Pacific Part II comprises the first set of statistical tables and commentaries, which look at the MillenniumDevelopment Goals and progress in the region toward achieving key targets. The second set of tables inPart III is grouped into seven themes, and provides a broader picture of economic, financial, social, and 2012environmental developments. This publication aims to present the latest key statistics on developmentissues concerning the economies of Asia and the Pacific to a wide audience, including policy makers,development practitioners, government officials, researchers, students, and the general public. This year,ADB also publishes the second edition of the Framework of Inclusive Growth Indicators, a specialsupplement to Key Indicators.About the Asian Development Bank for Asia and the PacificADB’s vision is an Asia and Pacific region free of poverty. Its mission is to help its developing membercountries reduce poverty and improve the quality of life of their people. Despite the region’s manysuccesses, it remains home to two-thirds of the world’s poor: 1.8 billion people who live on less than$2 a day, with 903 million struggling on less than $1.25 a day. ADB is committed to reducing povertythrough inclusive economic growth, environmentally sustainable growth, and regional integration. Based in Manila, ADB is owned by 67 members, including 48 from the region. Its main instrumentsfor helping its developing member countries are policy dialogue, loans, equity investments, guarantees,grants, and technical assistance. 2012 SPECIAL CHAPTER: Green Urbanization in AsiaAsian Development Bank6 ADB Avenue, Mandaluyong City1550 Metro Manila, Philippineswww.adb.org Printed on recycled paper. Printed in the Philippines
    • © 2012 Asian Development BankAll rights reserved. Published in 2012.Printed in the Philippines.ISBN: 978-92-9092-816-4Publication Stock No. FLS124810-3Cataloging-In-Publication DataAsian Development Bank. Key Indicators for Asia and the Pacific 2012.Mandaluyong City, Philippines: Asian Development Bank, 2012.1. economic indicators 2. financial indicators 3. social indicators 4. energy and environmental indicators5. millennium development goals 6. infrastructure indicators 7. governance indicatorsI. Asian Development Bank.The views expressed in this book do not necessarily reflect the views and policies of theAsian Development Bank (ADB) or its Board of Governors or the governments they represent.ADB does not guarantee the accuracy of the data included in this publication and accepts noresponsibility for any consequence of their use.By making any designation of or reference to a particular territory or geographic area, or by using theterm “country” in this document, ADB does not intend to make any judgments as to the legal or otherstatus of any territory or area.ADB encourages printing or copying information exclusively for personal and noncommercial usewith proper acknowledgment of ADB. Users are restricted from reselling, redistributing, or creatingderivative works for commercial purposes without the express, written consent of ADB.Asian Development Bank6 ADB Avenue, Mandaluyong City1550 Metro Manila, PhilippinesTel +63 2 632 4444Fax +63 2 636 2444www.adb.org
    • iiiForewordThe 43rd ĞĚŝƟŽŶ͕ ƚŚĞ <ĞLJ /ŶĚŝĐĂƚŽƌƐ ĨŽƌ ƐŝĂ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞ WĂĐŝĮĐ ϮϬϭϮ ;<ĞLJ /ŶĚŝĐĂƚŽƌƐ ϮϬϭϮͿ ĐŽŶƟŶƵĞƐƚŽ ƉƌŽǀŝĚĞ Ă ƐĞƚ ŽĨ ĐŽŵƉƌĞŚĞŶƐŝǀĞ ƐŽĐŝĂů͕ ĞĐŽŶŽŵŝĐ͕ ĮŶĂŶĐŝĂů͕ ĞŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚĂů͕ ĂŶĚ DŝůůĞŶŶŝƵŵDevelopment Goals (MDGs) indicator series for the 48 regional members. The Key Indicators providesĂ ƟŵĞůLJ ĂŶĚ ƌĞůŝĂďůĞ ƐŽƵƌĐĞ ŽĨ ĚĂƚĂ ĂŶĚ ŝŶĨŽƌŵĂƟŽŶ ĨŽƌ ƉŽůŝĐLJ ŵĂŬĞƌƐ͕ ĚĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ ƉƌĂĐƟƟŽŶĞƌƐ͕ŐŽǀĞƌŶŵĞŶƚ ŽĸĐŝĂůƐ͕ ƌĞƐĞĂƌĐŚĞƌƐ͕ ƐƚƵĚĞŶƚƐ͕ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞ ŐĞŶĞƌĂů ƉƵďůŝĐ͘ &Žƌ ƚŚĞ ƐĞĐŽŶĚ LJĞĂƌ͕ ƚŚĞFramework of Inclusive Growth Indicators supplements the main Key Indicators ƉƵďůŝĐĂƟŽŶ͘ dŚĞ ƐƉĞĐŝĂů ĐŚĂƉƚĞƌ ŽŶ ͞ƌĞĞŶ hƌďĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶ ŝŶ ƐŝĂ͟ ƚĂĐŬůĞƐ ƚǁŽ ŐƌŽǁŝŶŐ ĐŽŶĐĞƌŶƐͶĞŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚĂů ƐƵƐƚĂŝŶĂďŝůŝƚLJ ĂŶĚ ƌĂƉŝĚ ƵƌďĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶ͘ ƐŝĂ ŝƐ ŚŽŵĞ ƚŽ ĂůŵŽƐƚ ŚĂůĨ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ŐůŽďĂů ƵƌďĂŶƉŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶ ĂŶĚ ŝƐ ƵƌďĂŶŝnjŝŶŐ Ăƚ Ă ƉĂĐĞ ĨĂƐƚĞƌ ƚŚĂŶ ĂŶLJ ŽƚŚĞƌ ƌĞŐŝŽŶ͕ ƌĞƐƵůƟŶŐ ŝŶ ĂŶ ƵŶƉƌĞĐĞĚĞŶƚĞĚŐƌŽǁƚŚ ŝŶ ƵƌďĂŶ ƌĞƐŝĚĞŶƚƐ ĂŶĚ ĂŶ ŝŶĐƌĞĂƐĞĚ ŶƵŵďĞƌ ŽĨ ĚĞŶƐĞůLJ ƉŽƉƵůĂƚĞĚ ŵĞŐĂĐŝƟĞƐ͘ ŽŶƐĞƋƵĞŶƚůLJ͕the region will be confronted with even greater environmental challenges that are already serious,ŝŶĐůƵĚŝŶŐ Ăŝƌ ƉŽůůƵƟŽŶ͕ ĐŽŶŐĞƐƟŽŶ͕ ĐĂƌďŽŶ ĚŝŽdžŝĚĞ ĞŵŝƐƐŝŽŶ͕ ĚĞƉƌŝǀĂƟŽŶ ŽĨ ǁĂƚĞƌ ĂŶĚ ďĂƐŝĐ ƐĂŶŝƚĂƟŽŶ͕ĂŶĚ ŐƌŽǁŝŶŐ ǀƵůŶĞƌĂďŝůŝƚLJ ƚŽ ŶĂƚƵƌĂů ĚŝƐĂƐƚĞƌƐ͘ Ƶƚ ǁŝƚŚ ƵƌďĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶ ĐŽŵĞƐ ƚŚĞ ƌŝƐĞ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ŵŝĚĚůĞ ĐůĂƐƐĂŶĚ ƉƌŽƉĞƌƚLJ ŽǁŶĞƌƐ͕ ƚŚĞ ĚĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ƐĞƌǀŝĐĞ ƐĞĐƚŽƌ͕ ĚĞĐůŝŶŝŶŐ ĨĞƌƟůŝƚLJ͕ ŝŶĐƌĞĂƐĞĚ ĞĚƵĐĂƟŽŶĂůĂƩĂŝŶŵĞŶƚ͕ ĂŶĚ ŝŶŶŽǀĂƟŽŶƐ ŝŶ ŐƌĞĞŶ ƚĞĐŚŶŽůŽŐLJ͘ dŚĞƐĞ ƵƌďĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶͲƌĞůĂƚĞĚ ĨŽƌĐĞƐ ĂŶĚ ŵĞĐŚĂŶŝƐŵĂƌĞ ŝŵƉŽƌƚĂŶƚ ĨŽƌ ĂƩĂŝŶŝŶŐ Ă ǁŝŶͲǁŝŶ ƐĐĞŶĂƌŝŽ ŽĨ ĞŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚĂů ŝŵƉƌŽǀĞŵĞŶƚ ĂŶĚ ĞĐŽŶŽŵŝĐ ŐƌŽǁƚŚ͘,ŽǁĞǀĞƌ͕ ďĞĐĂƵƐĞ ƚŚĞƐĞ ĨŽƌĐĞƐ ŵĂLJ ďĞ ŝŶƐƵĸĐŝĞŶƚ ƚŽ ƌĞĂĐŚ ĞŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚĂů ƐƵƐƚĂŝŶĂďŝůŝƚLJ͕ ĐĂƌĞĨƵůůLJĐŽŶƐŝĚĞƌĞĚ ƉŽůŝĐLJ ŵĂŬŝŶŐ ĂŶĚ ĞīĞĐƟǀĞ ŵĂŶĂŐĞŵĞŶƚ ĂƌĞ ĞƐƐĞŶƟĂů͘ dŚƵƐ͕ ƚŚĞ ĐŚĂƉƚĞƌ ĂůƐŽ ƉƌŽǀŝĚĞƐƐƵŐŐĞƐƟŽŶƐ ĨŽƌ ŐŽǀĞƌŶŵĞŶƚ ŝŶƚĞƌǀĞŶƟŽŶ ƚŽ ĞŶƐƵƌĞ Ă ŐƌĞĞŶ ƵƌďĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶ ƉĂƚŚ ŝŶ ƚŚĞ ƌĞŐŝŽŶ͘ dŚĞ ƐƚĂƟƐƟĐĂů ƚĂďůĞƐ ĂŶĚ ĂŶĂůLJƐŝƐ ƉƌĞƐĞŶƚĞĚ ŝŶ ƚŚĞ <ĞLJ /ŶĚŝĐĂƚŽƌƐ ϮϬϭϮ clearly describes AsiaĂŶĚ ƚŚĞ WĂĐŝĮĐ ƌĞŐŝŽŶ͛Ɛ ƉƌŽŐƌĞƐƐ ĂƐ ŝƚ ĐŽŶƟŶƵĞƐ ŝƚƐ ĞĐŽŶŽŵŝĐ ƌĞĐŽǀĞƌLJ͕ ĐĞŵĞŶƟŶŐ ŝƚƐ ĐůĂŝŵ ƚŽ ƚŚĞůĂƌŐĞƐƚ ƐŚĂƌĞ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ǁŽƌůĚ͛Ɛ ŐƌŽƐƐ ĚŽŵĞƐƟĐ ƉƌŽĚƵĐƚ͘ dŚĞ ƌĞŐŝŽŶ ŶŽǁ ĐŽŶƚƌŝďƵƚĞƐ ŵŽƌĞ ƚŚĂŶ Ă ƚŚŝƌĚƚŽ ƚŚĞ ǁŽƌůĚ͛Ɛ ƚŽƚĂů ĞdžƉŽƌƚƐ͘ dŚƌĞĞ LJĞĂƌƐ ďĞĨŽƌĞ ƚŚĞ D ĚĞĂĚůŝŶĞ ŝŶ ϮϬϭϱ͕ ƚŚĞ ƌĞŐŝŽŶ ƌĞĚƵĐĞĚŚƵŶŐĞƌ ĂŶĚ ĞdžƚƌĞŵĞ ƉŽǀĞƌƚLJ͘ /ƚ ŝƐ ĂůƐŽ ĞdžƉĞĐƚĞĚ ƚŽ ŵĞĞƚ ŝƚƐ ƚĂƌŐĞƚƐ ĨŽƌ ĞĚƵĐĂƟŽŶ ĂŶĚ ŐĞŶĚĞƌ͘ dŚĞƌĞŐŝŽŶ ŚĂƐ ƐƵĐĐĞƐƐĨƵůůLJ ƌĞĚƵĐĞĚ ŝƚƐ ƐůƵŵ ƉŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶ ĂŶĚ ŝƚ ŚĂƐ ŝŶĐƌĞĂƐĞĚ ŝƚƐ ƚĞƌƌĞƐƚƌŝĂů ĂŶĚ ŵĂƌŝŶĞprotected areas. dŚĞƌĞ ĂƌĞ ƐƟůů ŐƌŽǁŝŶŐ ĐŽŶĐĞƌŶƐ͕ ŚŽǁĞǀĞƌ͘ ƐŝĂ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞ WĂĐŝĮĐ ŶĞĞĚƐ ƚŽ ĂĚĚƌĞƐƐ ĞŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚĂůŝƐƐƵĞƐ͕ ƉĂƌƟĐƵůĂƌůLJ ƚŚĞ ĐŽŶƟŶƵĞĚ ƌĞĚƵĐƟŽŶ ŝŶ ĨŽƌĞƐƚ ĐŽǀĞƌ ĂŶĚ ŝŶĐƌĞĂƐŝŶŐ K2 ĞŵŝƐƐŝŽŶƐ͕ ƚŽ ĂƩĂŝŶĞŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚĂů ƐƵƐƚĂŝŶĂďŝůŝƚLJ͘ DŽƐƚ ĞůĞĐƚƌŝĐŝƚLJ ŝƐ ƐƟůů ŐĞŶĞƌĂƚĞĚ ƵƐŝŶŐ ĐĂƌďŽŶ ĨƵĞůƐ͘ ĞĐĂƵƐĞ ŽĨ ƚŚĞƌŝƐŝŶŐ ĨŽŽĚ ƉƌŝĐĞƐ ĐŽŵƉĂƌĞĚ ƚŽ ƚŚĞ ŐĞŶĞƌĂů ŝŶŇĂƟŽŶ͕ ŵŽƌĞ ƉĞŽƉůĞ ĂƌĞ ƉƵƚ Ăƚ ƌŝƐŬ ŽĨ ĨĂůůŝŶŐ ŝŶƚŽ ĞdžƚƌĞŵĞƉŽǀĞƌƚLJ͕ ƉƵƫŶŐ ƚŚĞ ŐĂŝŶƐ ƚŚĂƚ ƚŚĞ ƌĞŐŝŽŶ ŚĂƐ ĂĐŚŝĞǀĞĚ ŝŶ ƉŽǀĞƌƚLJ ƌĞĚƵĐƟŽŶ ŝŶ ƉĞƌŝů͘ DŽƌĞŽǀĞƌ͕ DƚĂƌŐĞƚƐ ŽŶ ƌĞĚƵĐŝŶŐ ĐŚŝůĚ ĂŶĚ ŵĂƚĞƌŶĂů ŵŽƌƚĂůŝƟĞƐ ĂƌĞ ŶŽƚ ĞdžƉĞĐƚĞĚ ƚŽ ďĞ ŵĞƚ ďLJ ŵĂŶLJ ĚĞǀĞůŽƉŝŶŐ ƐŝĂŶ ĐŽƵŶƚƌŝĞƐ͕ ĂůƚŚŽƵŐŚ ƐŽŵĞ ŚĂǀĞ ĂĐŚŝĞǀĞĚ ƐƵďƐƚĂŶƟĂů ƉƌŽŐƌĞƐƐ͘ ĞƐƉŝƚĞ ƚŚĞ ƌĞŐŝŽŶ͛Ɛ ƌĞŵĂƌŬĂďůĞ ƐƵĐĐĞƐƐ͕ ĐŚĂůůĞŶŐĞƐ ƌĞŵĂŝŶ͕ ĂƐ ŶĞǁ ĐŽŶĐĞƌŶƐ ĞŵĞƌŐĞ͘ /ƚ ŝƐ ŽƵƌhope that the Key Indicators ƐĞƌŝĞƐ ǁŝůů ĐŽŶƟŶƵĞ ƚŽ ĂĚĚƌĞƐƐ ƚŚĞƐĞ ĚĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ ŝƐƐƵĞƐ ĂŶĚ ƐƚƌŝǀĞ ƚŽƉƌŽǀŝĚĞ ƐŽƵŶĚ ĂŶĚ ĐŽŵƉƌĞŚĞŶƐŝǀĞ ĚĂƚĂ ƚŚĂƚ ĐĂŶ ďĞ ĂĐĐĞƐƐĞĚ ǁŝĚĞůLJ͘ DĞĂŶǁŚŝůĞ͕  ĐŽŶƟŶƵĞƐ ƚŽǁŽƌŬ ǁŝƚŚ ŽƵƌ ĚĞǀĞůŽƉŝŶŐ ŵĞŵďĞƌƐ͛ ŶĂƟŽŶĂů ƐƚĂƟƐƟĐĂů ƐLJƐƚĞŵƐ ƚŽ ŝŵƉƌŽǀĞ ƚŚĞ ĐŽǀĞƌĂŐĞ ĂŶĚ ƋƵĂůŝƚLJ ŽĨƚŚĞŝƌ ŽĸĐŝĂů ƐƚĂƟƐƟĐƐ ƚŚĂƚ ĨŽƌŵ Ă ƐƵďƐƚĂŶƟĂů ƉĂƌƚ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ƐƚĂƟƐƟĐĂů ƚĂďůĞƐ ƉƌĞƐĞŶƚĞĚ ŝŶ ƚŚŝƐ ƉƵďůŝĐĂƟŽŶ͘ Haruhiko Kuroda Haruhiko Kuroda President
    • vAcknowledgmentsThe <ĞLJ /ŶĚŝĐĂƚŽƌƐ ĨŽƌ ƐŝĂ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞ WĂĐŝĮĐ ϮϬϭϮ ;<ĞLJ /ŶĚŝĐĂƚŽƌƐ ϮϬϭϮͿ was prepared by theDevelopment Indicators and Policy Research Division of the Economics and Research Department,under the overall supervision of Douglas H. Brooks. ƵĂŶŐŚƵĂ tĂŶ ĂŶĚ DĂƩŚĞǁ <ĂŚŶ ǁŝƚŚ ƚĞĐŚŶŝĐĂů ĂŶĚ ƌĞƐĞĂƌĐŚ ĂƐƐŝƐƚĂŶĐĞ ĨƌŽŵ /ǀĂ ^ĞďĂƐƟĂŶ͕ĞƌŶĂĚĞƩĞ ĂůĂŵďĂŶ͕ ĂŶĚ <ƌŝƐƟŶĞ :ŽLJ ƌŝŽŶĞƐ͕ ǁƌŽƚĞ ƚŚĞ ƐƉĞĐŝĂů ĐŚĂƉƚĞƌ ŽŶ ͞ƌĞĞŶ hƌďĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶŝŶ ƐŝĂ͟ ;WĂƌƚ /Ϳ͘ dŚĞ ĐŚĂƉƚĞƌ ŚŝŐŚůŝŐŚƚƐ ƵŶŝƋƵĞ ĐŚĂƌĂĐƚĞƌŝƐƟĐƐ ŽĨ ƐŝĂ͛Ɛ ƵƌďĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞ ŶĞĞĚ ƚŽĂĚĚƌĞƐƐ ƌĞƐƵůƟŶŐ ĞŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚĂů ĐŚĂůůĞŶŐĞƐ͘ dŚĞ ĐŚĂƉƚĞƌ ďĞŶĞĮƚĞĚ ĐŽŶƐŝĚĞƌĂďůLJ ĨƌŽŵ ďĂĐŬŐƌŽƵŶĚƉĂƉĞƌƐ ƉƌĞƉĂƌĞĚ ďLJ ĞďŽƌĂŚ ĂůŬ͕ :ĂŶ ƌƵĞĐŬŶĞƌ͕ ^ƵƌĞŶĚĞƌ <ƵŵĂƌ͕ ůŝĐĞ DĂƌƚŚĂ >ĞĞ͕ DĂƌŬDŽŶƚŐŽŵĞƌLJ͕ <ĂůĂ ^ĞĞƚŚĂƌĂŵ ^ƌŝĚŚĂƌ͕ ŽŶŐ ^ƵŶ͕ :ŝŶŐ :ŝŶŐ zĞ͕ ĂŶĚ ^ŝƋŝ ŚĞŶŐ͘ sĂůƵĂďůĞ ƐƵŐŐĞƐƟŽŶƐǁĞƌĞ ƉƌŽǀŝĚĞĚ ďLJ ƌƚƵƌ ŶĚƌLJƐŝĂŬ͕ DĂƌŝĂ ^ŽĐŽƌƌŽ ĂƵƟƐƚĂ͕ ŽƵŐůĂƐ ƌŽŽŬƐ͕ EĂƚĂůŝĞ ŚƵŶ͕ :ĞƐƵƐ&ĞůŝƉĞ͕ <ĂƵƐŚĂů :ŽƐŚŝ͕ ŝŶĚƵ >ŽŚĂŶŝ͕ ĂůŝƐĂLJ DĂůŝŐĂůŝŐ͕ ŶŶŝĞ DĂƚĂŶ͕ ŚĞůůĂŵ WĂůĂŶLJĂŶĚLJ͕ ƵŶƚƵƌ^ƵŐŝLJĂƌƚŽ͕ ^ƵƉĂĐŚŽů ^ƵƉĂĐŚĂůĂƐĂŝ͕ ĂŶĚ :ƵnjŚŽŶŐ ŚƵĂŶŐ͘ tĞ ĂƉƉƌĞĐŝĂƚĞ ƚŚĞ ĚŝƐĐƵƐƐŝŽŶƐ ďLJ ŐƵƐƟŶ ƌĐĞŶĂƐ͕ ^ĞŬŚĂƌ ŽŶƵ͕ ŶĂŶĚ ŚŝƉůƵŶŬĂƌ͕ ZƵĚŽůĨ &ƌĂƵĞŶĚŽƌĨĞƌ͕ LJƵŵŝ <ŽŶŝƐŚŝ͕ DŝĐŚĂĞů >ŝŶĚĮĞůĚ͕dŽďLJ DĞůŝƐƐĂ DŽŶƐŽĚ͕ ŝǁĞƐŚ E͘ ^ŚĂƌĂŶ͕ :ĂŵĞƐ ^ƉĞŶĐĞƌ͕ DĂƩŚĞǁ dƵƌŶĞƌ͕ ĂŶĚ :ĞīƌĞLJ Ădž ŝŶ ƚŚĞƚǁŽ ǁŽƌŬƐŚŽƉƐ ĐŽŶĚƵĐƚĞĚ ĨŽƌ ĚĞǀĞůŽƉŝŶŐ ƚŚĞ ƐƉĞĐŝĂů ĐŚĂƉƚĞƌ͘ :ŝŶŐŵŝŶ ,ƵĂŶŐ͕ >ĞĂ ^ƵŵƵůŽŶŐ͕ ĂŶĚ ŝŵŝŶŐ ŚŽƵ ƉƌŽǀŝĚĞĚ ďĂĐŬŐƌŽƵŶĚ ŵĂƚĞƌŝĂůƐ͘ DŝĐŚĂĞů ƌĂĚLJ ĂŶĚ ŚĞŶ >ŝƵ ĂƐƐŝƐƚĞĚ ŝŶ ƚŚĞ ƌĞƐĞĂƌĐŚ͘WĞƚĞƌ EĞǁŵĂŶ ǁĂƐ ƚŚĞ ĞĐŽŶŽŵŝĐƐ ĞĚŝƚŽƌ ĨŽƌ WĂƌƚ /͘ :ŽƐĞ ,ĞƌŵĂŶ ZĂŵŽƐ ĂŶĚ ŶŐĞů sŝůůĂƌĞnj ƉƌŽǀŝĚĞĚǀĂůƵĂďůĞ ĂƐƐŝƐƚĂŶĐĞ ĨŽƌ ĐŽŶƐƚƌƵĐƟŶŐ ƚŚĞ ŵĂƉƐ ƵƐĞĚ ŝŶ ƚŚĞ ƐƉĞĐŝĂů ĐŚĂƉƚĞƌ͘ tĞ ĂƉƉƌĞĐŝĂƚĞ ƚŚĞ ĐŽŶƟŶƵŝŶŐ ĐŽůůĂďŽƌĂƟŽŶ ŽĨ ƐƚĂƟƐƟĐĂů ƉĂƌƚŶĞƌƐ ŝŶ ƐŝĂŶ ĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚĂŶŬ͛Ɛ ; Ϳ ƌĞŐŝŽŶĂů ŵĞŵďĞƌƐ ĂŶĚ ŝŶƚĞƌŶĂƟŽŶĂů ŽƌŐĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶƐ ƚŚĂƚ ƐŚĂƌĞĚ ĚĂƚĂ ǁŝƚŚ ƵƐ͘ tĞ ĂůƐŽĂĐŬŶŽǁůĞĚŐĞ ƚŚĞ ƐƵƉƉŽƌƚ ŽĨ  ƌĞƐŝĚĞŶƚ ŵŝƐƐŝŽŶƐ͕ ƌĞƉƌĞƐĞŶƚĂƟǀĞ ĂŶĚ ĐŽƵŶƚƌLJ ŽĸĐĞƐ ĨŽƌ ƚŚĞŝƌĂƐƐŝƐƚĂŶĐĞ ŝŶ ĐŽůůĞĐƟŶŐ ĚĂƚĂ ŽŶ ƚŚĞŝƌ ƌĞƐƉĞĐƟǀĞ ĐŽƵŶƚƌŝĞƐ͘ Glenita Amoranto, Barbara Dizon, Nalwino Billones, Eileen Capilit, Modesta de Castro, AnnaŚƌŝƐƟŶĞ Ğ WĂĚƵĂͲƵƌĂŶƚĞ͕ :ŽƐĞƉŚŝŶĞ &ĞƌƌĞ͕ <ĂƌĞŶ &ŝƌƐŚĂŶ͕ ƵŐĞŶŝĂ Ž͕ WĂŵĞůĂ >ĂƉŝƚĂŶ͕ ĞŶũĂŵŝŶEĂǀĂƌƌŽ͕ DĞůŝƐƐĂ WĂƐĐƵĂ͕ >ĂƵƌĂ WƌĂĚŽ͕ >ĞĂ ZŽƚĂŝƌŽ͕ /ǀĂ ^ĞďĂƐƟĂŶ͕ ĂŶĚ ƌŝĐ ^ƵĂŶ ĐŽŵƉŝůĞĚ ĂŶĚĂŶĂůLJnjĞĚ ĚĂƚĂ ĨƌŽŵ ǀĂƌŝŽƵƐ ƐŽƵƌĐĞƐ ƚŽ ƉƌĞƉĂƌĞ ƚŚĞ ƐƚĂƟƐƟĐĂů ƚĂďůĞƐ ŽŶ ƚŚĞ DŝůůĞŶŶŝƵŵ ĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚGoals (MDGs), regional trends and tables, and country tables. They also wrote the analysis of keyDƐ ;WĂƌƚ //Ϳ ĂŶĚ ƌĞŐŝŽŶĂů ƚƌĞŶĚƐ ;WĂƌƚ ///Ϳ͘ ƌƚƵƌ ŶĚƌLJƐŝĂŬ͕ EĂƚĂůŝĞ ŚƵŶ͕ <ĂƵƐŚĂů :ŽƐŚŝ͕ ĂůŝƐĂLJ ^͘DĂůŝŐĂůŝŐ͕ ŚĞůůĂŵ WĂůĂŶLJĂŶĚLJ͕ ĂŶĚ ƵŶƚƵƌ ^ƵŐŝLJĂƌƚŽ ƌĞǀŝĞǁĞĚ ƚŚĞ ƐƚĂƟƐƟĐĂů ƚĂďůĞƐ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞ ĂŶĂůLJƟĐĂůƌĞƉŽƌƚƐ͘ DĂƌŝĂ ^ŽĐŽƌƌŽ ĂƵƟƐƚĂ ĂůƐŽ ƌĞǀŝĞǁĞĚ ƚŚĞ ĂŶĂůLJƐŝƐ ŽĨ ŬĞLJ ƚƌĞŶĚƐ ĂŶĚ DĂ͘ EŝŵĨĂ DĞŶĚŽnjĂ ǁĂƐthe economics editor for Parts II and III. dŚĞ ƉƌŽĚƵĐƟŽŶ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ <ĞLJ /ŶĚŝĐĂƚŽƌƐ ϮϬϭϮ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞ ĐŽŵƉŝůĂƟŽŶ ŽĨ Ăůů ƐƚĂƟƐƟĐĂů ƚĂďůĞƐ ǁĞƌĞĐŽŽƌĚŝŶĂƚĞĚ ďLJ ĂůŝƐĂLJ ^͘ DĂůŝŐĂůŝŐ͕ ĂƐƐŝƐƚĞĚ ďLJ ĂƌďĂƌĂ ŝnjŽŶ ĂŶĚ WĂŵĞůĂ >ĂƉŝƚĂŶ͘ :ŝůů ĂůĞ ĚĞ sŝůůĂand Guia De Guzman were the copy editors. Francis Manio designed the cover. Rhommell Rico didƚŚĞ ŐƌĂƉŚŝĐƐ ĚĞƐŝŐŶ ĨŽƌ ƚŚĞ ƌĞƐƚ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ƉƵďůŝĐĂƟŽŶ͕ ůĞĚ ƚŚĞ ƚLJƉĞƐĞƫŶŐ ƉƌŽĐĞƐƐ͕ ĂŶĚ ƉƌŽǀŝĚĞĚ ƚĞĐŚŶŝĐĂůƐƵƉƉŽƌƚ ĨŽƌ ƚŚĞ ƉƌĞƉĂƌĂƟŽŶ ŽĨ Ăůů ĚŝƐƐĞŵŝŶĂƟŽŶ ŵĂƚĞƌŝĂůƐ͘ :ŽĞ DĂƌŬ ĂŶĂďĂŶ ŚĞůƉĞĚ ŝŶ ƚLJƉĞƐĞƫŶŐ͘Ma. Roselia Babalo and Clarita Dalaguit-Truong rendered secretarial and proofreading services. ^ĞĂŶ ƌŽǁůĞLJ͕ ǁŝƚŚ ƚŚĞ ĂƐƐŝƐƚĂŶĐĞ ŽĨ ŝůĚĂ EĂŶƋƵŝů͕ ŽƌŐĂŶŝnjĞĚ ƚŚĞ ĚŝƐƐĞŵŝŶĂƟŽŶ ĂĐƟǀŝƟĞƐ͘ tĞƚŚĂŶŬ ƚŚĞ KĸĐĞ ŽĨ /ŶĨŽƌŵĂƟŽŶ ^LJƐƚĞŵƐ ĂŶĚ dĞĐŚŶŽůŽŐLJ ĨŽƌ ĚĂƚĂďĂƐĞ ŵĂŶĂŐĞŵĞŶƚ ĂŶĚ ƚĞĐŚŶŽůŽŐLJƐƵƉƉŽƌƚ͕ ƚŚĞ ĞƉĂƌƚŵĞŶƚ ŽĨ džƚĞƌŶĂů ZĞůĂƟŽŶƐ͕ ƚŚĞ >ŽŐŝƐƟĐƐ DĂŶĂŐĞŵĞŶƚ hŶŝƚ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ KĸĐĞŽĨ ĚŵŝŶŝƐƚƌĂƟǀĞ ^ĞƌǀŝĐĞƐ ĨŽƌ ƚŚĞŝƌ ĐŽŽƉĞƌĂƟŽŶ ŝŶ ƚŚĞ ƟŵĞůLJ ĂŶĚ ƐŵŽŽƚŚ ƉƌŽĚƵĐƟŽŶ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ Key/ŶĚŝĐĂƚŽƌƐ ϮϬϭϮ. Changyong Rhee Chief Economist
    • viiContents Foreword.................................................................................................................................................................. iii Acknowledgments .................................................................................................................................................... v ^ƚĂƟƐƟĐĂů WĂƌƚŶĞƌƐ .................................................................................................................................................. xvi Guide for Users ....................................................................................................................................................... xxi Highlights ...................................................................................................................................................... xxviiPART I – SPECIAL CHAPTERƌĞĞŶ hƌďĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶ ŝŶ ƐŝĂ ^ƉĞĐŝĂů &ĞĂƚƵƌĞƐ ŽĨ hƌďĂŶ ƌŽǁƚŚ ŝŶ ƐŝĂ ............................................................................................................... 4 ŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚĂů /ŵƉůŝĐĂƟŽŶƐ ŽĨ hƌďĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶ ŝŶ ƐŝĂ ............................................................................................... 9 hƌďĂŶ ŝƌ WŽůůƵƟŽŶ ŝŶ ƐŝĂ ............................................................................................................................. 11 Greenhouse Gas Emissions ............................................................................................................................ 13 ĐĐĞƐƐ ƚŽ ůĞĂŶ tĂƚĞƌ ĂŶĚ ^ĂŶŝƚĂƟŽŶ ........................................................................................................... 14 Resilience to Climate Change ......................................................................................................................... 15 >ŽƐƐ ŽĨ EĂƚƵƌĂů ĐŽƐLJƐƚĞŵƐ ĂŶĚ ŵĞŶŝƟĞƐ .................................................................................................... 19 Urban Slums and Urban Poverty.................................................................................................................... 19 ƐŝĂ͛Ɛ ŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚĂů ŚĂůůĞŶŐĞƐ͗ dŚĞ ŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚĂů <ƵnjŶĞƚƐ ƵƌǀĞ............................................................ 19 dŚĞ ŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚͲhƌďĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶ EĞdžƵƐ ŝŶ ƐŝĂ ....................................................................................................... 21 hƌďĂŶ ŐŐůŽŵĞƌĂƟŽŶ ,ĞůƉƐ /ŵƉƌŽǀĞ ƚŚĞ ŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚ ................................................................................ 22 DĂŶƵĨĂĐƚƵƌŝŶŐ ZĞůŽĐĂƟŽŶ ĂŶĚ ZŝƐĞ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ DŝĚĚůĞ ůĂƐƐ ĂŶĚ WƌŽƉĞƌƚLJ KǁŶĞƌƐ ............................................ 24 ĞĐůŝŶŝŶŐ &ĞƌƟůŝƚLJ ĂŶĚ /ŶĐƌĞĂƐŝŶŐ ĚƵĐĂƟŽŶĂů ƩĂŝŶŵĞŶƚ ............................................................................ 25 YƵĂŶƟĨLJŝŶŐ ƚŚĞ ŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚͲhƌďĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶ EĞdžƵƐ ........................................................................................ 26 Summary........................................................................................................................................................ 28 WŽůŝĐLJ KƉƟŽŶƐ ĨŽƌ ƌĞĞŶ ŝƟĞƐ .............................................................................................................................. 28 ŶŚĂŶĐŝŶŐ ĸĐŝĞŶĐLJ ĂŶĚ ŽŶƐĞƌǀĂƟŽŶ ......................................................................................................... 29 WƌŽŵŽƟŶŐ EĞǁ &ƌŽŶƟĞƌƐ............................................................................................................................... 34 WƌŽƚĞĐƟŶŐ ƚŚĞ WŽŽƌ ........................................................................................................................................ 38 Finance, Transparency, and Accountability .................................................................................................... 38 Summary........................................................................................................................................................ 40 DĂũŽƌ &ŝŶĚŝŶŐƐ ĂŶĚ ŽŶĐůƵƐŝŽŶ.............................................................................................................................. 40 ZĞĨĞƌĞŶĐĞƐ ......................................................................................................................................................... 42
    • viii <ĞLJ /ŶĚŝĐĂƚŽƌƐ ĨŽƌ ƐŝĂ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞ WĂĐŝĮĐ ϮϬϭϮ dĂďůĞƐ dĂďůĞ ϭ hƌďĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶ >ĞǀĞů ĂŶĚ ŚĂŶŐĞƐ ;ĂĐƚƵĂů ĂŶĚ ƉƌŽũĞĐƚĞĚͿ....................................................................... 4 dĂďůĞ Ϯ hƌďĂŶ WŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶ Ăƚ ZŝƐŬ ŽĨ ŽĂƐƚĂů &ůŽŽĚŝŶŐ ďLJ ZĞŐŝŽŶ͕ ϮϬϬϬ .......................................................... 15 dĂďůĞ ϯ WŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶ ĂŶĚ ƌĞĂ Ăƚ ZŝƐŬ ŽĨ ŽĂƐƚĂů &ůŽŽĚŝŶŐ͕ ϮϬϬϬ ...................................................................... 16 dĂďůĞ ϰ WŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶ ĂŶĚ ƌĞĂ Ăƚ ZŝƐŬ ŽĨ /ŶůĂŶĚ &ůŽŽĚŝŶŐ͕ ϮϬϬϬ ........................................................................ 16 dĂďůĞ ϱ dŽƉ ϰϬ ƐŝĂŶ ŝƟĞƐ;хϭ ŵŝůůŝŽŶ ƉŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶͿ ŝŶ sƵůŶĞƌĂďŝůŝƚLJ ƚŽ ŽĂƐƚĂů &ůŽŽĚŝŶŐ ................................. 17 dĂďůĞ ϲ dŽƉ ϰϬ ƐŝĂŶ ŝƟĞƐ;хϭ ŵŝůůŝŽŶ ƉŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶͿ ŝŶ sƵůŶĞƌĂďŝůŝƚLJ ƚŽ /ŶůĂŶĚ &ůŽŽĚŝŶŐ .................................. 17 Table 7 The Environmental Kuznets Curve for Asia ......................................................................................... 21 Table 8 United States Imports of High-Tech Green Equipment (%) ................................................................. 23 dĂďůĞ ϵ WŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶ ƌŽǁƚŚ ĂŶĚ hƌďĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶ ................................................................................................. 25 dĂďůĞ ϭϬ WĞƌĐĞŶƚĂŐĞ ŽĨ ZĞƐƉŽŶĚĞŶƚƐ͛ tŝůůŝŶŐŶĞƐƐ ƚŽ ^ƵƉƉŽƌƚ ŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚĂů WƌŽƚĞĐƟŽŶ ................................ 26 dĂďůĞ ϭϭ dŚĞ ŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚʹhƌďĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶ DŽĚĞů............................................................................................... 27 Table 12 Water Pricing ...................................................................................................................................... 31 &ŝŐƵƌĞƐ &ŝŐƵƌĞ ϭ EƵŵďĞƌ ŽĨ zĞĂƌƐ ĨƌŽŵ ĂďŽƵƚ ϭϬй ƚŽ ϱϬй hƌďĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶ ....................................................................... 5 &ŝŐƵƌĞ Ϯ /ŶĐƌĞĂƐĞ ŝŶ hƌďĂŶ WŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶ ŝŶ ƐŝĂ ;ŵŝůůŝŽŶƐͿ .................................................................................... 5 &ŝŐƵƌĞ ϯ /ŶĐƌĞĂƐĞ ŝŶ hƌďĂŶ WŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶ͕ ϭϵϱϬʹϮϬϭϬ............................................................................................ 5 &ŝŐƵƌĞ ϰ ZĞŐŝŽŶĂů ^ŚĂƌĞƐ ŽĨ ůŽďĂů hƌďĂŶ WŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶ͕ ϮϬϭϬ ;йͿ ........................................................................ 6 &ŝŐƵƌĞ ϱ >ĞǀĞů ŽĨ hƌďĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶ ďLJ ZĞŐŝŽŶ ;йͿ ..................................................................................................... 6 &ŝŐƵƌĞ ϲ EƵŵďĞƌ ŽĨ DĞŐĂĐŝƟĞƐ .......................................................................................................................... 7 &ŝŐƵƌĞ ϳ WŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶ ^ŚĂƌĞ ŽĨ >ĂƌŐĞƐƚ ŝƟĞƐ ŽĨ /ŶĚŝǀŝĚƵĂů ŽƵŶƚƌŝĞƐ͕ ϮϬϬϵ ;й ŽĨ ƚŽƚĂů ƵƌďĂŶ ƉŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶͿ .......... 9 &ŝŐƵƌĞ ϴ dŽƉ Ϯϱ ŝƟĞƐ ZĂŶŬĞĚ ďLJ WŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶ ĞŶƐŝƚLJ͕ ϮϬϬϳ ............................................................................... 9 &ŝŐƵƌĞ ϵ hƌďĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶ >ĞǀĞůƐ͕  ^ƵďƌĞŐŝŽŶ ;йͿ ............................................................................................. 10 &ŝŐƵƌĞ ϭϬ hƌďĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶ >ĞǀĞůƐ͕ ^ĞůĞĐƚĞĚ ƐŝĂŶ ĐŽŶŽŵŝĞƐ ;йͿ ........................................................................... 10 Figure 11 Urban and Rural Inequality in Asia (%) ............................................................................................... 10 &ŝŐƵƌĞ ϭϮ dŚĞŌ ZĂƚĞ ǀĞƌƐƵƐ >ĞǀĞů ŽĨ hƌďĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶ͗ ůŽďĂů ĂƚĂ ......................................................................... 11 &ŝŐƵƌĞ ϭϯ /ŶƚĞŶƟŽŶĂů ,ŽŵŝĐŝĚĞ ZĂƚĞƐ ŝŶ ^ĞůĞĐƚĞĚ ŽƵŶƚƌŝĞƐ .............................................................................. 11 &ŝŐƵƌĞ ϭϰ ŝƟĞƐ ǁŝƚŚ WD10 above 100 μg/m3, 2008–2009 ................................................................................. 12 Figure 15 PM10 Kernel Density, 2008–2009 ........................................................................................................ 12 &ŝŐƵƌĞ ϭϲ dŽƚĂů ^ƵƐƉĞŶĚĞĚ WĂƌƟĐƵůĂƚĞƐ Ăƚ DĂŶŝůĂ ^ŝƚĞƐ ..................................................................................... 12 &ŝŐƵƌĞ ϭϳ dŽƉ ϱ ŽƵŶƚƌŝĞƐ ŝŶ dŽƚĂů K2 Emissions in 2008 .................................................................................. 13 &ŝŐƵƌĞ ϭϴ K2 Emissions (t/capita) ..................................................................................................................... 13 &ŝŐƵƌĞ ϭϵ sƵůŶĞƌĂďŝůŝƚLJ ƚŽ /ŶůĂŶĚ ;ƚŽƉͿ ĂŶĚ ŽĂƐƚĂů ;ďŽƩŽŵͿ &ůŽŽĚŝŶŐ .............................................................. 18 &ŝŐƵƌĞ ϮϬ WŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶ Ăƚ ZŝƐŬ ŽĨ ŽĂƐƚĂů &ůŽŽĚŝŶŐ ................................................................................................ 19 &ŝŐƵƌĞ Ϯϭ WŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶ Ăƚ ZŝƐŬ ŽĨ /ŶůĂŶĚ &ůŽŽĚŝŶŐ ................................................................................................. 19 &ŝŐƵƌĞ ϮϮ ^ĐĂƩĞƌƉůŽƚ ŽĨ K2 Emissions (t/capita) and GDP Per Capita (in 2005 PPP) ........................................ 21 &ŝŐƵƌĞ Ϯϯ WƌŽũĞĐƚĞĚ WĞƌ ĂƉŝƚĂ K2 ŵŝƐƐŝŽŶƐ ďĂƐĞĚ ŽŶ ƐƟŵĂƚĞĚ < ............................................................ 21 &ŝŐƵƌĞ Ϯϰ W WĞƌ ĂƉŝƚĂ ĂŶĚ >ĞǀĞů ŽĨ hƌďĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶ͕ ϭϵϴϬʹϮϬϭϬ ; ůů ŽƵŶƚƌŝĞƐ͕ ƐŝĂ͕ ADB Developing Member Economies) ................................................................................................ 22 &ŝŐƵƌĞ Ϯϱ /ŶĨĂŶƚ DŽƌƚĂůŝƚLJ ZĂƚĞ ĂŶĚ >ĞǀĞů ŽĨ hƌďĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶ͕ tŽƌůĚ͕ ϭϵϱϱʹϮϬϭϬ ................................................. 23 &ŝŐƵƌĞ Ϯϲ &ĞƌƟůŝƚLJ ZĂƚĞƐ ǀƐ͘ >ĞǀĞů ŽĨ hƌďĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶ ŝŶ ƐŝĂ................................................................................... 25 &ŝŐƵƌĞ Ϯϳ ZĞĚƵĐƟŽŶ ŝŶ WƌŽũĞĐƚĞĚ WŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶ ĚƵĞ ƚŽ hƌďĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶ .................................................................... 25 &ŝŐƵƌĞ Ϯϴ ĚƵĐĂƟŽŶ ǀƐ͘ hƌďĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶ ŝŶ ƐŝĂ͕ ϭϵϴϬʹϮϬϭϬ ................................................................................. 26 &ŝŐƵƌĞ Ϯϵ ŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚʹhƌďĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶ ZĞůĂƟŽŶƐŚŝƉ ŝŶ ƐŝĂ................................................................................. 27 &ŝŐƵƌĞ ϯϬ /ůůƵƐƚƌĂƟǀĞ ŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚʹhƌďĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶ ƵƌǀĞ ..................................................................................... 28 &ŝŐƵƌĞ ϯϭ ^ŚŝŌ ŝŶ &ŝƩĞĚ WD10 >ŝŶĞ ŝŶ WZ ŝƟĞƐ ................................................................................................. 32 ŽdžĞƐ Box 1 Metros Moving People in Delhi and Shanghai ............................................................................................ 14 Ždž Ϯ ƐƟŵĂƟŶŐ ZŝƐŬƐ ŽĨ /ŶůĂŶĚ ĂŶĚ ŽĂƐƚĂů &ůŽŽĚŝŶŐ ......................................................................................... 15
    • Contents ŝdž Box 3 The Environmental Kuznets Curve .............................................................................................................. 20 Ždž ϰ DĂůĂLJƐŝĂŶ ĞĐĞŶƚƌĂůŝnjĂƟŽŶ......................................................................................................................... 24 Ždž ϱ ƵƐ ZĂƉŝĚ dƌĂŶƐŝƚ͗ dŚĞ WĞŽƉůĞ͛Ɛ tĂLJ ŝŶ ŚŵĞĚĂďĂĚ .................................................................................. 34 Box 6 From Waste to Energy in Singapore ............................................................................................................ 34 Box 7 Kawasaki Eco-Town ..................................................................................................................................... 36 Ždž ϴ ^ŵĂƌƚ ƌŝĚ ŶĞƌŐLJ ŝƐƚƌŝďƵƟŽŶ ................................................................................................................... 37 Box 9 Small-Scale Energy Systems: Garment Factories in Bangladesh ................................................................. 37 Ždž ϭϬ ĞůŚŝ͛Ɛ ^ŚŝŌ ƚŽ ŽŵƉƌĞƐƐĞĚ EĂƚƵƌĂů ĂƐ .................................................................................................... 37 Box 11 Kampung Code River: Upgrading a Slum .................................................................................................... 39 Box 12 Restoring the Cheonggyecheon River ......................................................................................................... 40PART II ʹ DŝůůĞŶŶŝƵŵ ĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ ŽĂůƐ dƌĞŶĚƐ ĂŶĚ dĂďůĞƐ /ŶƚƌŽĚƵĐƟŽŶ ƚŽ ƚŚĞ DŝůůĞŶŶŝƵŵ ĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ ŽĂůƐ....................................................................................... 49 dĂďůĞ ϭ͘ ƵƚŽī sĂůƵĞƐ ĨŽƌ ^ĞůĞĐƚĞĚ D /ŶĚŝĐĂƚŽƌƐ ..................................................................... 51 Table 2. Millennium Development Goals Progress Tracking ........................................................ 52 ŽĂů ϭ͗ ƌĂĚŝĐĂƚĞ džƚƌĞŵĞ WŽǀĞƌƚLJ ĂŶĚ ,ƵŶŐĞƌ............................................................................................... 54 dĂďůĞ ϭ͘ϭ dĂƌŐĞƚ ϭ͘ ͗ ,ĂůǀĞ͕ ďĞƚǁĞĞŶ ϭϵϵϬ ĂŶĚ ϮϬϭϱ͕ ƚŚĞ ƉƌŽƉŽƌƟŽŶ ŽĨ ƉĞŽƉůĞ whose income is less than one dollar a day.................................................................... 62 dĂďůĞ ϭ͘Ϯ dĂƌŐĞƚ ϭ͗͘ ĐŚŝĞǀĞ ĨƵůů ĂŶĚ ƉƌŽĚƵĐƟǀĞ ĞŵƉůŽLJŵĞŶƚ ĂŶĚ ĚĞĐĞŶƚ ǁŽƌŬ ĨŽƌ Ăůů͕ including women and young people .............................................................................. 63 dĂďůĞ ϭ͘ϯ dĂƌŐĞƚ ϭ͗͘ ,ĂůǀĞ͕ ďĞƚǁĞĞŶ ϭϵϵϬ ĂŶĚ ϮϬϭϱ͕ ƚŚĞ ƉƌŽƉŽƌƟŽŶ ŽĨ ƉĞŽƉůĞ ǁŚŽ ƐƵīĞƌ ĨƌŽŵ ŚƵŶŐĞƌ .................................................................................................. 64 ŽĂů Ϯ͗ ĐŚŝĞǀĞ hŶŝǀĞƌƐĂů WƌŝŵĂƌLJ ĚƵĐĂƟŽŶ.................................................................................................. 65 Table 2.1 Target 2.A: Ensure that by 2015, children everywhere, boys and girls alike, will be able to complete a full course of primary schooling ........................................... 69 ŽĂů ϯ͗ WƌŽŵŽƚĞ ĞŶĚĞƌ ƋƵĂůŝƚLJ ĂŶĚ ŵƉŽǁĞƌ tŽŵĞŶ ................................................................................ 72 dĂďůĞ ϯ͘ϭ dĂƌŐĞƚ ϯ͘ ͗ ůŝŵŝŶĂƚĞ ŐĞŶĚĞƌ ĚŝƐƉĂƌŝƚLJ ŝŶ ƉƌŝŵĂƌLJ ĂŶĚ ƐĞĐŽŶĚĂƌLJ ĞĚƵĐĂƟŽŶ͕ ƉƌĞĨĞƌĂďůLJ ďLJ ϮϬϬϱ͕ ĂŶĚ ŝŶ Ăůů ůĞǀĞůƐ ŽĨ ĞĚƵĐĂƟŽŶ ŶŽƚ ůĂƚĞƌ ƚŚĂŶ ϮϬϭϱ........................... 76 ŽĂů ϰ͗ ZĞĚƵĐĞ ŚŝůĚ DŽƌƚĂůŝƚLJ ....................................................................................................................... 78 Table 4.1 Target 4.A: Reduce by two-thirds, between 1990 and 2015, ƚŚĞ ƵŶĚĞƌͲĮǀĞ ŵŽƌƚĂůŝƚLJ ƌĂƚĞ .......................................................................................... 82 ŽĂů ϱ͗ /ŵƉƌŽǀĞ DĂƚĞƌŶĂů ,ĞĂůƚŚ .................................................................................................................. ϴϯ Table 5.1 Target 5.A: Reduce by three-quarters, between 1990 and 2015, ƚŚĞ ŵĂƚĞƌŶĂů ŵŽƌƚĂůŝƚLJ ƌĂƟŽ ........................................................................................... 88 dĂďůĞ ϱ͘Ϯ dĂƌŐĞƚ ϱ͗͘ ĐŚŝĞǀĞ͕ ďLJ ϮϬϭϱ͕ ƵŶŝǀĞƌƐĂů ĂĐĐĞƐƐ ƚŽ ƌĞƉƌŽĚƵĐƟǀĞ ŚĞĂůƚŚ .......................... 89 ŽĂů ϲ͗ ŽŵďĂƚ ,/sͬ /^͕ DĂůĂƌŝĂ͕ ĂŶĚ KƚŚĞƌ ŝƐĞĂƐĞƐ.................................................................................. 91 dĂďůĞ ϲ͘ϭ dĂƌŐĞƚ ϲ͘ ͗ ,ĂǀĞ ŚĂůƚĞĚ ďLJ ϮϬϭϱ ĂŶĚ ďĞŐƵŶ ƚŽ ƌĞǀĞƌƐĞ ƚŚĞ ƐƉƌĞĂĚ ŽĨ ,/sͬ /^ ĂŶĚ dĂƌŐĞƚ ϲ͗͘ ĐŚŝĞǀĞ ďLJ ϮϬϭϬ͕ ƵŶŝǀĞƌƐĂů ĂĐĐĞƐƐ ƚŽ ƚƌĞĂƚŵĞŶƚ ĨŽƌ ,/sͬ /^ for all those who need it ................................................................................................. 96 Table 6.2 Target 6.C: Have halted by 2015 and begun to reverse the incidence of malaria and other major diseases .............................................................................. 97 ŽĂů ϳ͗ ŶƐƵƌĞ ŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚĂů ^ƵƐƚĂŝŶĂďŝůŝƚLJ................................................................................................... 99 Table 7.1 Target 7.A: Integrate the principles of sustainable development into country policies and programs and reverse the loss of environmental resources ..................... 106 Table 7.2 Target 7.B: Reduce biodiversity loss, achieving, by 2010, Ă ƐŝŐŶŝĮĐĂŶƚ ƌĞĚƵĐƟŽŶ ŝŶ ƚŚĞ ƌĂƚĞ ŽĨ ůŽƐƐ ...................................................................... 108
    • dž <ĞLJ /ŶĚŝĐĂƚŽƌƐ ĨŽƌ ƐŝĂ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞ WĂĐŝĮĐ ϮϬϭϮ dĂďůĞ ϳ͘ϯ dĂƌŐĞƚ ϳ͗͘ ,ĂůǀĞ͕ ďLJ ϮϬϭϱ͕ ƚŚĞ ƉƌŽƉŽƌƟŽŶ ŽĨ ƉĞŽƉůĞ ǁŝƚŚŽƵƚ ƐƵƐƚĂŝŶĂďůĞ ĂĐĐĞƐƐ ƚŽ ƐĂĨĞ ĚƌŝŶŬŝŶŐ ǁĂƚĞƌ ĂŶĚ ďĂƐŝĐ ƐĂŶŝƚĂƟŽŶ .................................... 109 dĂďůĞ ϳ͘ϰ dĂƌŐĞƚ ϳ͗͘ LJ ϮϬϮϬ͕ ƚŽ ŚĂǀĞ ĂĐŚŝĞǀĞĚ Ă ƐŝŐŶŝĮĐĂŶƚ ŝŵƉƌŽǀĞŵĞŶƚ ŝŶ ƚŚĞ ůŝǀĞƐ of at least 100 million slum dwellers ............................................................................ 111 ŽĂů ϴ͗ ĞǀĞůŽƉ Ă ůŽďĂů WĂƌƚŶĞƌƐŚŝƉ ĨŽƌ ĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ ................................................................................ 112 Table 8.1 Target 8.A: Develop further an open, rule-based, predictable, ŶŽŶͲĚŝƐĐƌŝŵŝŶĂƚŽƌLJ ƚƌĂĚŝŶŐ ĂŶĚ ĮŶĂŶĐŝĂů ƐLJƐƚĞŵ ......................................................... 117 Table 8.2 Target 8.B: Address the special needs of least developed countries ........................... 118 Table 8.3 Target 8.C: Address the special needs of landlocked developing countries and small island developing states .............................................................................. 120 DŝůůĞŶŶŝƵŵ ĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ ŽĂůƐ ʹ &ŝŐƵƌĞƐ &ŝŐƵƌĞ ϭ͘ϭ WƌŽƉŽƌƟŽŶ ŽĨ WŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶ >ŝǀŝŶŐ ŽŶ >ĞƐƐ ƚŚĂŶ Ψϭ͘Ϯϱ Ă ĂLJ͕ ĂƌůŝĞƐƚ ;ϭϵϵϬʹϮϬϬϯͿ ĂŶĚ >ĂƚĞƐƚ ;ϭϵϵϲʹϮϬϭϬͿ zĞĂƌƐ ;йͿ ....................................................................................................... 55 &ŝŐƵƌĞ ϭ͘Ϯ ŶŶƵĂů WĞƌĐĞŶƚĂŐĞ WŽŝŶƚ ŚĂŶŐĞ ŝŶ WƌŽƉŽƌƟŽŶ ŽĨ WŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶ >ŝǀŝŶŐ ŽŶ >ĞƐƐ ƚŚĂŶ Ψϭ͘Ϯϱ Ă ĂLJ ;ƉĞƌĐĞŶƚĂŐĞ ƉŽŝŶƚƐͿ .................................................................................... 55 &ŝŐƵƌĞ ϭ͘ϯ WƌŽƉŽƌƟŽŶ ŽĨ WŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶ >ŝǀŝŶŐ ŽŶ >ĞƐƐ ƚŚĂŶ ΨϮ Ă ĂLJ͕ ϭϵϵϱ ĂŶĚ >ĂƚĞƐƚ ;ϭϵϵϴʹϮϬϬϵͿ zĞĂƌƐ ;йͿ....... 56 &ŝŐƵƌĞ ϭ͘ϰ /ŶĐƌĞĂƐĞ ŝŶ WĞŽƉůĞ ;ŝŶ ƚŚŽƵƐĂŶĚƐͿ >ŝǀŝŶŐ ĞůŽǁ ΨϮͲĂͲĂLJ WŽǀĞƌƚLJ >ŝŶĞ ŝŶ ^ĞůĞĐƚĞĚ ĐŽŶŽŵŝĞƐ ......... 56 &ŝŐƵƌĞ ϭ͘ϱ WŽǀĞƌƚLJ ĂƉ ZĂƟŽƐ͕ ĂƌůŝĞƐƚ ;ϭϵϵϬʹϮϬϬϯͿ ĂŶĚ >ĂƚĞƐƚ ;ϭϵϵϲʹϮϬϭϬͿ zĞĂƌƐ ;йͿ .................................... 57 &ŝŐƵƌĞ ϭ͘ϲ ^ŚĂƌĞ ŽĨ WŽŽƌĞƐƚ YƵŝŶƟůĞ ŝŶ EĂƟŽŶĂů /ŶĐŽŵĞ Žƌ ŽŶƐƵŵƉƟŽŶ͕ ϭϵϵϲʹϮϬϭϬ ;йͿ ................................ 57 &ŝŐƵƌĞ ϭ͘ϳ ŵƉůŽLJŵĞŶƚͲƚŽͲWŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶ ZĂƟŽ͕ ϮϬϭϭ ;йͿ ....................................................................................... 58 &ŝŐƵƌĞ ϭ͘ϴ WĞƌĐĞŶƚĂŐĞ WŽŝŶƚ ŚĂŶŐĞ ŝŶ ƚŚĞ ŵƉůŽLJŵĞŶƚͲƚŽͲWŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶ ZĂƟŽ ĨƌŽŵ ϭϵϵϭ ƚŽ ϮϬϭϭ ;йͿ ............... 58 &ŝŐƵƌĞ ϭ͘ϵ WƌŽƉŽƌƟŽŶ ŽĨ ŵƉůŽLJĞĚ WĞŽƉůĞ >ŝǀŝŶŐ ĞůŽǁ Ψϭ͘Ϯϱ Ă ĂLJ͕ ĂƌůŝĞƐƚ ;ϭϵϵϭʹϮϬϬϮͿ ĂŶĚ >ĂƚĞƐƚ ;ϭϵϵϲʹϮϬϬϵͿ zĞĂƌƐ ;йͿ ....................................................................................................... 59 &ŝŐƵƌĞ ϭ͘ϭϬ WƌŽƉŽƌƟŽŶ ŽĨ KǁŶͲ ĐĐŽƵŶƚ ĂŶĚ ŽŶƚƌŝďƵƟŶŐ &ĂŵŝůLJ tŽƌŬĞƌƐ ŝŶ dŽƚĂů ŵƉůŽLJŵĞŶƚ͕ ĂƌůŝĞƐƚ ;ϭϵϵϬʹϮϬϬϳͿ ĂŶĚ >ĂƚĞƐƚ ;ϭϵϵϭʹϮϬϬϵͿ zĞĂƌƐ ;йͿ ..................................................................... 59 &ŝŐƵƌĞ ϭ͘ϭϭ WƌĞǀĂůĞŶĐĞ ŽĨ hŶĚĞƌǁĞŝŐŚƚ ŚŝůĚƌĞŶ ƵŶĚĞƌ &ŝǀĞ zĞĂƌƐ ŽĨ ŐĞ͕ ĂƌůŝĞƐƚ ;ϭϵϴϵʹϮϬϬϱͿ ĂŶĚ >ĂƚĞƐƚ ;ϭϵϵϵʹϮϬϭϭͿ zĞĂƌƐ ;йͿ ....................................................................................................... 60 &ŝŐƵƌĞ Ϯ͘ϭ dŽƚĂů EĞƚ ŶƌŽůůŵĞŶƚ ZĂƚĞ ŝŶ WƌŝŵĂƌLJ ĚƵĐĂƟŽŶ ĞůŽǁ ϵϱй͕ >ĂƚĞƐƚ zĞĂƌ ;йͿ..................................... 66 &ŝŐƵƌĞ Ϯ͘Ϯ WĞƌĐĞŶƚĂŐĞ ŽĨ WƵƉŝůƐ ^ƚĂƌƟŶŐ ƌĂĚĞ ϭ tŚŽ ZĞĂĐŚ ƚŚĞ >ĂƐƚ ƌĂĚĞ ŽĨ WƌŝŵĂƌLJ͕ ϭϵϵϵ ĂŶĚ ϮϬϬϵ Žƌ EĞĂƌĞƐƚ zĞĂƌ .......................................................................................................... 66 &ŝŐƵƌĞ Ϯ͘ϯ >ŝƚĞƌĂĐLJ ZĂƚĞ ĞůŽǁ ϵϱй ŵŽŶŐ ϭϱͲϮϰ zĞĂƌͲKůĚƐ ďLJ ĞŶĚĞƌ͕ >ĂƚĞƐƚ zĞĂƌ ;йͿ ................................... 67 &ŝŐƵƌĞ ϯ͘ϭ ĞŶĚĞƌ WĂƌŝƚLJ /ŶĚĞdž ŝŶ WƌŝŵĂƌLJ͕ ^ĞĐŽŶĚĂƌLJ ĂŶĚ dĞƌƟĂƌLJ ĚƵĐĂƟŽŶ͕ ϮϬϭϬ Žƌ >ĂƚĞƐƚ zĞĂƌƐ ................. 73 &ŝŐƵƌĞ ϯ͘Ϯ WĞƌĐĞŶƚĂŐĞ ŽĨ tŽŵĞŶ ŝŶ EŽŶĂŐƌŝĐƵůƚƵƌĂů tĂŐĞ ŵƉůŽLJŵĞŶƚ͕ ϮϬϭϬ Žƌ >ĂƚĞƐƚ zĞĂƌ ........................... 74 &ŝŐƵƌĞ ϯ͘ϯ WƌŽƉŽƌƟŽŶ ŽĨ ^ĞĂƚƐ ,ĞůĚ ďLJ tŽŵĞŶ ŝŶ EĂƟŽŶĂů WĂƌůŝĂŵĞŶƚƐ͕ ϮϬϬϬ ĂŶĚ ϮϬϭϮ Žƌ EĞĂƌĞƐƚ zĞĂƌƐ ;йͿ . 74 &ŝŐƵƌĞ ϰ͘ϭ hŶĚĞƌͲ&ŝǀĞ DŽƌƚĂůŝƚLJ ZĂƚĞ͕ WĞƌĐĞŶƚ ZĞĚƵĐƟŽŶ ďĞƚǁĞĞŶ ϭϵϵϬ ĂŶĚ ϮϬϭϬ ........................................... 79 Figure 4.2 Under-Five and Infant Mortality Rates, 1990 and 2010 ...................................................................... 80 &ŝŐƵƌĞ ϰ͘ϯ WƌŽƉŽƌƟŽŶ ŽĨ ϭͲzĞĂƌͲKůĚ ŚŝůĚƌĞŶ /ŵŵƵŶŝnjĞĚ ŐĂŝŶƐƚ DĞĂƐůĞƐ͕ ϭϵϵϬ Žƌ ĂƌůŝĞƐƚ zĞĂƌ ĂŶĚ ϮϬϭϬ ;йͿ ..................................................................................................... 80 &ŝŐƵƌĞ ϱ͘ϭ DĂƚĞƌŶĂů DŽƌƚĂůŝƚLJ ZĂƟŽ͕ ϭϵϵϬ͕ ϮϬϬϬ͕ ϮϬϭϬ ;ĚĞĂƚŚƐ ƉĞƌ ϭ͕ϬϬϬ ůŝǀĞ ďŝƌƚŚƐͿ ....................................... 84 &ŝŐƵƌĞ ϱ͘Ϯ DĂƚĞƌŶĂů DŽƌƚĂůŝƚLJ ZĂƟŽ͕ ϭϵϵϬ͕ ϮϬϬϬ͕ ϮϬϭϬ ;ĚĞĂƚŚƐ ƉĞƌ ϭϬϬ͕ϬϬϬ ůŝǀĞ ďŝƌƚŚƐͿ ................................... 84 &ŝŐƵƌĞ ϱ͘ϯ ŝƌƚŚƐ ƩĞŶĚĞĚ ďLJ ^ŬŝůůĞĚ ,ĞĂůƚŚ WĞƌƐŽŶŶĞů͕ ŶŶƵĂů WĞƌĐĞŶƚ ŚĂŶŐĞ͕ ĂƌůŝĞƐƚ ĂŶĚ >ĂƚĞƐƚ zĞĂƌ ........ 85 &ŝŐƵƌĞ ϱ͘ϰ ŶƚĞŶĂƚĂů ĂƌĞ ŽǀĞƌĂŐĞ ĂƐ Ă WĞƌĐĞŶƚĂŐĞ ŽĨ >ŝǀĞ ŝƌƚŚƐ͕ >ĂƚĞƐƚ zĞĂƌ ................................................. 85 &ŝŐƵƌĞ ϱ͘ϱ ĚŽůĞƐĐĞŶƚ ŝƌƚŚ ZĂƚĞ͕ ǀĞƌĂŐĞ ŶŶƵĂů ŚĂŶŐĞ͕ ϭϵϵϬ Žƌ ĂƌůŝĞƐƚ zĞĂƌ ĂŶĚ >ĂƚĞƐƚ zĞĂƌ ..................... 86 &ŝŐƵƌĞ ϱ͘ϲ ŽŶƚƌĂĐĞƉƟǀĞ WƌĞǀĂůĞŶĐĞ ZĂƚĞ͕ ǀĞƌĂŐĞ ŶŶƵĂů ŚĂŶŐĞ͕ ĂƌůŝĞƐƚ ĂŶĚ >ĂƚĞƐƚ zĞĂƌƐ ........................... 86 &ŝŐƵƌĞ ϲ͘ϭ ,/s WƌĞǀĂůĞŶĐĞ ;WĞƌĐĞŶƚ ŽĨ WŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶ ϭϱʹϰϵ zĞĂƌƐͿ͕ ϮϬϬϭ ĂŶĚ ϮϬϬϵ ................................................ 91 &ŝŐƵƌĞ ϲ͘Ϯ WƌŽƉŽƌƟŽŶ ŽĨ WŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶ ǁŝƚŚ ĚǀĂŶĐĞĚ ,/s /ŶĨĞĐƟŽŶ ǁŝƚŚ ĐĐĞƐƐ ƚŽ ŶƟƌĞƚƌŽǀŝƌĂů ƌƵŐƐ͕ ϮϬϬϵ ĂŶĚ ϮϬϭϬ ................................................................................................... 92 Figure 6.3 Change in Tuberculosis Incidence Rates, 1990 and 2010.................................................................... 93 &ŝŐƵƌĞ ϲ͘ϰ WƌĞǀĂůĞŶĐĞ ŽĨ dƵďĞƌĐƵůŽƐŝƐ͕ ƉĞƌ ϭϬϬ͕ϬϬϬ WŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶ͕ ϭϵϵϬ ĂŶĚ ϮϬϭϬ ................................................ 93 &ŝŐƵƌĞ ϲ͘ϱ ĞĂƚŚ ZĂƚĞƐ ƐƐŽĐŝĂƚĞĚ ǁŝƚŚ dƵďĞƌĐƵůŽƐŝƐ͕ ƉĞƌ ϭϬϬ͕ϬϬϬ WŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶ͕ ϭϵϵϬ ĂŶĚ ϮϬϭϬ ........................ 94 Figure 7.1 Percentage of Land Area Covered by Forest, 1990 and 2010 ........................................................... 100 Figure 7.2 Percentage of Protected Terrestrial and Marine Areas, 1990 and 2010 ........................................... 101
    • Contents džŝ Figure 7.3 Percentage Change of Per Capita Emissions of Carbon Dioxide, 2009 compared with 1990 ........... 101 &ŝŐƵƌĞ ϳ͘ϰ WƌŽƉŽƌƟŽŶ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ WŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶ hƐŝŶŐ /ŵƉƌŽǀĞĚ ƌŝŶŬŝŶŐ tĂƚĞƌ ^ŽƵƌĐĞƐ͕ ϭϵϵϬ ;Žƌ ĂƌůŝĞƐƚ zĞĂƌͿ ĂŶĚ ϮϬϭϬ ;Žƌ >ĂƚĞƐƚ zĞĂƌͿ .............................................................................. 102 &ŝŐƵƌĞ ϳ͘ϱ WƌŽƉŽƌƟŽŶ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ WŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶ hƐŝŶŐ ŝīĞƌĞŶƚ ^ŽƵƌĐĞƐ ŽĨ ƌŝŶŬŝŶŐ tĂƚĞƌ͕ ϮϬϭϬ............................... 102 &ŝŐƵƌĞ ϳ͘ϲ WƌŽƉŽƌƟŽŶ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ WŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶ hƐŝŶŐ /ŵƉƌŽǀĞĚ ^ĂŶŝƚĂƟŽŶ &ĂĐŝůŝƟĞƐ͕ ϭϵϵϬ ;Žƌ ĂƌůŝĞƐƚ zĞĂƌͿ ĂŶĚ ϮϬϭϬ ;Žƌ >ĂƚĞƐƚ zĞĂƌͿ .............................................................................. 103 &ŝŐƵƌĞ ϳ͘ϳ WƌŽƉŽƌƟŽŶ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ WŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶ hƐŝŶŐ ŝīĞƌĞŶƚ dLJƉĞƐ ŽĨ ^ĂŶŝƚĂƟŽŶ &ĂĐŝůŝƟĞƐ͕ ϮϬϭϬ ........................... 103 &ŝŐƵƌĞ ϳ͘ϴ WƌŽƉŽƌƟŽŶ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ WŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶ hƐŝŶŐ /ŵƉƌŽǀĞĚ ^ĂŶŝƚĂƟŽŶ &ĂĐŝůŝƟĞƐ͕ hƌďĂŶ ĂŶĚ ZƵƌĂů͕ ϮϬϭϬ ;Žƌ >ĂƚĞƐƚ zĞĂƌͿ ............................................................................................. 104 &ŝŐƵƌĞ ϳ͘ϵ WƌŽƉŽƌƟŽŶ ŽĨ ^ůƵŵ WŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶ ;й ŽĨ ƵƌďĂŶ ƉŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶͿ͕ ϭϵϵϬ ĂŶĚ ϮϬϬϵ ........................................ 104 &ŝŐƵƌĞ ϴ͘ϭ K ĂŶĚ KĸĐŝĂů &ůŽǁƐ ĨƌŽŵ ůů ^ŽƵƌĐĞƐ ƚŽ ĞǀĞůŽƉŝŶŐ ĐŽŶŽŵŝĞƐ͕ ϮϬϬϬʹϮϬϭϬ ŵŝůůŝŽŶ h^Ψ ;ĐƵƌƌĞŶƚͿ ...................................................................................................... 113 &ŝŐƵƌĞ ϴ͘Ϯ ŽŶŽƌ ůůŽĐĂƟŽŶ ƚŽ ĂƐŝĐ ^ŽĐŝĂů ^ĞƌǀŝĐĞƐ͕ ϮϬϬϬ ĂŶĚ ϮϬϭϬ ;ƉĞƌĐĞŶƚĂŐĞ ŽĨ K Ϳ .............................. 113 &ŝŐƵƌĞ ϴ͘ϯ dŽƚĂů ĂŶĚ hŶƟĞĚ ŝůĂƚĞƌĂů K ͕ ϮϬϬϬʹϮϬϭϬ ŵŝůůŝŽŶ h^Ψ ;ĐƵƌƌĞŶƚͿ ................................................... 114 &ŝŐƵƌĞ ϴ͘ϰ ^ŚĂƌĞ ŽĨ hŶƟĞĚ K ƚŽ dŽƚĂů K ͕ ϮϬϭϬ ;йͿ.................................................................................... 114 &ŝŐƵƌĞ ϴ͘ϱ Ğďƚ ^ĞƌǀŝĐĞ ZĂƟŽ͕ ϮϬϬϬʹϮϬϭϬ ;йͿ................................................................................................... 114 &ŝŐƵƌĞ ϴ͘ϲ dŽƚĂů džƉŽƌƚƐ͕ ϮϬϬϬʹϮϬϭϬ ŵŝůůŝŽŶ h^Ψ ;ĐƵƌƌĞŶƚͿ ............................................................................... 115 &ŝŐƵƌĞ ϴ͘ϳ K ZĞĐĞŝǀĞĚ ďLJ >ĂŶĚůŽĐŬĞĚ ĞǀĞůŽƉŝŶŐ ŽƵŶƚƌŝĞƐ ĂƐ WƌŽƉŽƌƟŽŶ ŽĨ ƚŚĞŝƌ E/͕ ϮϬϬϬʹϮϬϭϬ ;йͿ .... 115 &ŝŐƵƌĞ ϴ͘ϴ K ZĞĐĞŝǀĞĚ ďLJ ^ŵĂůů /ƐůĂŶĚ ĞǀĞůŽƉŝŶŐ ^ƚĂƚĞƐ ĂƐ WƌŽƉŽƌƟŽŶ ŽĨ ƚŚĞŝƌ E/͕ ϮϬϬϬʹϮϬϭϬ ;йͿ ......... 116 Box 1 Millennium Development Goals ......................................................................................................... 49 Ždž ϲ͘ϭ /ŶĐŝĚĞŶĐĞ ŽĨ DĂůĂƌŝĂ͕ ϮϬϬϴ ;ƉĞƌ ϭϬϬ͕ϬϬϬ ƉŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶͿ ........................................................................ 94W Zd /// ʹ ZĞŐŝŽŶĂů dƌĞŶĚƐ ĂŶĚ dĂďůĞƐ /ŶƚƌŽĚƵĐƟŽŶ ƚŽ ƚŚĞ ZĞŐŝŽŶĂů dƌĞŶĚƐ ĂŶĚ dĂďůĞƐ ............................................................................................ ϭϮϯ WĞŽƉůĞ.......................................................................................................................................................... 125 WŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶ dĂďůĞ ϭ͘ϭ DŝĚLJĞĂƌ WŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶ ;ŵŝůůŝŽŶƐͿ....................................................................................... 134 dĂďůĞ ϭ͘Ϯ ƌŽǁƚŚ ZĂƚĞƐ ŝŶ WŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶ ;йͿ .................................................................................... 135 dĂďůĞ ϭ͘ϯ DŝŐƌĂƟŽŶ ĂŶĚ hƌďĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶ ......................................................................................... 136 dĂďůĞ ϭ͘ϰ WŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶ ŐĞĚ Ϭʹϭϰ zĞĂƌƐ ;й ŽĨ ƚŽƚĂů ƉŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶͿ .................................................... 137 dĂďůĞ ϭ͘ϱ WŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶ ŐĞĚ ϭϱʹϲϰ zĞĂƌƐ ;й ŽĨ ƚŽƚĂů ƉŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶͿ .................................................. 138 dĂďůĞ ϭ͘ϲ WŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶ ŐĞĚ ϲϱ zĞĂƌƐ ĂŶĚ KǀĞƌ ;й ŽĨ ƚŽƚĂů ƉŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶͿ ......................................... 139 dĂďůĞ ϭ͘ϳ ŐĞ ĞƉĞŶĚĞŶĐLJ ZĂƟŽ .................................................................................................. 140 Labor Force and Employment dĂďůĞ ϭ͘ϴ >ĂďŽƌ &ŽƌĐĞ WĂƌƟĐŝƉĂƟŽŶ ZĂƚĞ ;йͿ................................................................................ 141 Table 1.9 Unemployment Rate (%)............................................................................................... 142 dĂďůĞ ϭ͘ϭϬ hŶĞŵƉůŽLJŵĞŶƚ ZĂƚĞ ŽĨ ϭϱʹϮϰͲzĞĂƌͲKůĚƐ ;йͿ ............................................................... 143 Table 1.11 Employment in Agriculture (% of total employment) .................................................. 144 Table 1.12 Employment in Industry (% of total employment) ....................................................... 145 Table 1.13 Employment in Services (% of total employment) ....................................................... 146 Poverty Indicators Table 1.14 Poverty and Inequality .................................................................................................. 147 Table 1.15 Human Development Index .......................................................................................... 148 Social Indicators Table 1.16 Life Expectancy at Birth (years) ..................................................................................... 149 dĂďůĞ ϭ͘ϭϳ ŝƌƚŚƐ͕ ĞĂƚŚƐ͕ ĂŶĚ &ĞƌƟůŝƚLJ ZĂƚĞƐ ................................................................................. 150 dĂďůĞ ϭ͘ϭϴ WƌŝŵĂƌLJ ĚƵĐĂƟŽŶ ŽŵƉůĞƟŽŶ ZĂƚĞ ;йͿ....................................................................... 151 Table 1.19 Adult Literacy Rate (15 years and over, %) .................................................................... 152 dĂďůĞ ϭ͘ϮϬ ĚƵĐĂƟŽŶ ZĞƐŽƵƌĐĞƐ ..................................................................................................... 153 dĂďůĞ ϭ͘Ϯϭ ,ĞĂůƚŚ ĂƌĞ ZĞƐŽƵƌĐĞƐ ;ƉĞƌ ϭ͕ϬϬϬ ƉŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶͿ ............................................................. 154 dĂďůĞ ϭ͘ϮϮ ƐƟŵĂƚĞĚ EƵŵďĞƌ ŽĨ ĚƵůƚƐ >ŝǀŝŶŐ ǁŝƚŚ ,/s ;ĂŐĞĚ ϭϱ LJĞĂƌƐ ĂŶĚ ŽǀĞƌ͕ ƚŚŽƵƐĂŶĚƐͿ .... 155
    • džŝŝ <ĞLJ /ŶĚŝĐĂƚŽƌƐ ĨŽƌ ƐŝĂ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞ WĂĐŝĮĐ ϮϬϭϮ ĐŽŶŽŵLJ ĂŶĚ KƵƚƉƵƚ ................................................................................................................................... 156 EĂƟŽŶĂů ĐĐŽƵŶƚƐ dĂďůĞ Ϯ͘ϭ ƌŽƐƐ ŽŵĞƐƟĐ WƌŽĚƵĐƚ Ăƚ WWW ;ĐƵƌƌĞŶƚ ŝŶƚĞƌŶĂƟŽŶĂů ĚŽůůĂƌƐ͕ ŵŝůůŝŽŶͿ ...................... 163 dĂďůĞ Ϯ͘Ϯ W WĞƌ ĂƉŝƚĂ Ăƚ WWW ;ĐƵƌƌĞŶƚ ŝŶƚĞƌŶĂƟŽŶĂů ĚŽůůĂƌƐͿ ................................................. 164 Table 2.3 GNI Per Capita, Atlas Method (current dollars) ............................................................ 165 dĂďůĞ Ϯ͘ϰ ŐƌŝĐƵůƚƵƌĞ sĂůƵĞ ĚĚĞĚ ;й ŽĨ WͿ ............................................................................. 166 dĂďůĞ Ϯ͘ϱ /ŶĚƵƐƚƌLJ sĂůƵĞ ĚĚĞĚ ;й ŽĨ WͿ ................................................................................. 167 dĂďůĞ Ϯ͘ϲ ^ĞƌǀŝĐĞƐ sĂůƵĞ ĚĚĞĚ ;й ŽĨ WͿ.................................................................................. 168 dĂďůĞ Ϯ͘ϳ WƌŝǀĂƚĞ ŽŶƐƵŵƉƟŽŶ džƉĞŶĚŝƚƵƌĞ ;й ŽĨ WͿ .............................................................. 169 dĂďůĞ Ϯ͘ϴ ŽǀĞƌŶŵĞŶƚ ŽŶƐƵŵƉƟŽŶ džƉĞŶĚŝƚƵƌĞ ;й ŽĨ WͿ ..................................................... 170 dĂďůĞ Ϯ͘ϵ ƌŽƐƐ ŽŵĞƐƟĐ ĂƉŝƚĂů &ŽƌŵĂƟŽŶ ;й ŽĨ WͿ ............................................................. 171 Table 2.10 Exports of Goods and Services (% of GDP) ................................................................... 172 Table 2.11 Imports of Goods and Services (% of GDP) ................................................................... 173 dĂďůĞ Ϯ͘ϭϮ ƌŽƐƐ ŽŵĞƐƟĐ ^ĂǀŝŶŐ ;й ŽĨ WͿ ................................................................................ 174 Table 2.13 Growth Rates of Real GDP (%) ...................................................................................... 175 Table 2.14 Growth Rates of Real GDP Per Capita (%) ..................................................................... 176 dĂďůĞ Ϯ͘ϭϱ ƌŽǁƚŚ ZĂƚĞƐ ŽĨ ŐƌŝĐƵůƚƵƌĞ ZĞĂů sĂůƵĞ ĚĚĞĚ ;йͿ ...................................................... 177 dĂďůĞ Ϯ͘ϭϲ ƌŽǁƚŚ ZĂƚĞƐ ŽĨ /ŶĚƵƐƚƌLJ ZĞĂů sĂůƵĞ ĚĚĞĚ ;йͿ ........................................................... 178 dĂďůĞ Ϯ͘ϭϳ ƌŽǁƚŚ ZĂƚĞƐ ŽĨ ^ĞƌǀŝĐĞƐ ZĞĂů sĂůƵĞ ĚĚĞĚ ;йͿ ........................................................... 179 dĂďůĞ Ϯ͘ϭϴ ƌŽǁƚŚ ZĂƚĞƐ ŽĨ ZĞĂů WƌŝǀĂƚĞ ŽŶƐƵŵƉƟŽŶ džƉĞŶĚŝƚƵƌĞ ;йͿ ....................................... 180 dĂďůĞ Ϯ͘ϭϵ ƌŽǁƚŚ ZĂƚĞƐ ŽĨ ZĞĂů ŽǀĞƌŶŵĞŶƚ ŽŶƐƵŵƉƟŽŶ džƉĞŶĚŝƚƵƌĞ ;йͿ .............................. 181 dĂďůĞ Ϯ͘ϮϬ ƌŽǁƚŚ ZĂƚĞƐ ŽĨ ZĞĂů ƌŽƐƐ ŽŵĞƐƟĐ ĂƉŝƚĂů &ŽƌŵĂƟŽŶ ;йͿ ....................................... 182 Table 2.21 Growth Rates of Real Exports of Goods and Services (%) ............................................. 183 Table 2.22 Growth Rates of Real Imports of Goods and Services (%) ............................................ 184 WƌŽĚƵĐƟŽŶ dĂďůĞ Ϯ͘Ϯϯ ƌŽǁƚŚ ZĂƚĞƐ ŽĨ ŐƌŝĐƵůƚƵƌĞ WƌŽĚƵĐƟŽŶ /ŶĚĞdž ;йͿ ....................................................... 185 dĂďůĞ Ϯ͘Ϯϰ ƌŽǁƚŚ ZĂƚĞƐ ŽĨ DĂŶƵĨĂĐƚƵƌŝŶŐ WƌŽĚƵĐƟŽŶ /ŶĚĞdž ;йͿ ............................................... 186 DŽŶĞLJ͕ &ŝŶĂŶĐĞ͕ ĂŶĚ WƌŝĐĞƐ ......................................................................................................................... 187 Prices Table 3.1 Growth Rates of Consumer Price Index (%) .................................................................. 193 Table 3.2 Growth Rates of Food Consumer Price Index (%) ......................................................... 194 Table 3.3 Growth Rates of Wholesale/Producer Price Index (%) ................................................. 195 dĂďůĞ ϯ͘ϰ ƌŽǁƚŚ ZĂƚĞƐ ŽĨ W ĞŇĂƚŽƌ ;йͿ ............................................................................... 196 Money and Finance Table 3.5 Growth Rates of Money Supply (M2) (%) ..................................................................... 197 Table 3.6 Money Supply (M2) (% of GDP) .................................................................................... 198 Table 3.7 Interest Rate on Savings Deposits (% per annum, period averages) ............................. 199 Table 3.8 Interest Rate on Time Deposits of 12 Months (% per annum, period averages) .......... 200 Table 3.9 Lending Interest Rate (% per annum, period averages) ................................................ 201 dĂďůĞ ϯ͘ϭϬ zŝĞůĚ ŽŶ ^ŚŽƌƚͲdĞƌŵ dƌĞĂƐƵƌLJ ŝůůƐ ;йͿ .......................................................................... 202 dĂďůĞ ϯ͘ϭϭ ŽŵĞƐƟĐ ƌĞĚŝƚ WƌŽǀŝĚĞĚ ďLJ ĂŶŬŝŶŐ ^ĞĐƚŽƌ ;й ŽĨ WͿ ............................................. 203 Table 3.12 Bank Nonperfoming Loans (% of total gross loans) ...................................................... 204 Table 3.13 Growth Rates of Stock Market Price Index (%) ............................................................. 205 dĂďůĞ ϯ͘ϭϰ ^ƚŽĐŬ DĂƌŬĞƚ ĂƉŝƚĂůŝnjĂƟŽŶ ;Ψ ŵŝůůŝŽŶͿ ........................................................................ 206 dĂďůĞ ϯ͘ϭϱ ^ƚŽĐŬ DĂƌŬĞƚ ĂƉŝƚĂůŝnjĂƟŽŶ ;й ŽĨ WͿ ........................................................................ 207 Exchange Rates dĂďůĞ ϯ͘ϭϲ KĸĐŝĂů džĐŚĂŶŐĞ ZĂƚĞ ;ůŽĐĂů ĐƵƌƌĞŶĐLJ ƵŶŝƚƐ ƉĞƌ Ψ͕ ƉĞƌŝŽĚ ĂǀĞƌĂŐĞƐͿ............................ 208 Table 3.17 Purchasing Power Parity Conversion Factor ;ůŽĐĂů ĐƵƌƌĞŶĐLJ ƵŶŝƚƐ ƉĞƌ Ψ͕ ƉĞƌŝŽĚ ĂǀĞƌĂŐĞƐͿ ............................................................... 209 Table 3.18 Price Level Indices ;WWWƐ ƚŽ ŽĸĐŝĂů ĞdžĐŚĂŶŐĞ ƌĂƚĞƐ͕ ƉĞƌŝŽĚ ĂǀĞƌĂŐĞƐ͕ hŶŝƚĞĚ ^ƚĂƚĞƐ с ϭϬϬͿ ....................... 210
    • Contents džŝŝŝůŽďĂůŝnjĂƟŽŶ ................................................................................................................................................ 211 Balance of Payments Table 4.1 Trade in Goods Balance (% of GDP) .............................................................................. 216 Table 4.2 Trade in Services Balance (% of GDP)............................................................................ 217 Table 4.3 Current Account Balance (% of GDP) ............................................................................ 218 dĂďůĞ ϰ͘ϰ tŽƌŬĞƌƐ͛ ZĞŵŝƩĂŶĐĞƐ ĂŶĚ ŽŵƉĞŶƐĂƟŽŶ ŽĨ ŵƉůŽLJĞĞƐ͕ ZĞĐĞŝƉƚƐ ;Ψ ŵŝůůŝŽŶͿ ............. 219 dĂďůĞ ϰ͘ϱ tŽƌŬĞƌƐ͛ ZĞŵŝƩĂŶĐĞƐ ĂŶĚ ŽŵƉĞŶƐĂƟŽŶ ŽĨ ŵƉůŽLJĞĞƐ͕ ZĞĐĞŝƉƚƐ ;й ŽĨ WͿ ............ 220 dĂďůĞ ϰ͘ϲ &ŽƌĞŝŐŶ ŝƌĞĐƚ /ŶǀĞƐƚŵĞŶƚ͕ EĞƚ /ŶŇŽǁƐ ;Ψ ŵŝůůŝŽŶͿ ....................................................... 221 dĂďůĞ ϰ͘ϳ &ŽƌĞŝŐŶ ŝƌĞĐƚ /ŶǀĞƐƚŵĞŶƚ͕ EĞƚ /ŶŇŽǁƐ ;й ŽĨ WͿ ...................................................... 222 External Trade dĂďůĞ ϰ͘ϴ DĞƌĐŚĂŶĚŝƐĞ džƉŽƌƚƐ ;Ψ ŵŝůůŝŽŶͿ .................................................................................. 223 Table 4.9 Growth Rates of Merchandise Exports (%) ................................................................... 224 dĂďůĞ ϰ͘ϭϬ DĞƌĐŚĂŶĚŝƐĞ /ŵƉŽƌƚƐ ;Ψ ŵŝůůŝŽŶͿ .................................................................................. 225 Table 4.11 Growth Rates of Merchandise Imports (%)................................................................... 226 Table 4.12 Trade in Goods (% of GDP) ............................................................................................ 227 dĂďůĞ ϰ͘ϭϯ ŝƌĞĐƟŽŶ ŽĨ dƌĂĚĞ͗ DĞƌĐŚĂŶĚŝƐĞ džƉŽƌƚƐ ;й ŽĨ ƚŽƚĂů ŵĞƌĐŚĂŶĚŝƐĞ ĞdžƉŽƌƚƐͿ ................ 228 dĂďůĞ ϰ͘ϭϰ ŝƌĞĐƟŽŶ ŽĨ dƌĂĚĞ͗ DĞƌĐŚĂŶĚŝƐĞ /ŵƉŽƌƚƐ ;й ŽĨ ƚŽƚĂů ŵĞƌĐŚĂŶĚŝƐĞ ŝŵƉŽƌƚƐͿ .............. 229 /ŶƚĞƌŶĂƟŽŶĂů ZĞƐĞƌǀĞƐ dĂďůĞ ϰ͘ϭϱ /ŶƚĞƌŶĂƟŽŶĂů ZĞƐĞƌǀĞƐ ;ĞŶĚ ŽĨ LJĞĂƌ͖ Ψ ŵŝůůŝŽŶͿ ............................................................. 230 dĂďůĞ ϰ͘ϭϲ ZĂƟŽ ŽĨ /ŶƚĞƌŶĂƟŽŶĂů ZĞƐĞƌǀĞƐ ƚŽ /ŵƉŽƌƚƐ ;ŵŽŶƚŚƐͿ ................................................... 231 Capital Flows dĂďůĞ ϰ͘ϭϳ KĸĐŝĂů &ůŽǁƐ ĨƌŽŵ ůů ^ŽƵƌĐĞƐ ƚŽ ĞǀĞůŽƉŝŶŐ DĞŵďĞƌ ĐŽŶŽŵŝĞƐ ;Ψ ŵŝůůŝŽŶͿ ............ 232 dĂďůĞ ϰ͘ϭϴ EĞƚ WƌŝǀĂƚĞ &ůŽǁƐ ĨƌŽŵ ůů ^ŽƵƌĐĞƐ ƚŽ ĞǀĞůŽƉŝŶŐ DĞŵďĞƌ ĐŽŶŽŵŝĞƐ ;Ψ ŵŝůůŝŽŶͿ ..... 233 Table 4.19 Aggregate Net Resource Flows from All Sources ƚŽ ĞǀĞůŽƉŝŶŐ DĞŵďĞƌ ĐŽŶŽŵŝĞƐ ;Ψ ŵŝůůŝŽŶͿ ............................................................. 234 External Indebtedness dĂďůĞ ϰ͘ϮϬ dŽƚĂů džƚĞƌŶĂů Ğďƚ ŽĨ ĞǀĞůŽƉŝŶŐ DĞŵďĞƌ ĐŽŶŽŵŝĞƐ ;Ψ ŵŝůůŝŽŶͿ .............................. 235 Table 4.21 Total External Debt of Developing Member Economies (% of GNI) .............................. 236 Table 4.22 Total External Debt of Developing Member Economies (% of exports of goods, services, and income) ............................................................. 237 dĂďůĞ ϰ͘Ϯϯ dŽƚĂů Ğďƚ ^ĞƌǀŝĐĞ WĂŝĚ ďLJ ĞǀĞůŽƉŝŶŐ DĞŵďĞƌ ĐŽŶŽŵŝĞƐ ;Ψ ŵŝůůŝŽŶͿ ....................... 238 Table 4.24 Total Debt Service Paid by Developing Member Economies (% of exports of goods, services, and income) ............................................................. 239 Tourism dĂďůĞ ϰ͘Ϯϱ /ŶƚĞƌŶĂƟŽŶĂů dŽƵƌŝƐƚ ƌƌŝǀĂůƐ ;ƚŚŽƵƐĂŶĚͿ ...................................................................... 240 dĂďůĞ ϰ͘Ϯϲ /ŶƚĞƌŶĂƟŽŶĂů dŽƵƌŝƐŵ͕ ZĞĐĞŝƉƚƐ ;Ψ ŵŝůůŝŽŶͿ ................................................................... 241dƌĂŶƐƉŽƌƚ͕ ůĞĐƚƌŝĐŝƚLJ͕ ĂŶĚ ŽŵŵƵŶŝĐĂƟŽŶƐ .................................................................................................. 242 Transport Table 5.1 Road Indicators: Network ............................................................................................. 247 dĂďůĞ ϱ͘Ϯ ZŽĂĚ /ŶĚŝĐĂƚŽƌƐ͗ sĞŚŝĐůĞƐ ............................................................................................. 248 Table 5.3 Road Indicators: Safety ................................................................................................. 249 Table 5.4 Rail Indicators ............................................................................................................... 250 Electricity dĂďůĞ ϱ͘ϱ ůĞĐƚƌŝĐŝƚLJ WƌŽĚƵĐƟŽŶ ĂŶĚ ^ŽƵƌĐĞƐ ............................................................................... 251 dĂďůĞ ϱ͘ϲ ůĞĐƚƌŝĐ WŽǁĞƌ ŽŶƐƵŵƉƟŽŶ ĂŶĚ ůĞĐƚƌŝĮĐĂƟŽŶ .......................................................... 252 ŽŵŵƵŶŝĐĂƟŽŶƐ dĂďůĞ ϱ͘ϳ dĞůĞƉŚŽŶĞ ĂŶĚ /ŶƚĞƌŶĞƚ ^ƵďƐĐƌŝƉƟŽŶƐ .......................................................................... 253ŶĞƌŐLJ ĂŶĚ ŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚ .............................................................................................................................. 254 Energy dĂďůĞ ϲ͘ϭ W WĞƌ hŶŝƚ ŽĨ ŶĞƌŐLJ hƐĞ ;ĐŽŶƐƚĂŶƚ ϮϬϬϱ WWW Ψ ƉĞƌ ŬŝůŽŐƌĂŵ ŽĨ Žŝů ĞƋƵŝǀĂůĞŶƚͿ ...... 258 dĂďůĞ ϲ͘Ϯ ŶĞƌŐLJ WƌŽĚƵĐƟŽŶ ;ŬŝůŽƚŽŶƐ ŽĨ Žŝů ĞƋƵŝǀĂůĞŶƚͿ.............................................................. 259
    • džŝǀ <ĞLJ /ŶĚŝĐĂƚŽƌƐ ĨŽƌ ƐŝĂ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞ WĂĐŝĮĐ ϮϬϭϮ Table 6.3 Energy Imports, Net (% of energy use) ......................................................................... 260 Table 6.4 Energy Use (kilotons of oil equivalent) ......................................................................... 261 Environment Table 6.5 Agriculture Land Use (% of land area) .......................................................................... 262 dĂďůĞ ϲ͘ϲ ĞĨŽƌĞƐƚĂƟŽŶ ĂŶĚ WŽůůƵƟŽŶ ......................................................................................... 263 ŽǀĞƌŶŵĞŶƚ ĂŶĚ ŽǀĞƌŶĂŶĐĞ ...................................................................................................................... 265 Government Finance Table 7.1 Fiscal Balance (% of GDP).............................................................................................. 271 Table 7.2 Tax Revenue (% of GDP) ................................................................................................ 272 Table 7.3 Total Government Revenue (% of GDP) ........................................................................ 273 Table 7.4 Total Government Expenditure (% of GDP)................................................................... 274 dĂďůĞ ϳ͘ϱ ŽǀĞƌŶŵĞŶƚ džƉĞŶĚŝƚƵƌĞ ŽŶ ĚƵĐĂƟŽŶ ;й ŽĨ WͿ ..................................................... 275 Table 7.6 Government Expenditure on Health (% of GDP)........................................................... 276 Table 7.7 Government Expenditure on Social Security and Welfare (% of GDP).......................... 277 Governance Table 7.8 Doing Business Start-Up Indicators ............................................................................... 278 dĂďůĞ ϳ͘ϵ ŽƌƌƵƉƟŽŶ WĞƌĐĞƉƟŽŶƐ /ŶĚĞdž ....................................................................................... 279 ZĞŐŝŽŶĂů dƌĞŶĚƐ ĂŶĚ dĂďůĞƐ ʹ &ŝŐƵƌĞƐ &ŝŐƵƌĞ ϭ͘ϭ ŝƐƚƌŝďƵƟŽŶ ŽĨ WŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶ ďLJ ZĞŐŝŽŶ͕ ϮϬϭϭ ;йͿ ................................................................................ 125 &ŝŐƵƌĞ ϭ͘Ϯ ǀĞƌĂŐĞ ŶŶƵĂů WŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶ ƌŽǁƚŚ ZĂƚĞ͕ ϭϵϵϬʹϮϬϭϭ ;йͿ ............................................................... 126 &ŝŐƵƌĞ ϭ͘ϯ dŽƚĂů &ĞƌƟůŝƚLJ ZĂƚĞ͕ ϭϵϵϬ ĂŶĚ ϮϬϭϬ Žƌ >ĂƚĞƐƚ zĞĂƌ ............................................................................ 128 &ŝŐƵƌĞ ϭ͘ϰ ^ŚĂƌĞ ŽĨ hƌďĂŶ WŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶ ƚŽ dŽƚĂů WŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶ͕ ϮϬϭϭ ĂŶĚ ϮϬϱϬ ;йͿ ................................................ 129 &ŝŐƵƌĞ ϭ͘ϱ WŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶ ďLJ ŐĞ ƌŽƵƉ͕ ϮϬϭϭ ........................................................................................................ 130 &ŝŐƵƌĞ Ϯ͘ϭ WĞƌĐĞŶƚĂŐĞ ŝƐƚƌŝďƵƟŽŶ ŽĨ W Ăƚ WWW͗ ƐŝĂ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞ WĂĐŝĮĐ ZĞŐŝŽŶ ŝŶ ƚŚĞ tŽƌůĚ ĐŽŶŽŵLJ͕ ϮϬϬϬ͕ ϮϬϭϬ ĂŶĚ ϮϬϭϭ ....................................... 156 &ŝŐƵƌĞ Ϯ͘Ϯ WĞƌĐĞŶƚĂŐĞ ŝƐƚƌŝďƵƟŽŶ ŽĨ W Ăƚ WWW͗ ƐŝĂ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞ WĂĐŝĮĐ ZĞŐŝŽŶ͕ ϮϬϬϬ͕ ϮϬϭϬ ĂŶĚ ϮϬϭϭ ........................................................................... 156 &ŝŐƵƌĞ Ϯ͘ϯ /ŶĚŝĐĞƐ ŽĨ WĞƌ ĂƉŝƚĂ W͕ ϮϬϬϭ ĂŶĚ ϮϬϭϭ ;ZĞŐŝŽŶĂů ǀĞƌĂŐĞ с ϭϬϬͿ .............................................. 157 Figure 2.4 Real GDP Growth, 2010 and 2011 (%) .............................................................................................. 158 &ŝŐƵƌĞ Ϯ͘ϱ ,ŝŐŚĞƐƚ ǀĞƌĂŐĞ ƌŽǁƚŚ ZĂƚĞƐ ŽĨ ZĞĂů W ŝŶ ƚŚĞ ZĞŐŝŽŶ ĨŽƌ ƚŚĞ >ĂƚĞƐƚ &ŝǀĞ zĞĂƌƐ ;йͿ .................. 159 &ŝŐƵƌĞ Ϯ͘ϲ >ŽǁĞƐƚ ǀĞƌĂŐĞ ƌŽǁƚŚ ZĂƚĞƐ ŽĨ ZĞĂů W ŝŶ ƚŚĞ ZĞŐŝŽŶ ĨŽƌ ƚŚĞ >ĂƚĞƐƚ &ŝǀĞ zĞĂƌƐ ;йͿ ................... 159 &ŝŐƵƌĞ Ϯ͘ϳ ĐŽŶŽŵŝĐ WĞƌĨŽƌŵĂŶĐĞ ŝŶ ƚŚĞ WĂĐŝĮĐ͕ ǀĞƌĂŐĞ ƌŽǁƚŚ ZĂƚĞƐ ŽĨ ZĞĂů W ĨŽƌ ƚŚĞ >ĂƚĞƐƚ &ŝǀĞ zĞĂƌƐ ;йͿ .............................................................................................................. 159 &ŝŐƵƌĞ Ϯ͘ϴĂ ŐƌŝĐƵůƚƵƌĞ sĂůƵĞ ĚĚĞĚ ĂƐ Ă WĞƌĐĞŶƚĂŐĞ ŽĨ W͕ ϮϬϬϭ ĂŶĚ >ĂƚĞƐƚ zĞĂƌ .......................................... 159 &ŝŐƵƌĞ Ϯ͘ϴď /ŶĚƵƐƚƌLJ sĂůƵĞ ĚĚĞĚ ĂƐ Ă WĞƌĐĞŶƚĂŐĞ ŽĨ W͕ ϮϬϬϭ ĂŶĚ >ĂƚĞƐƚ zĞĂƌ ............................................... 160 &ŝŐƵƌĞ Ϯ͘ϴĐ ^ĞƌǀŝĐĞƐ sĂůƵĞ ĚĚĞĚ ĂƐ Ă WĞƌĐĞŶƚĂŐĞ ŽĨ W͕ ϮϬϬϭ ĂŶĚ >ĂƚĞƐƚ zĞĂƌ ............................................... 160 &ŝŐƵƌĞ Ϯ͘ϵĂ WƌŝǀĂƚĞ ŽŶƐƵŵƉƟŽŶ džƉĞŶĚŝƚƵƌĞ ĂƐ Ă WĞƌĐĞŶƚĂŐĞ ŽĨ W͕ ϮϬϬϭ ĂŶĚ >ĂƚĞƐƚ zĞĂƌ .......................... 161 &ŝŐƵƌĞ Ϯ͘ϵď ŽǀĞƌŶŵĞŶƚ džƉĞŶĚŝƚƵƌĞ ĂƐ Ă WĞƌĐĞŶƚĂŐĞ ŽĨ W͕ ϮϬϬϭ ĂŶĚ >ĂƚĞƐƚ zĞĂƌ ......................................... 161 &ŝŐƵƌĞ Ϯ͘ϵĐ ƌŽƐƐ ŽŵĞƐƟĐ ĂƉŝƚĂů &ŽƌŵĂƟŽŶ ĂƐ Ă WĞƌĐĞŶƚĂŐĞ ŽĨ W͕ ϮϬϬϭ ĂŶĚ >ĂƚĞƐƚ zĞĂƌ ........................... 162 Figure 3.1 Percentage Growth of Money Supply, 2010–2011 (annual percentage change) .............................. 187 &ŝŐƵƌĞ ϯ͘Ϯ zŝĞůĚ ŽŶ ^ŚŽƌƚͲƚĞƌŵ dƌĞĂƐƵƌLJ ŝůůƐ͕ ϮϬϭϬʹϮϬϭϭ ;йͿ ........................................................................... 188 Figure 3.3 Nominal and Ex-post Real Interest Rates on Short Term Treasury Bills, 2011................................... 188 Figure 3.4 Bank Non-performing Loans, 2009–2011 (% of total gross loans) .................................................... 188 &ŝŐƵƌĞ ϯ͘ϱ /ŶŇĂƟŽŶ ZĂƚĞ͕ ϮϬϭϬʹϮϬϭϭ................................................................................................................. 190 Figure 3.6 All Items and Food Price Indices, 2011 (annual percentage change)................................................ 191 &ŝŐƵƌĞ ϰ͘ϭ ƵƌƌĞŶƚ ĐĐŽƵŶƚ ĂůĂŶĐĞ ĂƐ Ă WĞƌĐĞŶƚĂŐĞ ŽĨ W ; ǀĞƌĂŐĞ ŽĨ >ĂƐƚ Ϯ zĞĂƌƐͿ ................................... 211 &ŝŐƵƌĞ ϰ͘Ϯ ^ŚĂƌĞƐ ŝŶ dŽƚĂů tŽƌůĚ džƉŽƌƚƐ͕ ƐŝĂͲWĂĐŝĮĐ ǀŝƐͲăͲǀŝƐ ZĞŐŝŽŶƐ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ tŽƌůĚ͕ ϮϬϭϭ ;йͿ ...................... 212 &ŝŐƵƌĞ ϰ͘ϯ ĞƐƟŶĂƟŽŶ ŽĨ DĞƌĐŚĂŶĚŝƐĞ džƉŽƌƚƐ ŽĨ ƐŝĂ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞ WĂĐŝĮĐ ZĞŐŝŽŶ͕ ϮϬϭϭ ;йͿ ................................ 212 &ŝŐƵƌĞ ϰ͘ϰ dŽƉ ϭϬ ƐŝĂͲWĂĐŝĮĐ ĐŽŶŽŵŝĞƐ ŝŶ dĞƌŵƐ ŽĨ ^ĞƌǀŝĐĞ džƉŽƌƚƐ ĂƐ Ă WĞƌĐĞŶƚĂŐĞ ŽĨ W͕ ϮϬϬϬ ;Žƌ EĞĂƌĞƐƚ zĞĂƌͿ ĂŶĚ >ĂƚĞƐƚ zĞĂƌ...................................................................................................... 212 &ŝŐƵƌĞ ϰ͘ϱ dŽƉ ϭϬ ƐŝĂͲWĂĐŝĮĐ ĐŽŶŽŵŝĞƐ ŝŶ dĞƌŵƐ ŽĨ dŽƵƌŝƐŵ ZĞĐĞŝƉƚƐ ĂƐ Ă WĞƌĐĞŶƚĂŐĞ ŽĨ W ; ǀĞƌĂŐĞ ŽĨ >ĂƐƚ dŚƌĞĞ zĞĂƌƐͿ ............................................................................................................ 213
    • Contents džǀ &ŝŐƵƌĞ ϰ͘ϲ dŽƉ ϭϬ ƐŝĂͲWĂĐŝĮĐ ĐŽŶŽŵŝĞƐ ŝŶ dĞƌŵƐ ŽĨ tŽƌŬĞƌƐ͛ ZĞŵŝƩĂŶĐĞƐ ĂƐ Ă WĞƌĐĞŶƚĂŐĞ ŽĨ W͕ ϮϬϬϬ ;Žƌ EĞĂƌĞƐƚ zĞĂƌͿ ĂŶĚ >ĂƚĞƐƚ zĞĂƌ...................................................................................................... 213 &ŝŐƵƌĞ ϰ͘ϳ ƌŽǁƚŚ ZĂƚĞƐ ŝŶ DŝŐƌĂŶƚƐ͛ ZĞŵŝƩĂŶĐĞƐ͕ ϮϬϬϵ͕ ϮϬϭϬ͕ ĂŶĚ ϮϬϭϭ ....................................................... 213 &ŝŐƵƌĞ ϰ͘ϴ &ŽƌĞŝŐŶ ŝƌĞĐƚ /ŶǀĞƐƚŵĞŶƚ ĂƐ Ă WĞƌĐĞŶƚĂŐĞ ŽĨ W ; ǀĞƌĂŐĞ ŽĨ >ĂƐƚ ϯ zĞĂƌƐͿ................................... 214 Figure 4.9 External Debt as a Percentage of GNI, 2000 and 2010 .................................................................... 214 &ŝŐƵƌĞ ϱ͘ϭ ŝƐƚƌŝďƵƟŽŶ ŽĨ ZŽĂĚ EĞƚǁŽƌŬƐ ŝŶ ƐŝĂ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞ WĂĐŝĮĐ͕ >ĂƚĞƐƚ zĞĂƌ ;йͿ ........................................... 242 &ŝŐƵƌĞ ϱ͘Ϯ ZŽĂĚ ĞŶƐŝƚLJ͕ >ĂƚĞƐƚ zĞĂƌ ................................................................................................................. 243 &ŝŐƵƌĞ ϱ͘ϯ DŽƚŽƌ sĞŚŝĐůĞƐ ƉĞƌ <ŝůŽŵĞƚĞƌ ŽĨ ZŽĂĚ͕ ϮϬϬϵ ................................................................................... 243 &ŝŐƵƌĞ ϱ͘ϰ dŽƉ ϭϬ ůĞĐƚƌŝĐŝƚLJ WƌŽĚƵĐĞƌƐ͕ ƐŝĂ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞ WĂĐŝĮĐ͕ ϮϬϬϵ ................................................................. 244 Figure 5.5 Sources of Electricity (Top Producers), 2009 .................................................................................... 244 &ŝŐƵƌĞ ϱ͘ϲ WĞƌ ĂƉŝƚĂ ůĞĐƚƌŝĐ WŽǁĞƌ ŽŶƐƵŵƉƟŽŶ ;ŬtŚͿ͕ ϭϵϵϬ ƚŽ >ĂƚĞƐƚ zĞĂƌƐ .............................................. 244 &ŝŐƵƌĞ ϱ͘ϳ ůĞĐƚƌŝĮĐĂƟŽŶ ZĂƚĞ͕ >ĂƚĞƐƚ zĞĂƌ ;ƉĞƌ ĐĂƉŝƚĂ ŬtŚͿ ............................................................................. 245 &ŝŐƵƌĞ ϱ͘ϴ &ŝdžĞĚ ƌŽĂĚďĂŶĚ ^ƵďƐĐƌŝƉƟŽŶ ƉĞƌ ϭϬϬ /ŶŚĂďŝƚĂŶƚƐ͕ ϮϬϭϭ ............................................................... 245 Figure 6.1 Percentage Breakdown of Energy Use by Region, 2009 (kilotons of oil equivalent) ......................... 254 Figure 6.2 Net Energy Imports as a Percentage of Energy Use, 2007–2009 ..................................................... 255 Figure 6.3 Percentage Change in GDP per Unit of Energy Use between 2000 and 2009 .................................. 255 &ŝŐƵƌĞ ϲ͘ϰ WĞƌ ĂƉŝƚĂ ŵŝƐƐŝŽŶƐ ŽĨ ĂƌďŽŶ ŝŽdžŝĚĞ͕ DĞƚŚĂŶĞ͕ ĂŶĚ EŝƚƌŽƵƐ KdžŝĚĞ͕ ϮϬϬϱ ;ƚŽŶƐͿ ...................... 257 Figure 7.1 Fiscal Balance as a Percentage of GDP, 2010 and 2011 ................................................................... 265 Figure 7.2 Tax Revenue as a Percentage of GDP, 2010 and 2011 ...................................................................... 266 Figure 7.3 Total Government Expenditure as a Percentage of GDP, 2010 and 2011 ......................................... 266 &ŝŐƵƌĞ ϳ͘ϰ ŽǀĞƌŶŵĞŶƚ džƉĞŶĚŝƚƵƌĞ ŽŶ ĚƵĐĂƟŽŶ͕ ,ĞĂůƚŚ and Social Security Welfare as a Percentage of GDP, 2011 ............................................................... 267 Figure 7.5 Cost of Business Start-up Procedure (% of GNI per capita)............................................................... 267 Figure 7.6 Days Required to Start Up Business, 2006 and 2011 ........................................................................ 268 Figure 7.7 Time and Cost Required to Start a Business, 2011 ........................................................................... 269 &ŝŐƵƌĞ ϳ͘ϴ ŽƌƌƵƉƟŽŶ WĞƌĐĞƉƟŽŶƐ ^ĐŽƌĞƐ͕ ϮϬϭϭ................................................................................................ 269 dĂďůĞ ϭ͘ϭ >ĂƌŐĞƐƚ hƌďĂŶ ŐŐůŽŵĞƌĂƟŽŶƐ͕ ϮϬϭϭ ĂŶĚ ϮϬϮϱ ;ŵŝůůŝŽŶƐͿ ................................................................ 129 Table 1.2 Human Development Index, 2011 .................................................................................................... 132 Ždž ϭ͘ϭ WŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶ WƌŽũĞĐƟŽŶƐ͕ ϮϬϭϬʹϮϭϬϬ .................................................................................................. 127 Ždž ϭ͘Ϯ KŶ WŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶ ŐŝŶŐ ......................................................................................................................... 131 Ždž ϭ͘ϯ WŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶ ĞŶƐƵƐ ŝŶ ƐŝĂ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞ WĂĐŝĮĐ ZĞŐŝŽŶ͗ Ŷ hƉĚĂƚĞ ......................................................... 133 Ždž ϯ͘ϭ DŽŶĞƚĂƌLJ WŽůŝĐLJ &ƌĂŵĞǁŽƌŬ ŽĨ ^ĞůĞĐƚĞĚ ĐŽŶŽŵŝĞƐ ŝŶ ƐŝĂ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞ WĂĐŝĮĐ ZĞŐŝŽŶ ........................ 189 Ždž ϯ͘Ϯ īĞĐƚ ŽĨ &ŽŽĚ WƌŝĐĞƐ ƚŽ W/ ĂŶĚ WŽǀĞƌƚLJ ........................................................................................... 191 Ždž ϲ͘ϭ &ŽƐƐŝů &ƵĞů ŽŶƐƵŵƉƟŽŶ ^ƵďƐŝĚŝĞƐ ................................................................................................... 256 Ždž &ŝŐƵƌĞ ϭ͘ϭ ƐŝĂ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞ WĂĐŝĮĐ WŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶ WƌŽũĞĐƟŽŶƐ͕ ϮϬϭϭʹϮϭϬϬ ............................................................. 127 Ždž &ŝŐƵƌĞ ϭ͘Ϯ WŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶ WLJƌĂŵŝĚƐ ŝŶ ƐŝĂ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞ WĂĐŝĮĐ͕ ϮϬϭϭ͕ ϮϬϱϬ͕ ĂŶĚ ϮϭϬϬ ............................................ 131 Ždž &ŝŐƵƌĞ ϭ͘ϯ ĞŶƐƵƐ ZĞĨĞƌĞŶĐĞ zĞĂƌƐ ŝŶ ƐŝĂ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞ WĂĐŝĮĐ ZĞŐŝŽŶ ............................................................... 133 Ždž &ŝŐƵƌĞ ϲ͘ϭ &ŽƐƐŝůͲĨƵĞů ŽŶƐƵŵƉƟŽŶ ^ƵďƐŝĚLJ ĂƐ Ă WĞƌĐĞŶƚĂŐĞ ŽĨ ^ƵƉƉůLJ ŽƐƚ͕ ϮϬϭϬ ..................................... 256 Ždž dĂďůĞ ϯ͘ϭ DŽŶĞƚĂƌLJ WŽůŝĐLJ &ƌĂŵĞǁŽƌŬ ĂŶĚ ǀĞƌĂŐĞ hŶǁĞŝŐŚƚĞĚ /ŶŇĂƟŽŶ ĨŽƌ ƐŝĂ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞ WĂĐŝĮĐ ĐŽŶŽŵŝĞƐ͕ ϮϬϭϬʹϮϬϭϭ ;йͿ͘...................................................................... 189 Ždž dĂďůĞ ϯ͘Ϯ /ŵƉĂĐƚ ŽĨ ŽŵĞƐƟĐ &ŽŽĚ WƌŝĐĞ /ŶĐƌĞĂƐĞ ŽŶ WŽǀĞƌƚLJ ĨŽƌ ĞǀĞůŽƉŝŶŐ ƐŝĂ ;ďĂƐĞĚ ŽŶ ƚŚĞ ΨϭͲĂͲĚĂLJ ƉŽǀĞƌƚLJ ůŝŶĞͿ ............................................................................................. 191 Box Table 3.3 Food Weights in CPI ....................................................................................................................... 191W Zd /s ʹ ĞĮŶŝƟŽŶƐ Millennium Development Goals ........................................................................................................................... 283 Regional Trends and Tables ................................................................................................................................... 293
    • džǀŝ <ĞLJ /ŶĚŝĐĂƚŽƌƐ ĨŽƌ ƐŝĂ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞ WĂĐŝĮĐ ϮϬϭϮ Statistical Partners dŚĞ ƉƌĞƉĂƌĂƟŽŶ ĂŶĚ ƉƵďůŝĐĂƟŽŶ ŽĨ <ĞLJ /ŶĚŝĐĂƚŽƌƐ ĨŽƌ ƐŝĂ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞ WĂĐŝĮĐ ϮϬϭϮ would not have been possible without ƚŚĞ ƐƵƉƉŽƌƚ͕ ĂƐƐŝƐƚĂŶĐĞ͕ ĂŶĚ ĐŽŽƉĞƌĂƟŽŶ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ƉĂƌƚŶĞƌƐ ŝŶ ƚŚĞ ƌĞŐŝŽŶĂů ŵĞŵďĞƌƐ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ƐŝĂŶ ĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ ĂŶŬ ; Ϳ ĂŶĚ ŝŶ ŝŶƚĞƌŶĂƟŽŶĂů͕ ƉƌŝǀĂƚĞ͕ ĂŶĚ ŶŽŶŐŽǀĞƌŶŵĞŶƚ ŽƌŐĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶƐ͘ dŚĞƐĞ ƉĂƌƚŶĞƌƐ͕ ǁŚŽ ƐŚĂƌĞĚ ƚŚĞŝƌ ĚĂƚĂ͕ ŬŶŽǁůĞĚŐĞ͕ ĞdžƉĞƌƟƐĞ͕ ĂŶĚ ŽƚŚĞƌ ŝŶĨŽƌŵĂƟŽŶ͕ ŚĞůƉ ƉƌŽǀŝĚĞ ͕ ƉŽůŝĐLJ ŵĂŬĞƌƐ͕ ĂŶĚ ŽƚŚĞƌ ĚĂƚĂ ƵƐĞƌƐ Ă ďĞƩĞƌ ƵŶĚĞƌƐƚĂŶĚŝŶŐ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ƉĞƌĨŽƌŵĂŶĐĞ ŽĨ ĐŽƵŶƚƌŝĞƐ ĂƌŽƵŶĚ ƐŝĂ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞ WĂĐŝĮĐ ƌĞŐŝŽŶ͕ ƐŽ ƚŚĂƚ ďĞƩĞƌ ƉŽůŝĐŝĞƐ ĐĂŶ ďĞ ĨŽƌŵƵůĂƚĞĚ ƚŽ ŝŵƉƌŽǀĞ ƚŚĞ quality of life of people around the region. Z/KE > DDZ^ ĨŐŚĂŶŝƐƚĂŶ ĞŶƚƌĂů ^ƚĂƟƐƟĐƐ KƌŐĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶ Da Afghanistan Bank Armenia Central Bank of Armenia EĂƟŽŶĂů ^ƚĂƟƐƟĐĂů ^ĞƌǀŝĐĞ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ZĞƉƵďůŝĐ ŽĨ ƌŵĞŶŝĂ Australia Australian Bureau of Agricultural and Resource Economics and Sciences ƵƐƚƌĂůŝĂŶ ƵƌĞĂƵ ŽĨ ^ƚĂƟƐƟĐƐ Bureau of Resources and Energy Economics Reserve Bank of Australia Azerbaijan Central Bank of the Republic of Azerbaijan ^ƚĂƚĞ ^ƚĂƟƐƟĐĂů ŽŵŵŝƩĞĞ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ZĞƉƵďůŝĐ ŽĨ njĞƌďĂŝũĂŶ Bangladesh Bangladesh Bank ĂŶŐůĂĚĞƐŚ ƵƌĞĂƵ ŽĨ ^ƚĂƟƐƟĐƐ Ministry of Finance Bhutan Ministry of Finance Ministry of Labor and Human Resources EĂƟŽŶĂů ^ƚĂƟƐƟĐƐ ƵƌĞĂƵ Royal Monetary Authority of Bhutan ƌƵŶĞŝ ĂƌƵƐƐĂůĂŵ ĞƉĂƌƚŵĞŶƚ ŽĨ ^ƚĂƟƐƟĐƐ Ministry of Finance Cambodia Ministry of Economy and Finance EĂƟŽŶĂů ĂŶŬ ŽĨ ĂŵďŽĚŝĂ EĂƟŽŶĂů /ŶƐƟƚƵƚĞ ŽĨ ^ƚĂƟƐƟĐƐ ŚŝŶĂ͕ WĞŽƉůĞ͛Ɛ ZĞƉƵďůŝĐ ŽĨ EĂƟŽŶĂů ƵƌĞĂƵ ŽĨ ^ƚĂƟƐƟĐƐ WĞŽƉůĞ͛Ɛ ĂŶŬ ŽĨ ŚŝŶĂ ^ƚĂƚĞ ĚŵŝŶŝƐƚƌĂƟŽŶ ŽĨ &ŽƌĞŝŐŶ džĐŚĂŶŐĞ ŽŽŬ /ƐůĂŶĚƐ ŽŽŬ /ƐůĂŶĚƐ ^ƚĂƟƐƟĐƐ KĸĐĞ Ministry of Finance and Economic Management &ŝũŝ ƵƌĞĂƵ ŽĨ ^ƚĂƟƐƟĐƐ Reserve Bank of Fiji
    • ^ƚĂƟƐƟĐĂů WĂƌƚŶĞƌƐ džǀŝŝGeorgia Ministry of Finance of Georgia EĂƟŽŶĂů ĂŶŬ ŽĨ ĞŽƌŐŝĂ EĂƟŽŶĂů ^ƚĂƟƐƟĐƐ KĸĐĞ,ŽŶŐ <ŽŶŐ͕ ŚŝŶĂ ĞŶƐƵƐ ĂŶĚ ^ƚĂƟƐƟĐƐ ĞƉĂƌƚŵĞŶƚ Hong Kong Monetary Authority/ŶĚŝĂ ĞŶƚƌĂů ^ƚĂƟƐƟĐĂů KƌŐĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶ Ministry of Finance Reserve Bank of IndiaIndonesia Bank Indonesia ĂĚĂŶ WƵƐĂƚ ^ƚĂƟƐƟŬͲ^ƚĂƟƐƟĐƐ /ŶĚŽŶĞƐŝĂ ;ĨŽƌŵĞƌůLJ ĞŶƚƌĂů ƵƌĞĂƵ ŽĨ ^ƚĂƟƐƟĐƐͿ Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources PT Pertamina (Persero):ĂƉĂŶ ĂŶŬ ŽĨ :ĂƉĂŶ ĐŽŶŽŵŝĐ ĂŶĚ ^ŽĐŝĂů ZĞƐĞĂƌĐŚ /ŶƐƟƚƵƚĞ :ĂƉĂŶ ^ƚĂƟƐƟĐƐ ƵƌĞĂƵ Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry Ministry of Finance<ĂnjĂŬŚƐƚĂŶ ŐĞŶĐLJ ŽĨ ^ƚĂƟƐƟĐƐ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ZĞƉƵďůŝĐ ŽĨ <ĂnjĂŬŚƐƚĂŶ EĂƟŽŶĂů ĂŶŬ ŽĨ <ĂnjĂŬŚƐƚĂŶ<ŝƌŝďĂƟ <ŝƌŝďĂƟ EĂƟŽŶĂů ^ƚĂƟƐƟĐƐ KĸĐĞ EĂƟŽŶĂů ĐŽŶŽŵŝĐ WůĂŶŶŝŶŐ KĸĐĞKorea, Republic of Bank of Korea Ministry of Strategy and Finance ^ƚĂƟƐƟĐƐ <ŽƌĞĂ<LJƌŐLJnj ZĞƉƵďůŝĐ EĂƟŽŶĂů ĂŶŬ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ <LJƌŐLJnj ZĞƉƵďůŝĐ EĂƟŽŶĂů ^ƚĂƟƐƟĐĂů ŽŵŵŝƩĞĞ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ <LJƌŐLJnj ZĞƉƵďůŝĐ>ĂŽ WĞŽƉůĞ͛Ɛ ĞŵŽĐƌĂƟĐ ĂŶŬ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ >ĂŽ WZ ZĞƉƵďůŝĐ >ĂŽ ^ƚĂƟƐƟĐƐ ƵƌĞĂƵ ;ĨŽƌŵĞƌůLJ ĞƉĂƌƚŵĞŶƚ ŽĨ ^ƚĂƟƐƟĐƐͿ Ministry of FinanceMalaysia Bank Negara Malaysia ĞƉĂƌƚŵĞŶƚ ŽĨ ^ƚĂƟƐƟĐƐ Ministry of FinanceDĂůĚŝǀĞƐ ĞƉĂƌƚŵĞŶƚ ŽĨ EĂƟŽŶĂů WůĂŶŶŝŶŐ Maldives Monetary Authority Ministry of Finance and TreasuryDĂƌƐŚĂůů /ƐůĂŶĚƐ͕ ZĞƉƵďůŝĐ ŽĨ ĐŽŶŽŵŝĐ WŽůŝĐLJ͕ WůĂŶŶŝŶŐ ĂŶĚ ^ƚĂƟƐƟĐƐ KĸĐĞDŝĐƌŽŶĞƐŝĂ͕ &ĞĚĞƌĂƚĞĚ ^ƚĂƚĞƐ ŽĨ KĸĐĞ ŽĨ ^ƚĂƟƐƟĐƐ͕ ƵĚŐĞƚ ĂŶĚ ĐŽŶŽŵŝĐ DĂŶĂŐĞŵĞŶƚ͕ KǀĞƌƐĞĂƐ Development Assistance and Compact ManagementMongolia Bank of Mongolia EĂƟŽŶĂů ^ƚĂƟƐƟĐĂů KĸĐĞ ŽĨ DŽŶŐŽůŝĂ
    • džǀŝŝŝ <ĞLJ /ŶĚŝĐĂƚŽƌƐ ĨŽƌ ƐŝĂ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞ WĂĐŝĮĐ ϮϬϭϮ DLJĂŶŵĂƌ ĞŶƚƌĂů ^ƚĂƟƐƟĐĂů KƌŐĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶ DŝŶŝƐƚƌLJ ŽĨ EĂƟŽŶĂů WůĂŶŶŝŶŐ ĂŶĚ ĐŽŶŽŵŝĐ ĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ Nauru Ministry of Finance and Economic Planning EĂƵƌƵ ƵƌĞĂƵ ŽĨ ^ƚĂƟƐƟĐƐ EĞƉĂů ĞŶƚƌĂů ƵƌĞĂƵ ŽĨ ^ƚĂƟƐƟĐƐ Ministry of Finance Nepal Rastra Bank EĞǁ ĞĂůĂŶĚ DŝŶŝƐƚƌLJ ŽĨ ĐŽŶŽŵŝĐ ĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ ZĞƐĞƌǀĞ ĂŶŬ ŽĨ EĞǁ ĞĂůĂŶĚ ^ƚĂƟƐƟĐƐ EĞǁ ĞĂůĂŶĚ WĂŬŝƐƚĂŶ DŝŶŝƐƚƌLJ ŽĨ ĐŽŶŽŵŝĐ īĂŝƌƐ ĂŶĚ ^ƚĂƟƐƟĐƐ Ministry of Finance WĂŬŝƐƚĂŶ ƵƌĞĂƵ ŽĨ ^ƚĂƟƐƟĐƐ ;ĨŽƌŵĞƌůLJ &ĞĚĞƌĂů ƵƌĞĂƵ ŽĨ ^ƚĂƟƐƟĐƐͿ State Bank of Pakistan Palau Bureau of Budget and Planning, Ministry of Finance Papua New Guinea Bank of Papua New Guinea Department of Treasury EĂƟŽŶĂů ^ƚĂƟƐƟĐĂů KĸĐĞ Philippines Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas Bureau of Local Government Finance Bureau of the Treasury Department of Budget and Management Department of Energy EĂƟŽŶĂů ^ƚĂƟƐƟĐĂů ŽŽƌĚŝŶĂƟŽŶ ŽĂƌĚ EĂƟŽŶĂů ^ƚĂƟƐƟĐƐ KĸĐĞ ^ĂŵŽĂ ƵƌĞĂƵ ŽĨ ^ƚĂƟƐƟĐƐ Central Bank of Samoa Economic Policy and Planning Division, Ministry of Finance Singapore Economic Development Board /ŶƚĞƌŶĂƟŽŶĂů ŶƚĞƌƉƌŝƐĞ ^ŝŶŐĂƉŽƌĞ Ministry of Finance Ministry of Manpower Monetary Authority of Singapore ^ŝŶŐĂƉŽƌĞ ĞƉĂƌƚŵĞŶƚ ŽĨ ^ƚĂƟƐƟĐƐ Solomon Islands Central Bank of Solomon Islands ^ƚĂƟƐƟĐƐ KĸĐĞ Sri Lanka Central Bank of Sri Lanka ĞƉĂƌƚŵĞŶƚ ŽĨ ĞŶƐƵƐ ĂŶĚ ^ƚĂƟƐƟĐƐ Taipei,China Central Bank of China Council for Economic Planning and Development ŝƌĞĐƚŽƌĂƚĞͲĞŶĞƌĂů ŽĨ ƵĚŐĞƚ͕ ĐĐŽƵŶƟŶŐ ĂŶĚ ^ƚĂƟƐƟĐƐ
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    • dždž <ĞLJ /ŶĚŝĐĂƚŽƌƐ ĨŽƌ ƐŝĂ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞ WĂĐŝĮĐ ϮϬϭϮ /EdZE d/KE >͕ WZ/s d͕ E EKEKsZEDEd KZ E/ d/KE^ ƐŝĂ WĂĐŝĮĐ ŶĞƌŐLJ ZĞƐĞĂƌĐŚ ĞŶƚĞƌ ƐƐŽĐŝĂƟŽŶ ŽĨ ^ŽƵƚŚĞĂƐƚ ƐŝĂŶ EĂƟŽŶƐ ĂƌďŽŶ ŝŽdžŝĚĞ /ŶĨŽƌŵĂƟŽŶ ŶĂůLJƐŝƐ ĞŶƚĞƌ CEIC Data Company Ltd. ƵƌŽƉĞĂŶ ĂŶŬ ĨŽƌ ZĞĐŽŶƐƚƌƵĐƟŽŶ ĂŶĚ ĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ &ŽŽĚ ĂŶĚ ŐƌŝĐƵůƚƵƌĞ KƌŐĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶ /& /ŶƚĞƌŶĂƟŽŶĂů ;ĨŽƌŵĞƌůLJ /& DĂĐƌŽͿ /ŶƚĞƌŶĂƟŽŶĂů ĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ ƐƐŽĐŝĂƟŽŶ /ŶƚĞƌŶĂƟŽŶĂů ŶĞƌŐLJ ŐĞŶĐLJ /ŶƚĞƌŶĂƟŽŶĂů >ĂďŽƵƌ KƌŐĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶ /ŶƚĞƌŶĂƟŽŶĂů DŽŶĞƚĂƌLJ &ƵŶĚ /ŶƚĞƌŶĂƟŽŶĂů ZŽĂĚ &ĞĚĞƌĂƟŽŶ /ŶƚĞƌŶĂƟŽŶĂů dĞůĞĐŽŵŵƵŶŝĐĂƟŽŶ hŶŝŽŶ KƌŐĂŶŝƐĂƟŽŶ ĨŽƌ ĐŽŶŽŵŝĐ ŽͲŽƉĞƌĂƟŽŶ ĂŶĚ ĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ WĂĐŝĮĐ ĂŶĚ sŝƌŐŝŶ /ƐůĂŶĚƐ dƌĂŝŶŝŶŐ /ŶŝƟĂƟǀĞƐ͕ ƌĂĚƵĂƚĞ ^ĐŚŽŽů h^ ^ĞĐƌĞƚĂƌŝĂƚ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ WĂĐŝĮĐ ŽŵŵƵŶŝƚLJ dƌĂŶƐƉĂƌĞŶĐLJ /ŶƚĞƌŶĂƟŽŶĂů hE^K /ŶƐƟƚƵƚĞ ĨŽƌ ^ƚĂƟƐƟĐƐ hŶŝƚĞĚ EĂƟŽŶƐ ŚŝůĚƌĞŶ͛Ɛ &ƵŶĚ hŶŝƚĞĚ EĂƟŽŶƐ ĞƉĂƌƚŵĞŶƚ ŽĨ ĐŽŶŽŵŝĐ ĂŶĚ ^ŽĐŝĂů īĂŝƌƐ hŶŝƚĞĚ EĂƟŽŶƐ ĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ WƌŽŐƌĂŵŵĞ hŶŝƚĞĚ EĂƟŽŶƐ ĐŽŶŽŵŝĐ ŽŵŵŝƐƐŝŽŶ ĨŽƌ ƵƌŽƉĞ hŶŝƚĞĚ EĂƟŽŶƐ ĐŽŶŽŵŝĐ ĂŶĚ ^ŽĐŝĂů ŽŵŵŝƐƐŝŽŶ ĨŽƌ ƐŝĂ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞ WĂĐŝĮĐ hŶŝƚĞĚ EĂƟŽŶƐ ĚƵĐĂƟŽŶĂů͕ ^ĐŝĞŶƟĮĐ ĂŶĚ ƵůƚƵƌĂů KƌŐĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶ hŶŝƚĞĚ EĂƟŽŶƐ ŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚ WƌŽŐƌĂŵ hŶŝƚĞĚ EĂƟŽŶƐ ,ƵŵĂŶ ^ĞƩůĞŵĞŶƚƐ WƌŽŐƌĂŵŵĞ hŶŝƚĞĚ EĂƟŽŶƐ /ŶƚĞƌŶĂƟŽŶĂů ^ƚƌĂƚĞŐLJ ĨŽƌ ŝƐĂƐƚĞƌ ZĞĚƵĐƟŽŶ ^ĞĐƌĞƚĂƌŝĂƚ hŶŝƚĞĚ EĂƟŽŶƐ KĸĐĞ ŽŶ ƌƵŐƐ ĂŶĚ ƌŝŵĞ hŶŝƚĞĚ EĂƟŽŶƐ WŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶ ŝǀŝƐŝŽŶ hŶŝƚĞĚ EĂƟŽŶƐ ^ƚĂƟƐƟĐƐ ŝǀŝƐŝŽŶ hŶŝƚĞĚ EĂƟŽŶƐ tŽƌůĚ dŽƵƌŝƐŵ KƌŐĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶ United States Census Bureau World Bank tŽƌůĚ ,ĞĂůƚŚ KƌŐĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶ t,KͬhE/& :ŽŝŶƚ DŽŶŝƚŽƌŝŶŐ WƌŽŐƌĂŵŵĞ ;:DWͿ ĨŽƌ tĂƚĞƌ ^ƵƉƉůLJ ĂŶĚ ^ĂŶŝƚĂƟŽŶ
    • dždžŝGuide for UsersThe <ĞLJ /ŶĚŝĐĂƚŽƌƐ ĨŽƌ ƐŝĂ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞ WĂĐŝĮĐ ϮϬϭϮ ;<ĞLJ /ŶĚŝĐĂƚŽƌƐ ϮϬϭϮͿ ŚĂƐ ƚŚĞ ĨŽůůŽǁŝŶŐ ƐƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĞ͘ dŚĞ ,ŝŐŚůŝŐŚƚƐ ƐĞĐƟŽŶƉƌĞƐĞŶƚƐ ŬĞLJ ŵĞƐƐĂŐĞƐ ĨƌŽŵ ǀĂƌŝŽƵƐ ƉĂƌƚƐ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ƉƵďůŝĐĂƟŽŶ͘ WĂƌƚ / ĐŽŶƚĂŝŶƐ Ă ƐƉĞĐŝĂů ĐŚĂƉƚĞƌ ƚŚĂƚ ǀĂƌŝĞƐ ĞǀĞƌLJ LJĞĂƌ ĂŶĚĚĞĂůƐ ǁŝƚŚ Ă ƚŽƉŝĐ ŽŶ ŬĞLJ ƉŽůŝĐLJ ŝƐƐƵĞƐ͕ ŵĞĂƐƵƌĞŵĞŶƚ ŝƐƐƵĞƐ͕ Žƌ ĚĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ ĐŚĂůůĞŶŐĞƐ͘ dŚŝƐ LJĞĂƌ͛Ɛ ƐƉĞĐŝĂů ĐŚĂƉƚĞƌĚŝƐĐƵƐƐĞƐ ƚŚĞ ĞŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚĂů ĐŚĂůůĞŶŐĞƐ ĂŶĚ ŽƉƉŽƌƚƵŶŝƟĞƐ ĂƐƐŽĐŝĂƚĞĚ ǁŝƚŚ ƵƌďĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶ ŝŶ ƐŝĂ͘ Part II comprises tables on indicators for the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). The indicators are presentedĂĐĐŽƌĚŝŶŐ ƚŽ ƚŚĞ hŶŝƚĞĚ EĂƟŽŶƐ ƌĞǀŝƐĞĚ D ĨƌĂŵĞǁŽƌŬ͕ ǁŚŝĐŚ ǁĂƐ ĞdžƉĂŶĚĞĚ ŝŶ :ĂŶƵĂƌLJ ϮϬϬϴ ƚŽ ŝŶĐůƵĚĞ ŶĞǁ ƚĂƌŐĞƚƐĨŽƌ ĨƵůů ĂŶĚ ƉƌŽĚƵĐƟǀĞ ĞŵƉůŽLJŵĞŶƚ ĂŶĚ ĚĞĐĞŶƚ ǁŽƌŬ ĨŽƌ Ăůů͕ ĂĐĐĞƐƐ ƚŽ ƌĞƉƌŽĚƵĐƟǀĞ ŚĞĂůƚŚ͕ ĂĐĐĞƐƐ ƚŽ ƚƌĞĂƚŵĞŶƚ ĨŽƌ ,/sͬ /^͕ ĂŶĚ ƉƌŽƚĞĐƟŽŶ ŽĨ ďŝŽĚŝǀĞƌƐŝƚLJ͕ ĂƐ ĂŐƌĞĞĚ ŽŶ ďLJ ŵĞŵďĞƌ ƐƚĂƚĞƐ Ăƚ ƚŚĞ ϮϬϬϱ tŽƌůĚ ^Ƶŵŵŝƚ͘ dŚŝƐ LJĞĂƌ͛Ɛ Key IndicatorsϮϬϭϮ includes as many of the indicators for the new targets as possible. The tables contain indicators associated witheach MDG target. WĂƌƚ /// ĐŽŶƐŝƐƚƐ ŽĨ ϭϭϮ ƌĞŐŝŽŶĂů ƚƌĞŶĚƐ ĂŶĚ ƚĂďůĞƐ ŐƌŽƵƉĞĚ ŝŶƚŽ ƐĞǀĞŶ ƚŚĞŵĞƐ͗ WĞŽƉůĞ͖ ĐŽŶŽŵLJ ĂŶĚ KƵƚƉƵƚ͖ DŽŶĞLJ͕&ŝŶĂŶĐĞ͕ ĂŶĚ WƌŝĐĞƐ͖ ůŽďĂůŝnjĂƟŽŶ͖ dƌĂŶƐƉŽƌƚ͕ ůĞĐƚƌŝĐŝƚLJ͕ ĂŶĚ ŽŵŵƵŶŝĐĂƟŽŶƐ͖ ŶĞƌŐLJ ĂŶĚ ŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚ͖ ĂŶĚ ŽǀĞƌŶŵĞŶƚand Governance. Each theme is further divided into subtopics. The tables contain indicators related to a subtopic. The MDGs and themes in Parts II and III start with a brief analysis of key trends of selected indicators. TheĂĐĐŽŵƉĂŶLJŝŶŐ ƐƚĂƟƐƟĐĂů ƚĂďůĞƐ ĂƌĞ ƉƌĞƐĞŶƚĞĚ ĨŽƌ ϰϴ ĞĐŽŶŽŵŝĞƐ ŽĨ ƐŝĂ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞ WĂĐŝĮĐ ƚŚĂƚ ĂƌĞ ŵĞŵďĞƌƐ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ƐŝĂŶDevelopment Bank (ADB). The term “country,” used interchangeably with “economy,” is not intended to make anyjudgment as to the legal or other status of any territory or area. The 48 economies have been broadly grouped intoĚĞǀĞůŽƉŝŶŐ ĂŶĚ ĚĞǀĞůŽƉĞĚ ŵĞŵďĞƌƐ ĂůŝŐŶĞĚ ǁŝƚŚ ƚŚĞ ŽƉĞƌĂƟŽŶĂů ĞīĞĐƟǀĞŶĞƐƐ ŽĨ ͛Ɛ ƌĞŐŝŽŶĂů ĚĞƉĂƌƚŵĞŶƚƐ͘ dŚĞůĂƩĞƌ ƌĞĨĞƌ ĞdžĐůƵƐŝǀĞůLJ ƚŽ ƵƐƚƌĂůŝĂ͕ :ĂƉĂŶ͕ ĂŶĚ EĞǁ ĞĂůĂŶĚ͘ ƌƵŶĞŝ ĂƌƵƐƐĂůĂŵ ŝƐ Ă ƌĞŐŝŽŶĂů ŵĞŵďĞƌ ŽĨ  ƚŚĂƚ ŝƐŶŽƚ ĐůĂƐƐŝĮĞĚ ĂƐ Ă ĚĞǀĞůŽƉŝŶŐ ŵĞŵďĞƌ͖ ŚŽǁĞǀĞƌ͕ ƚŚĞ ĚĂƚĂ ĨŽƌ ƌƵŶĞŝ ĂƌƵƐƐĂůĂŵ ĂƌĞ ƉƌĞƐĞŶƚĞĚ ƵŶĚĞƌ ƚŚĞ ŐƌŽƵƉ ŽĨĚĞǀĞůŽƉŝŶŐ ŵĞŵďĞƌƐ͘ dŚĞ ƌĞŵĂŝŶŝŶŐ ϰϰ ĚĞǀĞůŽƉŝŶŐ ŵĞŵďĞƌƐ ĂŶĚ ƌƵŶĞŝ ĂƌƵƐƐĂůĂŵ ĂƌĞ ĨƵƌƚŚĞƌ ŐƌŽƵƉĞĚ ŝŶƚŽ ĮǀĞďĂƐĞĚ ŽŶ ͛Ɛ ŽƉĞƌĂƟŽŶĂů ƌĞŐŝŽŶƐͶĞŶƚƌĂů ĂŶĚ tĞƐƚ ƐŝĂ͕ ĂƐƚ ƐŝĂ͕ ^ŽƵƚŚ ƐŝĂ͕ ^ŽƵƚŚĞĂƐƚ ƐŝĂ͕ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞ WĂĐŝĮĐ͘ĐŽŶŽŵŝĞƐ ĂƌĞ ůŝƐƚĞĚ ĂůƉŚĂďĞƟĐĂůůLJ ŝŶ ĞĂĐŚ ŐƌŽƵƉ͘ dŚĞ ƚĞƌŵ ͞ƌĞŐŝŽŶĂů ŵĞŵďĞƌƐ͟ ƵƐĞĚ ŝŶ ƐŽŵĞ ƚĂďůĞƐ ƌĞĨĞƌƐ ƚŽ Ăůů ϰϴregional members of ADB, both developing and developed. Indicators are shown for the most recent year or period forwhich data are available and, in most tables, for an earlier year or period (usually 1990 or 1995). &ŝŶĂůůLJ͕ WĂƌƚ /s ĚĞĮŶĞƐ ƚŚĞ ŝŶĚŝĐĂƚŽƌƐ ŝŶ ƚŚĞ DƐ ĂŶĚ ƌĞŐŝŽŶĂů ƚƌĞŶĚƐ ĂŶĚ ƚĂďůĞƐ͘ dŚĞ ĨŽƵƌ ƉĂƌƚƐ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞ ŝŶĚŝǀŝĚƵĂůƐƚĂƟƐƟĐĂů ƚĂďůĞƐ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ϰϴ ƌĞŐŝŽŶĂů ŵĞŵďĞƌƐ ĂƌĞ ĂůƐŽ ĂǀĂŝůĂďůĞ ŽŶ ͛Ɛ ǁĞďƐŝƚĞ Ăƚ ǁǁǁ͘ĂĚď͘ŽƌŐͬŬĞLJͲŝŶĚŝĐĂƚŽƌƐͬϮϬϭϮ͘ Data for the MDG indicators, regional trends and tables, and country tables are obtained mainly from two sources: ͛Ɛ ƐƚĂƟƐƟĐĂů ƉĂƌƚŶĞƌƐ ĂŵŽŶŐ ŝƚƐ ƌĞŐŝŽŶĂů ŵĞŵďĞƌƐ͕ ĂŶĚ ŝŶƚĞƌŶĂƟŽŶĂů ƐƚĂƟƐƟĐĂů ĂŐĞŶĐŝĞƐ͘ ĂƚĂ ŽďƚĂŝŶĞĚ ĨƌŽŵ ƚŚĞƌĞŐŝŽŶĂů ŵĞŵďĞƌƐ ĂƌĞ ĐŽŵƉĂƌĂďůĞ ƚŽ ƚŚĞ ĞdžƚĞŶƚ ƚŚĂƚ ƚŚĞ ƌĞŐŝŽŶĂů ŵĞŵďĞƌƐ ĨŽůůŽǁ ƐƚĂŶĚĂƌĚ ƐƚĂƟƐƟĐĂů ĐŽŶĐĞƉƚƐ͕ ĚĞĮŶŝƟŽŶƐ͕ĂŶĚ ĞƐƟŵĂƟŽŶ ŵĞƚŚŽĚƐ ƌĞĐŽŵŵĞŶĚĞĚ ďLJ ƚŚĞ hŶŝƚĞĚ EĂƟŽŶƐ ĂŶĚ ŽƚŚĞƌ ĂƉƉůŝĐĂďůĞ ŝŶƚĞƌŶĂƟŽŶĂů ĂŐĞŶĐŝĞƐ͘ EĞǀĞƌƚŚĞůĞƐƐ͕ƌĞŐŝŽŶĂů ŵĞŵďĞƌƐ ŝŶǀĂƌŝĂďůLJ ĚĞǀĞůŽƉ ĂŶĚ ƵƐĞ ƚŚĞŝƌ ŽǁŶ ĐŽŶĐĞƉƚƐ͕ ĚĞĮŶŝƟŽŶƐ͕ ĂŶĚ ĞƐƟŵĂƟŽŶ ŵĞƚŚŽĚŽůŽŐŝĞƐ ƚŽ ƐƵŝƚƚŚĞŝƌ ŝŶĚŝǀŝĚƵĂů ĐŝƌĐƵŵƐƚĂŶĐĞƐ͕ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞƐĞ ŵĂLJ ŶŽƚ ŶĞĐĞƐƐĂƌŝůLJ ĐŽŵƉůLJ ǁŝƚŚ ƌĞĐŽŵŵĞŶĚĞĚ ŝŶƚĞƌŶĂƟŽŶĂů ƐƚĂŶĚĂƌĚƐ͘ dŚƵƐ͕ĞǀĞŶ ƚŚŽƵŐŚ ĂƩĞŵƉƚƐ ǁĞƌĞ ŵĂĚĞ ƚŽ ƉƌĞƐĞŶƚ ƚŚĞ ĚĂƚĂ ŝŶ Ă ĐŽŵƉĂƌĂďůĞ ĂŶĚ ƵŶŝĨŽƌŵ ĨŽƌŵĂƚ͕ ƚŚĞLJ ĂƌĞ ƐƵďũĞĐƚ ƚŽ ǀĂƌŝĂƟŽŶƐŝŶ ƚŚĞ ƐƚĂƟƐƟĐĂů ŵĞƚŚŽĚƐ ƵƐĞĚ ďLJ ƌĞŐŝŽŶĂů ŵĞŵďĞƌƐ͕ ƐŽ ƚŚĂƚ ĨƵůů ĐŽŵƉĂƌĂďŝůŝƚLJ ŽĨ ĚĂƚĂ ŵĂLJ ŶŽƚ ďĞ ƉŽƐƐŝďůĞ͘ dŚĞƐĞǀĂƌŝĂƟŽŶƐ ĂƌĞ ƌĞŇĞĐƚĞĚ ŝŶ ƚŚĞ ĨŽŽƚŶŽƚĞƐ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ƐƚĂƟƐƟĐĂů ƚĂďůĞƐ Žƌ ŶŽƚĞĚ ŝŶ ƚŚĞ ĂƚĂ /ƐƐƵĞƐ ĂŶĚ ŽŵƉĂƌĂďŝůŝƚLJ ƐĞĐƟŽŶƐ͘DŽƌĞŽǀĞƌ͕ ƚŚĞ ĂŐŐƌĞŐĂƚĞƐ ĨŽƌ ĚĞǀĞůŽƉŝŶŐ ĂŶĚ ƌĞŐŝŽŶĂů ŵĞŵďĞƌƐ ƐŚŽǁŶ ŝŶ ƐŽŵĞ ƚĂďůĞƐ ĂƌĞ ƚƌĞĂƚĞĚ ĂƐ ĂƉƉƌŽdžŝŵĂƟŽŶƐ ŽĨƚŚĞ ĂĐƚƵĂů ƚŽƚĂů Žƌ ĂǀĞƌĂŐĞ͕ Žƌ ŐƌŽǁƚŚ ƌĂƚĞƐ͕ ĚƵĞ ƚŽ ŵŝƐƐŝŶŐ ĚĂƚĂ ĨƌŽŵ ƚŚĞ ƉƌŝŵĂƌLJ ƐŽƵƌĐĞ͘ EŽ ĂƩĞŵƉƚ ŚĂƐ ďĞĞŶ ŵĂĚĞto impute the missing data.
    • dždžŝŝ <ĞLJ /ŶĚŝĐĂƚŽƌƐ ĨŽƌ ƐŝĂ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞ WĂĐŝĮĐ ϮϬϭϮ Fiscal Year dŚĞ ĚĂƚĂ ĐƵƚŽī ĚĂƚĞ ĨŽƌ ƚŚŝƐ ŝƐƐƵĞ ŝƐ :ƵůLJ ϮϬϭϮ. dǁĞŶƚLJͲĨŽƵƌ ƌĞŐŝŽŶĂů ŵĞŵďĞƌƐ ŚĂǀĞ ǀĂƌLJŝŶŐ ĮƐĐĂů LJĞĂƌƐ ŶŽƚ ĐŽƌƌĞƐƉŽŶĚŝŶŐ ƚŽ ƚŚĞ ĐĂůĞŶĚĂƌ LJĞĂƌ͘ tŚĞŶĞǀĞƌ ƚŚĞ ƐƚĂƟƐƟĐĂů ƐĞƌŝĞƐ ;ĨŽƌ ĞdžĂŵƉůĞ͕ ŶĂƟŽŶĂů ĂĐĐŽƵŶƚƐ Žƌ ŐŽǀĞƌŶŵĞŶƚ ĮŶĂŶĐĞͿ ĂƌĞ ĐŽŵƉŝůĞĚ ŽŶ Ă ĮƐĐĂů LJĞĂƌ ďĂƐŝƐ͕ ƚŚĞƐĞ ĂƌĞ ƉƌĞƐĞŶƚĞĚ ƵŶĚĞƌ ƐŝŶŐůĞͲLJĞĂƌ ĐĂƉƟŽŶƐ ĐŽƌƌĞƐƉŽŶĚŝŶŐ ƚŽ ƚŚĞ ƉĞƌŝŽĚ ƵŶĚĞƌ ǁŚŝĐŚ ŵŽƐƚ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ĮƐĐĂů LJĞĂƌ ĨĂůůƐ͕ ĂƐ ĨŽůůŽǁƐ͗ ZĞŐŝŽŶĂů DĞŵďĞƌƐ &ŝƐĐĂů zĞĂƌ zĞĂƌ ĂƉƟŽŶ Afghanistan 21 March 2011–20 March 2012 2011 ŽŽŬ /ƐůĂŶĚƐ ;ĂŌĞƌ ϭϵϵϬͿ ϭ :ƵůLJ ϮϬϭϬʹϯϬ :ƵŶĞ ϮϬϭϭ ϮϬϭϭ ƌƵŶĞŝ ĂƌƵƐƐĂůĂŵ ;ĂŌĞƌ ϮϬϬϮͿ Hong Kong, China India :ĂƉĂŶ ϭ Ɖƌŝů ϮϬϭϭʹϯϭ DĂƌĐŚ ϮϬϭϮ ϮϬϭϭ Myanmar EĞǁ ĞĂůĂŶĚ Singapore /ŶĚŽŶĞƐŝĂ ;ƵŶƟů ϭϵϵϵͿ ϭ Ɖƌŝů ϭϵϵϵʹϯϭ DĂƌĐŚ ϮϬϬϬ ϭϵϵϵ Australia Bangladesh Bhutan 2011 EĂƵƌƵ ϭ :ƵůLJ ϮϬϭϬʹϯϬ :ƵŶĞ ϮϬϭϭ Pakistan Samoa Tonga dĂŝƉĞŝ͕ŚŝŶĂ ;ƵŶƟů ϭϵϵϵͿ ϭ :ƵůLJ ϭϵϵϵʹϯϬ :ƵŶĞ ϮϬϬϬ ϮϬϬϬ EĞƉĂů ϭϲ :ƵůLJ ϮϬϭϬʹϭϱ :ƵůLJ ϮϬϭϭ ϮϬϭϭ >ĂŽ WĞŽƉůĞ͛Ɛ ĞŵŽĐƌĂƟĐ ZĞƉƵďůŝĐ ;ĂŌĞƌ ϭϵϵϮͿ DĂƌƐŚĂůů /ƐůĂŶĚƐ͕ ZĞƉƵďůŝĐ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ϭ KĐƚŽďĞƌ ϮϬϭϬʹϯϬ ^ĞƉƚĞŵďĞƌ ϮϬϭϭ ϮϬϭϭ Micronesia, Federated States of Palau Thailand
    • dždžŝŝŝKey Symbols ͙ ĂƚĂ ŶŽƚ ĂǀĂŝůĂďůĞ Ăƚ ĐƵƚŽī ĚĂƚĞ – Magnitude equals zero 0 or 0.0 Magnitude is less than half of unit employed Ύ WƌŽǀŝƐŝŽŶĂůͬƉƌĞůŝŵŝŶĂƌLJͬĞƐƟŵĂƚĞͬďƵĚŐĞƚ ĮŐƵƌĞ | Marks break in series х ƌĞĂƚĞƌ ƚŚĂŶ < Less than х Greater than or equal to < Less than or equal to na Not applicableMeasurement Units ʅŐ ŵŝĐƌŽŐƌĂŵ kg kilogram km kilometer ŬtŚ ŬŝůŽǁĂƩͲŚŽƵƌ kt kilotonAbbreviations and Acronyms ADB Asian Development Bank  ^^ ƐŝĂŶ ĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ ĂŶŬ ^ƚĂƟƐƟĐĂů ĂƚĂďĂƐĞ ^LJƐƚĞŵ /^ ĂĐƋƵŝƌĞĚ ŝŵŵƵŶŽĚĞĮĐŝĞŶĐLJ ƐLJŶĚƌŽŵĞ W ƐŝĂͲWĂĐŝĮĐ ĐŽŶŽŵŝĐ ŽŽƉĞƌĂƟŽŶ K ďŝŽĐŚĞŵŝĐĂů ŽdžLJŐĞŶ ĚĞŵĂŶĚ KW ďĂůĂŶĐĞ ŽĨ ƉĂLJŵĞŶƚƐ BRT bus rapid transit /  ĂƌďŽŶ ŝŽdžŝĚĞ /ŶĨŽƌŵĂƟŽŶ ŶĂůLJƐŝƐ ĞŶƚĞƌ & ĐŚůŽƌŽŇƵŽƌŽĐĂƌďŽŶƐ CIF cost, insurance, and freight CNG compressed natural gas K2 carbon dioxide W/ ĐŽƌƌƵƉƟŽŶ ƉĞƌĐĞƉƟŽŶƐ ŝŶĚĞdž CPI consumer price index   ĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ ƐƐŝƐƚĂŶĐĞ ŽŵŵŝƩĞĞ Kd^ ŝƌĞĐƚůLJ KďƐĞƌǀĞĚ dƌĞĂƚŵĞŶƚ ^ŚŽƌƚ ŽƵƌƐĞ EFB empty fruit bunches EKC Environmental Kuznets Curve ^ W ĐŽŶŽŵŝĐ ĂŶĚ ^ŽĐŝĂů ŽŵŵŝƐƐŝŽŶ ĨŽƌ ƐŝĂ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞ WĂĐŝĮĐ & K &ŽŽĚ ĂŶĚ ŐƌŝĐƵůƚƵƌĞ KƌŐĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶ FDI foreign direct investment &/ ĨƌĞĞ ŝŶĚƵƐƚƌŝĂů njŽŶĞ &K ĨƌĞĞ ŽŶ ďŽĂƌĚ &d ĨƌĞĞ ƚƌĂĚĞ njŽŶĞ Z ůŽďĂů ƐƐĞƐƐŵĞŶƚ ZĞƉŽƌƚ ŽŶ ZŝƐŬ ZĞĚƵĐƟŽŶ & ŐƌŽƐƐ ĐĂƉŝƚĂů ĨŽƌŵĂƟŽŶ W ŐƌŽƐƐ ĚŽŵĞƐƟĐ ƉƌŽĚƵĐƚ GHG greenhouse gas E/ ŐƌŽƐƐ ŶĂƟŽŶĂů ŝŶĐŽŵĞ
    • dždžŝǀ <ĞLJ /ŶĚŝĐĂƚŽƌƐ ĨŽƌ ƐŝĂ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞ WĂĐŝĮĐ ϮϬϭϮ GPI gender parity index GRUMP Global Rural Urban Mapping Project ,Z ŚĞĂĚ ĐŽƵŶƚ ƌĂƟŽ HDI human development index ,/s ŚƵŵĂŶ ŝŵŵƵŶŽĚĞĮĐŝĞŶĐLJ ǀŝƌƵƐ /d ŝŶĐƌĞĂƐŝŶŐ ďůŽĐŬ ƚĂƌŝī / /ŶƚĞƌŶĂƟŽŶĂů ŶĞƌŐLJ ŐĞŶĐLJ />K /ŶƚĞƌŶĂƟŽŶĂů >ĂďŽƵƌ KƌŐĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶ /D& /ŶƚĞƌŶĂƟŽŶĂů DŽŶĞƚĂƌLJ &ƵŶĚ /^/ /ŶƚĞƌŶĂƟŽŶĂů ^ƚĂŶĚĂƌĚ /ŶĚƵƐƚƌŝĂů ůĂƐƐŝĮĐĂƟŽŶ /d ŝŶĨŽƌŵĂƟŽŶ ƚĞĐŚŶŽůŽŐLJ /dh /ŶƚĞƌŶĂƟŽŶĂů dĞůĞĐŽŵŵƵŶŝĐĂƟŽŶ hŶŝŽŶ /hE /ŶƚĞƌŶĂƟŽŶĂů hŶŝŽŶ ĨŽƌ ŽŶƐĞƌǀĂƟŽŶ ŽĨ EĂƚƵƌĞ KILM Key Indicators of the Labour Market >ĂŽ WZ >ĂŽ WĞŽƉůĞ͛Ɛ ĞŵŽĐƌĂƟĐ ZĞƉƵďůŝĐ LCU local currency unit LDC least developed countries > ůŽǁͲĞůĞǀĂƟŽŶ ĐŽĂƐƚĂů njŽŶĞ Ln natural logarithm MDG Millennium Development Goal NPL non-performing loan K ŽĸĐŝĂů ĚĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ ĂƐƐŝƐƚĂŶĐĞ KW ŽnjŽŶĞͲĚĞƉůĞƟŶŐ ƉŽƚĞŶƟĂů K KƌŐĂŶŝƐĂƟŽŶ ĨŽƌ ĐŽŶŽŵŝĐ ŽͲŽƉĞƌĂƟŽŶ ĂŶĚ ĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ PLI price level index WD ƉĂƌƟĐƵůĂƚĞ ŵĂƩĞƌ PM10 ƉĂƌƟĐƵůĂƚĞ ŵĂƩĞƌ ǁŝƚŚ ĚŝĂŵĞƚĞƌ ŽĨ ϭϬ ŵŝĐƌŽŵĞƚĞƌƐ Žƌ ůĞƐƐ PPP purchasing power parity WZ WĞŽƉůĞ͛Ɛ ZĞƉƵďůŝĐ ŽĨ ŚŝŶĂ ^E ^LJƐƚĞŵ ŽĨ EĂƟŽŶĂů ĐĐŽƵŶƚƐ ^W ^ĞĐƌĞƚĂƌŝĂƚ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ WĂĐŝĮĐ ŽŵŵƵŶŝƚLJ ^WD ƐƵƐƉĞŶĚĞĚ ƉĂƌƟĐƵůĂƚĞ ŵĂƩĞƌ TB tuberculosis d&Z ƚŽƚĂů ĨĞƌƟůŝƚLJ ƌĂƚĞ hE hŶŝƚĞĚ EĂƟŽŶƐ hE /^ hŶŝƚĞĚ EĂƟŽŶ ŽŶ ,/sͬ /^ hEd  hŶŝƚĞĚ EĂƟŽŶƐ ŽŶĨĞƌĞŶĐĞ ŽŶ dƌĂĚĞ ĂŶĚ ĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ hEW hŶŝƚĞĚ EĂƟŽŶƐ ĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ WƌŽŐƌĂŵŵĞ hE hŶŝƚĞĚ EĂƟŽŶƐ ĐŽŶŽŵŝĐ ŽŵŵŝƐƐŝŽŶ ĨŽƌ ƵƌŽƉĞ hEW hŶŝƚĞĚ EĂƟŽŶƐ ŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚ WƌŽŐƌĂŵŵĞ hE^K hŶŝƚĞĚ EĂƟŽŶƐ ĚƵĐĂƟŽŶĂů͕ ^ĐŝĞŶƟĮĐ ĂŶĚ ƵůƚƵƌĂů KƌŐĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶ hE& hŶŝƚĞĚ EĂƟŽŶƐ &ƌĂŵĞǁŽƌŬ ŽŶǀĞŶƟŽŶ ŽŶ ůŝŵĂƚĞ ŚĂŶŐĞ hE&W hŶŝƚĞĚ EĂƟŽŶƐ WŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶ &ƵŶĚ hEͲ, /d d hŶŝƚĞĚ EĂƟŽŶƐ ,ƵŵĂŶ ^ĞƩůĞŵĞŶƚƐ WƌŽŐƌĂŵŵĞ hE/& hŶŝƚĞĚ EĂƟŽŶƐ ŚŝůĚƌĞŶ͛Ɛ &ƵŶĚ hE/K hŶŝƚĞĚ EĂƟŽŶƐ /ŶĚƵƐƚƌŝĂů ĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ KƌŐĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶ hEK hŶŝƚĞĚ EĂƟŽŶƐ KĸĐĞ ŽŶ ƌƵŐƐ ĂŶĚ ƌŝŵĞ hE^ hŶŝƚĞĚ EĂƟŽŶ ^ƚĂƟƐƟĐƐ ŝǀŝƐŝŽŶ hEtdK hŶŝƚĞĚ EĂƟŽŶƐ tŽƌůĚ dŽƵƌŝƐŵ KƌŐĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶ US United States h^ W hŶŝƚĞĚ ^ƚĂƚĞƐ ŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚĂů WƌŽƚĞĐƟŽŶ ŐĞŶĐLJ WDI World Development Indicators WDPA World Database on Protected Areas tK tŽƌůĚ ŶĞƌŐLJ KƵƚůŽŽŬ
    • ďďƌĞǀŝĂƟŽŶƐ ĂŶĚ ĐƌŽŶLJŵƐ dždžǀt,K tŽƌůĚ ,ĞĂůƚŚ KƌŐĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶtZ/ tŽƌůĚ ZĞƐŽƵƌĐĞ /ŶƐƟƚƵƚĞthW tŽƌůĚ hƌďĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶ WƌŽƐƉĞĐƚƐts^ tŽƌůĚ sĂůƵĞƐ ^ƵƌǀĞLJhŶůĞƐƐ ŽƚŚĞƌǁŝƐĞ ŝŶĚŝĐĂƚĞĚ͕ ͞Ψ͟ ƌĞĨĞƌƐ ƚŽ hŶŝƚĞĚ ^ƚĂƚĞƐ ĚŽůůĂƌƐ͘
    • dždžǀŝŝKey Indicators for Asia and the Pacific 2012 HighlightsThe <ĞLJ /ŶĚŝĐĂƚŽƌƐ ĨŽƌ ƐŝĂ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞ WĂĐŝĮĐ ϮϬϭϮ ŝƐ ƚŚĞ ŇĂŐƐŚŝƉ ĂŶŶƵĂů ƐƚĂƟƐƟĐĂů ĚĂƚà Ŭ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ƐŝĂŶ ĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ ĂŶŬ; Ϳ͘ /ƚ ƉƌĞƐĞŶƚƐ ƚŚĞ ůĂƚĞƐƚ ĂǀĂŝůĂďůĞ ĞĐŽŶŽŵŝĐ͕ ĮŶĂŶĐŝĂů͕ ƐŽĐŝĂů͕ ĞŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚĂů͕ ĂŶĚ DŝůůĞŶŶŝƵŵ ĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ ŽĂůƐ(MDGs) indicators for ADB regional members. Data are grouped into MDGs and regional tables. Briefs and nontechnicalanalyses are also included for each group. Data that were gathered from ADB regional member can be downloadedĨƌŽŵ ƚŚĞ  ǁĞďƐŝƚĞ Žƌ ĨƌŽŵ ŚƩƉ͗ͬͬƐĚďƐ͘ĂĚď͘ŽƌŐ͘ dŚĞ ^ƉĞĐŝĂů ŚĂƉƚĞƌ͕ ͞ƌĞĞŶ hƌďĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶ ŝŶ ƐŝĂ͕͟ ĞůƵĐŝĚĂƚĞƐ ƵŶŝƋƵĞĨĞĂƚƵƌĞƐ ŽĨ ƐŝĂ͛Ɛ ƵƌďĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞ ŵĂƐƐŝǀĞ ĐŚĂůůĞŶŐĞƐ ĐĂƵƐĞĚ ďLJ ƚŚŝƐ ƵŶƉƌĞĐĞĚĞŶƚĞĚ ƐŚŝŌ ŝŶ ƚŚĞ ůŽĐĂƟŽŶ ŽĨ ƉĞŽƉůĞĂŶĚ ƚŚĞŝƌ ĞĐŽŶŽŵŝĐ ĂĐƟǀŝƟĞƐ͘ dŚĞ ĐŚĂƉƚĞƌ ĂƌŐƵĞƐ ƚŚĂƚ ƉƌŽƉĞƌ ŵĂŶĂŐĞŵĞŶƚ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ƵƌďĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶ ƉƌŽĐĞƐƐ ĐĂŶ ŵŝƟŐĂƚĞ ƚŚĞĞŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚĂů ŝŵƉĂĐƚƐ ĂŶĚ ůĞĂĚ ƚŽ Ă ďĞƩĞƌ ůŝĨĞ ĨŽƌ ƐŝĂ͛Ɛ ƵƌďĂŶ ƌĞƐŝĚĞŶƚƐ͕ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞ ǁŽƌůĚ ŝŶ ŐĞŶĞƌĂů͘Part I: Special Chapter – Green Urbanization in AsiadŚĞ ǀĂƐƚ ŶƵŵďĞƌ ŽĨ ƉĞŽƉůĞ ŵŽǀŝŶŐ ŝŶƚŽ ƐŝĂŶ ĐŝƟĞƐ LJĞĂƌƐ͕ ǀĞƌƐƵƐ ϮϭϬ LJĞĂƌƐ ŝŶ >ĂƟŶ ŵĞƌŝĐĂ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞis historically unprecedented. As a consequence, the ĂƌŝďďĞĂŶ͕ ϭϱϬ LJĞĂƌƐ ŝŶ ƵƌŽƉĞ͕ ĂŶĚ ϭϬϱ LJĞĂƌƐ ŝŶŶƵŵďĞƌ ŽĨ ŵĞŐĂĐŝƟĞƐ ŝƐ ƌŝƐŝŶŐ ĂŶĚ ĐŝƟĞƐ ĂƌĞ ĞdžƉĞĐƚĞĚ EŽƌƚŚĞƌŶ ŵĞƌŝĐĂ͘ ŶĚ ƐŝĂ͛Ɛ ƵƌďĂŶ ƉŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶ ŝƐƚŽ ŚĂǀĞ ĞǀĞŶ ŚŝŐŚĞƌ ƉŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶ ĚĞŶƐŝƟĞƐ͘ dŚŝƐ ƚƌĞŶĚ ŝƐ ƉƌŽũĞĐƚĞĚ ƚŽ ĐŽŶƟŶƵĞ ŐƌŽǁŝŶŐ ĨĂƐƚĞƌ ƚŚĂŶ ƚŚĂƚ ŽĨ ĂŶLJĞdžƉĞĐƚĞĚ ƚŽ ĐŽŶƟŶƵĞ ĂƐ ƚŚĞ ƐŚĂƌĞ ŽĨ ƐŝĂ͛Ɛ ƉŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶ other region.ůŝǀŝŶŐ ŝŶ ƵƌďĂŶ ĂƌĞĂƐ ŝƐ ůŽǁ ƌĞůĂƟǀĞ ƚŽ ƚŚĂƚ ŝŶ ƚŚĞ ƌĞƐƚ ŽĨ ƚŚĞworld. The scale and the speed of urban expansion have ͻ hƌďĂŶ ƐŝĂ ŝƐ ĐŚĂƌĂĐƚĞƌŝnjĞĚ ďLJ ŚŝŐŚĞƌ ĚĞŶƐŝƚLJ ĂŶĚcontributed to the rise of Asia, but present challenges ŵŽƐƚ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ǁŽƌůĚ͛Ɛ ŵĞŐĂĐŝƟĞƐ͘ Already, the threeĂƐ ǁĞůů ĂƐ ŽƉƉŽƌƚƵŶŝƟĞƐ ĨŽƌ ƚŚĞ ƌĞŐŝŽŶ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞ ǁŽƌůĚ͘ ŵŽƐƚ ĚĞŶƐĞůLJ ƉŽƉƵůĂƚĞĚ ůĂƌŐĞ ĐŝƟĞƐ ŝŶ ƚŚĞ ǁŽƌůĚMost notable are the environmental challenges, such as (Mumbai, Kolkata, and Karachi, in that order), andƚŚĞ ĚĞǀĂƐƚĂƟŶŐ ŇŽŽĚƐ ĚƵƌŝŶŐ ϮϬϭϭ ĂŶĚ ϮϬϭϮ ŝŶ ĂŶŐŬŽŬ͕ 8 of the 10 densest, are in Asia. In 2010, Asia wasBeijing, and Manila. home to over halfͶ12 out of 23ͶŽĨ ƚŚĞ ǁŽƌůĚ͛Ɛ ŵĞŐĂĐŝƟĞƐ͘ To meet such challenges, Asia must follow a greenƵƌďĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶ ƉĂƚŚ ďLJ ŝŶƐƟƚƵƟŶŐ ƉŽůŝĐŝĞƐ ƚŚĂƚ ĞdžƉůŽŝƚ ͻ ƐŝĂŶ ƵƌďĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶ ƐƟůů ŚĂƐ Ă ůŽŶŐ ǁĂLJ ƚŽ ŐŽ͕ ǁŝƚŚŝƚƐ ůĂƚĞ ĐŽŵĞƌ͛Ɛ ĂĚǀĂŶƚĂŐĞ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞ ƵŶŝƋƵĞ ĨĞĂƚƵƌĞƐ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ŶƵŵďĞƌ ĂŶĚ ƐŝnjĞƐ ŽĨ ĐŝƟĞƐ ŐƌŽǁŝŶŐ ůĂƌŐĞƌ ĂŶĚ ƐŝĂ͛Ɛ ƵƌďĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶ͘ ZĞƐƉŽŶƐĞƐ ƚŽ ƚŚĞ ĐŚĂůůĞŶŐĞƐ ŝŶĐůƵĚĞ ůĂƌŐĞƌ͘ /Ŷ ϮϬϭϬ͕ ƚŚĞ ƵƌďĂŶ ƐŚĂƌĞ ŽĨ ƐŝĂ͛Ɛ ƉŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶĚĞǀĞůŽƉŝŶŐ ƐĂƚĞůůŝƚĞ ĐŝƟĞƐ ůŝŶŬĞĚ ďLJ ƚƌĂŝŶ͕ ůŝŐŚƚ ƌĂŝů͕ Žƌ ŵĞƚƌŽ ǁĂƐ ƐƟůů ŽŶůLJ ϰϯй͕ ĐŽŵƉĂƌĞĚ ǁŝƚŚ ƚŚĞ ǁŽƌůĚǁŝĚĞ;ƌĂƚŚĞƌ ƚŚĂŶ ŚŝŐŚǁĂLJƐͿ ǁŝƚŚ ŵĞŐĂĐŝƟĞƐ ;ĐŝƟĞƐ ƉŽƉƵůĂƚĞĚ share of 52%. By 2050, the urban share in Asia isďLJ ϭϬ ŵŝůůŝŽŶ Žƌ ŵŽƌĞ ƉĞŽƉůĞͿ͖ ĐŽŶƐĞƌǀŝŶŐ ƌĞƐŽƵƌĐĞƐ ĂŶĚ ƉƌŽũĞĐƚĞĚ ƚŽ ƌĞĂĐŚ ϲϯй͕ ŐĂŝŶŝŶŐ ŽŶ ďƵƚ ƐƟůů ďĞůŽǁŝŵƉƌŽǀŝŶŐ ƚŚĞ ĞĸĐŝĞŶĐLJ͖ ĂŶĚ ƉƌŽŵŽƟŶŐ ƚŚĞ ƵƐĞ ŽĨ ŶĞǁ ƚŚĞ ϲϳй ŐůŽďĂů ĂǀĞƌĂŐĞ͘ dŚƵƐ͕ ƐŝĂŶ ĐŝƟĞƐ ǁŝůů ŚĂǀĞƚĞĐŚŶŽůŽŐŝĞƐ ĂŶĚ ƌĞŶĞǁĂďůĞ ĞŶĞƌŐLJ͘ /Ŷ ĂĚĚŝƟŽŶ͕ ƚŚĞ ŐƌĞĞŶ ĞǀĞŶ ŚŝŐŚĞƌ ĚĞŶƐŝƟĞƐ ĂŶĚ͕ ďLJ ϮϬϮϱ͕ ƚŚĞ ŶƵŵďĞƌ ŽĨƵƌďĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶ ƉƌŽĐĞƐƐ ŵƵƐƚ ƉƌŽƚĞĐƚ ƚŚĞ ƵƌďĂŶ ƉŽŽƌ ƚŽ ŵĞŐĂĐŝƟĞƐ ŝŶ ƐŝĂ ŝƐ ĞdžƉĞĐƚĞĚ ƚŽ ŝŶĐƌĞĂƐĞ ƚŽ Ϯϭ ŽĨ Ăensure that the growth is inclusive and sustainable. global total of 37. ƐŝĂ͛Ɛ hƌďĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶ ŚĂƐ hŶŝƋƵĞ &ĞĂƚƵƌĞƐ dŚŝƐ hŶƉƌĞĐĞĚĞŶƚĞĚ hƌďĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶ WŽƐĞƐ ŶŽƌŵŽƵƐ ŚĂůůĞŶŐĞƐ ͻ &ƌŽŵ ϭϵϴϬ ƚŽ ϮϬϭϬ͕ ƐŝĂ ĂĚĚĞĚ ŵŽƌĞ ƚŚĂŶ Ă ďŝůůŝŽŶ ƉĞŽƉůĞ ƚŽ ŝƚƐ ĐŝƟĞƐͶŵŽƌĞ ƚŚĂŶ Ăůů ŽƚŚĞƌ ƌĞŐŝŽŶƐ dŚĞ ƐĐĂůĞ͕ ƐƉĞĞĚ͕ ĂŶĚ ĚĞŶƐŝƚLJ ŽĨ ƐŝĂ͛Ɛ ƵƌďĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶ ĐŽŵďŝŶĞĚͶǁŝƚŚ Ă ĨƵƌƚŚĞƌ ďŝůůŝŽŶ ƐĞƚ ƚŽ ďĞ ĐŝƚLJ will present many challenges. Increasing urban crime ĚǁĞůůĞƌƐ ďLJ ϮϬϰϬ͘ dŚŝƐ ŵĂƐƐŝǀĞ ƐĐĂůĞ ŽĨ ƵƌďĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶ rates, expanding slums, and rising inequality may ensue. is taking place ŵŽƐƚ ŶŽƚĂďůLJ ŝŶ ƚŚĞ WĞŽƉůĞ͛Ɛ ZĞƉƵďůŝĐ ďŽǀĞ Ăůů͕ ƚŚŝƐ ƵŶƉĂƌĂůůĞůĞĚ ƵƌďĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶ ǁŝůů ĂĚĚ ƚŽ ƚŚĞ of China (PRC), Bangladesh, India, Indonesia, and already enormous environmental stress in Asia. The Key WĂŬŝƐƚĂŶ͘ LJ ƚŚĞ ůĂƚĞƐƚ ĞƐƟŵĂƚĞƐ͕ ƐŝĂ ŝƐ ŶŽǁ ŚŽŵĞ /ŶĚŝĐĂƚŽƌƐ ϮϬϭϮ ƐƉĞĐŝĂů ĐŚĂƉƚĞƌ ĨŽĐƵƐĞƐ ŽŶ ƉŽůůƵƟŽŶ ĂŶĚ to almost half of all urbanites on earth and its urban ǀƵůŶĞƌĂďŝůŝƚLJ ƚŽ ŇŽŽĚŝŶŐ ĂƐ ƵƌďĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶ ŝŶ ƐŝĂ ƉƌŽĐĞĞĚƐ͘ ƉŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶ ŝƐ ŵŽƌĞ ƚŚĂŶ ƚŚƌĞĞ ƟŵĞƐ ƚŚĂƚ ŽĨ ƵƌŽƉĞͶ ƚŚĞ ƌĞŐŝŽŶ ǁŝƚŚ ƚŚĞ ƐĞĐŽŶĚ ůĂƌŐĞƐƚ ƵƌďĂŶ ƉŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶ͘ dŚĞ ƐƉĞĐŝĂů ĨĞĂƚƵƌĞƐ ŽĨ ƐŝĂ͛Ɛ ƵƌďĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶ ŵĂŬĞ ƚŚĞ challenges all the more serious as the current low level ͻ ƐŝĂ͛Ɛ ƵƌďĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶ ŝƐ ƌĂƉŝĚ͕ ǁŝƚŚ ƚŚĞ WZ ŽĨ ƵƌďĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶ ƐƵŐŐĞƐƚƐ ƚŚĂƚ ƐŝĂ ƐƟůů ŚĂƐ Ă ůŽŶŐ ǁĂLJ ƚŽ ƚƌĂŶƐŝƟŽŶŝŶŐ ĨƌŽŵ ĂďŽƵƚ ϭϬй ŽĨ ŝƚƐ ƉŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶ ŐŽ͘ dŚĞ ĨĂƐƚ ƉĂĐĞ ŽĨ ƵƌďĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶ ŵĞĂŶƐ ůŝƩůĞ ƟŵĞ ĨŽƌ ŝŶ ƵƌďĂŶ ĂƌĞĂƐ ƚŽ ĂďŽƵƚ ϱϬй ƵƌďĂŶ ŝŶ ũƵƐƚ ϲϭ adjustment or learning. The growing size and number of
    • dždžǀŝŝŝ <ĞLJ /ŶĚŝĐĂƚŽƌƐ ĨŽƌ ƐŝĂ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞ WĂĐŝĮĐ ϮϬϭϮ ŵĞŐĂĐŝƟĞƐ ǁŝůů ďĞ ĚŝĸĐƵůƚ ƚŽ ŵĂŶĂŐĞ͕ ĂŶĚ ŚŝŐŚ ĚĞŶƐŝƚLJ ŵŝůůŝŽŶ ƉĞŽƉůĞ͕ Žƌ ŽǀĞƌ ŽŶĞͲĨŽƵƌƚŚ ŽĨ ƐŝĂ͛Ɛ ƵƌďĂŶŝƚĞƐ͕ ŵĂŬĞƐ ĐŝƟĞƐ ŵŽƌĞ ǀƵůŶĞƌĂďůĞ ƚŽ ĐĂƚĂƐƚƌŽƉŚŝĐ ĞǀĞŶƚƐ ĂŶĚ ƐƟůů ůĂĐŬ ĂĐĐĞƐƐ ƚŽ ŝŵƉƌŽǀĞĚ ƐĂŶŝƚĂƟŽŶ ĨĂĐŝůŝƟĞƐ͘ disease. Green policies need to be at the core of Asian urban development in the 21st century if the challenges are to be properly managed. Ƶƚ dŚĞƌĞ ŝƐ ,ŽƉĞ͗ hƌďĂŶ ŐŐůŽŵĞƌĂƟŽŶ ĂŶ ,ĞůƉ /ŵƉƌŽǀĞ ƚŚĞ ŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚ ŝĨ ͻ sƵůŶĞƌĂďŝůŝƚLJ ƚŽ ŇŽŽĚŝŶŐ ǁŝůů ŝŶĐƌĞĂƐĞ ǁŝƚŚ ƵƌďĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶ͗ ďLJ ϮϬϮϱ͕ Ă ƉƌŽũĞĐƚĞĚ ϰϭϬ ŵŝůůŝŽŶ WƌŽƉĞƌůLJ DĂŶĂŐĞĚ ƵƌďĂŶ ƐŝĂŶƐ ǁŝůů ďĞ Ăƚ ƌŝƐŬ ŽĨ ĐŽĂƐƚĂů ŇŽŽĚŝŶŐ͘ KǀĞƌ ϯϬϬ ŵŝůůŝŽŶ ǁĞƌĞ ĂůƌĞĂĚLJ Ăƚ ƌŝƐŬ ŽĨ ĐŽĂƐƚĂů ŇŽŽĚŝŶŐ The environmental Kuznets curve is not an immutable in 2010, and about 250 million were at risk of inland ůĂǁ͘ hƌďĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶ ĐĂŶ ŚĞůƉ ĂƐ ŝƚ ƉƌŽŵŽƚĞƐ ĚĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ ŇŽŽĚŝŶŐ ƐƵĐŚ ĂƐ ǁŚĂƚ ƐƚƌƵĐŬ ĂŶŐŬŽŬ ůĂƐƚ LJĞĂƌ͘ dŚĞ of the service sector, which generally pollutes less than number of urbanites who are vulnerable to inland ŵĂŶƵĨĂĐƚƵƌŝŶŐ͖ ƉƌŽŵƉƚƐ ƚƌĂĚŝƟŽŶĂů ŵĂŶƵĨĂĐƚƵƌĞƌƐ ƚŽ ŇŽŽĚŝŶŐ ǁŝůů ĂůƐŽ ƌŝƐĞ͕ ƚŽ ƌŽƵŐŚůLJ ϯϱϬ ŵŝůůŝŽŶ ďLJ ϮϬϮϱ͘ ƌĞůŽĐĂƚĞ ĂǁĂLJ ĨƌŽŵ ŵĂũŽƌ ĐŝƚLJ ĐĞŶƚĞƌƐ͖ ĞĐŽŶŽŵŝnjĞƐ ŽŶ DŽƌĞ ƚŚĂŶ ŚĂůĨ ƚŚĞ ƉŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶ ŝŶ ůĂƌŐĞ ĐŝƟĞƐ ƐƵĐŚ ĂƐ the provision of environment-related infrastructure and Dhaka, Ho Chi Minh City, and Tianjin are at risk from ƐĞƌǀŝĐĞƐ ƐƵĐŚ ĂƐ ƉŝƉĞĚ ǁĂƚĞƌ͕ ďĂƐŝĐ ƐĂŶŝƚĂƟŽŶ͕ ĂŶĚ ƐŽůŝĚ ďŽƚŚ ŝŶůĂŶĚ ĂŶĚ ĐŽĂƐƚĂů ŇŽŽĚŝŶŐ͘ ǁĂƐƚĞ ĚŝƐƉŽƐĂů͖ ĐŽŶƚƌŝďƵƚĞƐ ƚŽ ƐŝŐŶŝĮĐĂŶƚůLJ ŚŝŐŚĞƌ ůĂďŽƌ ƉƌŽĚƵĐƟǀŝƚLJ͖ ĂŶĚ ĨĂĐŝůŝƚĂƚĞƐ ŝŶŶŽǀĂƟŽŶ͕ ŝŶĐůƵĚŝŶŐ ĨŽƌ ŐƌĞĞŶ ͻ DŽƌĞ ƚŚĂŶ ŚĂůĨ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ǁŽƌůĚ͛Ɛ ŵŽƐƚ ƉŽůůƵƚĞĚ ĐŝƟĞƐ ƚĞĐŚŶŽůŽŐŝĞƐ͘ ZŝƐŝŶŐ ĞĚƵĐĂƟŽŶĂů ĂƩĂŝŶŵĞŶƚƐ͕ ƚŚĞ ŐƌŽǁƚŚ ĂƌĞ ŝŶ ƐŝĂ͕ ĂŶĚ Ăŝƌ ƉŽůůƵƟŽŶ ĐŽŶƚƌŝďƵƚĞƐ ƚŽ ŚĂůĨ of the middle class, and declining birth rates typically Ă ŵŝůůŝŽŶ ĚĞĂƚŚƐ Ă LJĞĂƌ ŝŶ ƚŚĞ ƌĞŐŝŽŶ͘ Urban air ĂƐƐŽĐŝĂƚĞĚ ǁŝƚŚ ƵƌďĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶ ĐĂŶ ĂůƐŽ ŚĂǀĞ ďƌŽĂĚůLJ ƉŽůůƵƟŽŶ ŝŶ ƐŝĂ ŝƐ ŚŝŐŚĞƌ ƚŚĂŶ ŝŶ ŽƚŚĞƌ ƌĞŐŝŽŶƐ͘ ďĞŶĞĮĐŝĂů ŝŵƉĂĐƚƐ ŽŶ ƌĞƐŽƵƌĐĞ ƵƐĞ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞ ĞŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚ͘ ƐƚĂŐŐĞƌŝŶŐ ϲϳй ŽĨ ƐŝĂŶ ĐŝƟĞƐ ;ǀĞƌƐƵƐ ϭϭй ŽĨ ŶŽŶͲ ƐŝĂŶ ĐŝƟĞƐͿ ĨĂŝů ƚŽ ŵĞĞƚ ƚŚĞ ƵƌŽƉĞĂŶ hŶŝŽŶ͛Ɛ Ăŝƌ /Ŷ ĨĂĐƚ͕ ƚŚĞ ĞŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚʹƵƌďĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶ ĐƵƌǀĞƐ ŝŶ ƐŝĂ quality standard (of 40 micrograms per cubic meter ŚĂǀĞ ďĞĞŶ ƐŚŝŌŝŶŐ ĨĂǀŽƌĂďůLJ ŽǀĞƌ ƟŵĞ͕ ƚŚĂŶŬƐ ƚŽ ďĞƩĞƌ ΀ʅŐͬŵ3΁ ĨŽƌ ƉĂƌƟĐƵůĂƚĞ ŵĂƩĞƌ ǁŝƚŚ ĚŝĂŵĞƚĞƌ ŽĨ ϭϬ ƚĞĐŚŶŽůŽŐŝĞƐ ĂŶĚ ƉŽůŝĐŝĞƐ͘ TŚĞ ĐƵƌǀĞƐ ŚĂǀĞ ƐŚŝŌĞĚ ĚŽǁŶ micrometers or less [PM10]). ĂŶĚ ƚŽ ƚŚĞ ůĞŌ ĚƵƌŝŶŐ ƚŚĞ ůĂƐƚ ƚǁŽ ĚĞĐĂĚĞƐ͕ ŵĞĂŶŝŶŐ ůŽǁĞƌ ĞŵŝƐƐŝŽŶƐ ĂŶĚ ƉŽůůƵƟŽŶ Ăƚ ƚŚĞ ƐĂŵĞ ůĞǀĞů ŽĨ ƵƌďĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶ͕ ͻ &ƌŽŵ ϮϬϬϬ ƚŽ ϮϬϬϴ͕ ĂǀĞƌĂŐĞ ƉĞƌ ĐĂƉŝƚĂ ŐƌĞĞŶŚŽƵƐĞ and that the peaks come sooner. Between the 1990s and ŐĂƐ ĞŵŝƐƐŝŽŶƐ ĨŽƌ ƐŝĂ ŐƌĞǁ ďLJ ϵϳй ǀĞƌƐƵƐ ŽŶůLJ ϭϴй ϮϬϬϬƐ͕ ƚŚĞ ƐŚŝŌƐ ŚĂǀĞ ůĞĚ ƚŽ ϮϬй ůĞƐƐ WD10 (μg/m3) and 27% ĨŽƌ ƚŚĞ ǁŽƌůĚ͕ ǁŝƚŚ ŵŽƐƚ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ĞŵŝƐƐŝŽŶƐ ĐŽŵŝŶŐ ůĞƐƐ K2 emissions per capita than would have otherwise ĨƌŽŵ ƵƌďĂŶ ĂƌĞĂƐ͘ Moreover, the environment may been expected. ĚĞŐƌĂĚĞ ĨƵƌƚŚĞƌ ĂƐ ƐŝĂ ĐŽŶƟŶƵĞƐ ŝƚƐ ŐƌŽǁƚŚ͘ ĂƐĞĚ on the environmental Kuznets curve for Asia, which shows rising and then declining environmental WŽůŝĐŝĞƐ ĨŽƌ ƐŝĂ͛Ɛ ƌĞĞŶ hƌďĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶ ĚĞŐƌĂĚĂƟŽŶ ĂƐ ŝŶĐŽŵĞ ƌŝƐĞƐ͕ ƐŝĂ ŝƐ ƐƟůů ŽŶ ƚŚĞ ƌŝƐŝŶŐ ƐŝĚĞ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ĐĂƌďŽŶ ĚŝŽdžŝĚĞ ;K2) and PM10 curves. dŽ ĞŶƐƵƌĞ Ă ŐƌĞĞŶ ƵƌďĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶ ƉĂƚŚ͕ ĐŽŶƐĞƌǀĂƟŽŶ ĂŶĚ The average income per person of Asia in 2010, at ĞĸĐŝĞŶĐLJ ŝŵƉƌŽǀĞŵĞŶƚƐ ǁŝůů ďĞ ĞƐƐĞŶƟĂů ďĞĐĂƵƐĞ ŽĨ ƌŽƵŐŚůLJ Ψϲ͕ϭϬϬ ŝŶ ϮϬϬϱ WWW͕ ŝƐ ƐƟůů ǁĞůů ďĞůŽǁ ƚŚĞ ƚŚĞ ĐŽŵďŝŶĞĚ ƐƉĞĞĚ ĂŶĚ ƐĐĂůĞ ŽĨ ƐŝĂ͛Ɛ ƵƌďĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶ͘ ͞ƚƵƌŶŝŶŐ ƉŽŝŶƚ͕͟ Ăƚ ĂƌŽƵŶĚ Ψϰϭ͕ϬϬϬ ŝŶ ϮϬϬϱ WWW͕ ĨŽƌ WƌŽŵŽƟŶŐ ŶĞǁ ĨƌŽŶƟĞƌƐ ƚŚĂƚ ĂƌĞ ďƵŝůƚ ƵƐŝŶŐ ƌĞŶĞǁĂďůĞ K2. resources and new technologies is also important in order ƚŽ ďĞŶĞĮƚ ĨƌŽŵ ƚŚĞ ƌĞŐŝŽŶ͛Ɛ ůĂƚĞ ĐŽŵĞƌ ĂĚǀĂŶƚĂŐĞ͘ ŶĚ ĂƐ ͻ &ƵƚƵƌĞ K2 ĞŵŝƐƐŝŽŶƐ͕ ŝĨ ůĞŌ ƵŶĐŚĞĐŬĞĚ ƵŶĚĞƌ Ă Asia learns from the mistakes of others and its own past, ďƵƐŝŶĞƐƐͲĂƐͲƵƐƵĂů ƐĐĞŶĂƌŝŽ͕ ĐŽƵůĚ ƌĞĂĐŚ ϭϬ͘Ϯ ŵĞƚƌŝĐ ƚŚĞƌĞ ŝƐ ƌĞĐŽŐŶŝƟŽŶ ƚŚĂƚ ƵƌďĂŶ ŐƌŽǁƚŚ ŵƵƐƚ ďĞ ŝŶĐůƵƐŝǀĞ ƚŽŶƐ ƉĞƌ ĐĂƉŝƚĂ ďLJ ϮϬϱϬ͕ ƚŚƌĞĞ ƟŵĞƐ ƚŚĞ ϮϬϬϴ ůĞǀĞů͕ and sustainable. ǁŝƚŚ ĚŝƐĂƐƚƌŽƵƐ ĐŽŶƐĞƋƵĞŶĐĞƐ ĨŽƌ ƐŝĂ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞ ƌĞƐƚ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ǁŽƌůĚ͘ dŚƌĞĞ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ƚŽƉ ĮǀĞ K2 ĞŵŝƫŶŐ /Ŷ ƉĂƌƟĐƵůĂƌ͕ ŐƌĞĞŶ ƵƌďĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶ ƐƚƌĂƚĞŐŝĞƐ ŝŶ ƐŝĂ economies are in Asia, and per capita emissions are ƐŚŽƵůĚ ƚĂŬĞ ŝŶƚŽ ĂĐĐŽƵŶƚ ƚŚĞ ĚŝƐƟŶĐƟǀĞ ĐŚĂƌĂĐƚĞƌŝƐƟĐƐ ŽĨ rising at an alarming rate. ƐŝĂ͛Ɛ ƵƌďĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶ ƚŚĂƚ ǁŝůů ůĞĂĚ ƚŽ Ă ĚŝīĞƌĞŶƚ ƉĂƩĞƌŶ ŽĨ city development. Unlike Europe and the United States, Asia ͻ /Ŷ ϮϬϭϬ͕ ƚŚĞ ƌĞŐŝŽŶ ǁĂƐ ŚŽŵĞ ƚŽ ϱϬϲ ŵŝůůŝŽŶ ƐůƵŵ does not have the luxury to live in suburbs and drive to city ĚǁĞůůĞƌƐ͕ Žƌ ŵŽƌĞ ƚŚĂŶ ϲϭй ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ǁŽƌůĚ͛Ɛ ƚŽƚĂů centers for work. The region needs to develop environment- ƐůƵŵͲĚǁĞůůŝŶŐ ƉŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶ͘ South Asia alone hosts ĨƌŝĞŶĚůLJ ƐĂƚĞůůŝƚĞ ĐŝƟĞƐ ƚŚĂƚ ĂƌĞ ůŝŶŬĞĚ ƚŽ ŵĞŐĂĐŝƟĞƐ ďLJ ƌĂŝů Žƌ ĂůŵŽƐƚ ϯϴй ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ƌĞŐŝŽŶ͛Ɛ ƐůƵŵ ĚǁĞůůĞƌƐ͘ ůŵŽƐƚ ϰϬϴ ŵĞƚƌŽ ƌĂƚŚĞƌ ƚŚĂŶ ŚŝŐŚǁĂLJƐ͘ /Ŷ ƐŝĂ͛Ɛ ƵƌďĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶ͕ ĐƌŝƟĐĂů
    • <ĞLJ /ŶĚŝĐĂƚŽƌƐ ĨŽƌ ƐŝĂ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞ WĂĐŝĮĐ ϮϬϭϮ ,ŝŐŚůŝŐŚƚƐ dždžŝdžŵĂƐƐĞƐ ŽĨ ƉĞŽƉůĞ ǁŝůů ďĞ ŝŶ ƌĞůĂƟǀĞůLJ ƐŵĂůů ĂƌĞĂƐ͕ ŵĂŬŝŶŐ ĂŶĚ ƐĂƚĞůůŝƚĞ ĐŝƟĞƐ ǁŝƚŚ ƌĞŶĞǁĂďůĞƐ ĂƐ ƉƌŝŵĂƌLJŝƚ ŝŵƉŽƌƚĂŶƚ ƚŽ ƚĂŬĞ ĂĚǀĂŶƚĂŐĞ ŽĨ ĐŽƐƚ ĞīĞĐƟǀĞŶĞƐƐ ŝŶ energy sources, as piloted in the PRC. Urban sprawlƐƵƉƉůLJŝŶŐ ĞƐƐĞŶƟĂů ƐĞƌǀŝĐĞƐ ƐƵĐŚ ĂƐ ƉŝƉĞĚ ǁĂƚĞƌ ĂŶĚ can be tackled by developing a local system ofƐĂŶŝƚĂƟŽŶ͘ &ŝŶĂůůLJ͕ ĂŌĞƌ ƚŚĞ ŚŝŐŚůLJ ĐŽŵŵĞŶĚĂďůĞ ĂŶĚ ĐŽŵƉĂĐƚ͕ ǁĂůŬĂďůĞ ƐĂƚĞůůŝƚĞ ĐŝƟĞƐ ĐĞŶƚĞƌĞĚ ĂƌŽƵŶĚrecent rapid expansion of physical infrastructure in Asia, high quality train, light rail, or metro systems,the growing challenge now is to improve the quality of without heavy reliance on highways and majorŝŶĨƌĂƐƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĞ͕ ƉĂLJŝŶŐ ƐƉĞĐŝĂů ĂƩĞŶƟŽŶ ƚŽ ƐĂĨĞƚLJ ƐƚĂŶĚĂƌĚƐ ƌŽĂĚƐ ĨŽƌ ĐŽŶŶĞĐƟŽŶ͕ ĂŶĚ ďLJ ƌĞǀŝǀŝŶŐ ĐŝƚLJ ĐĞŶƚĞƌƐ͘and resilience to natural disasters. ¾ ŵƉůŽLJ ĂůƚĞƌŶĂƟǀĞ ĞŶĞƌŐLJ ĂŶĚ ͞ƐŵĂƌƚ͟ ͻ ŶŚĂŶĐŝŶŐ ĞĸĐŝĞŶĐLJ ĂŶĚ ĐŽŶƐĞƌǀĂƟŽŶ ƚŽ ƌĞĚƵĐĞ ĞůĞĐƚƌŝĐŝƚLJ ŐƌŝĚƐ ƚŽ ƉƌŽŵŽƚĞ ĞĸĐŝĞŶĐLJ ĂŶĚ ƌĞĚƵĐĞ ĐŽŶƐƵŵƉƟŽŶ ŽĨ ƌĞƐŽƵƌĐĞƐ ĂŶĚ ĞŶĞƌŐLJ ĞŵŝƐƐŝŽŶƐ͘ More power can be generated using renewable resources to meet rising demand. ¾ /ƚ ŝƐ ŝŵƉŽƌƚĂŶƚ ƚŽ ŐĞƚ ƉƌŝĐĞƐ ƌŝŐŚƚ͕ ƐŽ ƚŚĞLJ ŝŶĐŽƌƉŽƌĂƚĞ ĨƵůů ƐŽĐŝĂů ĐŽƐƚƐ ĂŶĚ ďĞŶĞĮƚƐ ƚŽ ͻ WƌŽƚĞĐƟŶŐ ƚŚĞ ƉŽŽƌ ĨŽƌ ƐŽĐŝĂů ŚĂƌŵŽŶLJ ĂŶĚ ĂůůŽĐĂƚĞ ƌĞƐŽƵƌĐĞƐ ĞĸĐŝĞŶƚůLJ͘ This can be done ŝŶĐůƵƐŝǀĞŶĞƐƐ by ŝŵƉŽƐŝŶŐ ĐŽŶŐĞƐƟŽŶ ĂŶĚ ĞŵŝƐƐŝŽŶ ĐŚĂƌŐĞƐ͕ as implemented in Singapore, and removing ¾ ŶŚĂŶĐĞ ƌĞƐŝůŝĞŶĐLJ ĂŶĚ ƌĞĚƵĐĞ ǀƵůŶĞƌĂďŝůŝƚLJ ƚŽ ŝŶĞĸĐŝĞŶƚ ƐƵďƐŝĚŝĞƐ͕ ĂƐ ŝŶ /ŶĚŽŶĞƐŝĂ͘ KƚŚĞƌ ĚŝƐĂƐƚĞƌƐ͘ dŚŝƐ ĐĂŶ ďĞ ĚŽŶĞ ďLJ ĐŽŶƐƚƌƵĐƟŶŐ ŚŽƵƐĞƐ ĞdžĂŵƉůĞƐ ĂƌĞ ƚŚĞ ŝŶƚƌŽĚƵĐƟŽŶ ŽĨ ĐĂƌďŽŶ ƚĂdžĞƐ͕ ŝŶ ƐĂĨĞ ĂƌĞĂƐ͕ ŝŵƉƌŽǀŝŶŐ ŚŽƵƐŝŶŐ ĂīŽƌĚĂďŝůŝƚLJ ĨŽƌ as in the Republic of Korea, and use of increasing ƚŚĞ ƉŽŽƌ͕ ĂŶĚ ŝŶǀĞƐƟŶŐ ŝŶ ĚƌĂŝŶĂŐĞ ŝŶĨƌĂƐƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĞ block pricing for water, electricity, and other and climate forecast technology. ƉƵďůŝĐ ƵƟůŝƟĞƐ͕ ĂƐ ŝŶ ƚŚĞ WŚŝůŝƉƉŝŶĞƐ͘ ¾ WƌŽŐƌĞƐƐ ŵƵƐƚ ĂůƐŽ ďĞ ŵĂĚĞ ƚŽ ŝŵƉƌŽǀĞ ƵƌďĂŶ ¾ /ŶƚƌŽĚƵĐĞ ƌĞŐƵůĂƟŽŶƐ ĂŶĚ ƐƚĂŶĚĂƌĚƐ ŝŶ Ă ƟŵĞůLJ ƐůƵŵƐ͘ hƐĞĨƵů ƉŽůŝĐŝĞƐ ŝŶĐůƵĚĞ ŐƌĂŶƟŶŐ ůĂŶĚ ƟƚůĞƐ ŵĂŶŶĞƌ͘ /ŵƉůĞŵĞŶƟŶŐ ĂƉƉƌŽƉƌŝĂƚĞ ƌĞŐƵůĂƟŽŶƐ to slum dwellers, issuing housing vouchers linked and standards can help to correct for market ŝŶ ǀĂůƵĞ ƚŽ ƚŚĞ ůĞŶŐƚŚ ŽĨ Ă ƌĞƐŝĚĞŶƚ͛Ɛ ƚĞŶƵƌĞ ŝŶ ƚŚĞ Žƌ ĐŽŽƌĚŝŶĂƟŽŶ ĨĂŝůƵƌĞƐ ŽŶ Ăŝƌ͕ ǁĂƚĞƌ͕ ǀĞŚŝĐůĞƐ͕ city, and providing basic services to slum areas. and appliances, as in India. The government can construct green industrial zones to assist ͻ WƵďůŝĐ ĮŶĂŶĐĞ͕ ƚƌĂŶƐƉĂƌĞŶĐLJ͕ ĂŶĚ ĂĐĐŽƵŶƚĂďŝůŝƚLJ ƚŽ manufacturing to relocate, as in Indonesia. ĨĂĐŝůŝƚĂƚĞ ŐƌĞĞŶ ƵƌďĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶ /ŵƉƌŽǀĞĚ ƌĞŐƵůĂƟŽŶƐ ĐĂŶ ĂůƐŽ ŚĞůƉ ƚŽ ƌĞĚƵĐĞ Žƌ prevent urban sprawl. ¾ WƵďůŝĐ ĮŶĂŶĐĞ ƚŽ ƐƵƉƉŽƌƚ ŐƌĞĞŶ ĐŝƟĞƐ͘ This can be accomplished by broadening tax and revenue ¾ hƐĞ ƌĂƉŝĚ ƉƵďůŝĐ ƚƌĂŶƐƉŽƌƚ ĨŽƌ ĐŽŶŶĞĐƟǀŝƚLJ ĂŶĚ bases and by increasing access to broader ůĞƐƐ ƉŽůůƵƟŽŶ͘ ^ƉĞĞĚLJ ĐŽŶŶĞĐƟŽŶƐ ƚŽ ĂŶĚ ĨƌŽŵ and deeper capital markets by local urban ƐĂƚĞůůŝƚĞ ĐŝƟĞƐ ĐĂŶ ĞĂƐĞ ĐŽŶŐĞƐƟŽŶ ŝŶ ĐĞŶƚƌĂů ŐŽǀĞƌŶŵĞŶƚƐ ƚŽ ůŽǁĞƌ ƚŚĞŝƌ ĮŶĂŶĐŝŶŐ ĐŽƐƚƐ ĨŽƌ megacity hubs. A bus rapid transit system, as in urban infrastructure and public services. the PRC, and subways, as in India, for densely ƉŽƉƵůĂƚĞĚ ĐŝƟĞƐ ĐĂŶ ůŽǁĞƌ ĞŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚĂů ¾ /ŶĐĞŶƟǀŝnjĞ ƉŽůŝƟĐŝĂŶƐ ƚŽ ĞŶƐƵƌĞ ƚƌĂŶƐƉĂƌĞŶĐLJ consequences and enhance the quality of life. ĂŶĚ ĂĐĐŽƵŶƚĂďŝůŝƚLJ͘ Avenues include disclosing city government performance to the public and ͻ WƌŽŵŽƟŶŐ ŶĞǁ ĨƌŽŶƟĞƌƐ ƚŚĂƚ ƵƐĞ ƌĞŶĞǁĂďůĞ ŶŽŶŐŽǀĞƌŶŵĞŶƚ ŽƌŐĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶƐ͕ ĂŶĚ ůĂƵŶĐŚŝŶŐ ƌĞƐŽƵƌĐĞƐ ĂŶĚ ŶĞǁ ƚĞĐŚŶŽůŽŐŝĞƐ ŶĂƟŽŶĂů ĐŽŵƉĞƟƟŽŶƐ Žƌ ĐĂŵƉĂŝŐŶƐ ƚŽ ĞŶĐŽƵƌĂŐĞ a “race to the top” where high performance is ¾ ĚǀĂŶĐĞ Žƌ ĂĚĂƉƚ ƚĞĐŚŶŽůŽŐLJ ĨŽƌ ĞŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚĂů rewarded. ƉƌŽƚĞĐƟŽŶ ĂŶĚ ĞĸĐŝĞŶƚ ƌĞƐŽƵƌĐĞ ƵƐĞ͘ A good example is using waste-to-energy plants to ƐŝĂ͛Ɛ ĐƵƌƌĞŶƚ ƵƌďĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶ ŝƐ ĚŝīĞƌĞŶƚ ĨƌŽŵ ƌĞĚƵĐĞ ƉŽůůƵƟŽŶ ĂŶĚ Ăƚ ƚŚĞ ƐĂŵĞ ƟŵĞ ŐĞŶĞƌĂƚĞ historical experience in terms of speed and scale, and is renewable energy, as in the Philippines and ŐĞŶĞƌĂƟŶŐ ĂŶĚ ĐŽŶĨƌŽŶƟŶŐ ƵŶƉƌĞĐĞĚĞŶƚĞĚ ĐŚĂůůĞŶŐĞƐ͘ Thailand. Green technology can be acquired It also comes with forces that, if properly managed, can either by imports or innovated through research ŚĞůƉ ƚŽ ĂĚĚƌĞƐƐ ƚŚĞ ĐŚĂůůĞŶŐĞƐ͘ ƐŝĂ͛Ɛ ĨƵƚƵƌĞ ĚĞƉĞŶĚƐ ŽŶ and development, as in the PRC. ƵƐŝŶŐ ďĞƐƚ ƉƌĂĐƟĐĞƐ ĂŶĚ ƉŽůŝĐLJ ŝŶŶŽǀĂƟŽŶƐ ƚŽ ƉƌŽŵŽƚĞ ŐƌĞĞŶ ƵƌďĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶ͕ ƚŚĞƌĞďLJ ĞŶƐƵƌŝŶŐ Ă ďĞƩĞƌ ůŝĨĞ ĨŽƌ ŝƚƐ ¾ /ŶĐŽƌƉŽƌĂƚĞ ĞŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚĂů ƉƌŝŽƌŝƟĞƐ ŝŶ ĐŝƚLJ urban residents, and the world. ƉůĂŶŶŝŶŐ͘ This is under way through building new
    • dždždž <ĞLJ /ŶĚŝĐĂƚŽƌƐ ĨŽƌ ƐŝĂ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞ WĂĐŝĮĐ ϮϬϭϮ Part II: Millennium Development Goals Trends ĞƐƉŝƚĞ ƐŝĂ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞ WĂĐŝĮĐ ƌĞŐŝŽŶ͛Ɛ ƌĞŵĂƌŬĂďůĞ ƐƵĐĐĞƐƐ ŝŶ D Ϯ͗ ĐŚŝĞǀĞ hŶŝǀĞƌƐĂů WƌŝŵĂƌLJ ůŝŌŝŶŐ ŵĂŶLJ ƉĞŽƉůĞ ŽƵƚ ŽĨ ƉŽǀĞƌƚLJ͕ ƌĞĚƵĐŝŶŐ ƚŚĞ ƉŽŽƌ ĨƌŽŵ ĚƵĐĂƟŽŶ about 1.5 billion in 1990 to approximately 830 million in ϮϬϬϴ͕ ŝƚ ŝƐ ƐƟůů ŚŽŵĞ ƚŽ ƌŽƵŐŚůLJ ƚǁŽͲƚŚŝƌĚƐ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ǁŽƌůĚ͛Ɛ ͻ DŽƐƚ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ƌĞŐŝŽŶ͛Ɛ ĞĐŽŶŽŵŝĞƐ ĂƌĞ ŽŶ ƚŚĞŝƌ ǁĂLJ ƚŽ poor. Many economies in the region are expected to achieving primary school net enrollment targets, achieve the targets for reducing extreme poverty, providing ǁŝƚŚ ϯϬ ŽĨ ϰϮ ƌĞƉŽƌƟŶŐ ĞĐŽŶŽŵŝĞƐ ĂĐŚŝĞǀŝŶŐ ŶĞƚ ƵŶŝǀĞƌƐĂů ƉƌŝŵĂƌLJ ĞĚƵĐĂƟŽŶ͕ ĂŶĚ ƉƌŽŵŽƟŶŐ ŐĞŶĚĞƌ enrollment rates of 95% or higher. But in Nepal, ĞƋƵĂůŝƚLJ͘ ,ŽǁĞǀĞƌ͕ ƚŚĞ ƌĞŐŝŽŶ͛Ɛ ƉĞƌĨŽƌŵĂŶĐĞ ŽŶ ŚĞĂůƚŚ Pakistan, and Papua New Guinea (PNG), primary targets is mixed. While it has reduced the prevalence of school net enrollment rates remain below 75%. ,/s ĂŶĚ ŚĂƐ ĂƌƌĞƐƚĞĚ ƚŚĞ ƐƉƌĞĂĚ ŽĨ ƚƵďĞƌĐƵůŽƐŝƐ͕ ƐŝŵŝůĂƌ ƚŽ other regions in the world, it is not expected to achieve the ͻ tŚŝůĞ ŶĞƚ ĞŶƌŽůůŵĞŶƚ ƌĂƚĞƐ ŝŶ ƐŝĂ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞ WĂĐŝĮĐ ĂƌĞ MDG targets for reducing child mortality and improving generally high, in 2009 or the nearest years, 65% of maternal health by 2015. With respect to environmental ƚŚĞ ƌĞŐŝŽŶ͛Ɛ ĚĞǀĞůŽƉŝŶŐ ĞĐŽŶŽŵŝĞƐ ;Ϯϲ ŽĨ ϰϬͿ ǁĞƌĞ ƐƵƐƚĂŝŶĂďŝůŝƚLJ͕ ĨŽƌĞƐƚ ĐŽǀĞƌ ŝƐ ƐƟůů ƐŚƌŝŶŬŝŶŐ͕ ďƵƚ ƚŚĞ ĂƌĞĂƐ ŶŽƚ ĂďůĞ ƚŽ ƌĞĂĐŚ ƚŚĞ ĐƵƚŽī ƌĂƚĞ ŽĨ ϵϱй ŽĨ ƉƌŝŵĂƌLJ ƉůĂĐĞĚ ƵŶĚĞƌ ƉƌŽƚĞĐƟŽŶ ŚĂǀĞ ŝŶĐƌĞĂƐĞĚ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞ ƐůƵŵ school entrants reaching the last year of primary ƉŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶ͕ ĂƐ Ă ƉĞƌĐĞŶƚĂŐĞ ŽĨ ƵƌďĂŶ ƉŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶ͕ ŚĂƐ schooling (the “expected cohort survival rate”). ĚĞĐůŝŶĞĚ͘ tŚŝůĞ ƚŚĞ ƌĞŐŝŽŶ ŚĂƐ ŵĂĚĞ ƐŝŐŶŝĮĐĂŶƚ ƉƌŽŐƌĞƐƐ ŝŶ providing access to improved drinking water sources, the ͻ The average net enrollment rate in East Asia (96.6%) ƉƌŽǀŝƐŝŽŶ ŽĨ ŝŵƉƌŽǀĞĚ ƐĂŶŝƚĂƟŽŶ ĨĂĐŝůŝƟĞƐ ƌĞŵĂŝŶƐ Ă ŵŽƌĞ is comparable to the average of developed countries ĚŝĸĐƵůƚ ƉƌŽďůĞŵ͘ tŝƚŚ ƌĞƐƉĞĐƚ ƚŽ ŐůŽďĂů ƉĂƌƚŶĞƌƐŚŝƉƐ͕ ƚŚĞ in the world, at 97.1%. The other subregions in Asia ƉƌŽƉŽƌƟŽŶ ŽĨ ďŝůĂƚĞƌĂů ĂŝĚ ƚŽ ͛Ɛ ĚĞǀĞůŽƉŝŶŐ ŵĞŵďĞƌƐ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞ WĂĐŝĮĐ ŚĂǀĞ ŶĞƚ ĞŶƌŽůůŵĞŶƚ ƌĂƚĞ ĂǀĞƌĂŐĞƐ ƚŚĂƚ ŝƐ ƵŶƟĞĚ ŚĂƐ ďĞĞŶ ƌŝƐŝŶŐ ĂŶĚ ĚĞďƚ ƐĞƌǀŝĐĞ ƌĂƟŽƐ ŚĂǀĞ ranging from 91.5% to 95.4%, which are at par with generally declined to a manageable range. ŽƚŚĞƌ ƌĞŐŝŽŶƐ ŝŶ ƚŚĞ ǁŽƌůĚ ĂŶĚ ǁŚŝĐŚ ĂƌĞ ƐŝŐŶŝĮĐĂŶƚůLJ higher than Sub-Saharan Africa (76.2%). D ϭ͗ ƌĂĚŝĐĂƚĞ džƚƌĞŵĞ WŽǀĞƌƚLJ ĂŶĚ ͻ In terms of the expected cohort survival in primary ,ƵŶŐĞƌ ĞĚƵĐĂƟŽŶ͕ ƚŚĞ ƉƌŽŐƌĞƐƐ ŵĂĚĞ ďLJ ĂƐƚ ƐŝĂ͕ ^ŽƵƚŚĞĂƐƚ Asia, and Central Asia (97.3%–98.7%) is at par with ͻ ŵĂũŽƌŝƚLJ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ĐŽƵŶƚƌŝĞƐ ŝŶ ƐŝĂ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞ WĂĐŝĮĐ ƐĂǁ the developed regions (100.0%). South and West ĚĞĐůŝŶŝŶŐ ĞdžƚƌĞŵĞ ƉŽǀĞƌƚLJ ƌĂƚĞƐ ďƵƚ ƚŚĞ ƉƌŽƉŽƌƟŽŶ Asia registered average survival rates below 90%. ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ƉŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶ ůŝǀŝŶŐ ŽŶ ůĞƐƐ ƚŚĂŶ Ψϭ͘Ϯϱ Ă ĚĂLJ Ăƚ purchasing power parity (PPP) remains over 20% in ͻ KŶůLJ ĂďŽƵƚ ŽŶĞͲĨŽƵƌƚŚ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ƌĞƉŽƌƟŶŐ ĚĞǀĞůŽƉŝŶŐ eight countries, including the populous countries of economies (12 of 44) have youth literacy rates below Bangladesh, India, and Pakistan. ϵϱй͕ ƐƵŐŐĞƐƟŶŐ ƚŚĂƚ͕ ŽǀĞƌĂůů͕ ƚŚĞ LJŽƵƚŚ ǁŝůů ƉĞƌĨŽƌŵ well in the labor market. ͻ While the poor are moving out of extreme poverty, ƚŚĞ ŶƵŵďĞƌ ŽĨ ƉŽŽƌ ůŝǀŝŶŐ ŽŶ ůĞƐƐ ƚŚĂŶ ΨϮ͘ϬϬ ;WWWͿ Ă ĚĂLJ ƌĞŵĂŝŶƐ ŚŝŐŚͶϭϯ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ƌĞŐŝŽŶ͛Ɛ ĞĐŽŶŽŵŝĞƐ ŚĂǀĞ D ϯ͗ WƌŽŵŽƚĞ ĞŶĚĞƌ ƋƵĂůŝƚLJ ĂŶĚ ƉŽǀĞƌƚLJ ŚĞĂĚĐŽƵŶƚ ƌĂƟŽƐ ŽǀĞƌ ϰϬй͘ ŵƉŽǁĞƌ tŽŵĞŶ ͻ tŚŝůĞ ŵŽƐƚ ĐŽƵŶƚƌŝĞƐ ĂƌĞ ĂďůĞ ƚŽ ƐŝŐŶŝĮĐĂŶƚůLJ ůŽǁĞƌ ͻ dŚĞ ƌĞŐŝŽŶ ŚĂƐ ŵĂĚĞ ƐƵďƐƚĂŶƟĂů ƉƌŽŐƌĞƐƐ ƚŽǁĂƌĚ ƚŚĞŝƌ ƉƌŽƉŽƌƟŽŶƐ ŽĨ ǁŽƌŬŝŶŐ ƉŽŽƌ͕ ŵĂŶLJ ƐƟůů ŚĂǀĞ ĞůŝŵŝŶĂƟŶŐ ŐĞŶĚĞƌ ĚŝƐƉĂƌŝƚLJ Ăƚ ƚŚĞ ƉƌŝŵĂƌLJ ůĞǀĞů ŽĨ working poverty rates above 10% and vulnerability ĞĚƵĐĂƟŽŶ͘ ůŵŽƐƚ ƚǁŽͲƚŚŝƌĚƐ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ϰϲ ƌĞƉŽƌƟŶŐ rates above 50%. economies have achieved gender parity in primary ĞĚƵĐĂƟŽŶ͘ ͻ Gains were achieved in curbing hunger. A majority of the economies saw progress in reducing the ͻ ŝŐŚƚĞĞŶ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ϰϲ ƌĞƉŽƌƟŶŐ ĞĐŽŶŽŵŝĞƐ ŚĂǀĞ ŐĞŶĚĞƌ ƉƌŽƉŽƌƟŽŶƐ ŽĨ ƵŶĚĞƌǁĞŝŐŚƚͬŵĂůŶŽƵƌŝƐŚĞĚ ĐŚŝůĚƌĞŶ parity indexes higher than 1.03, implying higher and undernourished people. secondary school enrollment among girls than boys.
    • <ĞLJ /ŶĚŝĐĂƚŽƌƐ ĨŽƌ ƐŝĂ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞ WĂĐŝĮĐ ϮϬϭϮ ,ŝŐŚůŝŐŚƚƐ dždždžŝ ͻ DŽƌĞ ƚŚĂŶ ŚĂůĨ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ƌĞƉŽƌƟŶŐ ĞĐŽŶŽŵŝĞƐ ;Ϯϭ ŽĨ MDG target by 2015, as this requires a further 25% 40) had gender disparity indexes above 1.03 at the ƌĞĚƵĐƟŽŶ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ DDZ͘ ŵŽŶŐ ƚŚĞ ϯϯ ĚĞǀĞůŽƉŝŶŐ ƚĞƌƟĂƌLJ ůĞǀĞů͕ ďƵƚ ƚŚĞƌĞ ŝƐ ǁŝĚĞ ǀĂƌŝĂƟŽŶ ĂĐƌŽƐƐ economies with available data, 24 are expected to economies. ŵĞĞƚ ƚŚĞ ŐŽĂů ŽŶůLJ ĂŌĞƌ ϮϬϭϱ͘ dŚŝƐ ƐŝƚƵĂƟŽŶ ŝƐ ƐŝŵŝůĂƌ in other developing regions. ͻ Most economies in the region posted gains in female ƌĞƉƌĞƐĞŶƚĂƟŽŶ ŝŶ ŶĂƟŽŶĂů ƉĂƌůŝĂŵĞŶƚƐ͖ EĞƉĂů ŚĂĚ ͻ MMRs decreased in economies where deliveries ƚŚĞ ŚŝŐŚĞƐƚ ƌĂƚĞ ŽĨ ĨĞŵĂůĞ ƌĞƉƌĞƐĞŶƚĂƟŽŶ ;Ăƚ ϯϯйͿ ŝŶ ĂƩĞŶĚĞĚ ďLJ ƐŬŝůůĞĚ ŚĞĂůƚŚ ƉƌŽĨĞƐƐŝŽŶĂůƐ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞ ŶĂƟŽŶĂů ƉĂƌůŝĂŵĞŶƚ ŝŶ ϮϬϭϮ͘ antenatal care coverage increased. By 2010, South ƐŝĂ͛Ɛ DDZƐ ŚĂĚ ĚĞĐůŝŶĞĚ ƚŽ ϮϬϭ ĚĞĂƚŚƐ ƉĞƌ ϭϬϬ͕ϬϬϬ live births from 622 in 1990.D ϰ͗ ZĞĚƵĐĞ ŚŝůĚ DŽƌƚĂůŝƚLJ ͻ Progress with improving child survival is slow in Asia D ϲ͗ ŽŵďĂƚ ,/sͬ /^͕ DĂůĂƌŝĂ͕ ĂŶĚ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞ WĂĐŝĮĐ ƌĞŐŝŽŶ͕ ĂƐ ŝŶ Ăůů ŽƚŚĞƌ ĚĞǀĞůŽƉŝŶŐ KƚŚĞƌ ŝƐĞĂƐĞƐ regions. By 2010, only 4 of 43 economies had reduced their under-5 mortality rates (U5MRs) or ͻ LJ ϮϬϬϵ͕ ,/s ƉƌĞǀĂůĞŶĐĞ ŚĂĚ ĚĞĐůŝŶĞĚ ƐŝŐŶŝĮĐĂŶƚůLJ child mortality rates to one-third of 1990 values, and in Cambodia, Myanmar, and Thailand where it was 28 economies are not expected to meet the MDG high in 2001. Almost all economies increased access target by 2015. ƚŽ ĂŶƟƌĞƚƌŽǀŝƌĂů ĚƌƵŐƐ ĨŽƌ ƚŚŽƐĞ ǁŝƚŚ ĂĚǀĂŶĐĞĚ ,/s ŝŶĨĞĐƟŽŶ͘ ͻ ĂŶŐůĂĚĞƐŚ͕ ŚƵƚĂŶ͕ ƚŚĞ >ĂŽ WĞŽƉůĞ͛Ɛ ĞŵŽĐƌĂƟĐ Republic (Lao PDR), the Maldives, Mongolia, Nepal, ͻ The incidence and prevalence rates of tuberculosis and Timor-Leste have become early achievers or and the death rates associated with tuberculosis in ǁŝůů ŵĞĞƚ ƚŚĞ D ƚĂƌŐĞƚ ďLJ ϮϬϭϱ͕ Ă ƐŝŐŶŝĮĐĂŶƚ most countries in the region have declined. However, improvement from having more than 100 children the Marshall Islands and some economies in Central under-5 years dying for every 1,000 live births in ĂŶĚ tĞƐƚ ƐŝĂ ĂƌĞ ƌĞŐƌĞƐƐŝŶŐ ŝŶ ŵĞĞƟŶŐ ƚŚĞ ŐŽĂů ŽĨ 1990. ŚĂůƟŶŐ Žƌ ƌĞǀĞƌƐŝŶŐ ƚŚĞ ƚƵďĞƌĐƵůŽƐŝƐ ŝŶĐŝĚĞŶĐĞ͘ ͻ In the region in 2010, under-5 and infant mortality ͻ Although the incidence of malaria remains high ŝŵƉƌŽǀĞĚ ĨƌŽŵ ƚŚĞ ϭϵϵϬ ůĞǀĞůƐ͕ ďƵƚ ƐƟůů͕ ŝŶ ϮϬϭϬ͕ in many economies in the region, the death rates close to 3.2 million children under 5 years of age associated with malaria in 2008 were generally low, died, about 2.5 million of them before reaching for economies with available data at less than 7 per 1 year. Compared to 1990, in 2010 the U5MR was ϭϬϬ͕ϬϬϬ ƉŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶ͕ ĞdžĐĞƉƚ ŝŶ DLJĂŶŵĂƌ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞ halved in South Asia and was reduced by about 25% WĂĐŝĮĐ͘ ŝŶ ĞŶƚƌĂů ƐŝĂ͘ /ŶĨĂŶƚ ĚĞĂƚŚƐ ĂĐĐŽƵŶƚ ĨŽƌ Ă ƐŝŐŶŝĮĐĂŶƚ ƉƌŽƉŽƌƟŽŶ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ hϱDZ͘ D ϳ͗ ŶƐƵƌĞ ŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚĂů ͻ /Ŷ ϮϬϭϬ͕ ĂďŽƵƚ ϴϱй ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ƌĞŐŝŽŶ͛Ɛ ĐŚŝůĚƌĞŶ ŚĂĚ ďĞĞŶ ^ƵƐƚĂŝŶĂďŝůŝƚLJ immunized for measles, a leading cause of childhood death. The PRC had immunized 99% of its 1-year-old ͻ ĞĨŽƌĞƐƚĂƟŽŶ ĐŽŶƟŶƵĞƐ ƚŽ ƚŚƌĞĂƚĞŶ ƚŚĞ ƌĞŐŝŽŶ͘ ĐŚŝůĚƌĞŶ ĂŐĂŝŶƐƚ ŵĞĂƐůĞƐ͕ ŽŶĞ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ƌĞŐŝŽŶ͛Ɛ ŚŝŐŚĞƐƚ Between 1990 and 2010, land area covered by forest ƌĂƚĞƐ͘ dŚĞ ƉƌŽƉŽƌƟŽŶƐ ŽĨ ϭͲLJĞĂƌͲŽůĚƐ ŝŵŵƵŶŝnjĞĚ ƐŚƌĂŶŬ ŝŶ Ϯϯ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ƌĞŐŝŽŶ͛Ɛ ĞĐŽŶŽŵŝĞƐ͕ ǁŝƚŚ ƚŚĞ against measles were lowest in South Asia and the largest percentage decreases in Cambodia (16%), WĂĐŝĮĐ͘ Timor-Leste (15%), Indonesia (13%), and Myanmar (11%). Some economies increased their forest cover ĚƵƌŝŶŐ ƚŚĞ ƉĞƌŝŽĚ ƚŚƌŽƵŐŚ ůĂƌŐĞͲƐĐĂůĞ ĂīŽƌĞƐƚĂƟŽŶD ϱ͗ /ŵƉƌŽǀĞ DĂƚĞƌŶĂů ,ĞĂůƚŚ ƉƌŽŐƌĂŵƐͶŝŶĐůƵĚŝŶŐ ŝŶ ƚŚĞ WZ͖ ^ĂŵŽĂ͖ dĂŝƉĞŝ͕ŚŝŶĂ͖ ĂŶĚ sŝĞƚ EĂŵ͘ ͻ /Ŷ ƐŝĂ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞ WĂĐŝĮĐ͕ ŵĂƚĞƌŶĂů ŚĞĂůƚŚ ŚĂƐ ďĞĞŶ ŝŵƉƌŽǀĞĚ ƐŝŐŶŝĮĐĂŶƚůLJ͕ ǁŝƚŚ ƚŚĞ ŵĂƚĞƌŶĂů ĚĞĂƚŚ ͻ Per capita carbon dioxide emissions in the region are ƌĂƚĞͶŵĞĂƐƵƌĞĚ ďLJ ƚŚĞ ŵĂƚĞƌŶĂů ŵŽƌƚĂůŝƚLJ ƌĂƟŽ highest in Australia, Brunei Darussalam, the Republic ;DDZͿͶƌĞĚƵĐĞĚ ďLJ ŵŽƌĞ ƚŚĂŶ ŚĂůĨ ƚŚĞ ϭϵϵϬ ŽĨ <ŽƌĞĂ͕ EĂƵƌƵ͕ ĂŶĚ WĂůĂƵ͘ EŽƚĂďůĞ ŝƐ ƚŚĞ ƌĞĚƵĐƟŽŶ levels. However, the region is not likely to reach the in per capita carbon dioxide emissions in Singapore
    • dždždžŝŝ <ĞLJ /ŶĚŝĐĂƚŽƌƐ ĨŽƌ ƐŝĂ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞ WĂĐŝĮĐ ϮϬϭϮ from 15.6 tons in 1990 to 7.0 tons in 2009, but this is members except for Greece. This fell short of the ƐƟůů ĐŽŶƐŝĚĞƌĂďůLJ ŚŝŐŚĞƌ ƚŚĂŶ ƚŚĞ ƌĂƚĞ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ǁŽƌůĚ͛Ɛ ϮϬϭϬ ƚĂƌŐĞƚ ŽĨ ΨϭϯϬ ďŝůůŝŽŶ ;Ăƚ ĐŽŶƐƚĂŶƚ ϮϬϬϰ ƉƌŝĐĞƐͿ developing regions, at 3.0 tons. of the Gleneagles Group of Eight (G8) Summit. ͻ DŽƌĞ ƚŚĂŶ ŚĂůĨ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ƌĞƉŽƌƟŶŐ ĞĐŽŶŽŵŝĞƐ ŚĂǀĞ ͻ &ƌŽŵ ϮϬϬϬ ƚŽ ϮϬϭϬ͕ ƚŚĞ ƉƌŽƉŽƌƟŽŶ ŽĨ ƵŶƟĞĚ ďŝůĂƚĞƌĂů either reached or are on track to achieve the target aid rose progressively. Developing ADB members ŽĨ ŚĂůǀŝŶŐ ƚŚĞ ƉƌŽƉŽƌƟŽŶ ŽĨ ƉŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶ ǁŝƚŚŽƵƚ ƌĞĐĞŝǀĞĚ Ă ƚŽƚĂů ŽĨ Ψϯϳ ďŝůůŝŽŶ͕ ŝŶĐůƵĚŝŶŐ ŶĞƚ ŇŽǁƐ ŽĨ access to improved water sources. However, about long-term public and publicly guaranteed debt from half of the economies in the region are not expected ŽĸĐŝĂů ĐƌĞĚŝƚŽƌƐ ĂŶĚ ŐƌĂŶƚƐ ŝŶ ϮϬϭϬͶĂ ϰ͘ϴй ŝŶĐƌĞĂƐĞ ƚŽ ĂĐŚŝĞǀĞ ƚŚĞ ƚĂƌŐĞƚ ĨŽƌ ŝŵƉƌŽǀĞĚ ƐĂŶŝƚĂƟŽŶ͘ ĨƌŽŵ ƚŚĞ ϮϬϬϵ ĂůůŽĐĂƟŽŶ͘ ͻ For countries where data are available, the slum ͻ ƐƵďƐƚĂŶƟĂů ĚƌŽƉ ŝŶ ĞdžƉŽƌƚƐ ĨŽƌ ŵĂŶLJ ĚĞǀĞůŽƉŝŶŐ ƉŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶ ĂƐ Ă ƉĞƌĐĞŶƚĂŐĞ ŽĨ ƵƌďĂŶ ƉŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶ ŵĞŵďĞƌƐ ŝŶ ϮϬϬϵ͕ ĂŌĞƌ ƚŚĞ ŐůŽďĂů ĮŶĂŶĐŝĂů ĐƌŝƐŝƐ͕ declined during 1990–2009. In 2009, only the South arrested the steady decline of their debt service Asia subregion had an average that (at 35.0%) was ƌĂƟŽƐ ;ĚĞďƚ ƐĞƌǀŝĐĞ ƚŽ ĞdžƉŽƌƚƐ ŽĨ ŐŽŽĚƐ ĂŶĚ ƐĞƌǀŝĐĞƐͿ͘ ŚŝŐŚĞƌ ƚŚĂŶ ƚŚĞ ĚĞǀĞůŽƉŝŶŐ ǁŽƌůĚ͛Ɛ ĂǀĞƌĂŐĞ ƐůƵŵ Except for Central and West Asia, where debt service ƉŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶ ;Ăƚ ϯϮ͘ϳйͿ͘ ƌĂƟŽƐ ŝŶĐƌĞĂƐĞĚ ƚŽ ŽǀĞƌ ϰϬй ŝŶ ϮϬϬϵ͕ ƚŚĞƐĞ ƌĂƟŽƐ remained within manageable levels, at about 12% or less in the region. D ϴ͗ ĞǀĞůŽƉ Ă ůŽďĂů WĂƌƚŶĞƌƐŚŝƉ ĨŽƌ ĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ ͻ DŽƌĞ ƚŚĂŶ ŚĂůĨ ŽĨ ĚĞǀĞůŽƉŝŶŐ  ŵĞŵďĞƌƐͶϭϮ ƚŚĂƚ ĂƌĞ ůĂŶĚůŽĐŬĞĚ ĂŶĚ ϭϮ ƐŵĂůů ŝƐůĂŶĚ ĞĐŽŶŽŵŝĞƐͶ ͻ /Ŷ ϮϬϭϬ͕ ƚŚĞ ŶĞƚ ŇŽǁ ŽĨ ŽĸĐŝĂů ĚĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ ĂƌĞ ŐŝǀĞŶ ƉƌĞĨĞƌĞŶƟĂů ĂĐĐĞƐƐ ƚŽ ŵĂũŽƌ ŵĂƌŬĞƚƐ͘ dŚĞ assistance to developing economies amounted to ůĂŶĚůŽĐŬĞĚ ĞĐŽŶŽŵŝĞƐ ƌĞĐĞŝǀĞĚ ĂďŽƵƚ Ψϭϭ͘ϱ ďŝůůŝŽŶ ΨϭϮϴ͘ϱ ďŝůůŝŽŶ͕ ǁŚŝĐŚ ŝƐ ĞƋƵŝǀĂůĞŶƚ ƚŽ Ϭ͘ϯϮй ŽĨ ƚŚĞ and the small island economies received about ĐŽŵďŝŶĞĚ ŐƌŽƐƐ ŶĂƟŽŶĂů ŝŶĐŽŵĞ ŽĨ ĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ ΨϮ ďŝůůŝŽŶ ŽĨ ŶĞƚ ŇŽǁƐ ŽĨ ƉƵďůŝĐ ĂŶĚ ƉƵďůŝĐůLJ ƐƐŝƐƚĂŶĐĞ ŽŵŵŝƩĞĞ ŵĞŵďĞƌƐ͕ Ăůů ŽĨ ǁŚŝĐŚ ĂƌĞ  guaranteed debt in 2010. Part III: Regional Trends dŚĞ ƐŝĂ ĂŶĚ WĂĐŝĮĐ ƌĞŐŝŽŶ ŝƐ ŚŽŵĞ ƚŽ ŵŽƌĞ ƚŚĂŶ ŚĂůĨ ƚŚĞ ŐĞŶĞƌĂů ŝŶŇĂƟŽŶ͕ ƚŚĞƌĞ ŝƐ ŐƌĞĂƚĞƌ ƌŝƐŬ ŽĨ ŵŽƌĞ ƉĞŽƉůĞ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ǁŽƌůĚ͛Ɛ ƉŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶ͘ ďŽƵƚ ϰϲй ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ƌĞŐŝŽŶ͛Ɛ falling into extreme poverty, imperiling the gains that the ƉŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶƐ ůŝǀĞ ŝŶ ƵƌďĂŶ ĂƌĞĂƐ ĂŶĚ ŵŽƐƚ ĞĐŽŶŽŵŝĞƐ ĂƌĞ ƌĞŐŝŽŶ ŚĂƐ ĂĐŚŝĞǀĞĚ ŝŶ ƉŽǀĞƌƚLJ ƌĞĚƵĐƟŽŶ͘ in the medium human development index (HDI) group. The region contributed about 36% of the global gross The region accounted for close to 40% of world ĚŽŵĞƐƟĐ ƉƌŽĚƵĐƚ ;WͿ ŝŶ WWW ƚĞƌŵƐ ĂŶĚ ϯϰй ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ƚŽƚĂů energy demand, with most electricity generated using ǁŽƌůĚ ĞdžƉŽƌƚƐ ŽĨ ŵĞƌĐŚĂŶĚŝƐĞ ŐŽŽĚƐ ŝŶ ϮϬϭϭ͘ dŚĞ ƌĞŐŝŽŶ͛Ɛ fossil fuels (coal, oil, and natural gas). Fixed broadband economic growth in 2011 has been higher than that of ŝŶƚĞƌŶĞƚ ƐƵďƐĐƌŝƉƟŽŶƐ ŚĂǀĞ ƐƵƌŐĞĚ ŽǀĞƌ ƚŚĞ ůĂƐƚ ĚĞĐĂĚĞ͕ ƵƌŽƉĞ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞ hŶŝƚĞĚ ^ƚĂƚĞƐ͘ /Ŷ ŵŽƐƚ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ƌĞŐŝŽŶ͛Ɛ ďƵƚ ƚŚĞ ƌĞŐŝŽŶ͛Ɛ ĂǀĞƌĂŐĞ ŝŶƚĞƌŶĞƚ ƉĞŶĞƚƌĂƟŽŶ ůĞǀĞů ƌĞŵĂŝŶƐ ĞĐŽŶŽŵŝĞƐ͕ ƚŚĞƌĞ ŚĂƐ ďĞĞŶ Ă ƐŚŝŌ ƚŽǁĂƌĚ ŐƌĞĂƚĞƌ ĐĂƉŝƚĂů ďĞůŽǁ ƚŚĂƚ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ǁŽƌůĚ ĂƐ Ă ǁŚŽůĞ͘ ^ƚĂƌƟŶŐ Ă ďƵƐŝŶĞƐƐ ĨŽƌŵĂƟŽŶ ĂŶĚ ůŽǁĞƌ ƉƌŝǀĂƚĞ ĐŽŶƐƵŵƉƟŽŶ ĞdžƉĞŶĚŝƚƵƌĞ͕ is becoming cheaper and faster for most economies but ĂƐ ŵĞĂƐƵƌĞĚ ďLJ ƚŚĞŝƌ ƐŚĂƌĞƐ ŝŶ W͘ /ŶƚĞƌŶĂƟŽŶĂů ĐŽŵďĂƟŶŐ ĐŽƌƌƵƉƟŽŶ ƌĞŵĂŝŶƐ Ă ƉƌŽďůĞŵ ŝŶ ƚŚĞ ƌĞŐŝŽŶ͘ trade, including intraregional trade, has gained greater importance in the region over the past decade. WĞŽƉůĞ &Žƌ  ĚĞǀĞůŽƉŝŶŐ ŵĞŵďĞƌƐ͕ ŵŝŐƌĂŶƚ ǁŽƌŬĞƌƐ͛ ƌĞŵŝƩĂŶĐĞƐ ĐŽŶƟŶƵĞ ƚŽ ďĞ ĂŶ ŝŵƉŽƌƚĂŶƚ ĞdžƚĞƌŶĂů ƐŽƵƌĐĞ ͻ /Ŷ ϮϬϭϭ͕ ƐŝĂ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞ WĂĐŝĮĐ ƌĞŐŝŽŶ ǁĂƐ ŚŽŵĞ ƚŽ ŽĨ ĨŽƌĞŝŐŶ ĞdžĐŚĂŶŐĞ͖ ĨŽƌĞŝŐŶ ĚŝƌĞĐƚ ŝŶǀĞƐƚŵĞŶƚ ;&/Ϳ ϯ͘ϵ ďŝůůŝŽŶ ƉĞŽƉůĞ͕ Žƌ ĂďŽƵƚ ϱϲй ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ǁŽƌůĚ͛Ɛ ŇŽǁƐ ŚĂǀĞ ƌĞĐŽǀĞƌĞĚ ĨƌŽŵ Ă ĚƌŽƉ ŝŶ ϮϬϬϵ͖ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞ ĚĞďƚ ƉŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶ͘ dŚĞ ƉŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶ ŝƐ ƉƌŽũĞĐƚĞĚ ƚŽ ƉĞĂŬ ŝŶ burden, as measured by external debt as a percentage 2050 and then fall to 4.0 billion in 2100, about the ŽĨ ŐƌŽƐƐ ŶĂƟŽŶĂů ŝŶĐŽŵĞ ;E/Ϳ͕ ŚĂƐ ĚĞĐůŝŶĞĚ ĚƵƌŝŶŐ ƚŚĞ same level as in 2011. last decade. As food prices have been rising faster than
    • <ĞLJ /ŶĚŝĐĂƚŽƌƐ ĨŽƌ ƐŝĂ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞ WĂĐŝĮĐ ϮϬϭϮ ,ŝŐŚůŝŐŚƚƐ dždždžŝŝŝ ͻ DŽƌĞ ƚŚĂŶ ϰϬй ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ƌĞŐŝŽŶ͛Ɛ ƉŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶ ůŝǀĞĚ ŝŶ ͻ The consumer price indices (CPIs) of economies in ƵƌďĂŶ ĂƌĞĂƐ ŝŶ ϮϬϭϭ͘ KĨ ƚŚĞ ǁŽƌůĚ͛Ɛ Ϯϯ ŵĞŐĂĐŝƟĞƐ the region have increased since 2010 on account of ;ĐŝƟĞƐ ǁŝƚŚ Ăƚ ůĞĂƐƚ ϭϬ ŵŝůůŝŽŶ ƉŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶͿ͕ ŝŶ ϮϬϭϭ͕ food prices and their heavy weight in the CPI. The 12 are found in Asia. food CPI moved faster than the general CPI in 2011, ǁŚŝĐŚ ĂĸƌŵƐ ƚŚĞ ŐůŽďĂů ƉŚĞŶŽŵĞŶŽŶ ŽĨ ŝŶĐƌĞĂƐŝŶŐ ͻ dŽƚĂů ĨĞƌƟůŝƚLJ ƌĂƚĞƐ ĨĞůů ĨƌŽŵ ĂůŵŽƐƚ ϰ ĐŚŝůĚƌĞŶ ƉĞƌ food prices and puts more people at risk of falling woman in 1990 to about 3 in 2010 in almost all into extreme poverty. economies in the region during the last 20 years. ͻ ,ŝŐŚ ĚĞƉĞŶĚĞŶĐLJ ƌĂƟŽƐ ďƵƌĚĞŶƐ ŐŽǀĞƌŶŵĞŶƚ ůŽďĂůŝnjĂƟŽŶ ƐƉĞŶĚŝŶŐ ŽŶ ĞĚƵĐĂƟŽŶ͕ ƉĞŶƐŝŽŶƐ͕ ĂŶĚ ŚĞĂůƚŚ ĐĂƌĞ in the three developed economies in the region– ͻ Trade has gained greater importance in the region, ƵƐƚƌĂůŝĂ͕ :ĂƉĂŶ͕ ĂŶĚ EĞǁ ĞĂůĂŶĚʹƌĂŶŐŝŶŐ ĨƌŽŵ ϭϯй which accounted for 34% of total world merchandise to 23%. exports in 2011 versus 25% in 2001. Intraregional ƚƌĂĚĞ ŝƐ ŚŝŐŚ͕ ǁŝƚŚ ŵŽƌĞ ƚŚĂŶ ŚĂůĨ ŽĨ ƐŝĂŶ ĂŶĚ WĂĐŝĮĐ ͻ With most economies in the medium human exports in 2011 going to economies within the region. development group, the region has made progress ŝŶ ƚŚĞ ,/ ĚƵƌŝŶŐ ƚŚĞ ůĂƐƚ ϭϬ LJĞĂƌƐͶƚŚĞ ŚŝŐŚĞƐƚ ͻ As shown by increasing shares of service exports percentage improvements were in low-HDI ŝŶ W͕ ƚƌĂĚĞ ŝŶ ƐĞƌǀŝĐĞƐ ŝƐ ŐƌŽǁŝŶŐ ƐŝŐŶŝĮĐĂŶƚůLJ economies: Afghanistan, Cambodia, Myanmar, and ŵŽƌĞ ŝŵƉŽƌƚĂŶƚ ƚŽ ƚŚĞ ƌĞŐŝŽŶ͕ ƉĂƌƟĐƵůĂƌůLJ ĨŽƌ Timor-Leste. ĞĐŽŶŽŵŝĞƐ ƐƵĐŚ ĂƐ &ŝũŝ͖ ,ŽŶŐ <ŽŶŐ͕ ŚŝŶĂ͖ ƚŚĞ DĂůĚŝǀĞƐ͖ ^ŝŶŐĂƉŽƌĞ͖ ĂŶĚ sĂŶƵĂƚƵ͘ dŽƵƌŝƐŵ ŝƐ Ă notably important engine of development for someĐŽŶŽŵLJ ĂŶĚ KƵƚƉƵƚ ĞĐŽŶŽŵŝĞƐ͕ ĞƐƉĞĐŝĂůůLJ ŝŶ ƚŚĞ WĂĐŝĮĐ ;Ğ͘Ő͕͘ ƚŚĞ ŽŽŬ /ƐůĂŶĚƐ͕ ƚŚĞ DĂůĚŝǀĞƐ͕ WĂůĂƵ͕ ^ĂŵŽĂ͕ ĂŶĚ sĂŶƵĂƚƵͿ͘ ͻ ƐŝĂ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞ WĂĐŝĮĐ ĐŽŶƚƌŝďƵƚĞĚ ĂďŽƵƚ ϯϲй ŽĨ ŐůŽďĂů W ;ŝŶ WWW ƚĞƌŵƐͿ ŝŶ ϮϬϭϭ͖ ƵƌŽƉĞ͕ EŽƌƚŚ ŵĞƌŝĐĂ͕ ͻ DŝŐƌĂŶƚ ǁŽƌŬĞƌƐ͛ ƌĞŵŝƩĂŶĐĞƐ ĐŽŶƟŶƵĞ ƚŽ ďĞ ĂŶ and the rest of the world contributed 28%, 23%, important external source of foreign exchange for ĂŶĚ ϭϰй͕ ƌĞƐƉĞĐƟǀĞůLJ͘ dŚĞ WZ͕ /ŶĚŝĂ͕ ĂŶĚ :ĂƉĂŶ some economies in the region. Based on the average ĂĐĐŽƵŶƚĞĚ ĨŽƌ ŵŽƌĞ ƚŚĂŶ ϳϬй ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ƌĞŐŝŽŶ͛Ɛ ƚŽƚĂů ƐŚĂƌĞ ŝŶ W ĨŽƌ ƚŚĞ ůĂƐƚ ϱ LJĞĂƌƐ͕ ƌĞŵŝƩĂŶĐĞƐ ǁĞƌĞ GDP. most important to Tajikistan, with an average share ŽĨ ϰϮ͘Ϯй͖ dŽŶŐĂ͕ ǁŝƚŚ Ϯϯ͘ϯй͖ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞ <LJƌŐLJnj ZĞƉƵďůŝĐ͕ ͻ In 2011, the region grew at an average rate of about with 23.2%. ϱ͘ϲйͶƐŝŐŶŝĮĐĂŶƚůLJ ŚŝŐŚĞƌ ƚŚĂŶ ƚŚĞ ŐƌŽǁƚŚ ĞƐƟŵĂƚĞĚ for Europe (2.3%) and the United States (1.7%). ͻ &/ ŇŽǁƐ ŝŶ ĚĞǀĞůŽƉŝŶŐ ƐŝĂ ƉŽƐƚĞĚ ƌĞĐŽǀĞƌLJ ŝŶ ϮϬϭϬ Twenty-two economies in the region recorded slower ĨƌŽŵ Ă ĚƌŽƉ ŝŶ ϮϬϬϵ ƌĞƐƵůƟŶŐ ĨƌŽŵ ƚŚĞ ŐůŽďĂů ĮŶĂŶĐŝĂů growth and 18 had accelerated growth. ĐƌŝƐŝƐ͘ KĨ ƚŚĞ Ϯϰ ƌĞƉŽƌƟŶŐ ĞĐŽŶŽŵŝĞƐ͕ ϭϱ ŚĂĚ ƉŽƐŝƟǀĞ FDI growth in 2011. ͻ ŽŶƐƵŵƉƟŽŶ ĞdžƉĞŶĚŝƚƵƌĞ ǁĂƐ ďLJ ĨĂƌ ƚŚĞ ůĂƌŐĞƐƚ expenditure component of GDP in 2011 in ͻ Among 36 economies in the region with data on 24 economies in the region, although shares were external debt, nearly two-thirds showed a decrease generally lower than in 2001. in external debt as a percentage of GNI, ranging from 2% to 94% in 2010.DŽŶĞLJ͕ &ŝŶĂŶĐĞ͕ ĂŶĚ WƌŝĐĞƐ dƌĂŶƐƉŽƌƚ͕ ůĞĐƚƌŝĐŝƚLJ͕ ĂŶĚ ŽŵŵƵŶŝĐĂƟŽŶ ͻ Money supply growth declined from 15.4% in 2010 ƚŽ ϭϰ͘ϲй ŝŶ ϮϬϭϭ ĂƐ ĞĐŽŶŽŵŝĞƐ ĂĚŽƉƚĞĚ ƟŐŚƚĞƌ ĮƐĐĂů ͻ The total road network of developing economies, ĂŶĚ ŵŽŶĞƚĂƌLJ ƉŽůŝĐLJ ƚŽ ĐŽŶƚƌŽů ŝŶŇĂƟŽŶĂƌLJ ƉƌĞƐƐƵƌĞƐ͘ ĞdžĐůƵĚŝŶŐ ƚŚĞ WĂĐŝĮĐ ĞĐŽŶŽŵŝĞƐ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞ DĂůĚŝǀĞƐ ĨŽƌ which data are sparse, more than doubled, from 4.9 ͻ Nonperforming bank loans have remained million kilometers in 1990 to 10.3 million kilometers manageable in the region, but are high and rising for as of 2009 or the latest year data are available. The some countries in Central and West Asia. PRC and India, which are the two most populous
    • dždždžŝǀ <ĞLJ /ŶĚŝĐĂƚŽƌƐ ĨŽƌ ƐŝĂ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞ WĂĐŝĮĐ ϮϬϭϮ economies in Asia and have large land areas, account ĞĸĐŝĞŶĐLJ ŝŶ ƚŚĞ ƌĞŐŝŽŶ ŝƐ Ă ǁĞůĐŽŵĞ ĚĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ͕ ĨŽƌ ĂůŵŽƐƚ ƚǁŽͲƚŚŝƌĚƐ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ƌĞŐŝŽŶ͛Ɛ ƌŽĂĚ ŶĞƚǁŽƌŬ͘ given that energy remains the largest contributor to However, economies with high per capita income, greenhouse gas emissions, which increase with the ƐƵĐŚ ĂƐ :ĂƉĂŶ ĂŶĚ ^ŝŶŐĂƉŽƌĞ͕ ŚĂǀĞ ƚŚĞ ƌĞŐŝŽŶ͛Ɛ ƌĞŐŝŽŶ͛Ɛ ĐŽŶƟŶƵĞĚ ĞĐŽŶŽŵŝĐ ŐƌŽǁƚŚ͘ ŚŝŐŚĞƐƚ ƌŽĂĚ ĚĞŶƐŝƟĞƐ͘ ŵŽŶŐ ƚŚĞ  ĚĞǀĞůŽƉŝŶŐ ŵĞŵďĞƌƐ͕ ƚŚĞ ^ŽƵƚŚ ƐŝĂŶ ĞĐŽŶŽŵŝĞƐͶĂŶŐůĂĚĞƐŚ͕ ͻ dŚĞ ƌĞŐŝŽŶ͛Ɛ ĨŽƐƐŝů ĨƵĞů ĐŽŶƐƵŵƉƟŽŶ ƐƵďƐŝĚLJ ƌĂƚĞƐ͕ /ŶĚŝĂ͕ ĂŶĚ ^ƌŝ >ĂŶŬĂͶŚĂǀĞ ƌĞůĂƟǀĞůLJ ŚŝŐŚ ƌŽĂĚ though generally lower than those in the Middle East, ĚĞŶƐŝƟĞƐ͘ are considerable, exceeding 20% of supply costs in several Asian countries. However, some economies ͻ Most electricity in Asia is generated using carbon have started to replace this type of subsidy with fuels (coal, oil, and natural gas), and the share more targeted transfers to the poor. of electricity generated from these carbon fuels ŝŶĐƌĞĂƐĞĚ ƐƵďƐƚĂŶƟĂůůLJ͕ ĨƌŽŵ ϲϴй ŝŶ ϭϵϵϬ ƚŽ ϳϴй ŝŶ 2009. ŽǀĞƌŶŵĞŶƚ ĂŶĚ ŽǀĞƌŶĂŶĐĞ ͻ dŚĞ ƌĞŐŝŽŶ ŚĂƐ ĞdžƉĞƌŝĞŶĐĞĚ Ă ƐƵƌŐĞ ŝŶ ĮdžĞĚ ďƌŽĂĚďĂŶĚ ͻ &ŝƐĐĂů ďĂůĂŶĐĞƐ ĐŽŶƟŶƵĞ ƚŽ ƐŚŽǁ ŝŵƉƌŽǀĞŵĞŶƚƐ ŝŶ ŝŶƚĞƌŶĞƚ ƐƵďƐĐƌŝƉƟŽŶƐ ĚƵƌŝŶŐ ƚŚĞ ůĂƐƚ ĚĞĐĂĚĞ͕ ůĞĚ ďLJ ŵŽƐƚ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ƌĞŐŝŽŶ͛Ɛ ĞĐŽŶŽŵŝĞƐ͘ ŝŶĐƌĞĂƐĞƐ ŝŶ ƐƵďƐĐƌŝƉƟŽŶƐ ŝŶ ƚŚĞ WZ͕ /ŶĚŝĂ͕ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞ ZĞƉƵďůŝĐ ŽĨ <ŽƌĞĂ͘ dŚĞ ƌĞŐŝŽŶ͛Ɛ ĂǀĞƌĂŐĞ ƉĞŶĞƚƌĂƟŽŶ ͻ dĂdžͲƚŽͲW ƌĂƟŽƐ ƌŽƐĞ ŝŶ ϮϬϭϭ ĨƌŽŵ ϮϬϭϬ͘ KĨ ϯϭ ůĞǀĞů͕ Ăƚ ϲ͘ϰ ƉĞƌ ϭϬϬ ƉŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶ͕ ŝƐ ďĞůŽǁ ƚŚĞ ǁŽƌůĚ͛Ɛ ƌĞƉŽƌƟŶŐ ĞĐŽŶŽŵŝĞƐ ŝŶ ϮϬϭϭ ŝŶ ƚŚĞ ƌĞŐŝŽŶ͕ Ϯϰ ŚĂǀĞ ƉĞŶĞƚƌĂƟŽŶ ƌĂƚĞ ŽĨ ϴ͘ϱ ďƵƚ ŚŝŐŚĞƌ ƚŚĂŶ ŝŶ ĨƌŝĐĂ ;Ϭ͘ϮͿ tax revenue shares that are lower than in developed and the Middle East (2.1). members. ͻ /Ŷ ϮϬϭϭ͕ ϴ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ϯϰ ƌĞƉŽƌƟŶŐ ĞĐŽŶŽŵŝĞƐ ƌĞŐŝƐƚĞƌĞĚ ŶĞƌŐLJ ĂŶĚ ŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚ increases ranging from 1.0 to 5.9 percentage points in government expenditure as a share of GDP. ͻ ƐŝĂ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞ WĂĐŝĮĐ ƌĞŐŝŽŶ ĂĐĐŽƵŶƚƐ ĨŽƌ ĐůŽƐĞ ƚŽ ϰϬй of world energy demand, but most of the economies ͻ ^ƚĂƌƟŶŐ Ă ďƵƐŝŶĞƐƐ ŝƐ ďĞĐŽŵŝŶŐ ĐŚĞĂƉĞƌ ĂŶĚ ĨĂƐƚĞƌ ƌĞůLJ ŽŶ ŝŵƉŽƌƚƐ ƚŽ Įůů ƚŚĞŝƌ ĞŶĞƌŐLJ ƌĞƋƵŝƌĞŵĞŶƚƐ͘ ŝŶ ŵŽƐƚ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ƌĞŐŝŽŶ͛Ɛ ĞĐŽŶŽŵŝĞƐ͘ dŚĞ ĂǀĞƌĂŐĞ ĚĂLJƐ to start a business dropped to 28 in 2011 from 42 in ͻ Between 2000 and 2009, a majority of the economies 2006. ŝŵƉƌŽǀĞĚ ƚŚĞŝƌ ĞŶĞƌŐLJĞĸĐŝĞŶĐLJ͕ǁŝƚŚ ƐŽŵĞ ŝŵƉƌŽǀŝŶŐ their GDP per unit of energy use by more than 60%. ͻ ŽŵďĂƟŶŐ ĐŽƌƌƵƉƟŽŶ ƌĞŵĂŝŶƐ Ă ƉƌŽďůĞŵ ĨŽƌ ŵĂŶLJ This was achieved through technological advances, ĞĐŽŶŽŵŝĞƐ ŝŶ ƚŚĞ ƌĞŐŝŽŶ͘ KŶůLJ ϵ ŽĨ ϰϭ ĞĐŽŶŽŵŝĞƐ ƐŚŝŌƐ ŝŶ ŝŶĚƵƐƚƌŝĂů ƐƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĞ ƚŽǁĂƌĚ ƐĞƌǀŝĐĞƐ͕ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĂƚ ǁĞƌĞ ƐƵƌǀĞLJĞĚ ĂƌĞ ƌĂŶŬĞĚ ŽŶ ƚŚĞ ĐŽƌƌƵƉƟŽŶ changes in government policies such as phasing out ƉĞƌĐĞƉƟŽŶ ŝŶĚĞdž ĂƐ ŚĂǀŝŶŐ ŵŝŶŝŵĂů ƚŽ ĂǀĞƌĂŐĞ fuel subsidies. The general improvement in energy ƉĞƌĐĞŝǀĞĚ ĐŽƌƌƵƉƟŽŶ͘
    • PART I Special ChapterGreen Urbanization in Asia
    • ƌĞĞŶ hƌďĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶ ŝŶ ƐŝĂ 3F ƌŽŵ ϭϵϴϬ ƚŽ ϮϬϭϬ͕ ƐŝĂ ĂĚĚĞĚ ŵŽƌĞ ƚŚĂŶ ϭ ďŝůůŝŽŶ ĂŵďŝƟŽƵƐ͕ ƚĂůĞŶƚĞĚ ŝŶĚŝǀŝĚƵĂůƐ ŝŶ ĐůŽƐĞ ƉŚLJƐŝĐĂů ƉƌŽdžŝŵŝƚLJ͕ Special Chapter ƉĞŽƉůĞ ƚŽ ŝƚƐ ĐŝƟĞƐ͘ϭ DŽƌĞ ƚŚĂŶ ŚĂůĨ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ǁŽƌůĚ͛Ɛ ƵƌďĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶ ŚĞůƉƐ ƉƌŽŵŽƚĞ ŝŶŶŽǀĂƟŽŶ ĂŶĚ ƚĞĐŚŶŽůŽŐŝĐĂů ŵĞŐĂĐŝƟĞƐ ;ĐŝƟĞƐ ǁŝƚŚ ϭϬ ŵŝůůŝŽŶ Žƌ ŵŽƌĞ ƉĞŽƉůĞͿ ƉƌŽŐƌĞƐƐ͕ ůĞĂĚŝŶŐ ƚŽ ŚŝŐŚĞƌ ƉƌŽĚƵĐƟǀŝƚLJ͘ dŚĞƐĞ ďĞŶĞĮƚƐĂƌĞ ŶŽǁ ŝŶ ƐŝĂ͘ ŶŽƚŚĞƌ ϭ͘ϭ ďŝůůŝŽŶ ƉĞŽƉůĞ ǁŝůů ďĞ ĂĚĚĞĚ ŽĨ ƵƌďĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶ ŚĞůƉ ƌĂŝƐĞ ŚŽƵƐĞŚŽůĚ ŝŶĐŽŵĞƐ ĂŶĚ ĮƌŵƚŽ ƐŝĂ͛Ɛ ƵƌďĂŶ ƉŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶ ŝŶ ƚŚĞ ŶĞdžƚ ϯϬ LJĞĂƌƐ ;hE ϮϬϭϮͿ͘ ƉƌŽĮƚĂďŝůŝƚLJ͘ /ƚ ŝƐ ŐĞŶĞƌĂůůLJ ĂĐĐĞƉƚĞĚ ƚŚĂƚ ĐŝƚLJ ŐƌŽǁƚŚ ŚĂƐ&ƌŽŵ ϭϵϴϬ ƚŽ ϮϬϰϬ͕ ĞǀĞƌLJ LJĞĂƌ ŵŽƌĞ ƚŚĂŶ ŚĂůĨ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ŵĂĚĞ ƵƌďĂŶŝƚĞƐ ŚĂƉƉŝĞƌ͕ ŚĞĂůƚŚŝĞƌ͕ ĂŶĚ ƐŵĂƌƚĞƌ͕ ĂŶĚ ĐŝƟĞƐŝŶĐƌĞĂƐĞ ŝŶ ƚŚĞ ǁŽƌůĚ͛Ɛ ƵƌďĂŶ ƉŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶ ŚĂƐ ďĞĞŶ Žƌ ǁŝůů ƚŚĂƚ ĐĂŶ ĂƩƌĂĐƚ ĂŶĚ ƌĞƚĂŝŶ ƐŬŝůůĞĚ ƉĞŽƉůĞ ŚĂǀĞ Ă ďƌŝŐŚƚďĞ ŝŶ ƐŝĂ͘ ^ƵĐŚ Ă ƐĐĂůĞ ŽĨ ƵƌďĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶϮ ŝƐ ƵŶƉƌĞĐĞĚĞŶƚĞĚ ĨƵƚƵƌĞ ;ůĂĞƐĞƌ ϮϬϭϭ͕ DŽƌĞƫ ϮϬϬϰĂͿ͘ŝŶ ŚƵŵĂŶ ŚŝƐƚŽƌLJ͘ tŝƚŚ Ăůů ŝƚƐ ƉŽƚĞŶƟĂů ďĞŶĞĮƚƐ ĂŶĚĐŽƐƚƐ͕ ƐŝĂ͛Ɛ ƵƌďĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶ ƉƌĞƐĞŶƚƐ ďŽƚŚ ĐŚĂůůĞŶŐĞƐ ĂŶĚ hƌďĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶ ĂůƐŽ ĐŽŵĞƐ ǁŝƚŚ ĐŽƐƚƐ͘ EŽŝƐĞ ĂŶĚŽƉƉŽƌƚƵŶŝƟĞƐ ĨŽƌ ƚŚĞ ƌĞŐŝŽŶ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞ ǁŽƌůĚ ĂƐ Ă ǁŚŽůĞ͘ ĐŽŶŐĞƐƟŽŶ ĂƌĞ ĂŵŽŶŐ ƚŚĞ ŵŽƐƚ ĂƉƉĂƌĞŶƚ ĨĞĂƚƵƌĞƐ ŽĨ ĐŝƟĞƐ͘ ŝƚLJ ůŝǀŝŶŐ ĞŶƚĂŝůƐ ŚŝŐŚĞƌ ĐŽƐƚƐ ĨŽƌ ŚŽƵƐŝŶŐ͕ ƌĂŝƐŝŶŐ ĐŚŝůĚƌĞŶ͕ dŚĞ ƉŚĞŶŽŵĞŶĂů ƵƌďĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶ ŝŶ ƐŝĂ ŝƐ ůĂƌŐĞůLJ ĂŶĚ ŚĞĂůƚŚ ĐĂƌĞ͘ /Ŷ ĂĚĚŝƟŽŶ͕ ŝŶĐŽŵĞ ŝŶĞƋƵĂůŝƚLJ ĂŶĚ ĐƌŝŵĞĚƌŝǀĞŶ ďLJ ĨĂƐƚ ĞĐŽŶŽŵŝĐ ŐƌŽǁƚŚ͕ ƉĂƌƟĐƵůĂƌůLJ ŝŶ ƚŚĞ WĞŽƉůĞ͛Ɛ ƌĂƚĞƐ ƚĞŶĚ ƚŽ ďĞ ŚŝŐŚĞƌ ŝŶ ƵƌďĂŶ ĂƌĞĂƐ͘ dŚĞ ƋƵĂůŝƚLJ ŽĨZĞƉƵďůŝĐ ŽĨ ŚŝŶĂ ;WZͿ ĂŶĚ ŵŽƌĞ ƌĞĐĞŶƚůLJ ŝŶ /ŶĚŝĂ͘ ƐŝĂ͛Ɛ ƚŚĞ ƵƌďĂŶ ĞŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚ ƌĞĐĞŝǀĞƐ ĐŽŶƐŝĚĞƌĂďůĞ ĂƩĞŶƟŽŶ͕ŐƌŽǁƚŚ ŝƐ ĚŽŵŝŶĂƚĞĚ ;ĂƐ ŚĂƐ ŚĂƉƉĞŶĞĚ ĞůƐĞǁŚĞƌĞͿ ďLJ ƉĂƌƚůLJ ĂƌŝƐŝŶŐ ĨƌŽŵ ĐŽŶĐĞƌŶƐ ŽǀĞƌ ƚŚĞ ƐƵƐƚĂŝŶĂďŝůŝƚLJ ŽĨƚŚĞ ĞdžƉĂŶƐŝŽŶ ŽĨ ƐĞƌǀŝĐĞƐ ĂŶĚ ŵĂŶƵĨĂĐƚƵƌŝŶŐ͘ ŐƌŝĐƵůƚƵƌĞ ĚĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ ĂŶĚ ĐůŝŵĂƚĞ ĐŚĂŶŐĞ͕ ĂŶĚ ƉĂƌƚůLJ ĨƌŽŵ ƐŚŝŌŝŶŐĞdžƉĞƌŝĞŶĐĞƐ Ă ƌĞůĂƟǀĞ ĚĞĐůŝŶĞ ďĞĐĂƵƐĞ ƚŚĞ ĞdžƉĞŶĚŝƚƵƌĞ ƉƌĞĨĞƌĞŶĐĞƐ ĂƐ ŝŶĐŽŵĞƐ ƌŝƐĞ͘ƐŚĂƌĞ ŽŶ ĨĂƌŵŝŶŐ ƉƌŽĚƵĐƚƐ ƚLJƉŝĐĂůůLJ ĚƌŽƉƐ ĂƐ ŝŶĐŽŵĞƌŝƐĞƐ ĂŶĚ ĂŐƌŝĐƵůƚƵƌĂů ƐƵƉƉůLJ ŝƐ ĐŽŶƐƚƌĂŝŶĞĚ ďLJ ƚŚĞ ƐŝĂ ŚĂƐ ĂůƌĞĂĚLJ ďĞĞŶ ĨĂĐŝŶŐ ĞŶŽƌŵŽƵƐďĂůĂŶĐĞ ďĞƚǁĞĞŶ ƉƌŽĚƵĐƟǀŝƚLJ ;LJŝĞůĚͿ ŝŶĐƌĞĂƐĞƐ ĂŶĚ ůĂŶĚ ĞŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚĂů ĐŚĂůůĞŶŐĞƐ͘ dŚƌĞĞ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ƚŽƉ ĮǀĞ ĐĂƌďŽŶĐŽŶǀĞƌƐŝŽŶ ƚŽ ŶŽŶĂŐƌŝĐƵůƚƵƌĂů ƵƐĞƐ͘ DĞĂŶǁŚŝůĞ͕ ŝŶĚƵƐƚƌŝĂů ĚŝŽdžŝĚĞ ;KϮͿ ĞŵŝƫŶŐ ĞĐŽŶŽŵŝĞƐ ĂŶĚ ϭϭ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ϮϬ ŵŽƐƚĂŶĚ ƐĞƌǀŝĐĞ ƐƵƉƉůŝĞƐ ĂƌĞ ŵƵĐŚ ůĞƐƐ ĐŽŶƐƚƌĂŝŶĞĚ ďLJ ůĂŶĚ ĂƐ ƉŽůůƵƚĞĚ ĐŝƟĞƐ ŝŶ ƚŚĞ ǁŽƌůĚ ĂƌĞ ŝŶ ƐŝĂ͘ /Ŷ ŵĂŶLJ ƐŝĂŶĂ ĨĂĐƚŽƌ ŽĨ ƉƌŽĚƵĐƟŽŶ ĂŶĚ ďĞŶĞĮƚ ƌĞůĂƟǀĞůLJ ŵŽƌĞ ĨƌŽŵ ŶĂƟŽŶƐ͕ ůŽƐƐĞƐ ĨƌŽŵ ƚƌĂĸĐͲƌĞůĂƚĞĚ ĐŽŶŐĞƐƟŽŶ ĂŵŽƵŶƚĚĞĞƉĞŶŝŶŐ ƉŚLJƐŝĐĂů ĂŶĚ ŚƵŵĂŶ ĐĂƉŝƚĂů ƐƚŽĐŬƐ͘ ůƐŽ͕ ƚŚĞ ƚŽ ϱй ŽĨ ŐƌŽƐƐ ĚŽŵĞƐƟĐ ƉƌŽĚƵĐƚ ;WͿ ;  ϮϬϭϮĂͿ͘ /ŶĚĞŵĂŶĚ ĨŽƌ ŵĂŶƵĨĂĐƚƵƌĞĚ ƉƌŽĚƵĐƚƐ ĂŶĚ ƐĞƌǀŝĐĞƐ ŝƐ ŶĞĂƌůLJ ƌŝĐŚ ƐŝĂŶ ĐŝƟĞƐ ;ƐƵĐŚ ĂƐ ,ŽŶŐ <ŽŶŐ͕ ŚŝŶĂ͖ ^ŝŶŐĂƉŽƌĞ͖ŝŶƐĂƟĂďůĞ͕ ĂƐ ĚĞŵŽŶƐƚƌĂƚĞĚ ďLJ ƚŚĞ ĨƌĞƋƵĞŶƚ ƌĞůĞĂƐĞƐ ĂŶĚ ^ĞŽƵů͖ ĂŶĚ dŽŬLJŽͿ͕ ŚŝŐŚ ŝŶĐŽŵĞƐ ĂŶĚ ƚĞĐŚŶŽůŽŐLJ ƚŚĂƚƉŽƉƵůĂƌŝƚLJ ŽĨ ŶĞǁ ǀĞƌƐŝŽŶƐ ŽĨ ĞůĞĐƚƌŽŶŝĐ ƉƌŽĚƵĐƚƐ ƐƵĐŚ ďĞĐĂŵĞ ĂǀĂŝůĂďůĞ ĚƵƌŝŶŐ ƚŚĞ ůĂƐƚ ϱϬ LJĞĂƌƐ ŚĂǀĞ ĂůƌĞĂĚLJĂƐ ͞ƐŵĂƌƚ ƉŚŽŶĞƐ͟ ĂŶĚ ͞ƚĂďůĞƚƐ͘͟ ĞĐĂƵƐĞ ŝŶĚƵƐƚƌŝĂů ĂŶĚ ƌĞƐƵůƚĞĚ ŝŶ ŵƵĐŚ ƉŽůůƵƟŽŶ ĂŶĚ Ă ůĂƌŐĞ ĞĐŽůŽŐŝĐĂůƐĞƌǀŝĐĞ ƉƌŽĚƵĐƟŽŶ ĂŶĚ ĐŽŶƐƵŵƉƟŽŶ ƵƐƵĂůůLJ ƚĂŬĞ ƉůĂĐĞ ĨŽŽƚƉƌŝŶƚ͘ dŚĞ ƐŝƚƵĂƟŽŶ ŝƐ ƉĂƌƟĐƵůĂƌůLJ ǁŽƌƌŝƐŽŵĞ ŝŶ ƉŽŽƌŝŶ ĐŝƟĞƐ͕ ƚŚĞLJ ŐĞŶĞƌĂƚĞ ũŽďƐ ĂŶĚ ƉƌŽǀŝĚĞ ŽƉƉŽƌƚƵŶŝƟĞƐ ĐŝƟĞƐ ƚŚĂƚ ĞdžƉĞƌŝĞŶĐĞ ƌĂƉŝĚ ŐƌŽǁƚŚ͕ ǁŚĞƌĞ ƉŽůůƵƟŽŶ ŝƐĂŶĚ ĂƩƌĂĐƟŽŶƐ ĨŽƌ ƉĞŽƉůĞ ŝŶ ŐĞŶĞƌĂů ĂŶĚ ŵŝŐƌĂŶƚƐ ŝŶ ďĞĐŽŵŝŶŐ ĞdžƚƌĞŵĞůLJ ƐĞƌŝŽƵƐ͕ ŝŶĨƌĂƐƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĞ ƐƵƉƉůLJ ůĂŐƐƉĂƌƟĐƵůĂƌ͕ ůĞĂĚŝŶŐ ƚŽ ĐŽŶƟŶƵĞĚ ƵƌďĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶ͘ ďĞŚŝŶĚ ĚĞŵĂŶĚ͕ ĂŶĚ ďĂƐŝĐ ƉƵďůŝĐ ƐĞƌǀŝĐĞƐ ƐƵĐŚ ĂƐ ǁĂƚĞƌ ĐŽŶŶĞĐƟŽŶƐ ĂŶĚ ƐŽůŝĚ ǁĂƐƚĞ ĚŝƐƉŽƐĂů ĚŽ ŶŽƚ ƌĞĂĐŚ ƚŚĞ hƌďĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶ ĐŽŵĞƐ ǁŝƚŚ ďŽƚŚ ďĞŶĞĮƚƐ ĂŶĚ ĐŽƐƚƐ͘ ŵĂũŽƌŝƚLJ͘ /Ŷ ĂĚĚŝƟŽŶ͕ ŵĂŶLJ ƌĞƐŝĚĞŶƚƐ ůŝǀĞ ŽŶ ŵĂƌŐŝŶĂů͞>ŽĐĂůŝnjĂƟŽŶ ĞĐŽŶŽŵŝĞƐ͟ ƌĞƐƵůƚ ĨƌŽŵ ĂŐŐůŽŵĞƌĂƟŽŶƐ ŽĨ ůĂŶĚƐ ǁŚĞƌĞ ƚŚĞLJ ĨĂĐĞ ƌŝƐŬƐ ĨƌŽŵ ŇŽŽĚŝŶŐ͕ ĚŝƐĞĂƐĞ͕ ĂŶĚĮƌŵƐ ŝŶ ƚŚĞ ƐĂŵĞ ŝŶĚƵƐƚƌLJ ďĞŶĞĮƟŶŐ ĨƌŽŵ ƐƉŝůůŽǀĞƌƐ ŽĨ ŽƚŚĞƌ ƐŚŽĐŬƐ͘ŬŶŽǁůĞĚŐĞ ĂŶĚ ƚĞĐŚŶŽůŽŐLJ͕ ƉŽŽůŝŶŐ ŽĨ ůĂďŽƌ ŵĂƌŬĞƚƐ͕ ĂŶĚŝŶƚĞŶƐŝĮĞĚ ĐŽŵƉĞƟƟŽŶ͘ ͞hƌďĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶ ĞĐŽŶŽŵŝĞƐ͟ ƌĞĨĞƌƐ /Ŷ ƚŚĞ ĂďƐĞŶĐĞ ŽĨ ĂƉƉƌŽƉƌŝĂƚĞ ŝŶƚĞƌǀĞŶƟŽŶƐ͕ƚŽ ĞdžƚĞƌŶĂůŝƟĞƐ ĂƩƌŝďƵƚĂďůĞ ƚŽ ĂŐŐůŽŵĞƌĂƟŽŶƐ ŽĨ ĮƌŵƐ ƵƌďĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶ ĂŶĚ ĨƵƌƚŚĞƌ ĞĐŽŶŽŵŝĐ ŐƌŽǁƚŚ ŵĂLJ ƌĞƐƵůƚŝŶ ƚŚĞ ƐĂŵĞ ĐŝƟĞƐ ďƵƚ ĨƌŽŵ ĚŝīĞƌĞŶƚ ŝŶĚƵƐƚƌŝĞƐ͕ ǁŚŝĐŚ ŝŶ ŐƌĞĂƚĞƌ ĚĞƚĞƌŝŽƌĂƟŽŶ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ĞŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚ ĂŶĚ ƵƌďĂŶĂƌĞ ƚĂŬŝŶŐ ĂĚǀĂŶƚĂŐĞ ŽĨ ďĂĐŬǁĂƌĚ Žƌ ĨŽƌǁĂƌĚ ůŝŶŬĂŐĞƐ͕ ůŝǀŝŶŐ ĐŽŶĚŝƟŽŶƐ͘ &Žƌ ĞdžĂŵƉůĞ͕ ƚŚĞ ƌĞŐŝŽŶ ǁĂƐ ŚŽŵĞ ƚŽƌĞĚƵĐĞĚ ƚƌĂŶƐĂĐƟŽŶ ĐŽƐƚƐ͕ ĂŶĚ ƐŚĂƌŝŶŐ ŽĨ ĐŽŵŵŽŶ ϱϬϲ ŵŝůůŝŽŶ ƐůƵŵ ĚǁĞůůĞƌƐ ŝŶ ϮϬϭϬ͕ ŵŽƌĞ ƚŚĂŶ ϲϭй ŽĨ ƚŚĞƐĞƌǀŝĐĞƐ ĂŶĚ ŝŶƚĞƌŵĞĚŝĂƚĞ ŝŶƉƵƚƐ͘ /Ŷ ƉĂƌƟĐƵůĂƌ͕ ďLJ ůŽĐĂƟŶŐ ǁŽƌůĚ͛Ɛ ƚŽƚĂů͘1 In this Special Chapter, “Asia” refers to the Asia and Pacific region. The terms “cities” and “urban population” are as defined by the dŚŝƐ ƐƉĞĐŝĂů ĐŚĂƉƚĞƌ ĨŽĐƵƐĞƐ ŽŶ ƚŚĞ ĞŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚĂů UN (2012). In this chapter, the terms “city” and “urban” are used ĐŚĂůůĞŶŐĞƐ ƐŝĂ ĨĂĐĞƐ ĂƐ ŝƚ ƵƌďĂŶŝnjĞƐ͘ /ƚ ďĞŐŝŶƐ ďLJ interchangeably.2 For clarity, the terms “scale” or “size” of urbanization refer to the ŚŝŐŚůŝŐŚƟŶŐ ƐƉĞĐŝĂů ĨĞĂƚƵƌĞƐ ŽĨ ƐŝĂ͛Ɛ ƵƌďĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶ ŝŶ ƚŚĞ absolute increase in total urban population. The “urbanized share” or ŶĞdžƚ ƐĞĐƟŽŶ͕ ŝŶĐůƵĚŝŶŐ ŝƚƐ ŵĂƐƐŝǀĞ ƐĐĂůĞ ĂŶĚ ůŽǁ ůĞǀĞů͕ ƚŚĞ “level of urbanization” refers to the share of the national or regional ĨĂƐƚ ƉĂĐĞ ŽĨ ƵƌďĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶ͕ ŚŝŐŚ ƉŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶ ĚĞŶƐŝƚLJ͕ ĂŶĚ population living in urban areas. The “pace or speed of urbanization” ŵŽƌĞ ĂŶĚ ŐƌŽǁŝŶŐ ŵĞŐĂĐŝƟĞƐ͘ refers to the change in the percentage points of the urbanized share. Unless otherwise indicated, changes in urban population include both net migration and natural increase of existing urban population.
    • 4 <ĞLJ /ŶĚŝĐĂƚŽƌƐ ĨŽƌ ƐŝĂ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞ WĂĐŝĮĐ ϮϬϭϮ dŚĞ ĐŚĂƉƚĞƌ ƚŚĞŶ ĚŝƐĐƵƐƐĞƐ ƚŚĞ ĞŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚĂů ŝŶĐƌĞĂƐĞ ŝŶ ƚŚĞ ůĞǀĞů ŽĨ ƵƌďĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶ ĨŽƌ ƚŚĞ ƉĞƌŝŽĚƐ ĐŚĂůůĞŶŐĞƐ ĂƐƐŽĐŝĂƚĞĚ ǁŝƚŚ ƵƌďĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶ͕ ĐŽǀĞƌŝŶŐ ƚŽƉŝĐƐ ϮϬϬϬʹϮϬϭϬ ĂŶĚ ϮϬϭϬʹϮϬϱϬ͘ tŚŝůĞ ƐŝĂ ŝŶĐƌĞĂƐĞĚ ŝƚƐ ŽĨ ƵƌďĂŶ Ăŝƌ ƉŽůůƵƟŽŶ͕ ŐƌĞĞŶŚŽƵƐĞ ŐĂƐ ;,Ϳ ĞŵŝƐƐŝŽŶƐ͕ ƵƌďĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶ ůĞǀĞů ďLJ ϳ ƉĞƌĐĞŶƚĂŐĞ ƉŽŝŶƚƐ ŝŶ ϮϬϬϬʹϮϬϭϬ͕ ĂĐĐĞƐƐ ƚŽ ǁĂƚĞƌ ĂŶĚ ƐĂŶŝƚĂƟŽŶ͕ ůŽƐƐ ŽĨ ŶĂƚƵƌĂů ĞĐŽƐLJƐƚĞŵƐ ĨƌŝĐĂͶƚŚĞ ƐĞĐŽŶĚ ĨĂƐƚĞƐƚ ƵƌďĂŶŝnjŝŶŐ ƌĞŐŝŽŶ ĚƵƌŝŶŐ ƚŚĞ ĂŶĚ ĂŵĞŶŝƟĞƐ͕ ĂŶĚ ƵƌďĂŶ ƐůƵŵƐ ĂŶĚ ƉŽǀĞƌƚLJ͘ ŝǀĞŶ ƚŚĞ ƐĂŵĞ ƉĞƌŝŽĚͶŽŶůLJ ĞdžƉĞƌŝĞŶĐĞĚ Ă ϯ͘ϲ ƉĞƌĐĞŶƚĂŐĞ ƉŽŝŶƚƐ ŝŶĐƌĞĂƐŝŶŐ ĐŽŶĐĞƌŶƐ ĂďŽƵƚ ƐĞĂ ůĞǀĞů ƌŝƐĞ ĂƐƐŽĐŝĂƚĞĚ ǁŝƚŚ ŝŶĐƌĞĂƐĞ͘ ^ŝŵŝůĂƌůLJ͕ ĚƵƌŝŶŐ ϮϬϭϬʹϮϬϱϬ͕ ƐŝĂ ŝƐ ƉƌŽũĞĐƚĞĚ ƚŽ ĐůŝŵĂƚĞ ĐŚĂŶŐĞ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞ ŶƵŵďĞƌ ŽĨ ĐŽĂƐƚĂů ĐŝƟĞƐ ŝŶ ƐŝĂ͕ ŝŶĐƌĞĂƐĞ ŝƚƐ ƵƌďĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶ ůĞǀĞů ďLJ ϮϬ͘ϰ ƉĞƌĐĞŶƚĂŐĞ ƉŽŝŶƚƐ͕ ĞƐƟŵĂƚĞƐ ŽĨ ƉŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶ Ăƚ ƌŝƐŬ ĚƵĞ ƚŽ ĐŽĂƐƚĂů ŇŽŽĚŝŶŐ ĂŶĚ ďƵƚ ƚŚĞ ƉƌŽũĞĐƚĞĚ ŝŶĐƌĞĂƐĞ ĨŽƌ ĨƌŝĐĂ ŝƐ ŽŶůLJ Ă ƚŽƚĂů ŽĨ ϭϴ͘ϱ ƚŚĞ ƉƌŽƉŽƌƟŽŶ ŽĨ ĐŝƚLJ ƉŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶ ĂīĞĐƚĞĚ ďLJ ƚŚŝƐ ƌŝƐŬ ĂƌĞ ƉĞƌĐĞŶƚĂŐĞ ƉŽŝŶƚƐ͘ ƉƌĞƐĞŶƚĞĚ͘ Ƶƚ ƚŚĞ ĨƵƚƵƌĞ ĚŽĞƐ ŶŽƚ ŶĞĞĚ ƚŽ ďĞ Őƌŝŵ͘ Table 1 Urbanization Level and Changes (actual and projected) dŚƵƐ͕ ƚŚĞ ĐŚĂƉƚĞƌ ƉƌĞƐĞŶƚƐ ĂƌŐƵŵĞŶƚƐ ƚŽ ƐƵƉƉŽƌƚ Level of Percentage Point Ă ĐĂƵƟŽƵƐůLJ ŽƉƟŵŝƐƟĐ ĂŶĚ ĂĐŚŝĞǀĂďůĞ ĞŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚĂů Region Urbanization (%) Change (%) 2000 2010 2050 2000–2010 2010–2050 ƉƌŽƐƉĞĐƚ ĨŽƌ ƐŝĂ ĂƐ ŝƚ ĐŽŶƟŶƵĞƐ ƚŽ ƵƌďĂŶŝnjĞ͘ tŚŝůĞ Europe 70.8 72.7 82.2 1.9 9.5 ͞ďƵƐŝŶĞƐƐ ĂƐ ƵƐƵĂů͟ ĐŽƵůĚ ŵĂŬĞ ƚŚŝŶŐƐ ǁŽƌƐĞ͕ ĐĞƌƚĂŝŶ ĨŽƌĐĞƐ Latin America and the Caribbean 75.5 78.8 86.6 3.4 7.8 ĂŶĚ ŵĞĐŚĂŶŝƐŵƐ ĂƐƐŽĐŝĂƚĞĚ ǁŝƚŚ ƵƌďĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶ ŝĨ ŵĂŶĂŐĞĚ Northern America 79.1 82.0 88.6 2.9 6.6 Africa 35.6 39.2 57.7 3.6 18.5 ƉƌŽƉĞƌůLJ ĐĂŶ ŚĞůƉ ĐŽƵŶƚĞƌ ƚŚĞ ƚƌĞŶĚ ŝŶ ĞŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚĂů Asia 35.5 42.5 62.9 7.0 20.4 ĚĞŐƌĂĚĂƟŽŶ͘ dŚĞƐĞ ĨŽƌĐĞƐ ŝŶĐůƵĚĞ ĚĞĐůŝŶŝŶŐ ĨĞƌƟůŝƚLJ͕ ƌŝƐŝŶŐ China, Peoples Rep. of 35.9 49.2 77.3 13.3 28.1 ĞĚƵĐĂƟŽŶĂů ůĞǀĞůƐ͕ ƌĞůŽĐĂƟŽŶ ŽĨ ŵĂŶƵĨĂĐƚƵƌŝŶŐ ĂǁĂLJ India 27.7 30.9 51.7 3.3 20.8 ĨƌŽŵ ĐŝƚLJ ĐĞŶƚĞƌƐ͕ ŝŶŶŽǀĂƟŽŶƐ ŝŶ ŐƌĞĞŶ ƚĞĐŚŶŽůŽŐLJ͕ ĂŶĚ Source: ADB estimates based on UN (2012). ŝŵƉƌŽǀĞŵĞŶƚƐ ŝŶ ƵƌďĂŶ ŝŶĨƌĂƐƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĞ͘ dŚĞ ĞŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚ ʹƵƌďĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶ ƌĞůĂƟŽŶƐŚŝƉ ;ƵƐŝŶŐ Ăŝƌ ƉĂƌƟĐƵůĂƚĞ DŽƌĞ ƌĞǀĞĂůŝŶŐ ŝƐ Ă ĐŽŵƉĂƌŝƐŽŶ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ŶƵŵďĞƌ ŽĨ ŵĂƩĞƌ ƉŽůůƵƟŽŶ ĂŶĚ KϮ ĞŵŝƐƐŝŽŶ ĂƐ ŝŶĚŝĐĂƚŽƌƐͿ ǁŝůů LJĞĂƌƐ ďĞƚǁĞĞŶ ƚŚĞ ƐƚĂƌƚ ŽĨ Ă ƌĞŐŝŽŶ͛Ɛ ƵƌďĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶ͕ ǁŚĞŶ ďĞ ŝŶǀĞƐƟŐĂƚĞĚ ĂŶĚ ƵƐĞĚ ƚŽ ĚĞƉŝĐƚ Ă ƉŽƐƐŝďůĞ ŐƌĞĞŶ ĂďŽƵƚ ϭϬй ŽĨ ŝƚƐ ƉŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶ ǁĂƐ ƵƌďĂŶ͕ ƚŽ ǁŚĞŶ ĂďŽƵƚ ϱϬй ƵƌďĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶ ƉĂƚŚ ĨŽƌ ƐŝĂ͘ϯ ŽĨ ŝƚƐ ƉŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶ ŝƐ ƵƌďĂŶ͘ &ŝŐƵƌĞ ϭ ƐŚŽǁƐ ƚŚĂƚ ƚŚŝƐ ƉƌŽĐĞƐƐ ůĂƐƚĞĚ ϮϭϬ LJĞĂƌƐ ŝŶ >ĂƟŶ ŵĞƌŝĐĂ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞ ĂƌŝďďĞĂŶ ;ĨƌŽŵ ŐƌĞĞŶ ƵƌďĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶ ƉĂƚŚ͕ ŽĨ ĐŽƵƌƐĞ͕ ŝƐ ŶŽƚ ϭϬй ŝŶ ϭϳϱϬ ƚŽ ϰϵ͘ϯй ŝŶ ϭϵϲϬͿ͕ ϭϱϬ LJĞĂƌƐ ŝŶ ƵƌŽƉĞ ;ĨƌŽŵ ĂƵƚŽŵĂƟĐĂůůLJ ĂĐŚŝĞǀĂďůĞ ƵŶůĞƐƐ ĂƉƉƌŽƉƌŝĂƚĞ ƉŽůŝĐŝĞƐ ĂŶĚ ϭϮй ŝŶ ϭϴϬϬ ƚŽ ϱϭ͘ϯй ŝŶ ϭϵϱϬͿ͕ ĂŶĚ ϭϬϱ LJĞĂƌƐ ŝŶ EŽƌƚŚĞƌŶ ŝŶƚĞƌǀĞŶƟŽŶƐ ĂƌĞ ĚĞƐŝŐŶĞĚ ĂŶĚ ŝŵƉůĞŵĞŶƚĞĚ ŝŶ Ă ƟŵĞůLJ ŵĞƌŝĐĂ ;ĨƌŽŵ ϵй ŝŶ ϭϴϮϱ ƚŽ ϱϭй ŝŶ ϭϵϯϬͿ͕ ĂŶĚ ŝƚ ǁŝůů ƚĂŬĞ ĨĂƐŚŝŽŶ͘ ĞĨŽƌĞ ĐŽŶĐůƵĚŝŶŐ͕ ƚŚĞ ĐŚĂƉƚĞƌ ŽīĞƌƐ Ă ŶƵŵďĞƌ ϵϱ LJĞĂƌƐ Žƌ ůĞƐƐ ŝŶ ƐŝĂ ;ĨƌŽŵ ϭϭй ŝŶ ϭϵϯϬ ƚŽ ϱϭй ŝŶ ϮϬϮϱͿ͘ ŽĨ ĞǀŝĚĞŶĐĞͲďĂƐĞĚ ƉŽůŝĐLJ ŽƉƟŽŶƐ ƚŚĂƚ ĐĂŶ ŚĞůƉ ĂĐŚŝĞǀĞ Ă &Žƌ ĐŽƵŶƚƌŝĞƐ ǁŝƚŚŝŶ ƐŝĂ͕ ƚŚŝƐ ƉƌŽĐĞƐƐ ůĂƐƚĞĚ ŽŶůLJ ϲϭ LJĞĂƌƐ ǁŝŶʹǁŝŶ ƐĐĞŶĂƌŝŽ ŽĨ ƵƌďĂŶ ŐƌŽǁƚŚ ǁŝƚŚ ŝŵƉƌŽǀĞŵĞŶƚ ŝŶ ĨŽƌ ƚŚĞ WZ ĂŶĚ ŝƐ ĞƐƟŵĂƚĞĚ ƚŽ ůĂƐƚ ϱϱ LJĞĂƌƐ ĨŽƌ ŚƵƚĂŶ͕ ƚŚĞ ĞŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚ͘ ϲϬ LJĞĂƌƐ ĨŽƌ ƚŚĞ >ĂŽ WĞŽƉůĞ͛Ɛ ĞŵŽĐƌĂƟĐ ZĞƉƵďůŝĐ ;>ĂŽ WZͿ͕ ϲϱ LJĞĂƌƐ ĨŽƌ /ŶĚŽŶĞƐŝĂ͕ ĂŶĚ ϵϬ LJĞĂƌƐ ĨŽƌ sŝĞƚ EĂŵ͘ Special Features of Urban ^ĞĐŽŶĚ͕ ƚŚĞ ĂďƐŽůƵƚĞ ŝŶĐƌĞĂƐĞ ŝŶ ĐŝƚLJ ƉŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶ ŝŶ ƐŝĂ ŝƐ ƵŶƉƌĞĐĞĚĞŶƚĞĚ͕ ƉĂƌƚůLJ ĚƵĞ ƚŽ ŝƚƐ ůĂƌŐĞ ƉŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶ Growth in Asia ďĂƐĞ ĂŶĚ ƉĂƌƚůLJ ĚƵĞ ƚŽ ŝƚƐ ĨĂƐƚ ƐƉĞĞĚ ŽĨ ƵƌďĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶ͘ ^ŝŶĐĞ ƚŚĞ ϭϵϱϬƐ͕ ƐŝĂ ŚĂƐ ĂĚĚĞĚ ŵŽƌĞ ƚŚĂŶ ϭ͘ϰ ďŝůůŝŽŶ ƉĞŽƉůĞ ƚŽ /Ŷ Ă ƉƌŽĐĞƐƐ ƐŝŵŝůĂƌ ƚŽ ƚŚĂƚ ŵƵĐŚ ĞĂƌůŝĞƌ ŝŶ ƵƌŽƉĞ͕ >ĂƟŶ ŝƚƐ ĐŝƟĞƐ ;&ŝŐƵƌĞ ϮͿ͘ ůŵŽƐƚ ϱϯϳ ŵŝůůŝŽŶ ǁĞƌĞ ĂĚĚĞĚ ĚƵƌŝŶŐ ŵĞƌŝĐĂ͕ ĂŶĚ EŽƌƚŚĞƌŶ ŵĞƌŝĐĂ͕ ƐŝĂ ŚĂƐ ďĞĞŶ ƵƌďĂŶŝnjŝŶŐ ƚŚĞ ϯϱ LJĞĂƌ ŝŶƚĞƌǀĂů ŽĨ ϭϵϱϬ ƚŽ ϭϵϴϱ͘ Ƶƚ ŝŶ ƚŚĞ ĨŽůůŽǁŝŶŐ ĨŽƌ ŵĂŶLJ LJĞĂƌƐ ŶŽǁ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞ ƉƌŽĐĞƐƐ ŝƐ ƉƌŽũĞĐƚĞĚ ƚŽ ŐĂŝŶ ϭϱ LJĞĂƌƐ͕ ϭϵϴϱʹϮϬϬϬ͕ ϰϲϱ ŵŝůůŝŽŶ ǁĞƌĞ ĂĚĚĞĚ͘ DŽƌĞ ŵŽŵĞŶƚƵŵ ŝŶ ƚŚĞ ĐŽŵŝŶŐ ĚĞĐĂĚĞƐ͘ hŶůŝŬĞ ŽƚŚĞƌ ƌĞŐŝŽŶƐ͕ ƐƚƌŝŬŝŶŐůLJ͕ ĨƌŽŵ ϮϬϬϬʹϮϬϮϬ͕ Ă ƚŽƚĂů ŽĨ ϴϮϮ ŵŝůůŝŽŶ ǁŝůů ďĞ ŚŽǁĞǀĞƌ͕ ƐŝĂ͛Ɛ ƵƌďĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶ ŝƐ ĚŝīĞƌĞŶƚ ŝŶ ƐĞǀĞƌĂů ŬĞLJ ĂĚĚĞĚ͘ &ŝŐƵƌĞ Ϯ ĂůƐŽ ƉƌŽǀŝĚĞƐ ŐĞŽŐƌĂƉŚŝĐ ďƌĞĂŬĚŽǁŶƐ ŽĨ ĂƐƉĞĐƚƐ͘ ƚŚĞƐĞ ŶƵŵďĞƌƐ͘ ůĞĂƌůLJ͕ ŵŽƐƚ ŽĨ ƚŚĞƐĞ ŝŶĐƌĞĂƐĞƐ ĂƌĞ ĨƌŽŵ ĂŶŐůĂĚĞƐŚ͕ ƚŚĞ WZ͕ /ŶĚŝĂ͕ /ŶĚŽŶĞƐŝĂ͕ ĂŶĚ WĂŬŝƐƚĂŶ͕ ƐŝĂ͛Ɛ &ŝƌƐƚ͕ ƵƌďĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶ ŝŶ ƐŝĂ ŚĂƐ ďĞĞŶ ŽĐĐƵƌƌŝŶŐ ƌĂƉŝĚůLJ ŵŽƐƚ ƉŽƉƵůŽƵƐ ĐŽƵŶƚƌŝĞƐ͘ ĂŶĚ ǁŝůů ĐŽŶƟŶƵĞ ƚŽ ĚŽ ƐŽ ŝŶ ƚŚĞ ĨŽƌĞƐĞĞĂďůĞ ĨƵƚƵƌĞ͘ Table ϭ͕ ǁŚŝĐŚ ŝƐ ďĂƐĞĚ ŽŶ ĚĂƚĂ ĂŶĚ ƉƌŽũĞĐƟŽŶƐ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ hE dŽ ƐŽŵĞ ĞdžƚĞŶƚ͕ ŐůŽďĂů ƵƌďĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶ ŝƐ ůĂƌŐĞůLJ ĂŶ ;ϮϬϭϮͿ͕ ƚĂďƵůĂƚĞƐ ƚŚĞ ůĞǀĞů ŽĨ ƵƌďĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶ ĂŶĚ ŝƚƐ ĐŚĂŶŐĞ ƐŝĂŶ ƉŚĞŶŽŵĞŶŽŶ ;&ŝŐƵƌĞ ϯͿ͘ ^ŝŶĐĞ ƚŚĞ ĞĂƌůLJ ϭϵϴϬƐ͕ ƐŝĂ ĨŽƌ ĚŝīĞƌĞŶƚ ƌĞŐŝŽŶƐ ĂŶĚ ƚǁŽ ƐŝĂŶ ĞĐŽŶŽŵŝĞƐ͘ dŚĞ ůĂƐƚ ŚĂƐ ĂĚĚĞĚ ŵŽƌĞ ƉĞŽƉůĞ ƚŽ ƚŚĞ ŐůŽďĂů ƵƌďĂŶ ƉŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶ ƚǁŽ ĐŽůƵŵŶƐ ŽĨ dĂďůĞ ϭ ƐŚŽǁ ƚŚĞ ƚŽƚĂů ƉĞƌĐĞŶƚĂŐĞ ƉŽŝŶƚ ƚŚĂŶ Ăůů ŽƚŚĞƌ ƌĞŐŝŽŶƐ ĐŽŵďŝŶĞĚ͘ LJ ƚŚĞ ůĂƚĞƐƚ ĂǀĂŝůĂďůĞ 3 “Green urbanization” is defined as urbanization that excels in both ƐƚĂƟƐƟĐƐ͕ ƐŝĂ ŝƐ ŶŽǁ ŚŽŵĞ ƚŽ ĂůŵŽƐƚ ŚĂůĨ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ƚŽƚĂů local and global environmental criteria. The local criteria include clean ƵƌďĂŶŝƚĞƐ ŽŶ ĞĂƌƚŚ ;&ŝŐƵƌĞ ϰͿͶ ƐŝĂ͛Ɛ ƵƌďĂŶ ƉŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶ ŝƐ air, clean water, access to green space, quality transport options, and ŵŽƌĞ ƚŚĂŶ ƚŚƌĞĞ ƟŵĞƐ ƚŚĂƚ ŽĨ ƵƌŽƉĞ͕ ƚŚĞ ƐĞĐŽŶĚ ůĂƌŐĞƐƚ the capacity to protect residents from risks of natural disasters. The key global criterion is per capita carbon footprint. ƌĞŐŝŽŶ ŝŶ ƚĞƌŵƐ ŽĨ ƵƌďĂŶ ƉŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶ ;hE ϮϬϭϮͿ͘
    • ƌĞĞŶ hƌďĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶ ŝŶ ƐŝĂ 5 Figure 1 Number of Years from about 10% to 50% Urbanization Special Chapter 210 years Latin America and the Caribbean 10% 49% Northern America 9% 105 years 51% Europe 12% 150 years 51% Asia 11% 95 years 51% Viet Nam 12% 90 years 50% Indonesia 12% 65 years 54% Lao People’s Democratic Republic 10% 60 years 52% Bhutan 55 years 10% 51% China, Peoples Rep. of 61 years 11% 51% 1750 1775 1800 1825 1850 1875 1900 1925 1950 1975 2000 2025 2050 Year Note: Extrapolation and interpolation were used to estimate urbanization level and corresponding starting years for Latin America and the Caribbean and Northern America. Sources: ADB estimates based on Bairoch (1988) and UN (2012). Figure 2 Increase in Urban Population in Asia Figure 3 Increase in Urban Population, 1950–2010 (millions) 900 822.1 400 Increase in Urban Population (million)Increase in Urban Population (million) 800 350 700 300 600 536.8 465.0 250 500 200 400 150 300 200 100 100 50 0 0 1950–1985 1985–2000 2000–2020 1950–1955 1955–1960 1960–1965 1965–1970 1970–1975 1975–1980 1980–1985 1985–1990 1990–1995 1995–2000 2000–2005 2005–2010 Bangladesh Indonesia China, Peoples Rep. of Pakistan India Rest of Asia Note: Data for 2010–2020 are based on projections of UN World Urbanization Asia Non-Asia Prospects, 2011 Revision. Source: ADB estimates based on UN (2012). Source: ADB estimates based on UN (2012).
    • 6 <ĞLJ /ŶĚŝĐĂƚŽƌƐ ĨŽƌ ƐŝĂ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞ WĂĐŝĮĐ ϮϬϭϮ Figure 4 Regional Shares of Global Urban Population, 2010 (%) ƵƌďĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶ ƐŚĂƌĞƐ ŵŽǀĞĚ ƚŽ ϱϮй ĂŶĚ ϰϯй͕ ƌĞƐƉĞĐƟǀĞůLJ͘ dŚƵƐ͕ ƚŚĞ ƵƌďĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶ ŐĂƉ ďĞƚǁĞĞŶ ƐŝĂ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞ ƌĞƐƚ ŽĨ Rest of the World 6.5% ƚŚĞ ǁŽƌůĚ ŚĂƐ ŶĂƌƌŽǁĞĚ ďƵƚ ƌĞŵĂŝŶƐ ůĂƌŐĞ͘ Northern America 7.9% Asia dŚĞ ŐĂƉ ŝŶ ƚŚĞ ƵƌďĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶ ůĞǀĞů ďĞƚǁĞĞŶ ƐŝĂ ĂŶĚ 46.2% ƚŚĞ ǁŽƌůĚ ǁŝůů ŶĂƌƌŽǁ ĨƵƌƚŚĞƌ ;hE ϮϬϭϮͿ͘ LJ ϮϬϱϬ͕ ǁŚŝůĞ Latin America ϲϮ͘ϵй ŽĨ ƐŝĂŶƐ ǁŝůů ůŝǀĞ ŝŶ ĐŝƟĞƐ͕ ƚŚŝƐ ƉĞƌĐĞŶƚĂŐĞ ǁŝůů ďĞ and the Caribbean 13.1% ϲϳ͘Ϯ ĨŽƌ ƚŚĞ ǁŽƌůĚ͘ ƐŝĂ͛Ɛ ůĞǀĞů ŽĨ ƵƌďĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶ ǁŝůů ďĞ ŚŝŐŚĞƌ ƚŚĂŶ ĨƌŝĐĂ͛Ɛ ;ϱϳ͘ϳйͿ͕ ďƵƚ ƐƟůů ůŽǁĞƌ ƚŚĂŶ ƵƌŽƉĞ͛Ɛ ;ϴϮ͘ϮйͿ͕ EŽƌƚŚĞƌŶ ŵĞƌŝĐĂ͛Ɛ ;ϴϴ͘ϲйͿ ĂŶĚ >ĂƟŶ ŵĞƌŝĐĂ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞ ĂƌŝďďĞĂŶ͛Ɛ ;ϴϲ͘ϲйͿ͘ &ŽƵƌƚŚ͕ ƐŝĂ ŝƐ ŚŽŵĞ ƚŽ ŵŽƐƚ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ǁŽƌůĚ͛Ɛ ŵĞŐĂĐŝƟĞƐ Europe ĂŶĚ ŝƚƐ ƐŚĂƌĞ ŚĂƐ ďĞĞŶ ŝŶĐƌĞĂƐŝŶŐ ;&ŝŐƵƌĞ ϲͿ͘ dŚĞƌĞ ǁĞƌĞ 15.1% ŽŶůLJ ƚǁŽ ŵĞŐĂĐŝƟĞƐ ŝŶ ƚŚĞ ǁŽƌůĚ ŝŶ ϭϵϱϬ͗ EĞǁ zŽƌŬ͕ ǁŝƚŚ Ă ƉŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶ ŽĨ ϭϮ͘ϯ ŵŝůůŝŽŶ͕ ĂŶĚ dŽŬLJŽ͕ ǁŝƚŚ ϭϭ͘ϯ ŵŝůůŝŽŶ͘ LJ ϭϵϴϬ͕ ƚǁŽ ŵŽƌĞ ŵĞŐĂĐŝƟĞƐ ŚĂĚ ĞŵĞƌŐĞĚ͗ ^ĆŽ WĂŽůŽ͕ Africa 11.3% ǁŝƚŚ Ă ƉŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶ ŽĨ ϭϮ͘ϭ ŵŝůůŝŽŶ͕ ĂŶĚ DĞdžŝĐŽ ŝƚLJ͕ ǁŝƚŚ ϭϯ ŵŝůůŝŽŶ͘ ,ŽǁĞǀĞƌ͕ ďLJ ϮϬϭϬ͕ ƐŝĂ ŚĂĚ ϭϮ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ǁŽƌůĚ͛Ɛ Ϯϯ Northern America = Canada and the United States. ŵĞŐĂĐŝƟĞƐ͘ dŚĞ hE ;ϮϬϭϮͿ ƉƌĞĚŝĐƚƐ ƚŚĂƚ ƚŚĞƐĞ ŶƵŵďĞƌƐ Source: ADB estimates based on UN (2012). ǁŝůů ŝŶĐƌĞĂƐĞ ƚŽ Ϯϭ ĂŶĚ ϯϳ͕ ƌĞƐƉĞĐƟǀĞůLJ͕ ďLJ ϮϬϮϱ͘ϰ ŝƟĞƐ ƐƵĐŚ ĂƐ ŚŽŶŐƋŝŶŐ͕ ƵĂŶŐnjŚŽƵ͕ :ĂŬĂƌƚĂ͕ >ĂŚŽƌĞ͕ ĂŶĚ dŚŝƌĚ͕ ĐŽŶƚƌĂƌLJ ƚŽ ƚŚĞ ƵŶƉƌĞĐĞĚĞŶƚĞĚ ĞdžƉĂŶƐŝŽŶ ŽĨ ^ŚĞŶnjŚĞŶ ĂƌĞ ĞdžƉĞĐƚĞĚ ƚŽ ƉĂƐƐ ƚŚĞ ϭϬ ŵŝůůŝŽŶ ŵĂƌŬ ƐŽŽŶ͘ ĐŝƚLJ ƉŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶ͕ ƐŝĂ͛Ɛ ůĞǀĞů ŽĨ ƵƌďĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶ ŝƐ ƐƟůů ůŽǁ͘ Ɛ dŚĞ ůĂƌŐĞ ĐŝƟĞƐ ĞdžƉĞĐƚĞĚ ƚŽ ŐƌŽǁ ƚŚĞ ŵŽƐƚ ŝŶĐůƵĚĞ ŚĂŬĂ͕ ƐŚŽǁŶ ŝŶ &ŝŐƵƌĞ ϱ͕ ƚŚĞ ůĞǀĞů ŽĨ ƐŝĂ͛Ɛ ƵƌďĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶ ;ŝ͘Ğ͕͘ >ĂŚŽƌĞ͕ <ĂƌĂĐŚŝ͕ <ŽůŬĂƚĂ͕ DĂŶŝůĂ͕ DƵŵďĂŝ͕ ĂŶĚ ^ŚĂŶŐŚĂŝ͘ ƚŚĞ ƐŚĂƌĞ ŽĨ ŝƚƐ ƉŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶ ůŝǀŝŶŐ ŝŶ ƵƌďĂŶ ĂƌĞĂƐͿ ŚĂƐ ďĞĞŶ dŚƵƐ͕ ǁŚŝůĞ ƚŚĞ ŵĂũŽƌŝƚLJ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ǁŽƌůĚ͛Ɛ ŵĞŐĂĐŝƟĞƐ ĂƌĞ ŝŶ ůŽǁĞƌ ƚŚĂŶ ƚŚĂƚ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ǁŽƌůĚ Ăƚ ůĞĂƐƚ ƐŝŶĐĞ ϭϵϱϬ͘ ĐƌŽƐƐ ƐŝĂ͕ ĞǀĞŶ ŵŽƌĞ ĂƌĞ ĞŵĞƌŐŝŶŐ͘ ƌĞŐŝŽŶƐ͕ ƐŝĂ ǁĂƐ ƚŚĞ ůĞĂƐƚ ƵƌďĂŶŝnjĞĚ͕ ĞǀĞŶ ůĞƐƐ ƚŚĂŶ ĨƌŝĐĂ͕ ĚƵƌŝŶŐ ϭϵϳϬʹϮϬϬϬ͘ /Ŷ ϭϵϲϬ͕ ŽŶůLJ ϮϬ͘ϳй ŽĨ ƐŝĂ͛Ɛ ůƚŚŽƵŐŚ ŵĞŐĂĐŝƟĞƐ ĂƌĞ ŐƌŽǁŝŶŐ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞŝƌ ŶƵŵďĞƌƐ ƉŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶ ǁĂƐ ƵƌďĂŶŝnjĞĚ ǀĞƌƐƵƐ ϯϯ͘ϲй ĨŽƌ ƚŚĞ ǁŽƌůĚ͘ /Ŷ ĂƌĞ ŝŶĐƌĞĂƐŝŶŐ͕ ƚŚĞ ůĂƌŐĞƐƚ ĐŝƚLJ ŽĨ ĞĂĐŚ ĐŽƵŶƚƌLJ ŝŶ ƐŝĂ ŝƐ ϮϬϬϬ͕ ϰϲ͘ϳй ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ǁŽƌůĚ͛Ɛ ƉŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶ ůŝǀĞĚ ŝŶ ĐŝƟĞƐ ǁŚŝůĞ ŚŽŵĞ ƚŽ Ă ƐŵĂůůĞƌ ƐŚĂƌĞ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ƚŽƚĂů ƵƌďĂŶ ƉŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶ ŽŶůLJ ϯϱ͘ϱй ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ƉŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶ ŝŶ ƐŝĂ ĚŝĚ ƐŽ͘ /Ŷ ϮϬϭϬ͕ ƚŚĞƐĞ ƚŚĂŶ ŝƐ ƚŚĞ ĐĂƐĞ ŝŶ ŽƚŚĞƌ ƌĞŐŝŽŶƐ͘ ͞hƌďĂŶ ƉƌŝŵĂĐLJ͟ ŝƐ ŝŶĚŝĐĂƚĞĚ ďLJ ƚŚĞ ƐŚĂƌĞ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ĐŽƵŶƚƌLJ͛Ɛ ƵƌďĂŶŝƚĞƐ ǁŚŽ ůŝǀĞ ŝŶ ƚŚĞ ůĂƌŐĞƐƚ ĐŝƚLJ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ĐŽƵŶƚƌLJ͘ ZĞůĂƟǀĞ ƚŽ ƚŚĞ ƌĞƐƚ Figure 5 Level of Urbanization by Region (%) ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ǁŽƌůĚ͕ ƐŝĂ ƐŚŽǁƐ Ă ŵƵĐŚ ůŽǁĞƌ ůĞǀĞů ŽĨ ƵƌďĂŶ 100 ƉƌŝŵĂĐLJ ;&ŝŐƵƌĞ ϳͿ͕ ŝŶĚŝĐĂƟŶŐ ƚŚĂƚ ŝƚƐ ƵƌďĂŶ ƉŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶƐ 90 ĂƌĞ ůĞƐƐ ĐŽŶĐĞŶƚƌĂƚĞĚ ŝŶ ƚŚĞ ůĂƌŐĞƐƚ ĐŝƚLJ ŽĨ ĞĂĐŚ ĐŽƵŶƚƌLJ͘ 80 /Ŷ ϮϬϬϵ͕ ƌŽƵŐŚůLJ ϭϮй ŽĨ ƐŝĂ͛Ɛ ƵƌďĂŶ ƉŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶ ůŝǀĞĚ ŝŶ ƚŚĞŝƌ ĐŽƵŶƚƌLJ͛Ɛ ůĂƌŐĞƐƚ ĐŝƟĞƐ͕ ǁŚŝůĞ ŽƵƚƐŝĚĞ ŽĨ ƐŝĂ͕ Urbanization level (%) 70 ƚŚŝƐ ƐŚĂƌĞ ǁĂƐ Ϯϭй͘ dŚŝƐ ƐƵŐŐĞƐƚƐ ƚŚĂƚ ƚŚĞ ƐŝnjĞ ŽĨ ƐŝĂ͛Ɛ 60 ƉƌŝŵĂƚĞ ĐŝƟĞƐ ŝƐ ůŝŬĞůLJ ƚŽ ŝŶĐƌĞĂƐĞ͘ ^Ž͕ ĂůƚŚŽƵŐŚ ƐŝĂŶ ĐŝƟĞƐ 50 ĂƌĞ ĂůƌĞĂĚLJ ůĂƌŐĞ͕ ƐŽŵĞ ŽĨ ƐŝĂ͛Ɛ ŵĞŐĂĐŝƟĞƐ ĂƌĞ ůŝŬĞůLJ ƚŽ 40 ďĞĐŽŵĞ ůĂƌŐĞƌ ƐƟůů͕ ĞǀĞŶ ƌĞůĂƟǀĞ ƚŽ ŵĞĚŝƵŵͲ ĂŶĚ ƐŵĂůůͲ 30 ƐŝnjĞĚ ĐŝƟĞƐ ŝŶ ƚŚĞ ƐĂŵĞ ĐŽƵŶƚƌLJ͘ 20 10 &ŝŌŚ͕ ƐŝĂ͛Ɛ ĐŝƟĞƐ ĨĞĂƚƵƌĞ ŵƵĐŚ ŚŝŐŚĞƌ ƉŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶ ĚĞŶƐŝƟĞƐ ƚŚĂŶ ĐŝƟĞƐ ĞůƐĞǁŚĞƌĞ ŝŶ ƚŚĞ ǁŽƌůĚ͘ dŚĞ ǁŽƌůĚ͛Ɛ 0 ƚŚƌĞĞ ŵŽƐƚ ĚĞŶƐĞůLJ ƉŽƉƵůĂƚĞĚ ůĂƌŐĞ ĐŝƟĞƐ ĂƌĞ ŝŶ ^ŽƵƚŚ 1950 1955 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 2020 2025 2030 2035 2040 2045 2050 ƐŝĂ͕ ĂŶĚ ϴ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ƚŽƉ ϭϬ ĂƌĞ ŝŶ ƐŝĂ ;&ŝŐƵƌĞ ϴͿ͘ dŚĞ ĂǀĞƌĂŐĞ ƵƌďĂŶ ĂƌĞĂ ;ƐĞƩůĞŵĞŶƚƐ ŽĨ ϱ͕ϬϬϬ Žƌ ŵŽƌĞ ƉĞŽƉůĞͿ ŚĂƐ World Europe Asia Latin America and the Caribbean ϳϮϬ ƉĞŽƉůĞ ƉĞƌ ƐƋƵĂƌĞ ŬŝůŽŵĞƚĞƌ ŝŶ ƐŝĂ͕ ĐŽŵƉĂƌĞĚ ǁŝƚŚ Africa Northern America ĂďŽƵƚ ϱϬϬ ŝŶ ĨƌŝĐĂ͕ ƚŚĞ ƌĞŐŝŽŶ ǁŝƚŚ ƚŚĞ ƐĞĐŽŶĚ ŚŝŐŚĞƐƚ Northern America = Canada and the United States. 4 The raw data can be downloaded at esa.un.org/unpd/wup/CD-ROM/ Source: UN (2012). WUP2011-F17a-City_Size_Class.xls
    • ƌĞĞŶ hƌďĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶ ŝŶ ƐŝĂ 7 Figure 6 Number of Megacities Special Chapter 1950 New York Tokyo 2010 Paris Istanbul Beijing Tokyo New York Delhi Shanghai Osaka-Kobe Cairo Karachi Los Angeles Dhaka Guangzhou Mumbai Kolkata Shenzhen Lagos Manila Mexico City Rio de Janeiro São Paulo Buenos AiresNote: The circles indicate population sizes ranging from (10 million) to (39 million). The circles do not reflect the physical extents of the cities and any overlap between them merely reflects their relative population sizes and not any official acceptance or endorsement of any geographical sovereignty.Source: UN (2012). world 12-2551a AV
    • 8 Figure 6 Number of Megacities (continued) 2025 MoscowLondon <ĞLJ /ŶĚŝĐĂƚŽƌƐ ĨŽƌ ƐŝĂ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞ WĂĐŝĮĐ ϮϬϭϮ Paris Istanbul Tokyo Chicago New York Beijing Tianjin Osaka-Kobe Lahore Delhi Wuhan Cairo Chongqing Shanghai Los Angeles Karachi Dhaka Guangzhou Kolkata Mumbai Hyderabad Shenzhen Lagos Manila Mexico City Bangalore Bangkok Chennai Bogotá Kinshasa Jakarta Lima Rio de Janeiro São Paulo Buenos Aires Note: The circles indicate population sizes ranging from (10 million) to (39 million). The circles do not reflect the physical extents of the cities and any overlap between them merely reflects their relative population sizes and not any official acceptance or endorsement of any geographical sovereignty. Source: UN (2012). world 12-2551b AV
    • ƌĞĞŶ hƌďĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶ ŝŶ ƐŝĂ 9Figure 7 Population Share of Largest Cities of Individual Countries, 2009 ĨĂƐƚĞƌ ƵƌďĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶ ƚŚĂŶ ŽƚŚĞƌƐ ;&ŝŐƵƌĞ ϭϬͿ͘ dŚĞ ƐƉĞĞĚ ŽĨ Special Chapter (% of total urban population) ƵƌďĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶ ŝŶ ĂŶŐůĂĚĞƐŚ ŝƐ ĂůƐŽ ŚŝŐŚ͘ 25 21 hŶƟů ϮϬϬϬ͕ ƚŚĞ ůĞĂƐƚ ƵƌďĂŶŝnjĞĚ ĚĞǀĞůŽƉŝŶŐ ƐƵďƌĞŐŝŽŶ 20 ŚĂĚ ĂůǁĂLJƐ ďĞĞŶ ƚŚĞ WĂĐŝĮĐ ŝƐůĂŶĚ ĐŽƵŶƚƌŝĞƐ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞ ŵŽƐƚ ƵƌďĂŶŝnjĞĚ ŚĂĚ ďĞĞŶ ĞŶƚƌĂů ĂŶĚ tĞƐƚ ƐŝĂ͘ dŚĞ ĚŝīĞƌĞŶĐĞPopulation share (%) ŝŶ ƵƌďĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶ ƌĂƚĞƐ ďĞƚǁĞĞŶ ƚŚĞ ƚǁŽ ƐƵďƌĞŐŝŽŶƐ ŚĂƐ 15 ďĞĞŶ ĨĂŝƌůLJ ƐƚĂďůĞ͕ Ăƚ ĂďŽƵƚ ϭϱй͘ Ƶƚ ŝŶ ďŽƚŚ ƐƵďƌĞŐŝŽŶƐ͕ 12 ƵƌďĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶ ŚĂƐ ƉƌŽŐƌĞƐƐĞĚ ƐůŽǁůLJ ǁŚŝůĞ ^ŽƵƚŚĞĂƐƚ͕ 10 ^ŽƵƚŚ ƐŝĂ͕ ĂŶĚ ƉĂƌƟĐƵůĂƌůLJ ĂƐƚ ƐŝĂ ;ďĂƐŝĐĂůůLJ͕ ƚŚĞ WZͿ ŚĂǀĞ ďĞĞŶ ƵƌďĂŶŝnjŝŶŐ ĨĂƐƚĞƌ͘ 5 dŚƵƐ͕ ƐŝĂ͛Ɛ ůĞǀĞů ŽĨ ƵƌďĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶ ƐƚĂƌƚĞĚ ĨƌŽŵ Ă ƌĞůĂƟǀĞůLJ ůŽǁ ďĂƐĞ ĐŽŵƉĂƌĞĚ ƚŽ ƚŚĞ ƌĞƐƚ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ǁŽƌůĚ͕ ďƵƚ 0 ŚĂƐ ďĞĞŶ ƉƌŽĐĞĞĚŝŶŐ ƌĂƉŝĚůLJ ĂŶĚ ŽŶ Ă ǀĂƐƚ ƐĐĂůĞ͘ dŚŝƐ ŝƐ Asia Non-Asia ůŝŬĞůLJ ƚŽ ĐŽŶƟŶƵĞ Ăƚ ůĞĂƐƚ ƵŶƟů ϮϬϱϬ͕ ǁŝƚŚ ĂŶ ŝŶĐƌĞĂƐŝŶŐ ĨŽƌŵĂƟŽŶ ŽĨ ŵĞŐĂĐŝƟĞƐ ĂŶĚ ĞdžƉĂŶƐŝŽŶ ŽĨ ŵŽƐƚ ĐŝƟĞƐ͘ ŶĚ͕ Source: ADB estimates based on UN (2012). ƐŝĂŶ ĐŝƟĞƐ͛ ƉŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶ ĚĞŶƐŝƟĞƐ͕ ĂůƌĞĂĚLJ ŚŝŐŚ͕ ĂƌĞ ůŝŬĞůLJ Figure 8 Top 25 Cities Ranked by Population Density, 2007 35,000 Density (person/km2) 30,000 25,000 20,000 15,000 10,000 5,000 0 Mumbai Kolkata Karachi Lagos Shenzhen Seoul/Incheon Taipei,China Chennai Bogota Shanghai Lima Delhi Kinshasa Manila Tehran Jakarta Tianjin Bangalore Cairo Baghdad Hyderabad São Paulo Ho Chi Minh City Beijing Shenyang Asia Latin America and the Caribbean Africa Middle East and North Africa km2 = square kilometers Source: City Mayors (2007).ƵƌďĂŶ ĚĞŶƐŝƚLJ͘ <ĞŶǁŽƌƚŚLJ ;ϮϬϬϴͿ ŶŽƚĞƐ ƚŚĂƚ ǁĞĂůƚŚLJ ƐŝĂŶ ƚŽ ŝŶĐƌĞĂƐĞ͘ dŚĞƐĞ ƉƌŽƐƉĞĐƚƐ ƌĂŝƐĞ ĚĂƵŶƟŶŐ ŝƐƐƵĞƐ ĨŽƌ ƐŝĂ͕ĐŝƟĞƐ ŚĂǀĞ ĂŶ ĂǀĞƌĂŐĞ ĚĞŶƐŝƚLJ ŽĨ ϭϱϬ ƉĞŽƉůĞ ƉĞƌ ŚĞĐƚĂƌĞ ŶŽƚ ůĞĂƐƚ ŽĨ ǁŚŝĐŚ ĂƌĞ ƚŚĞ ĞŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚĂů ŝŵƉůŝĐĂƟŽŶƐ ŽĨĐŽŵƉĂƌĞĚ ƚŽ ϭϱ ŝŶ ƵƐƚƌĂůŝĂ͕ EĞǁ ĞĂůĂŶĚ͕ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞ hŶŝƚĞĚ ƚŚŝƐ ŵĂƐƐŝǀĞ ŚƵŵĂŶ ĂŶĚ ĞĐŽŶŽŵŝĐ ĐůƵƐƚĞƌŝŶŐ͘^ƚĂƚĞƐ ;h^Ϳ͘ ^ŝdžƚŚ͕ ƐŝŐŶŝĮĐĂŶƚ ŚĞƚĞƌŽŐĞŶĞŝƚLJ ĞdžŝƐƚƐ ĂĐƌŽƐƐƐƵďƌĞŐŝŽŶƐ ŝŶ ƐŝĂ ĂŶĚ ĂĐƌŽƐƐ ĞĐŽŶŽŵŝĞƐ ŝŶ ƚĞƌŵƐ ŽĨ Environmental ImplicationsƵƌďĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶ ůĞǀĞů ĂŶĚ ƐƉĞĞĚ͘ &Žƌ ĞdžĂŵƉůĞ͕ ƚŚĞ ůĞǀĞů ŽĨƵƌďĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶ ŝƐ ŵƵĐŚ ŚŝŐŚĞƌ ĨŽƌ ĚĞǀĞůŽƉĞĚ ĐŽƵŶƚƌŝĞƐ ŝŶ of Urbanization in Asia ƐŝĂ ;:ĂƉĂŶ͕ ƵƐƚƌĂůŝĂ͕ ĂŶĚ EĞǁ ĞĂůĂŶĚͿ͘ dŚĞŝƌ ůĞǀĞů ŽĨƵƌďĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶ ǁĂƐ ϵϬ͘Ϯй ŝŶ ϮϬϭϬ͕ ϰϵ͘ϲ ƉĞƌĐĞŶƚĂŐĞ ƉŽŝŶƚƐ hƌďĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶͲƌĞůĂƚĞĚ ĐŚĂůůĞŶŐĞƐ ŝŶĐůƵĚĞ ŚŝŐŚ ĐƌŝŵĞ ƌĂƚĞƐŚŝŐŚĞƌ ƚŚĂŶ ĚĞǀĞůŽƉŝŶŐ ƐŝĂ ĂƐ Ă ǁŚŽůĞ͘ ƚ ƚŚĞ ƐƵďƌĞŐŝŽŶĂů ĂŶĚ ƵŶĞƋƵĂů ŝŶĐŽŵĞ ĚŝƐƚƌŝďƵƟŽŶ͘ Ɛ ƐŚŽǁŶ ŝŶ &ŝŐƵƌĞ ϭϭůĞǀĞů͕ ĂƐƚ ƐŝĂ ǁĂƐ ůĞƐƐ ƵƌďĂŶŝnjĞĚ ƚŚĂŶ ĞŶƚƌĂů ĂŶĚ tĞƐƚ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞ ƌĞĐĞŶƚ ƐŝĂŶ ĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ KƵƚůŽŽŬ ;  ϮϬϭϮďͿ͕ ƐŝĂ ĂŶĚ ^ŽƵƚŚĞĂƐƚ ƐŝĂ ƵŶƟů ƚŚĞ ůĂƚĞ ϭϵϵϬƐ͘ ^ŝŶĐĞ ϮϬϬϱ͕ ŝŶĞƋƵĂůŝƚLJ ŝƐ ŐĞŶĞƌĂůůLJ ŐƌĞĂƚĞƌ ŝŶ ƵƌďĂŶ ĂƌĞĂƐ ƚŚĂŶ ŝŶ ƌƵƌĂůŚŽǁĞǀĞƌ͕ ĂƐƚ ƐŝĂ ŚĂƐ ďĞĞŶ ƚŚĞ ƐƵďƌĞŐŝŽŶ ǁŝƚŚ ƚŚĞ ĂƌĞĂƐ͕ ƐŽ ƚŚĂƚ ƵƌďĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶ ĐĂŶ ĂŐŐƌĂǀĂƚĞ ƚŚĞ ƉƌŽďůĞŵŚŝŐŚĞƐƚ ůĞǀĞů ŽĨ ƵƌďĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶ͕ ƌĞĂĐŚŝŶŐ ϱϬ͘ϳй ŝŶ ϮϬϭϬ ŽĨ ƵŶĞƋƵĂů ŝŶĐŽŵĞ ĚŝƐƚƌŝďƵƟŽŶ͘ ǀĞŶ ŝŶ ƚŚĞ WZ͕ ǁŚĞƌĞ;&ŝŐƵƌĞ ϵͿ͘ dŚĞ WZ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞ ZĞƉƵďůŝĐ ŽĨ <ŽƌĞĂ ĞdžŚŝďŝƚ ŝŶĞƋƵĂůŝƚLJ ŚĂĚ ďĞĞŶ ůŽǁĞƌ ŝŶ ƵƌďĂŶ ƚŚĂŶ ŝŶ ƌƵƌĂů ĂƌĞĂƐ͕
    • 10 <ĞLJ /ŶĚŝĐĂƚŽƌƐ ĨŽƌ ƐŝĂ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞ WĂĐŝĮĐ ϮϬϭϮ Figure 9 Urbanization Levels, ADB Subregion (%) Figure 11 Urban and Rural Inequality in Asia (%) 100 1990 90 Indonesia 80 2002 Urbanization level (%) 70 60 2011 50 1994 40 India 30 2005 20 2010 10 China, Peoples Rep. of 0 1990 1950 1955 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2002 Central and West Asia Southeast Asia East Asia Pacific 2010 South Asia Developed Economies* 0 10 20 30 40 50 Note: * Developed Economies include Australia, Japan, and New Zealand. Gini Coefficient (%) Source: UN (2012). Urban Rural Sources: ADB (2012b) and ADB estimates. ƵƌďĂŶ ŝŶĞƋƵĂůŝƚLJ ŚĂƐ ďĞĞŶ ŐƌŽǁŝŶŐ ĨĂƐƚĞƌ ĂŶĚ ƐƵƌƉĂƐƐĞĚ Figure 10 Urbanization Levels, Selected Asian Economies (%) ƌƵƌĂů ŝŶĞƋƵĂůŝƚLJ ŝŶ ϮϬϬϴ͘ϱ 100 EĞǁ ĞŶƚƌĂŶƚƐ ƚŽ ĐŝƟĞƐ ĂƌĞ ůŝŬĞůLJ ƚŽ ďĞ ƉŽŽƌĞƌ ƚŚĂŶ 90 ŝŶĐƵŵďĞŶƚ ƌĞƐŝĚĞŶƚƐ ĂŶĚ ƚŽ ůŝǀĞ ŝŶ ƐůƵŵƐ Žƌ ĐŝƚLJ ĨƌŝŶŐĞƐ͘ 80 ŶĚ ďĞĐĂƵƐĞ ƚŚĞ ĐŽƐƚ ŽĨ ĐƌŝŵŝŶĂů ĂĐƟǀŝƚLJ ŝƐ ƵƐƵĂůůLJ Urbanization level (%) 70 ůŽǁĞƌ ĂŶĚ ŐĂŝŶƐ ůĂƌŐĞƌ ŝŶ ĐŝƟĞƐ ƚŚĂŶ ŝŶ ƚŚĞ ĐŽƵŶƚƌLJƐŝĚĞ͕ 60 ƵƌďĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶ ŵĂLJ ďĞ ĂĐĐŽŵƉĂŶŝĞĚ ďLJ ĞůĞǀĂƚĞĚ ůŽĐĂů ĐƌŝŵĞ ůĞǀĞůƐ͘ &ŝŐƵƌĞ ϭϮ ŝƐ Ă ƐĐĂƩĞƌ ƉůŽƚ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ƚŚĞŌ ƌĂƚĞ ;ŶƵŵďĞƌ 50 ŽĨ ƚŚĞŌ ŝŶĐŝĚĞŶƚƐ ƉĞƌ ϭϬϬ͕ϬϬϬ ƉŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶͿ ĂŶĚ ůĞǀĞů 40 ŽĨ ƵƌďĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶ ƵƐŝŶŐ ǁŽƌůĚǁŝĚĞ ĚĂƚĂ͘ ůĞĂƌůLJ͕ ƚŚĞ ƚǁŽ 30 ǀĂƌŝĂďůĞƐ ĂƌĞ ƉŽƐŝƟǀĞůLJ ĐŽƌƌĞůĂƚĞĚ͘ /Ŷ ĂĚĚŝƟŽŶ͕ ŚŽŵŝĐŝĚĞ ƌĂƚĞƐ ĂƌĞ ŚŝŐŚĞƌ ŝŶ ĐŝƟĞƐ ƚŚĂŶ ŝŶ ŵŽƐƚ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ĐŽƌƌĞƐƉŽŶĚŝŶŐ 20 ŶĂƟŽŶĂů ĂǀĞƌĂŐĞƐ ;&ŝŐƵƌĞ ϭϯͿ͘ϲ 10 0 ŚĂůůĞŶŐĞƐ ƚŽ ĐŝƚLJ ůŝĨĞ ĂƌĞ ŶƵŵĞƌŽƵƐ ĂŶĚ ŝŶĐůƵĚĞ 1950 1955 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 ŚŝŐŚĞƌ ĐŽƐƚƐ ŽĨ ŚŽƵƐŝŶŐ͕ ĞĚƵĐĂƟŽŶ͕ ĂŶĚ ŚĞĂůƚŚ ĐĂƌĞ͘ dŚŝƐ ĐŚĂƉƚĞƌ ǁŝůů ĨŽĐƵƐ ŽŶ ĞŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚĂů ŝƐƐƵĞƐ ŝŶ ƚŚĞ ĐŽŶƚĞdžƚ Armenia India ŽĨ ƵƌďĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶ͘ dŚŝƐ ĨŽĐƵƐ ŝƐ Ă ƌĞƐƉŽŶƐĞ ƚŽ ƚŚĞ ƌŝƐŝŶŐ Bangladesh Korea, Rep. of ŝŵƉŽƌƚĂŶĐĞ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ĞŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚ ŝŶ ƐƵƐƚĂŝŶŝŶŐ ŐƌŽǁƚŚ͕ ƚŚĞ Cambodia Pakistan ĨŽƌŵŝĚĂďůĞ ĞŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚĂů ĐŚĂůůĞŶŐĞƐ ĨĂĐĞĚ ďLJ ƐŝĂ͕ ĂŶĚ China, People’s Rep. of ƚŚĞ ĨĂĐƚ ƚŚĂƚ ƚŚĞ ĞŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚ ŝƐ Ă ŐůŽďĂů ƉƵďůŝĐ ŐŽŽĚ ĂŶĚ Papua New Guinea Hong Kong, China Sri Lanka 5 The lower urban inequality in the PRC was largely due to the urban bias, which has gradually faded away but still exists (Wan and Zhang Source: UN (2012). 2011). 6 Other indicators of crime than theft and homicide rates are not available for a rural–urban comparison.
    • ƌĞĞŶ hƌďĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶ ŝŶ ƐŝĂ 11ƚŚĞƌĞĨŽƌĞ ƉĂƌƚ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ŵĂŶĚĂƚĞ ŽĨ ŵƵůƟůĂƚĞƌĂů ĂŶĚ ƌĞŐŝŽŶĂů hƌďĂŶ ŝƌ WŽůůƵƟŽŶ ŝŶ ƐŝĂ Special ChapterŝŶƐƟƚƵƟŽŶƐ ƐƵĐŚ ĂƐ ƚŚĞ ƐŝĂŶ ĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ ĂŶŬ ; Ϳ͘dŚĞƌĞ ŝƐ ĂůƐŽ Ă ŐƌŽǁŝŶŐ ĂǁĂƌĞŶĞƐƐ ƚŚĂƚ ŝŶ ĨƵƚƵƌĞ͕ ĨŽƌ ĐŝƟĞƐ tŚŝůĞ ŶŽ ƚǁŽ ĐŝƟĞƐ ĂƌĞ ƚŚĞ ƐĂŵĞ͕ ŵĂŶLJ ŽĨ ƐŝĂ͛Ɛ ĐŝƟĞƐƚŽ ŚĂǀĞ Ă ĐŽŵƉĞƟƟǀĞ ĞĚŐĞ͕ ƚŚĞLJ ǁŝůů ŚĂǀĞ ƚŽ ďĞ ͞ŐƌĞĞŶ ĨĂĐĞ ĐŽŵŵŽŶ ĐŚĂůůĞŶŐĞƐ͕ ŝŶĐůƵĚŝŶŐ Ă ƐŚĂƌƉ ŝŶĐƌĞĂƐĞ ŝŶĞĐŽŶŽŵŝĞƐ͟ ;K ϮϬϭϭͿ͘ &ŝŶĂůůLJ͕ ǁŚŝůĞ ƵƌďĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶ ƌĞŐŝƐƚĞƌĞĚ ǀĞŚŝĐůĞƐ͕ ƌŝƐŝŶŐ ůĞǀĞůƐ ŽĨ ŝŶĚƵƐƚƌŝĂů ƉƌŽĚƵĐƟŽŶ͕ŝƐ ŽŌĞŶ ĂƐƐƵŵĞĚ ƚŽ ďĞ ĂƐƐŽĐŝĂƚĞĚ ǁŝƚŚ ĞŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚĂů ĂŶĚ ;ƚŽ ƐŽŵĞ ĞdžƚĞŶƚͿ Ă ƌĞůŝĂŶĐĞ ŽŶ ĐŽĂůͲĮƌĞĚ ƉŽǁĞƌĚĞŐƌĂĚĂƟŽŶ͕ ůŝƩůĞ ƌĞƐĞĂƌĐŚ ŚĂƐ ďĞĞŶ ĚŽŶĞ ƐŽ ĨĂƌ ŽŶ ƚŚŝƐ ƉůĂŶƚƐ͘ dŚĞƐĞ Ăůů ĐŽŶƚƌŝďƵƚĞ ƚŽ Ăŝƌ ƉŽůůƵƟŽŶ͕ ĂŶĚ ŝŶ ƐŝĂ͕ůŝŶŬĂŐĞ͘ Ăŝƌ ƉŽůůƵƟŽŶ ĐŽŶƚƌŝďƵƚĞƐ ƚŽ ƚŚĞ ƉƌĞŵĂƚƵƌĞ ĚĞĂƚŚ ŽĨ ŚĂůĨ Ă ŵŝůůŝŽŶ ƉĞŽƉůĞ ĞĂĐŚ LJĞĂƌ ;  ϮϬϭϮĂͿ͘ Figure 12 Theft Rate versus Level of Urbanization: Global Data &ƌŽŵ Ă ƉƵďůŝĐ ŚĞĂůƚŚ ƉĞƌƐƉĞĐƟǀĞ͕ ƉĂƌƟĐƵůĂƚĞ ŵĂƩĞƌ 4,500 ;WDͿ ĂŶĚ ĐĂƌďŽŶ ŵŽŶŽdžŝĚĞ ůĞǀĞůƐϳ ĂƌĞ ĐŽŶƐŝĚĞƌĞĚ ƚŽ ďĞTheft (rate per 100,000 population) 4,000 ŵŽƌĞ ĂƐƐŽĐŝĂƚĞĚ ǁŝƚŚ ĞůĞǀĂƚĞĚ ŵŽƌďŝĚŝƚLJ ƌŝƐŬ ƚŚĂŶ ĂƌĞ 3,500 ŽnjŽŶĞ ůĞǀĞůƐ ;ŚĂLJ ĂŶĚ ƌĞĞŶƐƚŽŶĞ ϮϬϬϯ͕ ƵƌƌŝĞ ĂŶĚ EĞŝĚĞůů ϮϬϬϱͿ͘ ĂƚĂ ŽŶ WDϭϬ ĂƌĞ ĂǀĂŝůĂďůĞ ĨƌŽŵ ƚŚĞ tŽƌůĚ 3,000 ,ĞĂůƚŚ KƌŐĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶ ĂŶĚ ĂƌĞ ƵƐĞĚ ƚŽ ƌĂŶŬ ĐŝƟĞƐ ƚŚĂƚ ŚĂǀĞ 2,500 ĂŶ ĂǀĞƌĂŐĞ WDϭϬ ůĞǀĞů ŽĨ ϭϬϬ ŵŝĐƌŽŐƌĂŵƐ ƉĞƌ ĐƵďŝĐ ŵĞƚĞƌ 2,000 ;ʅŐͬŵϯͿ Žƌ ŚŝŐŚĞƌ͘ KĨ ƚŚĞ ǁŽƌůĚ͛Ɛ ϱϳ ŵŽƐƚ ƉŽůůƵƚĞĚ ĐŝƟĞƐ͕ ϯϰͶŽƌ ĂůŵŽƐƚ ϲϬйͶĂƌĞ ŝŶ ƐŝĂ ;&ŝŐƵƌĞ ϭϰͿ͘ 1,500 1,000 &ŝŐƵƌĞ ϭϱ ƉůŽƚƐ WDϭϬ ŬĞƌŶĞů ĚĞŶƐŝƚLJ ƵƐŝŶŐ ŽďƐĞƌǀĂƟŽŶƐ ĨŽƌ ƐŝĂ ĂŶĚ ŶŽŶͲ ƐŝĂŶ ĐŝƟĞƐ͘ϴ Three 500 ŝŶƚĞƌĞƐƟŶŐ ĮŶĚŝŶŐƐ ĐĂŶ ďĞ ĚŝƐĐĞƌŶĞĚ͘ &ŝƌƐƚ͕ ƚŚĞ ĚĞŶƐŝƚLJ 0 ƉůŽƚ ĨŽƌ ƐŝĂŶ ĐŝƟĞƐ ĐůĞĂƌůLJ ůŝĞƐ ƚŽ ƚŚĞ ƌŝŐŚƚ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ŶŽŶͲ 0 20 40 60 80 100 ƐŝĂŶ ĐŝƟĞƐ͕ ŝŶĚŝĐĂƟŶŐ ƚŚĂƚ ŵĂŶLJ ŽĨ ƐŝĂ͛Ɛ ĐŝƟĞƐ ŚĂǀĞ Urbanization level (%) ŵƵĐŚ ŚŝŐŚĞƌ ůĞǀĞůƐ ŽĨ ƉŽůůƵƟŽŶ ƚŚĂŶ ĐŝƟĞƐ ŝŶ ŽƚŚĞƌ ƌĞŐŝŽŶƐ͘ Sources: UNODC (2012) and World Bank (2012). ^ĞĐŽŶĚ͕ ƚŚĞ ŵŽĚĞ ;ŵŽƐƚ ĐŽŵŵŽŶ ǀĂůƵĞͿ ŽĨ WDϭϬ ĨŽƌ ŶŽŶͲ ƐŝĂŶ ĐŝƟĞƐ ŝƐ ŽŶůLJ ĂďŽƵƚ ϮϬ ʅŐͬŵϯ ďƵƚ ŝƐ ĂůŵŽƐƚ ĚŽƵďůĞ ƚŚĂƚͶŶĞĂƌůLJ ϰϬ ʅŐͬŵϯͶŽŶ ĂǀĞƌĂŐĞ ŝŶ ƐŝĂŶ ĐŝƟĞƐ͘ dŚŝƌĚ͕ ŝĨ ƚŚĞ ƵƌŽƉĞĂŶ hŶŝŽŶ͛Ɛ Ăŝƌ ƋƵĂůŝƚLJ ƐƚĂŶĚĂƌĚ ŽĨ ϰϬ ʅŐͬŵϯ ŝƐ Figure 13 Intentional Homicide Rates in Selected Countries ƵƐĞĚ ĂƐ ƚŚĞ ďĞŶĐŚŵĂƌŬ͕ ůĞƐƐ ƚŚĂŶ ϭϭй ŽĨ ŶŽŶͲ ƐŝĂŶ ĐŝƚĞƐ ĚŽ ŶŽƚ ŵĞĞƚ ƚŚĞ ƐƚĂŶĚĂƌĚ ďƵƚ Ă ƐƚĂŐŐĞƌŝŶŐ ϲϳй ŽĨ ƐŝĂŶ 20.0 ĐŝƟĞƐ ĨĂŝů ƚŽ ŵĞĞƚ ŝƚ͘ 18.0 dŚĞ WZ ŚĂƐ ϭϮ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ǁŽƌůĚ͛Ɛ ϮϬ ŵŽƐƚ ƉŽůůƵƚĞĚ Homicide (rate per 100,000 population) 16.0 ĐŝƟĞƐ ;tŽƌůĚ ĂŶŬ ϮϬϬϳĂͿ͘ dŚĞ tŽƌůĚ ĂŶŬ ;ϮϬϬϳďͿ 14.0 ƌĞƉŽƌƚĞĚ ƚŚĂƚ͕ ŝŶ ϮϬϬϯ͕ ϱϯй ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ϯϰϭ ĐŝƟĞƐ ŵŽŶŝƚŽƌĞĚͶ 12.0 ĂĐĐŽƵŶƟŶŐ ĨŽƌ ϱϴй ŽĨ ƚŚĞ WZ͛Ɛ ƵƌďĂŶ ƉŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶͶŚĂĚ 10.0 ĂŶŶƵĂů ĂǀĞƌĂŐĞ WDϭϬ ůĞǀĞůƐ ĂďŽǀĞ ϭϬϬ ʅŐͬŵϯ͕ ĂŶĚ Ϯϭй ŽĨ ƚŚĞƐĞ ĐŝƟĞƐ ŚĂĚ WDϭϬ ůĞǀĞůƐ ĂďŽǀĞ ϭϱϬ ʅŐͬŵϯ͘ KŶůLJ ϭй 8.0 ŽĨ ƚŚĞ WZ͛Ɛ ƵƌďĂŶ ƉŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶ ůŝǀĞƐ ŝŶ ĐŝƟĞƐ ƚŚĂƚ ŵĞĞƚ ƚŚĞ 6.0 ƵƌŽƉĞĂŶ hŶŝŽŶ͛Ɛ Ăŝƌ ƋƵĂůŝƚLJ ƐƚĂŶĚĂƌĚ ŽĨ ϰϬ ʅŐͬŵϯ͘ 4.0 2.0 7 Particulate matter (PM)—also known as particulates or suspended 0.0 particulate matter (SPM)—is solid matter suspended in air or liquid. Dhaka Male Yangon Colombo Tokyo Baku Dushanbe Dili Kathmandu Quezon City Almaty Kuala Lumpur Bishkek Ulaan Baatar PM10 refers to particulate matter with diameter of 10 micrometers or less. Carbon monoxide is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas that is slightly lighter than air. It can be toxic to humans and animals when encountered in higher concentrations. In the atmosphere however, it is short lived and spatially variable, as it combines with oxygen to city country form CO2 and ozone. 8 Loosely speaking, a kernel density plot depicts the frequency of Source: UNODC (2012). occurrence of a variable.
    • 12 <ĞLJ /ŶĚŝĐĂƚŽƌƐ ĨŽƌ ƐŝĂ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞ WĂĐŝĮĐ ϮϬϭϮ Figure 14 Cities with PM10 above 100 μg/m3, 2008–2009 400 350 300 PM10 Level (μg/m3 ) 250 200 150 100 50 0 Sanandaj Ludhiana Kermanshah Yasouj Ahwaz Delhi Uromiyeh Qom Indore Khoramabad Agra Al Ain Lanzhou Kolkata Van Denizli Urumqi Faridabad Greater Cairo Mexicali Mumbai Dhanbad Ilam Allahabad Kerman Jinan Patna Sarajevo Abu Dhabi Medan Chengdu Hefei Taiyuan Varanasi Wuhan Esfahan Konya Kars Hamedan Harbin Meerut Xian Qazvin Tianjin Kanpur Lucknow Ulaanbaatar Jabalpur Bushehr Jaipur Arak Nanjing Xining Beijing Shenyang Chongqing Shijiazhuang Asian cities Non-Asian cities PM10 = particulate matter with diameter of 10 micrometers or less, μg/m3 = micrograms per cubic meter. Source: WHO (2012). Figure 15 PM10 Kernel Density, 2008–2009 Figure 16 Total Suspended Particulates at Manila Sites 0.06 400 350 0.04 Kernel Density 300 TSP level (μg/m3) 250 0.02 200 150 0 100 0 100 200 300 400 PM10 (μg/m3) 50 Asia Non-Asia 0 PM10 = particulate matter with diameter of 10 micrometers or less, 1998 2000 2002 2004 2006 2008 2010 2012 μg/m3 = micrograms per cubic meter. Source: ADB estimates based on WHO (2012). = fitted line, μg/m3 = micrograms per cubic meter, TSP = total suspended particulates. Source: Environmental Management Bureau (2002) and (2009). /Ŷ DĞƚƌŽƉŽůŝƚĂŶ DĂŶŝůĂ͕ ĚĞƉĞŶĚŝŶŐ ŽŶ ƚŚĞ LJĞĂƌ͕ ϭϯ Žƌ /Ŷ dŚĂŝůĂŶĚ͕ ƚŚĞ ĂŶŐŬŽŬ ĚĂƚĂ ĐŽŶƚĂŝŶ ŽďƐĞƌǀĂƟŽŶƐ ŵŽƌĞ ƐƚĂƟŽŶƐ ŚĂǀĞ ŵŽŶŝƚŽƌĞĚ ƚŽƚĂů ƐƵƐƉĞŶĚĞĚ ƉĂƌƟĐƵůĂƚĞ ŽŶ ĂŵďŝĞŶƚ WDϭϬ͕ ŽnjŽŶĞ͕ ĂŶĚ ĐĂƌďŽŶ ŵŽŶŽdžŝĚĞ ĨƌŽŵ ;d^WͿ ůĞǀĞůƐ ƐŝŶĐĞ ϮϬϬϬ͘ &ŝŐƵƌĞ ϭϲ͕ ƉůŽƫŶŐ ƚŚĞ ĚŝƐƚƌŝďƵƟŽŶ ϭϵϵϳ ƚŽ ϮϬϭϭ͘ hƐŝŶŐ ƚŚĞ ĂŵďŝĞŶƚ WDϭϬ ĚĂƚĂ ĂŶĚ Ă ƐŝŵƉůĞ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ĂŵďŝĞŶƚ ;ŽƵƚĚŽŽƌͿ ƉŽůůƵƟŽŶ ƌĞĂĚŝŶŐƐ͕ ƐŚŽǁƐ ƚŚĂƚ ĞĐŽŶŽŵĞƚƌŝĐ ŵŽĚĞů ǁŝƚŚ ĮdžĞĚ ĞīĞĐƚƐ ĨŽƌ ŵŽŶŝƚŽƌŝŶŐ ƐŽŵĞ ƉĂƌƚƐ ŽĨ DĂŶŝůĂ ŚĂǀĞ ƚƌĞŵĞŶĚŽƵƐůLJ ĞůĞǀĂƚĞĚ d^W ƐƚĂƟŽŶƐ͕ ŽŶĞ ĐĂŶ ƐŚŽǁ ƚŚĂƚ ĂŵďŝĞŶƚ ŽnjŽŶĞ ;ĨƌŽŵ ůĞǀĞůƐ͘ /Ŷ ϮϬϭϬ͕ d^W ůĞǀĞůƐ ǁĞƌĞ ƚǁŝĐĞ ĂƐ ŚŝŐŚ ŝŶ WĂƐĂLJ ŝƚLJ ĂƵƚŽŵŽďŝůĞ ĞdžŚĂƵƐƚƐͿ ŚĂƐ ŝŶĐƌĞĂƐĞĚ ďLJ ϰ͘ϯй ƉĞƌ LJĞĂƌ ŝŶ ĂƐ ŝŶ DĂŶĚĂůƵLJŽŶŐ ŝƚLJ͕ ůĂƌŐĞůLJ ĚƵĞ ƚŽ ĚŝīĞƌĞŶĐĞƐ ŝŶ ƚŚĞ ĂŶŐŬŽŬ͘ dŚĂŝůĂŶĚ͛Ɛ ^ƚĂƚĞ ŽĨ WŽůůƵƟŽŶ ZĞƉŽƌƚ ϮϬϭϬ ĂůƐŽ ƚƌĂĸĐ ǀŽůƵŵĞƐ͘ /Ŷ ϮϬϭϭ͕ ϳϳй ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ŵŽŶŝƚŽƌŝŶŐ ƐƚĂƟŽŶƐ͛ ƐŚŽǁƐ ƚŚĂƚ ƚŚĞ ĐŽƵŶƚƌLJ͛Ɛ ĂŵďŝĞŶƚ ŽnjŽŶĞ ůĞǀĞůƐ ŚĂǀĞ ƌĞĂĚŝŶŐƐ ĞdžĐĞĞĚĞĚ ƚŚĞ ŶĂƟŽŶ͛Ɛ Ăŝƌ ƉŽůůƵƟŽŶ ƐƚĂŶĚĂƌĚ ŽĨ ŝŶĐƌĞĂƐĞĚ ŽǀĞƌ ƟŵĞ͘ Ɛ ƚŚĞ ŶƵŵďĞƌƐ ŽĨ ǀĞŚŝĐůĞƐ ĂŶĚ ϵϬ ʅŐͬŵϯ͘ ƌĞƐŝĚĞŶƚƐ ďŽƚŚ ĐŽŶƟŶƵĞ ƚŽ ŝŶĐƌĞĂƐĞ͕ ŚĞĂůƚŚ ĐŽƐƚƐ ĐĂŶ ďĞ ĞdžƉĞĐƚĞĚ ƚŽ ƌŝƐĞ͘
    • ƌĞĞŶ hƌďĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶ ŝŶ ƐŝĂ 13ƌĞĞŶŚŽƵƐĞ ĂƐ ŵŝƐƐŝŽŶƐ ƌŝƐŝŶŐ , ĞŵŝƐƐŝŽŶƐ͘ dŚĞ ŶƵŵďĞƌ ŽĨ ǀĞŚŝĐůĞƐ ƉĞƌ ϭ͕ϬϬϬ Special Chapter ƉĞŽƉůĞ ŝŶ ƚŚĞ WZ ŝŶĐƌĞĂƐĞĚ ĨƌŽŵ ϭϬ ŝŶ ϭϵϵϴ ƚŽ ϯϳ ŝŶĞĐĂƵƐĞ ƵƌďĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶ ƌĂŝƐĞƐ ƉĞƌ ĐĂƉŝƚĂ ŝŶĐŽŵĞƐ ĂŶĚ ƌŝĐŚĞƌ ϮϬϭϬ ǁŚŝůĞ ŝŶ ƚŚĞ WŚŝůŝƉƉŝŶĞƐ ƚŚĞ ŝŶĐƌĞĂƐĞ ǁĂƐ ĨƌŽŵ ϵ ŝŶƉĞŽƉůĞ ĐŽŶƐƵŵĞ ŵŽƌĞ ĨŽƐƐŝů ĨƵĞůƐ͕ ƵƌďĂŶ ŐƌŽǁƚŚ ĂŶĚ ϭϵϵϬ ƚŽ ϯϯ ŝŶ ϮϬϬϳ ;  ϮϬϭϭͿ͘ ĞĐĂƵƐĞ ƉƌŝǀĂƚĞ ǀĞŚŝĐůĞƐ, ĞŵŝƐƐŝŽŶƐ ĂƉƉĞĂƌ ƚŽ ďĞ ĚŝƌĞĐƚůLJ ůŝŶŬĞĚ͘ Ɛ ƚŚĞƌĞ ŝƐ ŽīĞƌ ŇĞdžŝďŝůŝƚLJ ĂŶĚ ŽŌĞŶ ŵŽǀĞ ĨĂƐƚĞƌ ƚŚĂŶ ƉƵďůŝĐ ďƵƐĞƐ͕ŶŽ ŐůŽďĂů ƉƌŝĐĞ ŽŶ ĐĂƌďŽŶ͕ ƉŽůůƵƚĞƌƐ ;ƌĂŶŐŝŶŐ ĨƌŽŵ ǀĞŚŝĐůĞ ƚŚĞ ĚĞŵĂŶĚ ĨŽƌ ƉƌŝǀĂƚĞ ǀĞŚŝĐůĞƐ ǁŝůů ůŝŬĞůLJ ĐŽŶƟŶƵĞŽǁŶĞƌƐ ƚŽ ĞůĞĐƚƌŝĐ ƉŽǁĞƌ ƉůĂŶƚƐͿ ĨĂĐĞ ůŝƩůĞ ŝŶĐĞŶƟǀĞ ƚŽ ƚŽ ƌŝƐĞ ĂƐ ƐŝĂ͛Ɛ ĐŝƟĞƐ ŐƌŽǁ ƌŝĐŚĞƌ ;ŚĞŶŐ Ğƚ Ăů͘ ϮϬϭϭͿ͘ĞĐŽŶŽŵŝnjĞ ŽŶ ĞŵŝƐƐŝŽŶƐ͘ dŚƵƐ͕ ƚŚĞ ŝŶĐƌĞĂƐŝŶŐ ƚƌĞŶĚ ŝŶ ĐĐŽƌĚŝŶŐ ƚŽ ƐŽŵĞ ĞƐƟŵĂƚĞƐ͕ ƚŚĞ ŝŶĐŽŵĞ ĞůĂƐƟĐŝƚLJ ŽĨ, ĞŵŝƐƐŝŽŶƐ ŝƐ ŽĨ ƵƚŵŽƐƚ ĐŽŶĐĞƌŶ͕ ĂůƚŚŽƵŐŚ ŽŶ Ă ƉĞƌ ĚĞŵĂŶĚ ĨŽƌ ǀĞŚŝĐůĞƐ ŝƐ ƵŶŝƚĂƌLJ͘ dŚŝƐ ŵĞĂŶƐ ƚŚĂƚ Ă ϭϬйĐĂƉŝƚĂ ďĂƐŝƐ ƚŚĞ ĐƵƌƌĞŶƚ ůĞǀĞů ŽĨ ĐĂƌďŽŶ ĞŵŝƐƐŝŽŶƐ ŝŶ ƐŝĂ ŝŶĐƌĞĂƐĞ ŝŶ ƉĞƌ ĐĂƉŝƚĂ ŝŶĐŽŵĞ ŝƐ ĂƐƐŽĐŝĂƚĞĚ ǁŝƚŚ Ă ϭϬйŝƐ ůŽǁĞƌ ƚŚĂŶ ƚŚĂƚ ŝŶ ĚĞǀĞůŽƉĞĚ ĐŽƵŶƚƌŝĞƐ͘ &Žƌ ĞdžĂŵƉůĞ͕ ŝŶĐƌĞĂƐĞ ŝŶ Ă ŶĂƟŽŶ͛Ɛ ƉĞƌ ĐĂƉŝƚĂ ǀĞŚŝĐůĞ ŽǁŶĞƌƐŚŝƉ ƌĂƚĞ͘ŽŶ Ă ƉĞƌ ĐĂƉŝƚĂ ďĂƐŝƐ ĂŶĚ ĚƵƌŝŶŐ ϮϬϬϬʹϮϬϬϴ͕ ƚŚĞ ƌĞŐŝŽŶĂů tŚĞŶ ĐŽŵďŝŶĞĚ ǁŝƚŚ ƚŚĞ ŚŝŐŚ ĚĞŶƐŝƚLJ ŝŶ ƐŝĂŶ ĐŝƟĞƐ͕ ƚŚĞĂǀĞƌĂŐĞ ĞŵŝƐƐŝŽŶ ĨŽƌ ƐŝĂ ŐƌĞǁ ďLJ ϵϳй ǁŚŝůĞ ƚŚĂƚ ĨŽƌ ƚŚĞ ƌĞƐƵůƚ ĐŽƵůĚ ďĞ ƐĞƌŝŽƵƐ ƚƌĂĸĐ ĐŽŶŐĞƐƟŽŶ ĂŶĚ ƉŽůůƵƟŽŶ͘ǁŽƌůĚ ŐƌĞǁ ďLJ ŽŶůLJ ϭϴй͘ ^ŽůƵƟŽŶƐ ƚŽ ƚŚŝƐ ŚŝŐŚͲĚĞŶƐŝƚLJ ƌĞůĂƚĞĚ ĐŽŶŐĞƐƟŽŶ ƉƌŽďůĞŵ ŝŶĐůƵĚĞ ĂďŽǀĞͲŐƌŽƵŶĚ ƌĂŝů ƉƌŽũĞĐƚƐ͕ ĂƐ ŝŶ ĂŶŐŬŽŬ͕ ĂŶĚ ƐŝĂ ĐĞƌƚĂŝŶůLJ ĨĂĐĞƐ ĞŶŽƌŵŽƵƐ ĐŚĂůůĞŶŐĞƐ ŝŶ ƚĞƌŵƐ ŽĨ ƵŶĚĞƌŐƌŽƵŶĚ ƚƌĂŶƐŝƚ͕ ĂƐ ŝŶ ƚŚĞ WZ ĂŶĚ ĞůŚŝ ;Ždž ϭͿ͘ŝƚƐ ƚŽƚĂů ǀŽůƵŵĞ ŽĨ KϮ ĞŵŝƐƐŝŽŶƐ͘ LJ ƚŚŝƐ ĐƌŝƚĞƌŝŽŶ͕ ƚŚƌĞĞŽĨ ƚŚĞ ƚŽƉ ĮǀĞ ĞŵŝƫŶŐ ĐŽƵŶƚƌŝĞƐ ĂƌĞ ŝŶ ƐŝĂ ;&ŝŐƵƌĞ ϭϳͿ͘ /ŶĐƌĞĂƐŝŶŐ ĚĞŵĂŶĚ ĨŽƌ ĞůĞĐƚƌŝĐŝƚLJ ŝƐ ĂŶŽƚŚĞƌ ƐŽƵƌĐĞdŚŝƐ ŝƐ ŶŽƚ ƐƵƌƉƌŝƐŝŶŐ͕ ĂƐ ƚŚĞ ƚŽƚĂů ǀŽůƵŵĞ ŽĨ ĂŶLJ ƉŽůůƵƚĂŶƚ ŽĨ , ĞŵŝƐƐŝŽŶƐ͕ ƉĂƌƟĐƵůĂƌůLJ ĨŽƌ ŶĂƟŽŶƐ ƚŚĂƚ ƌĞůLJ ŽŶŝƐ Ă ƉƌŽĚƵĐƚ ŽĨ ƉŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶ ĂŶĚ ƉĞƌ ĐĂƉŝƚĂ ĞŵŝƐƐŝŽŶ͘ tŚŝůĞ ĐŽĂů ĨŽƌ ƉŽǁĞƌ͘ ĐĐŽƌĚŝŶŐ ƚŽ  ;ϮϬϭϭͿ͕ ϳϵй ŽĨ ƚŚĞƉĞƌ ĐĂƉŝƚĂ ĞŵŝƐƐŝŽŶƐ ƚĞŶĚ ƚŽ ƌŝƐĞ ŽǀĞƌ ƟŵĞ ĂƐ ĞĐŽŶŽŵŝĞƐ WZ͛Ɛ ĞůĞĐƚƌŝĐŝƚLJ ŝƐ ŐĞŶĞƌĂƚĞĚ ďLJ ĐŽĂů͕ ĂŶĚ /ŶĚŝĂ ƵƐĞƐ ĐŽĂůŐƌŽǁ͕ ƚŚĞ ĞŶŽƌŵŽƵƐ ƉŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶ ďĂƐĞ ŝŶ ŵĂŶLJ ƐŝĂŶ ƚŽ ŐĞŶĞƌĂƚĞ ϲϵй ŽĨ ŝƚƐ ĞůĞĐƚƌŝĐŝƚLJ͘ dŚĞ ĐĂƌďŽŶ ĞŵŝƐƐŝŽŶƐŶĂƟŽŶƐ ĂůƐŽ ƉƌĞƐĞŶƚƐ Ă ŬĞLJ ĐŽŶƚƌŝďƵƚŽƌ ƚŽ ƚŚŝƐ ĐŚĂůůĞŶŐĞ͘ ĨĂĐƚŽƌ ŽĨ ŶĂƚƵƌĂů ŐĂƐ ŝƐ ϱϬй ůŽǁĞƌ ƚŚĂŶ ƚŚĂƚ ŽĨ ĐŽĂů͕ ǁŚŝůĞ ǁŝŶĚ ĂŶĚ ƐŽůĂƌ ŚĂǀĞ njĞƌŽ ĐĂƌďŽŶ ĞŵŝƐƐŝŽŶƐ ĨĂĐƚŽƌƐ͘ dŚĞƐĞ /Ŷ ƚĞƌŵƐ ŽĨ ƉĞƌ ĐĂƉŝƚĂ KϮ ĞŵŝƐƐŝŽŶƐ͕ &ŝŐƵƌĞ ϭϴ ĞŶŽƌŵŽƵƐ ĚŝīĞƌĞŶĐĞƐ ŚŝŐŚůŝŐŚƚ ŚŽǁ ƚŚĞ ŐůŽďĂů ,ƐŚŽǁƐ ƚŚĞ ƟŵĞ ƐĞƌŝĞƐ ƚƌĞŶĚƐ ĨŽƌ ƚŚĞ ǁŽƌůĚ͕ ƚŚĞ WZ͕ ĂŶĚ ĞŵŝƐƐŝŽŶƐ ĂƐƐŽĐŝĂƚĞĚ ǁŝƚŚ ĞůĞĐƚƌŝĐŝƚLJ ĐŽŶƐƵŵƉƟŽŶ ǀĂƌLJ/ŶĚŝĂ͘ dŚĞ WZ͛Ɛ ĂŵĂnjŝŶŐ ŐƌŽǁƚŚ ŝŶ ĞŵŝƐƐŝŽŶƐ͕ ƐƚĂƌƟŶŐ ĚĞƉĞŶĚŝŶŐ ŽŶ ƚŚĞ ĞŶĞƌŐLJ ƐŽƵƌĐĞ͘ hŶĨŽƌƚƵŶĂƚĞůLJ͕ ĂĐƌŽƐƐŝŶ ƚŚĞ ĞĂƌůLJ ϭϵϵϬƐ ĂŶĚ ďĞĐŽŵŝŶŐ ŵŽƌĞ ƌĂƉŝĚ ĨƌŽŵ ĞĂƌůLJ ƐŝĂ ƚŽĚĂLJ͕ ƌĞŶĞǁĂďůĞ ƐŽƵƌĐĞƐ ƉƌŽǀŝĚĞ ŽŶůLJ Ă ƟŶLJ ƐŚĂƌĞ ŽĨϮϬϬϬ͕ ŝƐ ĐůĞĂƌ ĂŶĚ ŚĂƐ ďĞĞŶ ĐŽŶĐĞŶƚƌĂƚĞĚ ŝŶ ĐŝƟĞƐ͘ /Ĩ ƚŚĞ ŽǀĞƌĂůů ƉŽǁĞƌ ŐĞŶĞƌĂƟŽŶ͕ ĂůƚŚŽƵŐŚ ƚŚĞLJ ĂƌĞ ďĞĐŽŵŝŶŐ ĂWZ͛Ɛ ƉĞƌ ĐĂƉŝƚĂ ĞŵŝƐƐŝŽŶƐ ǁĞƌĞ ƚŽ ƌĞĂĐŚ ƚŚĞ ůĞǀĞůƐ ŽĨ ĚŽŵŝŶĂŶƚ ĚĞƐƟŶĂƟŽŶ ĨŽƌ ŝŶǀĞƐƚŵĞŶƚ ŝŶ ƉŽǁĞƌ ŐĞŶĞƌĂƟŽŶƚŚĞ hŶŝƚĞĚ ^ƚĂƚĞƐ ;h^Ϳ͕ ŐůŽďĂů ĐĂƌďŽŶ ĞŵŝƐƐŝŽŶƐ ǁŽƵůĚ ;EĞǁŵĂŶ ĂŶĚ tŝůůƐ ϮϬϭϮĂ͕ ϮϬϭϮďͿ͘ &Žƌ ĞdžĂŵƉůĞ͕ ŝŶ ϮϬϬϲ͕ŝŶĐƌĞĂƐĞ ďLJ ŵŽƌĞ ƚŚĂŶ ϱϬй͘ Ɛ /ŶĚŝĂ ĐŽŶƟŶƵĞƐ ƚŽ ŐƌŽǁ ƚŚĞ WZ ƐĞƚ Ă ϮϬϮϬ ƚĂƌŐĞƚ ŽĨ ϴй ƐŚĂƌĞ ŽĨ ƉƌŝŵĂƌLJ ĞŶĞƌŐLJ ƚŽĂŶĚ ƵƌďĂŶŝnjĞ͕ ŝƚƐ ƉĞƌ ĐĂƉŝƚĂ ĞŵŝƐƐŝŽŶƐ ĂƌĞ ůŝŬĞůLJ ƚŽ ƌŝƐĞ ƚŽŽ͘ ĐŽŵĞ ĨƌŽŵ ƌĞŶĞǁĂďůĞ ƐŽƵƌĐĞƐ ďƵƚ ƌĞĂĐŚĞĚ ƚŚŝƐ ƐŽ ƋƵŝĐŬůLJ ƚŚĂƚ ƚŚĞLJ ƌĂŝƐĞĚ ƚŚĞ ƚĂƌŐĞƚ ƚŽ ϭϱй ďLJ ϮϬϮϬ͘ /Ŷ ϮϬϭϬ͕ ƚŚĞ dŚĞ ƌŝƐĞ ŝŶ ƚŚĞ ŶƵŵďĞƌ ŽĨ ƉƌŝǀĂƚĞ ǀĞŚŝĐůĞƐ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞŝƌ WZ ŝŶǀĞƐƚĞĚ Ψϰϴ͘ϵ ďŝůůŝŽŶ ŝŶ ƌĞŶĞǁĂďůĞƐ͕ ŵĂŬŝŶŐ ŝƚ ƚŚĞŝŶĐƌĞĂƐŝŶŐ ƵƐĞ ŝŶ ƐŝĂ ŚĂǀĞ ĐŽŶƚƌŝďƵƚĞĚ ƐŝŐŶŝĮĐĂŶƚůLJ ƚŽ ǁŽƌůĚ ůĞĂĚĞƌ ŝŶ ƌĞŶĞǁĂďůĞ ĞŶĞƌŐLJ ŝŶǀĞƐƚŵĞŶƚ ;hEW ĂŶĚ ůŽŽŵďĞƌŐ EĞǁ ŶĞƌŐLJ &ŝŶĂŶĐĞ ϮϬϭϭͿ͘ Figure 17 Top 5 Countries in Total CO2 Emissions in 2008 Figure 18 CO2 Emissions (t/capita) 8,000,000 6 7,000,000 5CO2 emissions (kt) 6,000,000 CO2 emissions (t/capita) 5,000,000 4 4,000,000 3 3,000,000 2 2,000,000 1,000,000 1 0 0 China, Peoples United India Russian Japan 1960 1962 1964 1966 1968 1970 1972 1974 1976 1978 1980 1982 1984 1986 1988 1990 1992 1994 1996 1998 2000 2002 2004 2006 2008 Rep. of States Federation Asia Non-Asia China, Peoples Rep. of India World CO2 = carbon dioxide, kt = kiloton. CO2 = carbon dioxide, t = ton. Source: World Bank (2012). Source: World Bank (2012).
    • 14 <ĞLJ /ŶĚŝĐĂƚŽƌƐ ĨŽƌ ƐŝĂ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞ WĂĐŝĮĐ ϮϬϭϮ Box 1 Metros Moving People in Delhi and Shanghai Shanghai and Delhi are two Asian megacities that have built metro about 8 million at the end of 2010. Currently, 80% of the city’s systems for mass transit. developed area is within 400 meters of a metro line and the system is now the largest in the world. The Shanghai Metro System. Shanghai is the largest city in the People’s Republic of China, spanning approximately 120 kilometers The Delhi Metro System. Delhi is India’s largest metropolitan (km) from south to north and 100 km from east to west. It has a by area (1,483 square kilometers) and has the second largest 2009 population of 19.21 million. In the 10 years to 2000, the population (14 million people) in India. It has evolved around several length of the city’s roads increased by 40% and the number of cars transport modes. During 1981–1998, Delhi’s human and vehicle rose to just over 1 million. By the end of 2000, Shanghai had 12,227 populations rose sharply, resulting in traffic congestion and pollution. km of roads, 84% more than in 1985. However, as the majority of people rely on public transport, the buses were very crowded and In response to this, the governments of India and Delhi formed the slow, averaging only 8 km per hour. Delhi Metro Rail Corporation in 1995. Construction of the Delhi Metro started in 1998, and its first line opened in 2002, followed The city invested an average of 2.9% of its gross domestic product by the second in 2004, the third in 2005, a branch line in 2009, annually during 1999–2009 in transport infrastructure, 41% of which and two more lines in 2010. Subsequently, the lines have been was for constructing the Shanghai Metro. Construction started in the extended and new lines are being constructed, including the Delhi early 1990s and the first metro line opened in 1995. The Shanghai Airport Metro Express. The network consists of six lines with a total Metro now has 11 lines, 280 stations, and a total operating length length of 161 km with 135 stations underground, serving 1.2 million of 420 km. The number of passengers increased almost 37% per commuters every day. annum from 2000 to 2005. The total passengers per day rose to Source: Newman and Matan (forthcoming). ĐĐĞƐƐ ƚŽ ůĞĂŶ tĂƚĞƌ ĂŶĚ ^ĂŶŝƚĂƟŽŶ dƵƌŶŝŶŐ ƚŽ ǁĂƚĞƌ͕ ŵŽƌĞ ƚŚĂŶ ŚĂůĨ ;ĂƉƉƌŽdžŝŵĂƚĞůLJ ϰϬϬ ŵŝůůŝŽŶͿ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ǁŽƌůĚ͛Ɛ ƉĞŽƉůĞ ǁŚŽ ĂƌĞ ĚĞƉƌŝǀĞĚ ŽĨ ŬĞLJ ĚĞƚĞƌŵŝŶĂŶƚ ŽĨ Ă ĐŝƚLJ͛Ɛ ͞ŐƌĞĞŶŶĞƐƐ͟ ŝƐ ǁŚĞƚŚĞƌ ŝƚ ĐĂŶ ƐĂĨĞ ĚƌŝŶŬŝŶŐ ǁĂƚĞƌ ƌĞƐŝĚĞ ŝŶ ƐŝĂ͘ dŽ ƐƵƉƉůLJ ǁĂƚĞƌ ƚŽ ƐƵƉƉůLJ ĐůĞĂŶ ǁĂƚĞƌ ĂŶĚ ƐĂŶŝƚĂƟŽŶ͕ ĂŶĚ ƉƌŽƉĞƌůLJ ĚŝƐƉŽƐĞ ϰϬϬ ŵŝůůŝŽŶ ƉĞŽƉůĞ ƌĞƋƵŝƌĞƐ ŚƵŐĞ ŝŶǀĞƐƚŵĞŶƚƐ ƚŚĂƚ ƚŚĞ ŽĨ ƐŽůŝĚ ǁĂƐƚĞ͘ ^ƵĐŚ ƐĞƌǀŝĐĞ ĚĞůŝǀĞƌLJ ǁŝůů ƌĞĚƵĐĞ ŝŶĨĞĐƟŽƵƐ ĐŽƵŶƚƌŝĞƐ ŵĂLJ ŶŽƚ ďĞ ĂďůĞ ƚŽ ĂīŽƌĚ͘ tŽƌƐĞ ƐƟůů͕ ůŽǁͲ ĚŝƐĞĂƐĞ ƌĂƚĞƐ ĂŶĚ ůŽǁĞƌ ŝŶĨĂŶƚ ŵŽƌƚĂůŝƚLJ͕ ĂŶĚ ƐŚŽƵůĚ ŝŶĐŽŵĞ ĐŽƵŶƚƌŝĞƐ ŝŶ ƚŚĞ ƌĞŐŝŽŶ ĂƌĞ ƉƌŽũĞĐƚĞĚ ŶŽƚ ƚŽ ŵĞĞƚ ƚƌĂŶƐůĂƚĞ ŝŶƚŽ ŝŶĐƌĞĂƐĞĚ ůŝĨĞ ĞdžƉĞĐƚĂŶĐLJ͘ dŚĞ ĐŚĂůůĞŶŐĞƐ ƚŚĞ ǁĂƚĞƌ D͘ /Ŷ ŵĂŶLJ ƉĂƌƚƐ ŽĨ ŚĂŬĂ͕ ǁĂƚĞƌ ŝƐ ƐƵƉƉůŝĞĚ ƚŚĂƚ ƐŝĂ͛Ɛ ƉŽŽƌ ĐŝƟĞƐ ŶŽǁ ĨĂĐĞ ƌĞƐĞŵďůĞ ƚŚĞ ĐŚĂůůĞŶŐĞƐ ĨŽƌ ŽŶůLJ Ϯ ŚŽƵƌƐ Ă ĚĂLJ͕ ŝŶ ƐŽŵĞ ĂƌĞĂƐ͕ ƚŚĞ ƋƵĂůŝƚLJ ŝƐ ƉŽŽƌ ƚŚĂƚ tĞƐƚĞƌŶ ĐŝƟĞƐ ĨĂĐĞĚ ŝŶ ƚŚĞ ĞĂƌůLJ ϮϬƚŚ ĐĞŶƚƵƌLJ ;ĂŝŶ ĂŶĚ ƉĞŽƉůĞ ĐŽŵƉůĂŝŶ ŽĨ ƌĞĐĞŝǀŝŶŐ ƐƚƌĂǁ ĐŽůŽƌĞĚ͕ ƐƟĐŬLJ͕ ĂŶĚ ,ŽŶŐ ϮϬϬϵ͕ ĂŝŶ ĂŶĚ ZŽƚĞůůĂ ϮϬϬϭ͕ &ĞƌƌŝĞ ĂŶĚ dƌŽĞƐŬĞŶ ĂŶĚ ƐŵĞůůLJ ǁĂƚĞƌ͘ dŚĞ ƐŝƚƵĂƟŽŶ ŝƐ ĞǀĞŶ ǁŽƌƐĞ ĨŽƌ ƐůƵŵ ϮϬϬϴͿ͘ /Ŷ ϭϴϴϬ͕ ƚŚĞ ĂǀĞƌĂŐĞ ƵƌďĂŶŝƚĞ ŝŶ ƚŚĞ h^ ůŝǀĞĚ ϭϬ ĚǁĞůůĞƌƐ͕ ǁŚŽ ŝŶ ŵĂŶLJ ĐĂƐĞƐ ŚĂǀĞ ŶŽ ĂĐĐĞƐƐ ƚŽ ƉŝƉĞĚ LJĞĂƌƐ ůĞƐƐ ƚŚĂŶ ƚŚĞ ĂǀĞƌĂŐĞ ƌƵƌĂů ƌĞƐŝĚĞŶƚ ;,ĂŝŶĞƐ ϮϬϬϭͿ͘ ǁĂƚĞƌ ƐƵƉƉůLJ ĞǀĞŶ ŝĨ ƚŚĞLJ ĂƌĞ ǁŝůůŝŶŐ ĂŶĚ ĂďůĞ ƚŽ ƉĂLJ ĨŽƌ ŝƚ ŝƌƚLJ ǁĂƚĞƌ ǁĂƐ ƚŚĞ ƉƌŝŵĂƌLJ ĐĂƵƐĞ͕ ĂŶĚ ƵƌďĂŶ ŐƌŽǁƚŚ ;tĂŶ ĂŶĚ &ƌĂŶĐŝƐĐŽ ϮϬϬϵͿ͘ &Žƌ ĞdžĂŵƉůĞ͕ ŚĂŬĂ tĂƚĞƌ ĂŶĚ ĞdžĂĐĞƌďĂƚĞĚ ƚŚŝƐ ƉƌŽďůĞŵ͘ ^ĞǁĞƌĂŐĞ ƵƚŚŽƌŝƚLJ ŽĸĐŝĂůƐ ŶŽƚĞ ƚŚĂƚ ďLJ ůĂǁ͕ ǁĂƚĞƌ ĐĂŶ ďĞ ƐƵƉƉůŝĞĚ ŽŶůLJ ƚŽ ůĞŐĂů ůĂŶĚŚŽůĚĞƌƐ ;tĂŚĂď ϮϬϬϯͿ͘ dŚĞ ĐƵƌƌĞŶƚ ƐƚĂƚƵƐ ŽĨ ǁĂƚĞƌ ĂŶĚ ƐĂŶŝƚĂƟŽŶ ŝŶ ƐŝĂ ŝƐ ĚŝƐƚƵƌďŝŶŐ͘ LJ ƚŚĞ ůĂƚĞƐƚ ĞƐƟŵĂƚĞ͕ ĂůŵŽƐƚ ϭ͘ϵ ďŝůůŝŽŶ ƐŝĂŶƐ &ƵƌƚŚĞƌ͕ ŝŶ ŵĂŶLJ ƐŝĂŶ ĐŽƵŶƚƌŝĞƐ ǁĂƚĞƌ ŝƐ ƐƟůů ŚĞĂǀŝůLJ ĂƌĞ ǁŝƚŚŽƵƚ ďĂƐŝĐ ƐĂŶŝƚĂƟŽŶ͕ ƌĞƉƌĞƐĞŶƟŶŐ ŽǀĞƌ ϳϬй ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ƐƵďƐŝĚŝnjĞĚ͘ dŚƵƐ͕ ŝƚ ŝƐ ƋƵĞƐƟŽŶĂďůĞ ǁŚĞƚŚĞƌ ƚŚĞ ĐƵƌƌĞŶƚ ŐůŽďĂů ƚŽƚĂů ;^ W͕ ͕ ĂŶĚ hEW ϮϬϭϮͿ͘ KŶůLJ ϮϮй ŽĨ ǁĂƚĞƌ ƐƵƉƉůLJ ŝƐ ĞĐŽŶŽŵŝĐĂůůLJ ƐƵƐƚĂŝŶĂďůĞ ĞǀĞŶ ĨŽƌ ƉĞŽƉůĞ /ŶĚŝĂ͛Ɛ ƉŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶ ŚĂĚ ĂĐĐĞƐƐ ƚŽ ŇƵƐŚ ƚŽŝůĞƚƐ ŝŶ ϭϵϵϮ ĂŶĚ ǁŚŽ ĂůƌĞĂĚLJ ŚĂǀĞ ŐĂŝŶĞĚ ĂĐĐĞƐƐ͘ ŶĚ ƌŝǀĞƌƐ ŝŶ ƐŝĂ ĂƌĞ ƉƌŽŐƌĞƐƐ ŝŶ ƌĂŝƐŝŶŐ ƚŚĂƚ ƐŚĂƌĞ ŝƐ ƐůŽǁ ;ŽŶƵ ĂŶĚ <ŝŵ ϮϬϬϵͿ͘ ŚĞĂǀŝůLJ ƉŽůůƵƚĞĚ͕ ǁŚŝĐŚ ĂĚĚƐ ƚŽ ƚŚĞ ŐƌŽǁŝŶŐ ƐĐĂƌĐŝƚLJ ŽĨ tŽƌƐĞ ƐƟůů͕ ĞdžĐĞƉƚ ŝŶ ^ŽƵƚŚĞĂƐƚ ƐŝĂ͕ Ăůů ŽƚŚĞƌ ƐƵďƌĞŐŝŽŶƐ ĨƌĞƐŚǁĂƚĞƌ ƐŽƵƌĐĞƐ͘ ŝŶ ƐŝĂ ǁŝůů ŶŽƚ ŵĞĞƚ ƚŚĞŝƌ ƐĂŶŝƚĂƟŽŶ ƚĂƌŐĞƚƐ ĂƐ ƐĞƚ ŝŶ ƚŚĞ DŝůůĞŶŶŝƵŵ ĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ ŽĂůƐ ;DƐͿ͘ ŝǀĞŶ ƚŚĂƚ ƚŚĞ ĂƌďĂŐĞ ĐŽůůĞĐƟŽŶ ŝŶ ƐŝĂ ŝƐ ĂŶŽƚŚĞƌ ŵĂũŽƌ D ƚĂƌŐĞƚ ŝƐ ŵĞƌĞůLJ ƚŽ ŚĂůǀĞ ƚŚĞ ϭϵϵϬ ŶƵŵďĞƌ ŽĨ ƉĞŽƉůĞ ĐŚĂůůĞŶŐĞ͕ ĞƐƉĞĐŝĂůůLJ ďĞĐĂƵƐĞ ƉĞŽƉůĞ ǁŚŽ ĞĂƌŶ ŵŽƌĞ ǁŝƚŚŽƵƚ ĂĐĐĞƐƐ ƚŽ ǁĂƚĞƌ ƐƵƉƉůLJ ĂŶĚ ƐĂŶŝƚĂƟŽŶ ďLJ ϮϬϭϱ͕ ƵƐƵĂůůLJ ĐŽŶƐƵŵĞ ĂŶĚ ĚŝƐƉŽƐĞ ŽĨ ŵŽƌĞ ;ĞĞĚĞ ĂŶĚ ůŽŽŵ Ă ĐŽƵŶƚƌLJ ƚŚĂƚ ŚĂĚ Ă ϮϬй ĂĐĐĞƐƐ ƌĂƚĞ ŝŶ ϭϵϵϬ ǁŽƵůĚ ƐƟůů ϭϵϵϱͿ͘ ZŝĐŚĞƌ ĐŝƟĞƐ ŵĂLJ ďĞ ĂďůĞ ƚŽ ŝŶǀĞƐƚ ŝŶ ĐŽůůĞĐƟŶŐ ĂŶĚ ŚĂǀĞ ϰϬй ŽĨ ŝƚƐ ƌĞƐŝĚĞŶƚƐ ǁŝƚŚŽƵƚ ďĂƐŝĐ ƐĂŶŝƚĂƟŽŶ ďLJ ϮϬϭϱ ĚŝƐƉŽƐŝŶŐ ŽĨ ƐŽůŝĚ ǁĂƐƚĞ ďƵƚ ƉŽŽƌĞƌ ĐŝƟĞƐ ŽŌĞŶ ůĂĐŬ ƚŚĞ ĞǀĞŶ ŝĨ ŝƚ ŵĂŶĂŐĞƐ ƚŽ ĂĐŚŝĞǀĞ ƚŚĞ D ƚĂƌŐĞƚ͘ ƵƌƌĞŶƚ ƌĞƐŽƵƌĐĞƐ ƚŽ ĚŽ ƐŽ͘ &Žƌ ĞdžĂŵƉůĞ͕ ŝŶ ƐŽŵĞ ŽĨ /ŶĚŝĂ͛Ɛ ĐŝƟĞƐ͕ ƉƌŽũĞĐƟŽŶƐ ŝŶĚŝĐĂƚĞ ƚŚĂƚ ŵŽƌĞ ƚŚĂŶ ϮϵϬ ŵŝůůŝŽŶ ƉĞŽƉůĞ ŝŶ ĂŶ ĞƐƟŵĂƚĞĚ ϯϬйʹϯϱй ŽĨ ƚŽƚĂů ǁĂƐƚĞ ƌĞŵĂŝŶƐ ƵŶĐŽůůĞĐƚĞĚ /ŶĚŝĂ ŵĂLJ ƐƟůů ůŝǀĞ ǁŝƚŚŽƵƚ ďĂƐŝĐ ƐĂŶŝƚĂƟŽŶ ŝŶ ϮϬϭϱ ;^ W͕ ĨƌŽŵ ƚŚĞ ĐŝƚLJ ƌŽĂĚƐ ;^ƌŝĚŚĂƌ ĂŶĚ DĂƚŚƵƌ ϮϬϬϵͿ͘ <ŽůŬĂƚĂ ͕ ĂŶĚ hEW ϮϬϭϮͿ͘ ĂŶĚ DƵŵďĂŝ ĚƵŵƉ Žƌ ďƵƌŶ Ăůů ƚŚĞŝƌ ŐĂƌďĂŐĞ ŝŶ ƚŚĞ ŽƉĞŶ͘
    • ƌĞĞŶ hƌďĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶ ŝŶ ƐŝĂ 15ŚĞŶŶĂŝ ĂŶĚ ĞůŚŝ ĚŝƐƉŽƐĞ ϭϬϬй ĂŶĚ ϵϱй͕ ƌĞƐƉĞĐƟǀĞůLJ͕ ŽĨ Table 2 Urban Population at Risk of Coastal Flooding by Region, 2000 Special Chapter Total Urban Share of Urban ShareƚŚĞŝƌ ǁĂƐƚĞ ŝŶ ƐĂŶŝƚĂƌLJ ůĂŶĚĮůůƐ ;ŚƵ Ğƚ Ăů͘ ϮϬϬϴͿ͘ Urban Population Population Total Urban Land Area of Land Region Population at Risk at Risk Land Area at Risk Area at (million) (million) (%) (000 km2) (000 km2) Risk (%) ůƚŚŽƵŐŚ Ă ŚŝŐŚĞƌ ƉƌŽƉŽƌƟŽŶ ŽĨ ƵƌďĂŶ ƌĞƐŝĚĞŶƚƐ Africa 280 32 11 310 18 6ŚĂǀĞ ĂĐĐĞƐƐ ƚŽ ƚŚĞƐĞ ďĂƐŝĐ ƐĞƌǀŝĐĞƐ ƚŚĂŶ ĚŽ ƌƵƌĂů Asia 1,390 251 18 1,167 129 11ƌĞƐŝĚĞŶƚƐ͕ ƐŝĂŶ ĐŝƟĞƐ ĂƌĞ ŚĂƌĚ ƉƌĞƐƐĞĚ ƚŽ ƌĂŝƐĞ ĨƵŶĚƐ ĂŶĚ Latin America 312 24 8 663 42 6ĞŶƐƵƌĞ ƐƵĐŚ ƐĞƌǀŝĐĞ ĚĞůŝǀĞƌLJ ƚŽ ƚŚĞŝƌ ƌĂƉŝĚůLJ ĞdžƉĂŶĚŝŶŐ Europe 571 40 7 800 56 7ƉŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶƐ͘ km2 = square kilometers Source: ADB estimates based on McGranahan et al. (2007).ZĞƐŝůŝĞŶĐĞ ƚŽ ůŝŵĂƚĞ ŚĂŶŐĞhƌďĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶ ŝŶĐƌĞĂƐĞƐ ǀƵůŶĞƌĂďŝůŝƚLJ ďĞĐĂƵƐĞ ůŝĨĞ ĂŶĚ ĂƐƐĞƚ Box 2 Estimating Risks of Inland and Coastal FloodingůŽƐƐĞƐ ĂƌĞ ŵƵĐŚ ůĂƌŐĞƌ ŝŶ ĐŝƟĞƐ ƚŚĂŶ ŝŶ ƚŚĞ ĐŽƵŶƚƌLJƐŝĚĞǁŚĞŶ Ă ĚŝƐĂƐƚĞƌ ƐƚƌŝŬĞƐ͘ /Ŷ ƚŚŝƐ ĐŽŶƚĞdžƚ͕ ƚŚĞ ŝƐƐƵĞ ŽĨ ĐůŝŵĂƚĞ Coastal flooding risks are determined by the number of personsĐŚĂŶŐĞ ďĞĐŽŵĞƐ ƉĂƌƟĐƵůĂƌůLJ ƌĞůĞǀĂŶƚ ƚŽ ĐŝƟĞƐ͘ ůŝŵĂƚĞ (or land area) within a low-elevation coastal zone (LECZ) rather than historic or projected data on actual coastal flood events.ĐŚĂŶŐĞ ŝƐ ƌĞĐŽŐŶŝnjĞĚ ƚŽ ŚĂǀĞ ĐĂƵƐĞĚ ĞdžƚƌĞŵĞ ǁĞĂƚŚĞƌ ĂŶĚ The LECZ is defined as land area contiguous with the coastline upƌŝƐŝŶŐ ƐĞĂ ůĞǀĞůƐ͘ tŚŝůĞ ƚŚĞƌĞ ĂƌĞ ŵĂŶLJ ƵŶŬŶŽǁŶƐ ĂďŽƵƚ to a 10-meter rise elevation. While sea level rise is not expectedƚŚĞ ĞdžƚĞŶƚ ĂŶĚ ƟŵŝŶŐ ŽĨ ƚŚĞƐĞ ŝŵƉĂĐƚƐ͕ ƚŚĞ ĐŽŶƐĞŶƐƵƐ ŝƐ to reach 10 meters above the current mid-tide elevations, AsiaƚŚĂƚ ƚŚĞ ĐŚĂůůĞŶŐĞ ŝƐ ƌĞĂů ĂŶĚ ŝŵŵŝŶĞŶƚ͕ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĂƚ ĚŝīĞƌĞŶƚ has experienced two devastating tsunamis in the last 10 years.ĐŝƟĞƐ ǁŝůů ĨĂĐĞ ĚŝīĞƌĞŶƚ ďƵƚ ƵƌŐĞŶƚ ĐŚĂůůĞŶŐĞƐ ;<ĂŚŶ ϮϬϭϬͿ͘ Meanwhile, sea level rise and storm surges can certainly cause damage to people living well above the high-water level, through ŵŽŶŐ ƚŚĞ ĐŽŶƐĞƋƵĞŶĐĞƐ ŽĨ ĐůŝŵĂƚĞ ĐŚĂŶŐĞ ĂƌĞ saline intrusion into the groundwater, for example. However, the principal reason for choosing this elevation is that estimatesĂŶ ŝŶĐƌĞĂƐĞ ŝŶ ƚŚĞ ŝŶƚĞŶƐŝƚLJ ĂŶĚ ĨƌĞƋƵĞŶĐLJ ŽĨ ŇŽŽĚƐ based on elevations below 10 meters could not be consideredĂŶĚ ƐĞĂ ůĞǀĞů ƌŝƐĞ͘ WŽŽƌĞƌ ĐŝƟĞƐ ƚŚĂƚ ĂƌĞ ďĞůŽǁ ƐĞĂ ůĞǀĞů globally reliable, particularly in some types of coastal areas, suchĂƌĞ ƚŚĞ ŵŽƐƚ ƐƵƐĐĞƉƟďůĞ͘ dŚŝƐ ŝƐ ĞƐƉĞĐŝĂůůLJ ƌĞůĞǀĂŶƚ as those characterized by mountainous bays.ĨŽƌ ƐŝĂŶ ŶĂƟŽŶƐ ƐƵĐŚ ĂƐ ĂŶŐůĂĚĞƐŚ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞ WĂĐŝĮĐŝƐůĂŶĚ ĐŽƵŶƚƌŝĞƐ͕ ĂůƚŚŽƵŐŚ ĚĂƚĂ ĨŽƌ ƚŚĞ ůĂƩĞƌ ĂƌĞ ŽŌĞŶ Exposure to inland flooding is estimated from the global floodƵŶĂǀĂŝůĂďůĞ͘ DĂŶLJ ƐŝĂŶ ĐŝƟĞƐ͕ ĂŶĚ ĞƐƉĞĐŝĂůůLJ ƐŽŵĞ frequency dataset developed for the 2009 Global AssessmentŵĞŐĂĐŝƟĞƐ͕ ŚĂǀĞ ďĞĞŶ ďƵŝůƚ ŝŶ ƚŚĞ ĚĞůƚĂƐ ŽĨ ŵĂũŽƌ ƌŝǀĞƌƐ Report on Risk Reduction (GAR) (UNISDR 2009). In contrast to the LECZ estimates, the GAR data are based on actual floodǁŚĞƌĞ ƉŽƌƚƐ ĐŽƵůĚ ůŝŶŬ ƚŚĞ ĐŝƟĞƐ ƚŽ ƚŚĞ ŐůŽďĂů ĞĐŽŶŽŵLJ͘ frequency events. Modeling is used to fill in missing data and to^Ž ŝƚ ŝƐ ŶŽƚ ƐƵƌƉƌŝƐŝŶŐ ƚŚĂƚ ŵĂŶLJ ƐŝĂŶ ĐŝƟĞƐ ĂƌĞ ŇŽŽĚ transform the extents of flood events into a single gridded dataƉƌŽŶĞ͘ ^ŽŵĞ ƐƵĐŚ ĐŝƟĞƐ ŵĂLJ ŚĂǀĞ ĞdžƚĞŶƐŝǀĞ ĞdžƉĞƌŝĞŶĐĞ format. The flood risk is measured by the extent of exposure ofĚĞĂůŝŶŐ ǁŝƚŚ ŇŽŽĚƐ͘ &Žƌ ĞdžĂŵƉůĞ͕ ŚĂŬĂ ŚĂƐ ĂŶ ĞůĂďŽƌĂƚĞ land or persons to flooding at least two times within a 100-yearƐĞƚ ŽĨ ŵƵĚ ďĂŶŬƐ ĨŽƌ ƉƌŽƚĞĐƟŽŶ͘ Ƶƚ ŝŶĐƌĞĂƐĞĚ ŇŽŽĚŝŶŐ period. Both the LECZ and GAR data are then overlayed with theŝŶĚƵĐĞĚ ďLJ ĐůŝŵĂƚĞ ĐŚĂŶŐĞ ŵĂLJ ǁĞůů ƉƵƐŚ ƚŚĞƐĞ ĐŝƟĞƐ͛ Global Rural–Urban Mapping Project (GRUMP) data to estimateŝŶĨƌĂƐƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĞƐ ďĞLJŽŶĚ ƚŚĞŝƌ ĐƵƌƌĞŶƚ ĐĂƉĂĐŝƟĞƐ͕ ĂƐ population (as well as land area) within each urban area at riskŽĐĐƵƌƌĞĚ ŝŶ ĂŶŐŬŽŬ ŝŶ ůĂƚĞ ϮϬϭϭ͘ ĞǀĞůŽƉŝŶŐ ĨƵƌƚŚĞƌ of flooding.ĐŽĂƐƚĂů ĞŶŐŝŶĞĞƌŝŶŐ ƉƌŽƚĞĐƟŽŶ ǁŝůů ƉůĂĐĞ ĂŶ ŝŶĐƌĞĂƐŝŶŐ Sources: Balk and Montgomery (2012), McGranahan et al. (2007).ďƵƌĚĞŶ ŽŶ ƚŚĞ ƌĞƐŽƵƌĐĞƐ ŽĨ ƐƵĐŚ ĐŝƟĞƐ͘ /Ŷ ϮϬϬϬ͕ ϭϴй ŽĨ ƐŝĂŶ ƵƌďĂŶŝƚĞƐ ǁĞƌĞ Ăƚ ƌŝƐŬ ŽĨĐŽĂƐƚĂů ŇŽŽĚŝŶŐ ;dĂďůĞ ϮͿ͕ ǀĞƌƐƵƐ ϭϭй ĨŽƌ ĨƌŝĐĂ͕ ϴй ĨŽƌ hƐŝŶŐ ƚŚĞ ƉƌŽƉŽƌƟŽŶ ŽĨ ƵƌďĂŶ ƉŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶ ƚŚĂƚ ŝƐ>ĂƟŶ ŵĞƌŝĐĂ͕ ĂŶĚ ϳй ĨŽƌ ƵƌŽƉĞ͘ /Ŷ ƚĞƌŵƐ ŽĨ ƚŽƚĂů ƵƌďĂŶ ĞdžƉŽƐĞĚ ƚŽ ŇŽŽĚŝŶŐ ƌŝƐŬƐ ĂƐ Ă ŵĞĂƐƵƌĞ ŽĨ ǀƵůŶĞƌĂďŝůŝƚLJ͕ƉŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶ͕ Ϯϱϭ ŵŝůůŝŽŶ ƐŝĂŶƐ ǁĞƌĞ ĞdžƉŽƐĞĚ ƚŽ ƚŚŝƐ ƌŝƐŬ͕ ǀƵůŶĞƌĂďŝůŝƚLJ ƚŽ ŝŶůĂŶĚ Žƌ ĐŽĂƐƚĂů ŇŽŽĚŝŶŐ ĚŝīĞƌƐĐŽŵƉĂƌĞĚ ǁŝƚŚ ϰϬ ŵŝůůŝŽŶ ƵƌŽƉĞĂŶƐ͕ ϯϮ ŵŝůůŝŽŶ ĨƌŝĐĂŶƐ͕ ƐŝŐŶŝĮĐĂŶƚůLJ ĂĐƌŽƐƐ ƐƵďƌĞŐŝŽŶƐ ĂŶĚ ĐŽƵŶƚƌŝĞƐ͘ /Ŷ ƚĞƌŵƐĂŶĚ Ϯϰ ŵŝůůŝŽŶ >ĂƟŶ ŵĞƌŝĐĂŶƐ͘ ^ŝŵŝůĂƌ ŚŝŐŚ ĐŽŵƉĂƌĂƟǀĞ ŽĨ ĐŽĂƐƚĂů ŇŽŽĚŝŶŐ ;dĂďůĞ ϯͿ͕ ƚŚĞ ƌĞŐŝŽŶ͛Ɛ ǀƵůŶĞƌĂďŝůŝƚLJ ŝƐƉƌŽƉŽƌƟŽŶƐ ŽĨ ƚŽƚĂů ĂŶĚ ƵƌďĂŶ ůĂŶĚ ĂƌĞ ĨŽƵŶĚ ŝŶ ůŽǁͲůLJŝŶŐ ϭϵ͘ϲй͕ ǁŝƚŚ ^ŽƵƚŚĞĂƐƚ ƐŝĂ ďĞŝŶŐ ŵŽƐƚ ǀƵůŶĞƌĂďůĞ ;ϯϲ͘ϭйͿĐŽĂƐƚĂů ĂƌĞĂƐ ŽĨ ƐŝĂ ƌĞůĂƟǀĞ ƚŽ ŽƚŚĞƌ ĐŽŶƟŶĞŶƚƐ͘ dŚĞƐĞ ĨŽůůŽǁĞĚ ďLJ ĂƐƚ ƐŝĂ ;ϭϳ͘ϱйͿ ĂŶĚ ^ŽƵƚŚ ƐŝĂ ;ϭϰ͘ϯйͿ͘ ƚĂƌĞĂƐ ĂƌĞ ŶŽƚ ŽŶůLJ Ăƚ ŐƌĞĂƚĞƌ ƌŝƐŬ ŽĨ ĨƵƚƵƌĞ ƐĞĂ ůĞǀĞů ƌŝƐĞ͕ ƚŚĞ ĐŽƵŶƚƌLJ ůĞǀĞů͕ ƚŚĞ ŵŽƐƚ ǀƵůŶĞƌĂďůĞ ĞĐŽŶŽŵŝĞƐ ĂƌĞ ƚŚĞďƵƚ ĂůƐŽ ŽĨ ĐŽĂƐƚĂů ŇŽŽĚŝŶŐ ĂƌŝƐŝŶŐ ĨƌŽŵ ŵŽƌĞ ĨƌĞƋƵĞŶƚ DĂůĚŝǀĞƐ ;ϭϬϬйͿ͕ sŝĞƚ EĂŵ ;ϳϯ͘ϵйͿ͕ dŚĂŝůĂŶĚ ;ϲϬйͿ͕ ĂŶĚĂŶĚ ŝŶƚĞŶƐĞ ƐƚŽƌŵƐ͘ ;Ždž Ϯ ĚĞĮŶĞƐ ŝŶůĂŶĚ ĂŶĚ ĐŽĂƐƚĂů ĂŶŐůĂĚĞƐŚ ;ϱϬ͘ϯйͿ͘ŇŽŽĚŝŶŐ ĂŶĚ ĞƐƟŵĂƟŽŶ ŵĞƚŚŽĚƐ͘Ϳ
    • 16 <ĞLJ /ŶĚŝĐĂƚŽƌƐ ĨŽƌ ƐŝĂ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞ WĂĐŝĮĐ ϮϬϭϮ Table 3 Population and Area at Risk of Coastal Flooding, 2000 Table 4 Population and Area at Risk of Inland Flooding, 2000 % Urban % Urban % Urban Land Urban Population Land Area Land Area Urban Population Area (km2) % Urban Economy Economy Population at Flood (km2) at at Flood Population at at Flood at Flood Land Area at at Flood risk Risk Flood Risk Risk Flood Risk Risk Risk Flood Risk Central and West Asia Central and West Asia Georgia 230,982 7.5 159 4.9 Afghanistan 540,078 12.5 430 23.8 Pakistan 2,227,119 4.6 364 1.5 Armenia 198,941 7.4 192 12.9 Subtotal 2,458,101 4.8 523 1.9 Azerbaijan 254,474 6.0 526 9.1 Georgia 319,048 10.4 369 11.4 East Asia Kazakhstan 860,190 9.8 1,561 13.9 China, Peoples Rep. of 78,277,824 18.5 33,243 13.4 Kyrgyz Republic 189,534 12.2 367 12.6 Hong Kong, China 811,925 14.1 104 14.2 Pakistan 3,092,548 6.4 2,230 9.0 Korea, Rep. of 2,034,832 5.3 1,369 7.4 Tajikistan 286,229 16.4 408 11.6 Taipei,China 3,022,216 21.4 2,604 21.3 Turmenistan 64,777 3.2 620 11.1 Subtotal 84,146,796 17.5 37,320 13.4 Uzbekistan 813,736 8.5 1,615 10.9 Subtotal 6,619,555 7.7 8,318 11.1 South Asia Bangladesh 15,428,668 50.3 4,522 45.9 East Asia India 31,515,286 10.5 11,441 5.9 China, Peoples Rep. of 90,700,145 21.4 45,610 18.4 Maldives 6,421 100.0 3 100.0 Korea, Rep. of 2,920,496 7.6 1,010 5.5 Sri Lanka 961,977 22.8 744 22.5 Mongolia 176,968 12.2 190 16.5 Subtotal 47,912,352 14.3 16,710 8.1 Taipei,China 890,354 6.3 668 5.5 Subtotal 94,510,996 19.8 47,288 17.0 Southeast Asia Brunei Darussalam 24,965 11.2 256 24.2 South Asia Cambodia 281,944 15.0 137 21.3 Bangladesh 10,954,609 35.7 3,721 37.8 Indonesia 22,720,666 27.9 8,176 26.4 Bhutan 21,504 14.5 30 15.5 Malaysia 3,687,052 26.5 3,775 28.1 India 36,056,326 12.0 25,564 13.3 Myanmar 4,512,823 36.2 1,087 24.2 Nepal 160,508 5.9 214 8.5 Philippines 6,807,578 27.4 1,872 22.8 Sri Lanka 792,244 18.8 442 13.4 Singapore 550,057 14.0 62 12.0 Subtotal 47,985,191 14.2 29,971 14.4 Thailand 12,471,874 60.0 9,207 34.8 Viet Nam 12,862,429 73.9 3,877 66.4 Southeast Asia Subtotal 63,919,387 36.1 28,448 31.1 Brunei Darussalam 1,634 0.7 14 1.3 Cambodia 1,428,121 76.0 641 100.0 The Pacific Indonesia 4,394,972 5.4 2,417 7.8 Timor-Leste 1,369 4.2 7 5.3 Lao PDR 302,825 34.0 276 26.1 Malaysia 495,254 3.6 749 5.6 Developed Member Economy Myanmar 2,361,353 19.0 1,050 23.4 Japan 29,022,184 25.7 17322.81 17.5 Philippines 3,713,398 14.9 968 11.8 Thailand 6,070,291 29.2 7,002 26.5 Asia 227,460,189 19.6 100,332 14.3 Viet Nam 6,716,973 38.6 1,893 32.4 Subtotal 25,484,820 14.7 15,010 16.3 km2 = square kilometers Note: Global Rural-Urban Mapping Project (GRUMP) estimates for urban The Pacific population and urban areas are used in the computation of percentages Timor-Leste 869 2.7 6 4.6 of population and area at risk (http://sedac.ciesin.columbia.edu/gpw). Source: Balk and Montgomery (2012). Developed Member Economy Japan 4,705,880 4.2 5,016 5.1 Asia 179,307,311 15.1 105,610 14.0 dƵƌŶŝŶŐ ƚŽ ŝŶůĂŶĚ ŇŽŽĚŝŶŐ ;dĂďůĞ ϰͿ͕ ƚŚĞ ŽǀĞƌĂůů km2 = square kilometers, Lao PDR = Lao Peoples Democratic Republic ǀƵůŶĞƌĂďŝůŝƚLJ ĨŽƌ ƐŝĂ ŝƐ ϭϱ͘ϭй͕ ŵŽĚĞƌĂƚĞůLJ ůŽǁĞƌ ƚŚĂŶ ƚŚĞ Note: Global Rural-Urban Mapping Project (GRUMP) estimates for urban population and urban areas are used in the computation of percentages ĐŽĂƐƚĂů ŇŽŽĚŝŶŐ ǀƵůŶĞƌĂďŝůŝƚLJ͘ ĂƐƚ ƐŝĂ ŝƐ ŵŽƐƚ ǀƵůŶĞƌĂďůĞ of population and area at risk (http://sedac.ciesin.columbia.edu/gpw). ;ϭϵ͘ϴйͿ͕ ĨŽůůŽǁĞĚ ďLJ ^ŽƵƚŚĞĂƐƚ ƐŝĂ ;ϭϰ͘ϳйͿ ĂŶĚ ^ŽƵƚŚ Source: Balk and Montgomery (2012). ƐŝĂ ;ϭϰ͘ϮйͿ͘ ƚ ƚŚĞ ĐŽƵŶƚƌLJ ůĞǀĞů͕ ĂďŽƵƚ ƚŚƌĞĞͲƋƵĂƌƚĞƌƐ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ƵƌďĂŶ ƉŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶ ŽĨ ĂŵďŽĚŝĂ ĂƌĞ Ăƚ ƌŝƐŬ ŽĨ ŝŶůĂŶĚ ŇŽŽĚŝŶŐ͘ dŚĞ ǀƵůŶĞƌĂďŝůŝƚLJ ŝƐ ϯϴ͘ϲй ĨŽƌ sŝĞƚ EĂŵ͕ ϯϱ͘ϳй ĨŽƌ dĂďůĞƐ ϱ ĂŶĚ ϲ ůŝƐƚ ƚŚĞ ϰϬ ŵŽƐƚ ǀƵůŶĞƌĂďůĞ ĐŝƟĞƐ ŝŶ ĂŶŐůĂĚĞƐŚ͕ ϯϰй ĨŽƌ ƚŚĞ >ĂŽ WZ͕ ĂŶĚ Ϯϵй ĨŽƌ dŚĂŝůĂŶĚ͘ ƐŝĂ ƚŚĂƚ ŚĂǀĞ ϭ ŵŝůůŝŽŶ ƉŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶ Žƌ ŵŽƌĞ ;ĂƐ ŵĞĂƐƵƌĞĚ KŶĞͲĮŌŚ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ƵƌďĂŶ ƉŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ WZ ĂŶĚ ϭϮй ŽĨ ŝŶ ϮϬϬϬͿ͘ &ŽĐƵƐŝŶŐ ŽŶ ĐŽĂƐƚĂů ŇŽŽĚŝŶŐ ;dĂďůĞ ϱͿ͕ ŚĂůĨ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ /ŶĚŝĂŶ͛Ɛ ƵƌďĂŶŝƚĞƐ͕ ŝŶ ƚŽƚĂů ŵŽƌĞ ƚŚĂŶ ϭϮϬ ŵŝůůŝŽŶ ƉĞŽƉůĞ͕ ϰϬ ŵŽƐƚ ǀƵůŶĞƌĂďůĞ ĐŝƟĞƐ ĂƌĞ ŝŶ ƚŚĞ WZ͘ ŵŽŶŐ ƚŚĞ ϭϭ ĂƌĞ Ăƚ ƌŝƐŬ ŽĨ ŝŶůĂŶĚ ŇŽŽĚŝŶŐ͘ ǀĞŶ ůĂŶĚůŽĐŬĞĚ ĐŽƵŶƚƌŝĞƐ ĐŝƟĞƐ ǁŝƚŚ Ă ǀƵůŶĞƌĂďŝůŝƚLJ ŽĨ ŵŽƌĞ ƚŚĂŶ ϵϬй͕ ϴ ĂƌĞ ŝŶ ƚŚĞ ŚĂǀĞ ƐƵďƐƚĂŶƟĂů ǀƵůŶĞƌĂďŝůŝƚLJ͗ dĂũŝŬŝƐƚĂŶ ;ϭϲ͘ϰйͿ͕ ŚƵƚĂŶ WZ͕ ŝŶĐůƵĚŝŶŐ ^ŚĂŶŐŚĂŝ ĂŶĚ dŝĂŶũŝŶͶƚŚĞ WZ͛Ɛ ůĂƌŐĞƐƚ ;ϭϰ͘ϱйͿ͕ ĨŐŚĂŶŝƐƚĂŶ ;ϭϮ͘ϱйͿ͕ ĂŶĚ <LJƌŐLJnj ZĞƉƵďůŝĐ ;ϭϮйͿ͘ ĐŝƟĞƐ͘ dŚĞ ŽƚŚĞƌ ƚŚƌĞĞ ĂƌĞ ĂŶŐŬŽŬ ŝŶ dŚĂŝůĂŶĚ͕ <ŚƵůŶĂ
    • ƌĞĞŶ hƌďĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶ ŝŶ ƐŝĂ 17 Table 5 Top 40 Asian Cities Table 6 Top 40 Asian Cities (>1 million population) in Vulnerability to Coastal Flooding (>1 million population) in Vulnerability to Inland Flooding Special Chapter Population City Area % of Population % of City City Area Economy City at Flood % of City at Flood Area at Economy City at Flood Population at Flood % of Area Risk (000) Population Risk (km2) Risk Risk (‘000) at Risk Risk (km2) at RiskChina, Peoples Rep. of Tianjin 5,500 100.0 2081 100.0 Cambodia Phnom Penh 988 98.5 204 98.8China, Peoples Rep. of Panjin 1,000 100.0 690 100.0 China, Peoples Rep. of Wuhan 5300 81.8 956 81.8Bangladesh Khulna 1,100 99.9 394 99.8 Indonesia Palembang 1100 80.2 257 48.6China, Peoples Rep. of Nantong 1,000 99.8 286 99.9 India Patna 1100 72.4 436 72.3China, Peoples Rep. of Changzhou 2,000 99.0 362 99.0 Bangladesh Dhaka 5400 59.7 680 47.9China, Peoples Rep. of Jiangyin 1,200 96.8 492 96.8 China, Peoples Rep. of Nanjing 2200 56.0 749 55.6China, Peoples Rep. of Suzhou 1,300 95.8 368 91.2 Viet Nam Ho Chi Minh 2800 50.4 306 25.0Indonesia Palembang 1,300 94.2 473 89.5 China, Peoples Rep. of Tianjin 2800 50.1 795 38.2Thailand Bangkok 8,800 93.3 4805 80.2 China, Peoples Rep. of Huangshi 624 49.6 170 45.5China, Peoples Rep. of Wuxi 1,300 91.1 397 91.0 China, Peoples Rep. of Huainan 614 49.5 277 49.4China, Peoples Rep. of Shanghai 14,000 90.8 2416 98.2 China, Peoples Rep. of Wuhu 552 46.8 140 48.4India Kolkata 14,000 89.0 1441 62.9 Thailand Bangkok 4400 46.2 2165 36.1China, Peoples Rep. of Ningbo 1,700 85.6 779 85.6 China, Peoples Rep. of Bangbu 510 44.0 198 44.5Indonesia Ujung Pandang 1,200 85.4 295 68.7 India Guwahati 507 43.8 159 34.6Viet Nam Ho Chi Minh 4,400 79.3 890 72.6 India Allahabad 665 42.2 230 43.2Indonesia Surabaya 3,800 76.3 777 55.4 Myanmar Mandalay 477 40.2 167 41.4Bangladesh Chittagong 2,400 72.5 517 61.7 China, Peoples Rep. of Panjin 400 38.3 208 30.1Japan Niigata 1,000 68.5 1244 49.9 China, Peoples Rep. of Changsha 1200 37.2 187 28.0Myanmar Yangon City 2,800 66.9 587 69.9 Bangladesh Khulna 419 37.0 131 33.1China, Peoples Rep. of Wuhu 782 66.3 210 72.4 India Vijayawada 546 36.0 141 21.4India Palwancha 808 66.2 937 67.6 Viet Nam Hanoi 893 33.2 252 38.0China, Peoples Rep. of Taizhou 1,200 65.3 423 66.4 India Varanasi 568 32.6 211 33.6China, Peoples Rep. of Shantou 3,600 63.8 1084 63.6 Indonesia Surakarta 399 32.6 96 24.1India Surat 2,200 61.0 300 19.2 China, Peoples Rep. of Nanning 440 30.4 173 30.4Indonesia Pekalongan 892 59.2 335 50.3 China, Peoples Rep. of Hengyang 307 28.6 94 28.1India Kochi 861 57.3 260 44.6 India Kolhapur 746 28.6 1035 29.2China, Peoples Rep. of Hangzhou 3,100 55.4 931 62.2 China, Peoples Rep. of Xinxiang 457 27.7 146 23.4Bangladesh Dhaka 5,000 55.0 874 61.5 China, Peoples Rep. of Nanchang 742 27.1 196 24.6China, Peoples Rep. of Wenzhou 2,000 53.8 755 53.7 China, Peoples Rep. of Shanghai 3700 24.5 292 11.9Malaysia Georgetown 641 50.8 456 43.0 Korea, Rep. of Pusan 1200 24.5 196 12.6China, Peoples Rep. of Putian 631 49.2 176 39.1 India Bhubaneswar 285 23.4 141 22.2China, Peoples Rep. of Huaiyin 540 48.7 203 46.9 India Palacole 283 23.2 385 27.8Indonesia Tegal 548 47.2 175 41.4 China, Peoples Rep. of Yichang 265 22.8 137 20.2India Mumbai 8,100 46.3 848 40.1 China, Peoples Rep. of Qiqihaer 286 22.0 110 22.0China, Peoples Rep. of Dandong 463 42.9 219 51.9 India Kanpur 312 21.5 171 20.5China, Peoples Rep. of Yingkou 657 42.7 431 42.7 China, Peoples Rep. of Harbin 740 21.1 270 22.0China, Peoples Rep. of Haikou 634 41.4 246 41.1 China, Peoples Rep. of Luoyang 348 20.6 93 20.4Viet Nam Hanoi 1,100 40.6 429 64.5 Philippines Quezon City 2900 20.4 198 9.1China, Peoples Rep. of Shenzhen 11,000 38.2 4319 49.2 China, Peoples Rep. of Jinan 558 20.3 156 20.2Indonesia Semarang 791 37.9 344 42.2 Bangladesh Chittagong 664 20.2 104 12.4 km2 = square kilometers km2 = square kilometers Source: Balk and Montgomery (2012). Source: Balk and Montgomery (2012).ŝŶ ĂŶŐůĂĚĞƐŚ͕ ĂŶĚ WĂůĞŵďĂŶŐ ŝŶ /ŶĚŽŶĞƐŝĂ͘ ŶŽƚŚĞƌ ϭϯ ƟŵĞ͕ ƐƵĐŚ ĂƐ <ŽůŬĂƚĂ ;ϴϵй ĐŽĂƐƚĂů͕ ϭϱй ŝŶůĂŶĚͿ ĂŶĚĐŝƟĞƐ ŚĂǀĞ ǀƵůŶĞƌĂďŝůŝƚLJ ůĞǀĞůƐ ďĞƚǁĞĞŶ ϲϬй ĂŶĚ ϴϵй͕ ^ŚĂŶŐŚĂŝ ;ϵϭй ĐŽĂƐƚĂů͕ Ϯϱй ŝŶůĂŶĚͿ͘ ŶƵŵďĞƌ ŽĨ ůĂƌŐĞŶŽƚĂďůLJ ŝŶĐůƵĚŝŶŐ <ŽůŬĂƚĂ ĂŶĚ ,Ž Śŝ DŝŶŚ ŝƚLJ͘ dƵƌŶŝŶŐ ĐŝƟĞƐ ĨĞĂƚƵƌĞ ŵŽƌĞ ƚŚĂŶ ϱϬй ŽĨ ǀƵůŶĞƌĂďŝůŝƚLJ ƚŽ ďŽƚŚ ƚLJƉĞƚŽ ŝŶůĂŶĚ ŇŽŽĚŝŶŐ Ăƚ ƚŚĞ ĐŝƚLJ ůĞǀĞů ;dĂďůĞ ϲͿ͕ ĂŐĂŝŶ ƚŚĞ ŽĨ ŇŽŽĚŝŶŐ͗ ŚĂŬĂ͕ ĂŶŐůĂĚĞƐŚ͖ ,Ž Śŝ DŝŶŚ ŝƚLJ͕ sŝĞƚǀƵůŶĞƌĂďŝůŝƚLJ ůĞǀĞů ŝƐ ůŽǁĞƌ ƚŚĂŶ ƚŚĂƚ ĨŽƌ ĐŽĂƐƚĂů ŇŽŽĚŝŶŐ͘ EĂŵ͖ WĂůĞŵďĂŶŐ͕ /ŶĚŽŶĞƐŝĂ͖ ĂŶĚ dŝĂŶũŝŶ͕ ƚŚĞ WZ͘dŚĞ ƚŽƉ ƚŚƌĞĞ ĐŝƟĞƐ ĂƌĞ WŚŶŽŵ WĞŶŚ ;ϵϵйͿ͕ tƵŚĂŶ ;ϴϮйͿ͕ĂŶĚ WĂůĞŵďĂŶŐ ;ϴϬйͿ͘ KĨ ƚŚĞ ƚŽƉ ϰϬ ŵŽƐƚ ǀƵůŶĞƌĂďůĞ ƐŝĂ ŚĂƐ ŵŽƌĞ ƚŚĂŶ ϳϱϬ ƵƌďĂŶ ƐĞƩůĞŵĞŶƚƐ ;ŽĨ ĂƚĐŝƟĞƐ͕ ϭϵ ĂƌĞ ŝŶ ƚŚĞ WZ͘ ^ŽŵĞ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ůĂƌŐĞ ĐŝƟĞƐ ƚŚĂƚ ĂƌĞ ůĞĂƐƚ ϱ͕ϬϬϬ ƉĞŽƉůĞ͕ ŵŽƐƚ ŵƵĐŚ ůĂƌŐĞƌͿ͕ ƚŚĞ ƉŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶ ŽĨǀƵůŶĞƌĂďůĞ ƚŽ ŝŶůĂŶĚ ŇŽŽĚŝŶŐ ŝŶĐůƵĚĞ ŚĂŬĂ ;ϲϬйͿ͕ ,Ž Śŝ ǁŚŝĐŚ ŝƐ ĨƵůůLJ ŝŶ ůŽǁͲůLJŝŶŐ njŽŶĞƐ ǁŝƚŚ ϭϬϬй ǀƵůŶĞƌĂďŝůŝƚLJDŝŶŚ ŝƚLJ ;ϱϬйͿ͕ ĂŶĚ ĂŶŐŬŽŬ ;ϰϲйͿ͘ ƚŽ ĐŽĂƐƚĂů ŇŽŽĚŝŶŐ͕ ĂŶĚ ĂďŽƵƚ ŚĂůĨ ĂƐ ŵĂŶLJ ǁŝƚŚ ϭϬϬй ǀƵůŶĞƌĂďŝůŝƚLJ ƚŽ ŝŶůĂŶĚ ŇŽŽĚŝŶŐ͘ dŚĞƐĞ ƐŵĂůůĞƌ ĐŝƟĞƐ &ŝŐƵƌĞ ϭϵ ƐŚŽǁƐ ĐůĞĂƌůLJ ƚŚĂƚ ĐŽĂƐƚĂů ŇŽŽĚŝŶŐ ŝƐ ĂŶĚ ƚŽǁŶƐ ĂƌĞ ĞƐƉĞĐŝĂůůLJ ŶŽƚĞǁŽƌƚŚLJ ďĞĐĂƵƐĞ ƚŚĞŝƌŵŽƌĞ ĐŽŶĐĞŶƚƌĂƚĞĚ ƚŚĂŶ ŝŶůĂŶĚ ŇŽŽĚŝŶŐ͘ ŽƚŚ ĂƌĞ ƐĞƌŝŽƵƐ ƉŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶƐ ĂƌĞ ŐƌŽǁŝŶŐ ĨĂƐƚ͘ &ƵƌƚŚĞƌ͕ ƐŽŵĞ ŽĨ ƚŚĞŵŝŶ ^ŽƵƚŚ ƐŝĂ͕ ^ŽƵƚŚĞĂƐƚ ƐŝĂ͕ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞ WZ͘ ^ĞǀĞƌĂů ĂƌĞ ĐůŽƐĞ ƚŽ ǀƵůŶĞƌĂďůĞ ůĂƌŐĞ ĐŝƟĞƐ͘ ŐŐůŽŵĞƌĂƟŽŶŵĞŐĂĐŝƟĞƐ ĨĂĐĞ ŚŝŐŚ ǀƵůŶĞƌĂďŝůŝƚLJ ƚŽ ĐŽĂƐƚĂů ŇŽŽĚŝŶŐ ĂŶĚ ĞĐŽŶŽŵŝĞƐ ŚĂǀĞ ŵĂŶLJ ďĞŶĞĮƚƐ ĨŽƌ ŐƌŽǁƚŚ͕ ďƵƚ ĂŶLJ ŇŽŽĚŵŽĚĞƌĂƚĞ ǀƵůŶĞƌĂďŝůŝƚLJ ƚŽ ŝŶůĂŶĚ ŇŽŽĚŝŶŐ Ăƚ ƚŚĞ ƐĂŵĞ ƌŝƐŬƐ ƚŚĞLJ ƐŚĂƌĞ ŶĞĞĚ ƚŽ ďĞ ĂĐĐŽƵŶƚĞĚ ĨŽƌ ŝŶ ƉůĂŶŶŝŶŐ͘
    • 18 <ĞLJ /ŶĚŝĐĂƚŽƌƐ ĨŽƌ ƐŝĂ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞ WĂĐŝĮĐ ϮϬϭϮ Figure 19 Vulnerability to Inland (top) and Coastal (bottom) Flooding Kazakhstan Mongolia Georgia Uzbekistan Armenia Kyrgyz Republic Azerbaijian Tajikistan Turkmenistan Republic of Korea Afghanistan People’s Republic of China Japan Pakistan Nepal Bhutan Bangladesh Hong Kong, China Taipei,China India Myanmar Lao PDR Thailand Viet Nam Philippines Marshall Islands Cambodia Brunei Palau Federated States Sri Lanka of Micronesia Darussalam Malaysia Maldives Singapore Indonesia Papua New Guinea Inland Flooding Timor-Leste Kazakhstan Mongolia Georgia Uzbekistan Kyrgyz Republic Armenia Azerbaijian Tajikistan Turkmenistan Republic People’s Republic of China Afghanistan of Korea Japan Pakistan Nepal Bhutan Bangladesh Hong Kong, China Taipei,China India Lao Myanmar PDR Thailand Viet Nam Philippines Marshall Islands Cambodia Sri Lanka Brunei Palau Federated States Darussalam of Micronesia Maldives Malaysia Singapore Indonesia Papua New Guinea Coastal Flooding Timor-Leste 12-2551 AV Proportion of Asian City Populations Affected by Flooding Lao PDR = Lao People’s Democratic Republic. Source: Balk and Montgomery (2012). 0%–25% 26%–50% 51%–75% 76%–100%
    • ƌĞĞŶ hƌďĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶ ŝŶ ƐŝĂ 19 dŚĞ ƐŝnjĞ ŽĨ ƉŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶ ĂīĞĐƚĞĚ ďLJ ŇŽŽĚŝŶŐ ƌŝƐŬƐ ŝŶ >ŽƐƐ ŽĨ EĂƚƵƌĂů ĐŽƐLJƐƚĞŵƐ ĂŶĚ ŵĞŶŝƟĞƐ Special Chapter ƐŝĂ ŝƐ ĞŶŽƌŵŽƵƐ͘ ƐƚƵĚLJ ĐŽŵŵŝƐƐŝŽŶĞĚ ďLJ  ;ĂůŬĂŶĚ DŽŶƚŐŽŵĞƌLJ͕ ϮϬϭϮͿ ĞƐƟŵĂƚĞƐ ƚŚĂƚ ŽǀĞƌ ϯϬϯ ŵŝůůŝŽŶ dŚĞ ůŽƐƐ ŽĨ ďŝŽĚŝǀĞƌƐŝƚLJ ŝŶ ƚŚĞ ƐŝĂŶ ƌĞŐŝŽŶ ŚĂƐ ďĞĞŶ ƐŝĂŶ ƵƌďĂŶŝƚĞƐ ǁĞƌĞ Ăƚ ƌŝƐŬ ŽĨ ĐŽĂƐƚĂů ŇŽŽĚŝŶŐ ŝŶ ϮϬϭϬ ǁĞůů ĚŽĐƵŵĞŶƚĞĚ ĂƐ ƵƌďĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶ ƉƌŽĐĞĞĚƐ ;DŝůůĞŶŶŝƵŵĂŶĚ ƚŚŝƐ ŝƐ ƉƌŽũĞĐƚĞĚ ƚŽ ŝŶĐƌĞĂƐĞ ƚŽ ϰϭϬ ŵŝůůŝŽŶ ŝŶ ϮϬϮϱ ĐŽƐLJƐƚĞŵ ƐƐĞƐƐŵĞŶƚ ϮϬϬϱͿ͘ ƐŝĂŶ ĐŝƟĞƐ ĂƌĞ ŵƵĐŚ;&ŝŐƵƌĞ ϮϬͿ͘ /Ŷ ƚĞƌŵƐ ŽĨ ŝŶůĂŶĚ ŇŽŽĚŝŶŐ͕ ĂďŽƵƚ Ϯϰϱ ŵŝůůŝŽŶ ŵŽƌĞ ĚĞŶƐĞůLJ ƉŽƉƵůĂƚĞĚ ƚŚĂŶ ŵŽƐƚ ŽƚŚĞƌ ĐŝƟĞƐ ĂŶĚƵƌďĂŶ ƐŝĂŶƐ ǁĞƌĞ ĨŽƵŶĚ ƚŽ ďĞ Ăƚ ƌŝƐŬ ŝŶ ϮϬϭϬ ĂŶĚ ďLJ ϮϬϮϱ ŚĞŶĐĞ ĚŽ ŶŽƚ ƚĂŬĞ ƵƉ ƉƌŽƉŽƌƟŽŶĂƚĞůLJ ĂƐ ŵƵĐŚ ƌƵƌĂů ůĂŶĚƚŚŝƐ ŶƵŵďĞƌ ǁŝůů ƌĞĂĐŚ ϯϰϭ ŵŝůůŝŽŶ ;&ŝŐƵƌĞ ϮϭͿ͘ tŚŝůĞ ŝƚ ŝƐ ĂŶĚ ŶĂƚƵƌĂů ĞĐŽƐLJƐƚĞŵƐ͘ Ƶƚ ƚŚĞŝƌ ĚĞŶƐŝƟĞƐ ƉƌŽǀŝĚĞ ůĞƐƐŶŽƚ ƉŽƐƐŝďůĞ ƚŽ ƉƌĞĚŝĐƚ ƚŚĞ ĚĂŵĂŐĞ ƐƵĐŚ ŇŽŽĚƐ ǁŝůů ĚŽ ƚŽ ŽƉƉŽƌƚƵŶŝƚLJ ĨŽƌ ŐƌĞĞŶ ƐƉĂĐĞƐ ǁŝƚŚŝŶ ƚŚĞ ĐŝƟĞƐ͘ dŚƵƐ͕ ŵĂŶLJƉƌŽƉĞƌƚLJ Žƌ ƚŽ ƉƌĞĚŝĐƚ ƚŚĞ ůŽƐƐ ŽĨ ůŝĨĞ͕ ƉŽŽƌ ĐŝƟĞƐ ǁŝůů ĨĂĐĞ ƐŝĂŶ ĐŝƟĞƐ ĂƌĞ ƐƚƌƵŐŐůŝŶŐ ƚŽ ƉƌŽǀŝĚĞ ƐƵĸĐŝĞŶƚ ŶĂƚƵƌĂůŐƌĞĂƚĞƌ ĐŚĂůůĞŶŐĞƐ ƚŚĂŶ ƌŝĐŚ ŽŶĞƐ ŝŶ ĂĚĂƉƟŶŐ ƚŽ ƚŚŝƐ ŶĞǁ ĂŵĞŶŝƟĞƐͶĂĐĐĞƐƐ ƚŽ ͞ŐƌĞĞŶ ƐƉĂĐĞƐ͟ ĨŽƌ ĞŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚĂůƌĞĂůŝƚLJ͘ ĂŶĚ ŚƵŵĂŶ ŚĞĂůƚŚ͕ ƌŝǀĞƌƐ͕ ƉĂƌŬƐ ĂŶĚ ǁŝůĚůŝĨĞ ĐŽƌƌŝĚŽƌƐ͖ ŐƌĞĞŶ ƐƉĂĐĞ ĨŽƌ ƌĞĐƌĞĂƟŽŶͲƌĞůĂƚĞĚ ĂĐƟǀŝƟĞƐ͖ ĂŶĚ ŐƌĞĞŶ ĞůĞŵĞŶƚƐ ŝŶ ƚŚĞ ƵƌďĂŶ ůĂŶĚƐĐĂƉĞ͘ dŚĞ ƌĞƐŽůƵƟŽŶ ŽĨ ƚŚŝƐ Figure 20 Population at Risk of Coastal Flooding ŝƐƐƵĞ ŝƐ ďĞŝŶŐ ĂĚĚƌĞƐƐĞĚ ǁŝƚŚ ŶĞǁ ĚĞƐŝŐŶ ĂƉƉƌŽĂĐŚĞƐ ĂŶĚ ƚĞĐŚŶŽůŽŐŝĞƐ ƚŽ ĞŶĂďůĞ ďŽƚŚ ŐƌĞĂƚĞƌ ďŝŽĚŝǀĞƌƐŝƚLJ ĂŶĚ 450 ŶĂƚƵƌĂů ĂŵĞŶŝƟĞƐ͘ KŶĞ ŽĨ ƚŚĞƐĞ ĂƉƉƌŽĂĐŚĞƐ ŝƐ ͞ďŝŽƉŚŝůŝĐ 410 400 4 ƵƌďĂŶŝƐŵ͟ ;EĞǁŵĂŶ͕ ĞĂƚůĞLJ͕ ĂŶĚ ŽLJĞƌ ϮϬϬϴͿ͘ ďŝŽƉŚŝůŝĐ ĐŝƚLJ ďƌŝŶŐƐ ůĂŶĚƐĐĂƉŝŶŐ ŝŶƚŽ ĂŶĚ ŽŶƚŽ ĞǀĞƌLJ ĞůĞŵĞŶƚ ŽĨ 350 115 ƚŚĞ ďƵŝůƚ ĞŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚ͕ ƐƵĐŚ ĂƐ ďƵŝůĚŝŶŐƐ͕ ǁĂůůƐ͕ ĂŶĚ ƌŽĂĚƐPopulation at risk (million) 303 300 3 ;ĞĂƚůĞLJ ϮϬϭϬͿ͘ 250 83 92 200 63 hƌďĂŶ ^ůƵŵƐ ĂŶĚ hƌďĂŶ WŽǀĞƌƚLJ 150 ƐŝĂ ŚĂƐ ƚŚĞ ůĂƌŐĞƐƚ ƐŚĂƌĞ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ǁŽƌůĚ͛Ɛ ƐůƵŵͲĚǁĞůůŝŶŐ 100 ƉŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶ͘ Ɛ ŶŽƚĞĚ ĞĂƌůŝĞƌ͕ ŝŶ ϮϬϭϬ ƚŚĞ ƌĞŐŝŽŶ ǁĂƐ ŚŽŵĞ 154 198 50 ƚŽ ϱϬϲ ŵŝůůŝŽŶ ƐůƵŵ ĚǁĞůůĞƌƐ͕ ŵŽƌĞ ƚŚĂŶ ϲϭй ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ǁŽƌůĚ͛Ɛ ƚŽƚĂů͘ ^ŽŵĞ ƐƵďƌĞŐŝŽŶƐ ǁŝƚŚŝŶ ƐŝĂ ĂƌĞ ĨĂƌ ǁŽƌƐĞ ĂīĞĐƚĞĚ 0 ƚŚĂŶ ŽƚŚĞƌƐ͘ ĂƐƚ ĂŶĚ ^ŽƵƚŚĞĂƐƚ ƐŝĂ ŚĂƌďŽƌ ϱϱй ŽĨ ƚŚĞ 2010 2025 ƐůƵŵ ĚǁĞůůĞƌƐ ŝŶ ƚŚĞ ƌĞŐŝŽŶ͕ ĂŶĚ ^ŽƵƚŚ ƐŝĂ ĂůŽŶĞ ŚŽƐƚƐ East Asia South Asia Southeast Asia Central and West Asia ĂůŵŽƐƚ ϯϴй ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ƌĞŐŝŽŶ͛Ɛ ƐůƵŵ ĚǁĞůůĞƌƐ ;hEͲ, /d d Source: Balk and Montgomery (2012). ϮϬϬϴͿ͘ /Ŷ ŵĂŶLJ ůŽǁͲ ĂŶĚ ŵŝĚĚůĞͲŝŶĐŽŵĞ ŶĂƟŽŶƐ͕ ƵƌďĂŶ Figure 21 Population at Risk of Inland Flooding ƉŽǀĞƌƚLJ ŝƐ ŐƌŽǁŝŶŐ ĐŽŵƉĂƌĞĚ ƚŽ ƌƵƌĂů ƉŽǀĞƌƚLJ͘ hƌďĂŶ ƌĞƐŝĚĞŶƚƐ ĂƌĞ ŵŽƌĞ ĚĞƉĞŶĚĞŶƚ ŽŶ ĐĂƐŚ ŝŶĐŽŵĞƐ ƚŽ ŵĞĞƚ 400 ƚŚĞŝƌ ĞƐƐĞŶƟĂů ŶĞĞĚƐ ƚŚĂŶ ƌƵƌĂů ƌĞƐŝĚĞŶƚƐ͕ ĂŶĚ ŝŶĐŽŵĞ 341 ƉŽǀĞƌƚLJ ŝƐ ĐŽŵƉŽƵŶĚĞĚ ďLJ ŝŶĂĚĞƋƵĂƚĞ ĂŶĚ ĞdžƉĞŶƐŝǀĞ 350 11 ĂĐĐŽŵŵŽĚĂƟŽŶ͕ ůŝŵŝƚĞĚ ĂĐĐĞƐƐ ƚŽ ďĂƐŝĐ ŝŶĨƌĂƐƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĞPopulation at risk (millions) 300 46 ĂŶĚ ƐĞƌǀŝĐĞƐ͕ ĞdžƉŽƐƵƌĞ ƚŽ ĞŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚĂů ŚĂnjĂƌĚƐ͕ ĂŶĚ 245 ŚŝŐŚ ƌĂƚĞƐ ŽĨ ĐƌŝŵĞ ĂŶĚ ǀŝŽůĞŶĐĞ͘ 250 8 91 33 200 63 ƐŝĂ͛Ɛ ŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚĂů ŚĂůůĞŶŐĞƐ͗ dŚĞ 150 ŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚĂů <ƵnjŶĞƚƐ ƵƌǀĞ 100 141 192 50 /Ŷ ƐƵŵŵĂƌLJ͕ ƐŝĂ ŝƐ ĂůƌĞĂĚLJ ĨĂĐŝŶŐ ƚƌĞŵĞŶĚŽƵƐ ƵƌďĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶͲƌĞůĂƚĞĚ ĐŚĂůůĞŶŐĞƐ͘ Ɛ ĨĂƌ ĂƐ ƚŚĞ ĞŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚ 0 ŝƐ ĐŽŶĐĞƌŶĞĚ͕ Ăŝƌ ƉŽůůƵƟŽŶ ŝƐ ƐĞƌŝŽƵƐ ĂŶĚ , ĞŵŝƐƐŝŽŶƐ 2010 2025 ŚĂǀĞ ďĞĞŶ ŝŶĐƌĞĂƐŝŶŐ͘ EĂƚƵƌĂů ĂŵĞŶŝƟĞƐ ĂƌĞ ĞŝƚŚĞƌ ůŽƐƚ East Asia South Asia Southeast Asia Central and West Asia Žƌ ŵƵƐƚ ďĞ ĐŽŵƉĞŶƐĂƚĞĚ ĨŽƌ ĂƐ ĐŝƟĞƐ ŐƌŽǁ͘ WƌĞƐƐƵƌĞƐ ĂƌĞ Source: Balk and Montgomery (2012). ŵŽƵŶƟŶŐ ƚŽ ƉƌŽǀŝĚĞ ǁĂƚĞƌ͕ ƐĂŶŝƚĂƟŽŶ͕ ĂŶĚ ǁĂƐƚĞ ĚŝƐƉŽƐĂů ƚŽ ǀĞƌLJ ĨĂƐƚ ŐƌŽǁŝŶŐ ƵƌďĂŶ ƉŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶƐ͘ ŶĚ ĐŝƟĞƐ ĂƌĞ ďĞĐŽŵŝŶŐ ŵŽƌĞ ǀƵůŶĞƌĂďůĞ͘
    • 20 <ĞLJ /ŶĚŝĐĂƚŽƌƐ ĨŽƌ ƐŝĂ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞ WĂĐŝĮĐ ϮϬϭϮ tŽƌƐĞ ƐƟůů͕ ŵŽƐƚ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ƐƉĞĐŝĂů ĨĞĂƚƵƌĞƐ ŽĨ ƐŝĂ͛Ɛ Box 3 The Environmental Kuznets Curve ƵƌďĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶ ŚŝŐŚůŝŐŚƚĞĚ ŝŶ ƚŚŝƐ ĐŚĂƉƚĞƌ͛Ɛ ĮƌƐƚ ŵĂŝŶ ƐĞĐƟŽŶ ĞdžĂĐĞƌďĂƚĞ ƚŚĞ ĞŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚĂů ĐŚĂůůĞŶŐĞƐ͘ &ŝƌƐƚ͕ Ă ůŽǁ ůĞǀĞů The Kuznets Curve (first postulated by Nobel Laureate Simon ŽĨ ƵƌďĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶ ŝŵƉůŝĞƐ ƚŚĂƚ ƐŝĂ ƐƟůů ŚĂƐ ƐŽŵĞ ǁĂLJ ƚŽ ŐŽ Kuznets) hypothesizes that economic inequality initially rises as an economy takes off and then stabilizes, but after reaching ŝŶ ĚĞĂůŝŶŐ ǁŝƚŚ ƚŚĞƐĞ ĐŚĂůůĞŶŐĞƐ͘ /ŐŶŽƌŝŶŐ Žƌ ĚĞĨĞƌƌŝŶŐ a certain turning point will decline with further development, ĂĐƟŽŶ ŽŶ ŝƐƐƵĞƐ ƐƵĐŚ ĂƐ ĞŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚĂů ĚĞŐƌĂĚĂƟŽŶ ŝƐ producing an inverted U pattern between inequality and the level ŶŽƚ ĂŶ ŽƉƟŽŶ ďĞĐĂƵƐĞ ŝƚ ƌŝƐŬƐ ĐŽŶƐĞƋƵĞŶĐĞƐ ŝŶ ƚŚĞ ŶĞĂƌ of development. ƚĞƌŵ ĂŶĚ ǀĂƐƚůLJ ŐƌĞĂƚĞƌ ĞdžƉĞŶƐĞƐ ŝŶ ƚŚĞ ŵĞĚŝƵŵ ƚŽ ůŽŶŐ ƌƵŶ͘ ^ĞĐŽŶĚ͕ ƚŚĞ ĨĂƐƚ ƉĂĐĞ ŽĨ ƵƌďĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶ ŵĞĂŶƐ ůŝƩůĞ Grossman and Krueger (1995) replaced the variable of inequality ƟŵĞ ĨŽƌ ĂĚũƵƐƚŵĞŶƚ Žƌ ůĞĂƌŶŝŶŐ͘ DĂŶLJ ĐŽƵŶƚƌŝĞƐ ŚĂǀĞ with environmental indicators in the same setting and also found ďĞĞŶ ŝŶƐƵĸĐŝĞŶƚůLJ ƉƌĞƉĂƌĞĚ ĨŽƌ ƚŚĞ ĐŚĂŶŐĞƐ ƵƌďĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶ an inverted U curve, which is termed the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC). To model the EKC, one typically estimates the ƌĞƋƵŝƌĞƐ ŝŶ ƵƌďĂŶ ƉůĂŶŶŝŶŐ͕ ĚĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ ŽĨ ĂƉƉƌŽƉƌŝĂƚĞ following econometric model: ƐŬŝůůƐ͕ ĂŶĚ ƵƌďĂŶ ĮŶĂŶĐŝŶŐ͘ dŚŝƌĚ͕ ďŝŐŐĞƌ ĐŝƟĞƐ ĂƌĞ ĐĞƌƚĂŝŶůLJ ŚĂƌĚĞƌ ƚŽ ŵĂŶĂŐĞ ĂŶĚ ŵŽƌĞ ŽĨ ƚŚĞŵ ĐĂŶ ŽŶůLJ ĂĚĚ ƚŽ ƚŚĞ Ln ENV = E1 + E2 Ln GDP + E3 (Ln GDP)2 + u ĐŚĂůůĞŶŐĞƐ ĂƐ ƐŝĂ͛Ɛ ŵĞŐĂĐŝƟĞƐ ĞdžƉĂŶĚ ŝŶ ƉŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶ ĂŶĚ ŐƌŽǁ ŝŶ ŶƵŵďĞƌƐ͘ &ŝŶĂůůLJ͕ ŚŝŐŚ ĚĞŶƐŝƚLJ ŵĂŬĞƐ ĐŝƟĞƐ ŵŽƌĞ where Ln is the natural logarithm, ENV is an environmental ǀƵůŶĞƌĂďůĞ ƚŽ ĐĂƚĂƐƚƌŽƉŚŝĐ ĞǀĞŶƚƐ ĂŶĚ ĚŝƐĞĂƐĞ͘ ƐƉĞĐŝĂůůLJ indicator such as PM10 or CO2, u is the usual disturbance ŝŶ ƉŽŽƌ ĐŝƟĞƐ ƐƵĐŚ ĂƐ ĞůŚŝ͕ ŚĂŬĂ͕ tƵŚĂŶ͕ ĂŶĚ ƚŚŽƐĞ ŝŶ term, and E1–E3 are parameters to be estimated. The inverted U-shaped EKC is obtained when E2 > 0 and E3 ƚŚĞ WĂĐŝĮĐ ŝƐůĂŶĚ ĐŽƵŶƚƌŝĞƐ͕ ƐƵĐŚ ĞǀĞŶƚƐ ĐĂŶ ŵĞĂŶ ƐĞƌŝŽƵƐ < 0. ůŽƐƐ ŽĨ ůŝǀĞƐ ĂŶĚ ĂƐƐĞƚƐ ;  ϮϬϭϮĐͿ͘ The shape conforms to the observation that the world’s poorest dŽ ŐĂƵŐĞ ƚŚĞ ĞŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚĂů ŽƵƚůŽŽŬ ĂƐ ƐŝĂ and richest nations have relatively better environments than the ĐŽŶƟŶƵĞƐ ŝƚƐ ŐƌŽǁƚŚ͕ ƚŚĞ ŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚĂů <ƵnjŶĞƚƐ ƵƌǀĞ Žƌ middle-income countries. The peaks of the curves vary across < ŝƐ Ă ƵƐĞĨƵů ƚŽŽů ;Ždž ϯͿ͘ tŚŝůĞ ƚŚĞƌĞ ĂƌĞ ĂůƚĞƌŶĂƟǀĞ pollutants. For some localized pollution, the level often decreases ǀŝĞǁƐ ƌĞŐĂƌĚŝŶŐ ƚŚĞ ƚŚĞŽƌĞƟĐĂů ĨŽƵŶĚĂƟŽŶ ĂŶĚ ĞŵƉŝƌŝĐĂů with growth, depicting a linear or half-U shape. This does not ƌŽďƵƐƚŶĞƐƐ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ <͕ ŵĂŶLJ ƐƚƵĚŝĞƐ ŚĂǀĞ ĨŽƵŶĚ ĂŶ reject the EKC’s validity, as pollution must have increased in the past, but early data are not available to show this. Similarly, for ŝŶǀĞƌƚĞĚ hͲƐŚĂƉĞ ƌĞůĂƟŽŶƐŚŝƉ ďĞƚǁĞĞŶ ĞŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚĂů nonlocal pollution such as CO2, the turning points are likely to ŝŶĚŝĐĂƚŽƌƐ ĂŶĚ W ůĞǀĞů͘ ƌŽƐƐŵĂŶ ĂŶĚ <ƌƵĞŐĞƌ ;ϭϵϵϱͿ occur at high incomes. A large literature on EKC exists, see Brock ĂŶĚ Ğ ƌƵLJŶ ;ϭϵϵϳͿ ƐƚĂƚĞ ƚŚĂƚ ƚŚĞ ŝŶǀĞƌƚĞĚ hͲƐŚĂƉĞ ŝƐ and Taylor (2005). ĚƌŝǀĞŶ ďLJ Ă ĐŽŵďŝŶĂƟŽŶ ŽĨ ĨŽƌĐĞƐ͗ ƚŚĞ ůĞǀĞů ŽĨ ŽƵƚƉƵƚ Žƌ ƐĐĂůĞ ŽĨ ĞĐŽŶŽŵŝĐ ĂĐƟǀŝƚLJ ;ƐĐĂůĞ ĞīĞĐƚͿ͖ ƚŚĞ ĐŽŵƉŽƐŝƟŽŶ ŽĨ ŽƵƚƉƵƚ ;ƐƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĂů ĞīĞĐƚͿ͖ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞ ƐƚĂƚĞ ŽĨ ƚĞĐŚŶŽůŽŐLJ Sources: Brock and Taylor (2005), Grossman and Krueger (1995). ;ƚĞĐŚŶŝĐĂů ĞīĞĐƚͿ͘ ,ŽůĚŝŶŐ ĞǀĞƌLJƚŚŝŶŐ ĞůƐĞ ĐŽŶƐƚĂŶƚ͕ ŝŶĐƌĞĂƐŝŶŐ ŽƵƚƉƵƚ ůĞĂĚƐ ƚŽ ŵŽƌĞ ĞŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚĂů ĚĂŵĂŐĞ͖ ƐŚŝŌŝŶŐ ƌĞƐŽƵƌĐĞƐ ĂŶĚ ƉƌŽĚƵĐƟŽŶ ƚŽ ůĞƐƐͲƉŽůůƵƟŶŐ Žƌ ŽŶƐĞƋƵĞŶƚůLJ͕ ƚŚĞ ƉĞĂŬƐ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ŝŶǀĞƌƚĞĚͲh ĐƵƌǀĞƐ ůĞƐƐͲĞŵŝƫŶŐ ŝŶĚƵƐƚƌŝĞƐ ƐƵĐŚ ĂƐ ƐĞƌǀŝĐĞƐ ŚĞůƉƐ ŝŵƉƌŽǀĞ ĂƌĞ ĨŽƵŶĚ ƚŽ ĐŽƌƌĞƐƉŽŶĚ ǁŝƚŚ ƐŝŐŶŝĮĐĂŶƚůLJ ĚŝīĞƌĞŶƚ ĞŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚ͖ ĂŶĚ ĮŶĂůůLJ ƚĞĐŚŶŽůŽŐLJ ĂĚǀĂŶĐĞ ŝƐ ďĞŶĞĮĐŝĂů ŝŶĐŽŵĞ ůĞǀĞůƐ͘ &Žƌ ĞdžĂŵƉůĞ͕ ƚŚĞ ƐƵůĨƵƌ ĞŵŝƐƐŝŽŶƐ ƉĞĂŬ ƚŽ ĞŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚ͘ Ɛ ĚŝīĞƌĞŶƚ ĐŽƵŶƚƌŝĞƐ ĞdžƉĞƌŝĞŶĐĞ Žƌ ĐŽƌƌĞƐƉŽŶĚƐ ǁŝƚŚ ŝŶĐŽŵĞ ůĞǀĞůƐ ƌĂŶŐŝŶŐ ĨƌŽŵ Ψϯ͕ϭϯϳ ƉƌŝŽƌŝƟnjĞ ĚŝīĞƌĞŶƚ ĨŽƌĐĞƐ Ăƚ ĚŝīĞƌĞŶƚ ĚĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ ƚŽ ΨϭϬϭ͕ϭϲϲ Ăƚ ϭϵϵϬ ƉƌŝĐĞƐ ;^ƚĞƌŶ ϮϬϬϯͿ͕ ǁŚĞƌĞĂƐ KϮ͕ ƐƚĂŐĞƐ͕ ƚŚĞ < ŶĂƚƵƌĂůůLJ ĚŝīĞƌƐ ďĞƚǁĞĞŶ ĐŽƵŶƚƌŝĞƐ ĂŶĚ ƉĞĂŬƐ ĐŽƌƌĞƐƉŽŶĚ ǁŝƚŚ Ψϭϵ͕ϭϬϬ ;^ĞůĚĞŶ ĂŶĚ ^ŽŶŐ ϭϵϵϱͿ ƉĞƌŝŽĚƐ͘ hŶĚĞƌůLJŝŶŐ ƚŚĞ ƉƌŝŽƌŝƚLJ ƐĞƫŶŐ ĂƌĞ ƉĞƌƐŽŶĂů ĂŶĚ Žƌ ΨϮϱ͕ϭϬϬ ;ŽůĞ Ğƚ Ăů͘ ϭϵϵϳͿ͘ ŝŶƐƟƚƵƟŽŶĂů ƉƌĞĨĞƌĞŶĐĞƐ ĨŽƌ ĞŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚĂů ƋƵĂůŝƚLJ ǀĞƌƐƵƐ ŵĂƚĞƌŝĂů ŽƵƚƉƵƚƐ͘ tŚĞƌĞ ĚŽĞƐ ƐŝĂ ƐƚĂŶĚ ŽŶ ƚŚĞ <͍ /Ĩ ƚŚĞ ĮŶĚŝŶŐƐ ĐŝƚĞĚ ĂďŽǀĞ ĂƌĞ ƵƐĞĚ ƚŽ ŵĂŬĞ ŝŶĨĞƌĞŶĐĞƐ͕ ƐŝĂ ŝƐ ƐƟůů EŽƚ ŽŶůLJ ĚŽĞƐ ƚŚĞ < ĚŝīĞƌ ĂĐƌŽƐƐ ĐŽƵŶƚƌŝĞƐ ŽŶ ƚŚĞ ƌŝƐŝŶŐ ƐŝĚĞ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ĐƵƌǀĞ͕ ĂƐ ƚŚĞ ĂǀĞƌĂŐĞ ŝŶĐŽŵĞ ĂŶĚ ƟŵĞ͕ ŝƚ ĂůƐŽ ĚŝīĞƌƐ ǁŝƚŚ ǀĂƌŝŽƵƐ ĞŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚĂů ŝŶ ƐŝĂ ŝƐ ƌŽƵŐŚůLJ Ψϯ͕ϵϬϬ Ăƚ ϭϵϵϬ ƉƌŝĐĞƐ͘ ƚ ƚŚĞ ĐƵƌƌĞŶƚ ŝŶĚŝĐĂƚŽƌƐ͘ dLJƉŝĐĂůůLJ͕ ůŽĐĂů ƉŽůůƵƚĂŶƚƐ ĂƌĞ ŵŽƌĞ ůŝŬĞůLJ ƚŽ ƐƚĂŐĞ ŽĨ ƐŝĂ͛Ɛ ĚĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ͕ ŵŝůůŝŽŶƐ ŽĨ ƉĞŽƉůĞ ŵŽǀĞ ĚŝƐƉůĂLJ ĂŶ ŝŶǀĞƌƚĞĚ h ƐŚĂƉĞ ƌĞůĂƟŽŶ ǁŝƚŚ ŝŶĐŽŵĞ͕ ǁŚŝůĞ ƚŽ ĐŝƟĞƐ ĂŶĚ ĮƌŵƐ ůŽĐĂƚĞ ƚŚĞƌĞ ƚŽ ĞŵƉůŽLJ ƚŚĞŵ͘ dŚĞ ŐůŽďĂů ŝŵƉĂĐƚƐ ƐƵĐŚ ĂƐ KϮ ĂƌĞ ůĞƐƐ ůŝŬĞůLJ ƚŽ ĚŽ ƐŽ͘ dŚŝƐ ƐŚĞĞƌ ƐĐĂůĞ ŽĨ ĂĐƟǀŝƟĞƐ ĂƐƐŽĐŝĂƚĞĚ ǁŝƚŚ ƵƌďĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶ ĂŶĚ ŝƐ ƵŶĚĞƌƐƚĂŶĚĂďůĞ ĂƐ ďŽƚŚ ŽƌĚŝŶĂƌLJ ĐŝƟnjĞŶƐ ĂŶĚ ƉŽůŝĐLJ ŝŶĚƵƐƚƌŝĂůŝnjĂƟŽŶ ;ƐƵĐŚ ĂƐ ƚƌĂŶƐƉŽƌƚ͕ ďƵŝůĚŝŶŐ ĐŽŶƐƚƌƵĐƟŽŶ͕ ŵĂŬĞƌƐ ĂƌĞ ůŝŬĞůLJ ƚŽ ĐŽŶƐŝĚĞƌ ůŽĐĂů ŝŵƉĂĐƚƐ ĂƐ ŵŽƌĞ ŐĂƌďĂŐĞ ĂŶĚ ǁĂƐƚĞ ĚŝƐƉŽƐĂů͕ ĂŶĚ ƉŽǁĞƌ ŐĞŶĞƌĂƟŽŶͿ ĐŽƵůĚ ŝŵƉŽƌƚĂŶƚ ƚŚĂŶ ŐůŽďĂů ŽŶĞƐ͘ ĐŽŶƚƌŝďƵƚĞ ƚŽ ĞŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚĂů ĚĞŐƌĂĚĂƟŽŶ͘ dŚƵƐ͕ ŝŶ ƚŚĞ ĂďƐĞŶĐĞ ŽĨ ĂƉƉƌŽƉƌŝĂƚĞ ŝŶƚĞƌǀĞŶƟŽŶƐ͕ ƐŝĂ͛Ɛ ĞŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚ ŝƐ ůŝŬĞůLJ ƚŽ ďĞĐŽŵĞ ǁŽƌƐĞ ďĞĨŽƌĞ ŝƚ ŐĞƚƐ ďĞƩĞƌ͘
    • ƌĞĞŶ hƌďĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶ ŝŶ ƐŝĂ 21 dŽ ƉƌŽƉĞƌůLJ ĂƐƐĞƐƐ ƚŚĞ ĞŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚĂů ŽƵƚůŽŽŬ Figure 23 Projected Per Capita CO2 Emissions based on Estimated EKC Special ChapterĨŽƌ ƐŝĂ͕ ŝƚ ŝƐ ŶĞĐĞƐƐĂƌLJ ƚŽ ĞƐƟŵĂƚĞ ƐŝĂ͛Ɛ <͘ hƐŝŶŐ 12ĚĂƚĂ ĨƌŽŵ ƚŚĞ tŽƌůĚ ĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ /ŶĚŝĐĂƚŽƌƐ͕ &ŝŐƵƌĞ 10.2 10 9.3ϮϮ ƉƌĞƐĞŶƚƐ Ă ƐĐĂƩĞƌ ƉůŽƚ ŽĨ ƉĞƌ ĐĂƉŝƚĂ W ĂŐĂŝŶƐƚ ƉĞƌ CO2 emission (t/capita)ĐĂƉŝƚĂ KϮ ĞŵŝƐƐŝŽŶƐ͘ dŚĞ ƚƌĞŶĚ ůŝŶĞ ĐůĞĂƌůLJ ƌĞƐĞŵďůĞƐ 8 7.6Ă ƐƚĂŶĚĂƌĚ <͘ dŽ ĨŽƌŵĂůůLJ ĞƐƟŵĂƚĞ ĂŶ < ĨŽƌ ƐŝĂ͕ϯϳϰ ŽďƐĞƌǀĂƟŽŶƐ ĨƌŽŵ ϰϮ  ŵĞŵďĞƌƐ ǁĞƌĞ ƵƐĞĚ ƚŽ 6 5.6ƉƌŽĚƵĐĞ ƚŚĞ ŵŽĚĞůŝŶŐ ƌĞƐƵůƚƐ ŝŶ dĂďůĞ ϳ͘ ĂƐĞĚ ŽŶ ƚŚŝƐ 4 3.4 3.5ŵŽĚĞů͕ ƚŚĞ ƉĞĂŬ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ŝŶǀĞƌƚĞĚ hͲĐƵƌǀĞ ĐŽƌƌĞƐƉŽŶĚƐ ƚŽĂ W ůĞǀĞů ŽĨ ΨϰϬ͕ϵϳϭ ;Ăƚ ϮϬϬϱ ƉƌŝĐĞ ůĞǀĞůƐͿ͘ ůĞĂƌůLJ͕ ƚŚĞ 2W ƉĞƌ ĐĂƉŝƚĂ ŽĨ ŵŽƐƚ ĚĞǀĞůŽƉŝŶŐ ƐŝĂŶ ĐŽƵŶƚƌŝĞƐ ŝƐ ĨĂƌĨƌŽŵ ƚŚĞ ͞KϮ ƚƵƌŶŝŶŐ ƉŽŝŶƚ͘͟ 0 2008* 2010 2020 2030 2040 2050 Figure 22 Scatterplot of CO2 Emissions (t/capita) and CO2 = carbon dioxide, EKC = environmental Kuznets curve, t = ton. * based on average CO2 emissions per capita of the sample. GDP Per Capita (in 2005 PPP) Source: ADB estimates. 2010=$6,107 Peak=$40,971 30 The Environment– Urbanization Nexus in AsiaCO2 emissions (t/capita) 20 dŚĞ ĐŽŶǀĞŶƟŽŶĂů < ŝƐ Ă ƌĞůĂƟŽŶƐŚŝƉ ďĞƚǁĞĞŶ W ĂŶĚ ĂŶ ĞŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚĂů ŝŶĚŝĐĂƚŽƌ͘ KǁŝŶŐ ƚŽ ƚŚĞ ƉŽƐŝƟǀĞ ĐŽƌƌĞůĂƟŽŶ ďĞƚǁĞĞŶ ƵƌďĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶ ĂŶĚ W ;&ŝŐƵƌĞ ϮϰͿ͕10 ƚŚĞ < ĐŽƵůĚ ďĞ ƵƐĞĚ ƚŽ ŝŶĨĞƌ ƚŚĂƚ ƵƌďĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶ ŝŶ ƐŝĂ ŵĂLJ ůĞĂĚ ƚŽ ĞŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚĂů ĚĞŐƌĂĚĂƟŽŶ͘ ,ŽǁĞǀĞƌ͕ ƚŚŝƐ ŝŶĨĞƌĞŶĐĞ ŝƐ ƉƌŽďůĞŵĂƟĐ ĂƐ ƚŚĞ ƵƌďĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶʹW ĐƵƌǀĞ ŝƐ ĨĂƌ ĨƌŽŵ Ă ŐŽŽĚ Įƚ͘ /Ŷ ƌĞĂůŝƚLJ͕ Ă ĐŽƵŶƚƌLJ ĐĂŶ ĂĐŚŝĞǀĞ 0 0 10,000 20,000 30,000 40,000 50,000 ƚŚĞ ƐĂŵĞ ůĞǀĞů ŽĨ ƉĞƌ ĐĂƉŝƚĂ W ǁŝƚŚ ĚŝīĞƌĞŶƚ ůĞǀĞůƐ ŽĨ ƵƌďĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶ͘ KŶ ƚŚĞ ŽƚŚĞƌ ŚĂŶĚ͕ ĐŽƵŶƚƌŝĞƐ ǁŝƚŚ ƚŚĞ GDP per capita (in 2005 PPP) ƐĂŵĞ ůĞǀĞů ŽĨ ƵƌďĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶ ĐĂŶ ŚĂǀĞ ƋƵŝƚĞ ĚŝīĞƌĞŶƚ WƐ CO2 = carbon dioxide, GDP = gross domestic product, PPP = purchasing power parity, ƉĞƌ ĐĂƉŝƚĂ͘ &Žƌ ĞdžĂŵƉůĞ͕ ŵĂŶLJ ĐŽƵŶƚƌŝĞƐ ŝŶ ^ƵďͲ^ĂŚĂƌĂŶ t = ton. Source: ADB estimates based on World Bank (2012). ĨƌŝĐĂ ŚĂǀĞ ďĞĞŶ ĂƐ ƵƌďĂŶŝnjĞĚ ĂƐ ƚŚŽƐĞ ŝŶ ƐŝĂ ĨŽƌ ŵĂŶLJ LJĞĂƌƐ͕ LJĞƚ ƚŚĞLJ ŚĂǀĞ ďĞĞŶ ŵƵĐŚ ƉŽŽƌĞƌ͘ &Žƌ ĚĞĐĂĚĞƐ͕ ƚŚĞ Table 7 The Environmental Kuznets Curve for Asia ƵƌďĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶ ůĞǀĞů ŝŶ >ĂƟŶ ŵĞƌŝĐĂ ǁĂƐ ĂƐ ŚŝŐŚ ĂƐ ƚŚĂƚ Independent Variable Coefficient Standard Error ŝŶ ƵƌŽƉĞ͕ ďƵƚ ƵƌŽƉĞ ĂůǁĂLJƐ ĞŶũŽLJĞĚ ŚŝŐŚĞƌ ŝŶĐŽŵĞ͘ ƐLn GDP per capita 5.48*** 0.502 ƐŚŽǁŶ ŝŶ &ŝŐƵƌĞ Ϯϰ͕ ƚŚĞƌĞ ĂƌĞ ǀĂƐƚ ĚĞǀŝĂƟŽŶƐ ŽĨ ĚĂƚĂ ĨƌŽŵ(Ln GDP per capita)2 -0.251*** 0.029 ƚŚĞ ĮƩĞĚ ůŝŶĞƐ͘Constant -27.54*** 2.169 Observations 374 R2 0.753 dŚĞƌĞĨŽƌĞ͕ ŝƚ ŝƐ ŝŶĂƉƉƌŽƉƌŝĂƚĞ ƚŽ ƌĞůLJ ŽŶ ƚŚĞ < * significant at 10%; ** significant at 5%; *** significant at 1% ƚŽ ŝŶĨĞƌ ĂŶ ƵƌďĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶʹĞŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚ ƌĞůĂƟŽŶƐŚŝƉ ĂŶĚ GDP = gross domestic product, Ln = natural logarithm ĐŽŶĐůƵĚĞ ƚŚĂƚ ƚŚĞ ĞŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚ ǁŝůů ĨƵƌƚŚĞƌ ĚĞŐƌĂĚĞ Source: ADB estimates. ĂƐ ƐŝĂ ƵƌďĂŶŝnjĞƐ͘ /ŶĚĞĞĚ͕ ƵƌďĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶ ĐĂŶ ƉƌŽĚƵĐĞ ďĞŶĞĮĐŝĂů ĞŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚĂů ŽƵƚĐŽŵĞƐ ĂƐ ŝƚ ĨĂĐŝůŝƚĂƚĞƐ hƐŝŶŐ ƚŚĞ ĞƐƟŵĂƚĞĚ <͕ ƚŚĞ ĨƵƚƵƌĞ ůĞǀĞů ŽĨ ƉĞƌ ŝŵƉƌŽǀĞĚ ƉƌŽĚƵĐƟǀŝƚLJ͕ ĚĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ƐĞƌǀŝĐĞĐĂƉŝƚĂ KϮ ĐĂŶ ďĞ ƐŝŵƵůĂƚĞĚ ƵƐŝŶŐ W ƉƌŽũĞĐƟŽŶƐ ŽĨ ƐĞĐƚŽƌ͕ ĂŶĚ ĂĐĐĞƐƐ ƚŽ ĞŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚͲƌĞůĂƚĞĚ ŝŶĨƌĂƐƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĞ͖<ŽŚůŝ͕ ^ŚĂƌŵĂ͕ ĂŶĚ ^ŽŽĚ ;ϮϬϭϭͿ͘ &ŝŐƵƌĞ Ϯϯ ƉƌĞƐĞŶƚƐ ƚŚĞ ƉƌŽŵŽƚĞƐ ŐƌĞĞŶ ŝŶŶŽǀĂƟŽŶ ĂŶĚ ƚĞĐŚŶŽůŽŐLJ͖ ƉƌŽŵƉƚƐ͞ďƵƐŝŶĞƐƐͲĂƐͲƵƐƵĂů͟ ƐĐĞŶĂƌŝŽƐ͗ ƉĞƌ ĐĂƉŝƚĂ KϮ ǁŽƵůĚ ƌŝƐĞ ƚƌĂĚŝƟŽŶĂů ŵĂŶƵĨĂĐƚƵƌŝŶŐ ƚŽ ƌĞůŽĐĂƚĞ ĂǁĂLJ ĨƌŽŵ ĐŝƚLJĨƌŽŵ ƚŚĞ ϮϬϬϴ ůĞǀĞů ŽĨ ϯ͘ϰ ƚŽŶƐ ƉĞƌ ĐĂƉŝƚĂ ƚŽ ϳ͘ϲ ƚŽŶƐ ŝŶ ĐĞŶƚĞƌƐ͖ ŶƵƌƚƵƌĞƐ ŵŝĚĚůĞ ĐůĂƐƐ ĂŶĚ ƉƌŽƉĞƌƚLJ ŽǁŶĞƌƐ ǁŚŽϮϬϯϬ ĂŶĚ ĨƵƌƚŚĞƌ ƚŽ ϭϬ͘Ϯ ƚŽŶƐ ŝŶ ϮϬϱϬ͘ dŚĞƐĞ ƐĐĞŶĂƌŝŽƐ ĂƌĞ ŵŽƌĞ ƉƌŽͲĞŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚ ƚŚĂŶ ƚŚĞ ŐĞŶĞƌĂů ƉŽƉƵůĂĐĞ͖ŝŵƉůLJ Ă ĚŝƐĂƐƚƌŽƵƐ ĨƵƚƵƌĞ ĨŽƌ ƐŝĂ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞ ŐůŽďĞ͘ ůĞĂƌůLJ͕ ĂŶĚ ůĞĂĚƐ ƚŽ ůŽǁĞƌ ĨĞƌƟůŝƚLJ ƌĂƚĞƐ ĂŶĚ ŚŝŐŚĞƌ ĞĚƵĐĂƟŽŶĂůĂĐƟŽŶ ŝƐ ŶĞĞĚĞĚ ĂŶĚ ŝŶƚĞƌǀĞŶƟŽŶƐ ŵƵƐƚ ďĞ ĨŽƵŶĚ ĂŶĚ ůĞǀĞůƐ͘ŝŵƉůĞŵĞŶƚĞĚ͘
    • 22 <ĞLJ /ŶĚŝĐĂƚŽƌƐ ĨŽƌ ƐŝĂ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞ WĂĐŝĮĐ ϮϬϭϮ Figure 24 GDP Per Capita and Level of Urbanization, 1980–2010 a. All Countries hƌďĂŶ ŐŐůŽŵĞƌĂƟŽŶ ,ĞůƉƐ /ŵƉƌŽǀĞ ƚŚĞ ŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚ 100 90 hƌďĂŶ ĂŐŐůŽŵĞƌĂƟŽŶ ŝŶ ŝƚƐĞůĨ ŝƐ ďĞŶŝŐŶ ĨŽƌ ƚŚĞ 80 ĞŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚ͘ &ŝƌƐƚ͕ ŝƚ ĐŽŵĞƐ ǁŝƚŚ ŚŝŐŚĞƌ ƉƌŽĚƵĐƟǀŝƚLJ Level of urbanization (%) 70 ĚƵĞ ƚŽ ƚŚĞ ƉŽƐŝƟǀĞ ĞdžƚĞƌŶĂůŝƟĞƐ ĂŶĚ ƐĐĂůĞ ĞĐŽŶŽŵŝĞƐ 60 ĚŝƐĐƵƐƐĞĚ ŝŶ ƚŚĞ ĮƌƐƚ ƐĞĐƟŽŶ ŽĨ ƚŚŝƐ ĐŚĂƉƚĞƌ͘ &Žƌ ƐŝĂ ĂƐ Ă 50 ǁŚŽůĞ͕ ƵƌďĂŶ ƉƌŽĚƵĐƟǀŝƚLJ ŝƐ ŵŽƌĞ ƚŚĂŶ ϱ͘ϱ ƟŵĞƐ ƚŚĂƚ ŝŶ 40 ƚŚĞ ƌƵƌĂů ĂƌĞĂƐ ;hEͲ, /d d ϮϬϭϬͿ͘ dŚƵƐ͕ ƚŚĞ ƐĂŵĞ ůĞǀĞů ŽĨ ŽƵƚƉƵƚ ĐĂŶ ďĞ ƉƌŽĚƵĐĞĚ ƵƐŝŶŐ ĨĞǁĞƌ ƌĞƐŽƵƌĐĞƐ ǁŝƚŚ ƵƌďĂŶ 30 ĂŐŐůŽŵĞƌĂƟŽŶ ƚŚĂŶ ǁŝƚŚŽƵƚ͘ /Ŷ ƚŚŝƐ ƐĞŶƐĞ͕ ƵƌďĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶ 20 ŚĞůƉƐ ƌĞĚƵĐĞ ƚŚĞ ĞĐŽůŽŐŝĐĂů ĨŽŽƚƉƌŝŶƚ͘ 10 0 ^ĞĐŽŶĚ͕ ĚĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ƐĞƌǀŝĐĞ ƐĞĐƚŽƌ ŝƐ 0 20,000 40,000 60,000 80,000 100,000 ĐůŽƐĞůLJ ĂƐƐŽĐŝĂƚĞĚ ǁŝƚŚ ƵƌďĂŶ ĂŐŐůŽŵĞƌĂƟŽŶ͘ dŚĞ ƚĞƌƟĂƌLJ ƐĞĐƚŽƌ ĐŽƵůĚ ŶŽƚ ƉƌŽƐƉĞƌ ǁŝƚŚŽƵƚ ƵƌďĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶ ďĞĐĂƵƐĞ b. Asia ŵŽƐƚ ƐĞƌǀŝĐĞƐ ƌĞƋƵŝƌĞ Ă ĐĞƌƚĂŝŶ ĚĞŐƌĞĞ ŽĨ ĐŽŶĐĞŶƚƌĂƟŽŶ ŽĨ ĐůŝĞŶƚƐ͘ Ɛ ƐĞƌǀŝĐĞ ƉƌŽĚƵĐƟŽŶ ŐĞŶĞƌĂůůLJ ƉŽůůƵƚĞƐ ĂŶĚ 100 ĞŵŝƚƐ ůĞƐƐ ƚŚĂŶ ŵĂŶƵĨĂĐƚƵƌŝŶŐ ĂĐƟǀŝƟĞƐ͕ ƵƌďĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶ 90 ĞŶŚĂŶĐĞƐ ƚŚĞ ďĞŶĞĮĐŝĂů ƐƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĂů ĞīĞĐƚ ƵŶĚĞƌůLJŝŶŐ ƚŚĞ 80 <͕ ĂƐ ĚŝƐĐƵƐƐĞĚ ŝŶ ƚŚĞ ƐƵďƐĞĐƟŽŶ ͞ ƐŝĂ͛Ɛ ŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚĂů Level of urbanization (%) 70 ŚĂůůĞŶŐĞƐ͘͟ 60 dŚŝƌĚ͕ ĞŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚͲƌĞůĂƚĞĚ ŝŶĨƌĂƐƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĞ ĂŶĚ 50 ƐĞƌǀŝĐĞƐ ƐƵĐŚ ĂƐ ƉŝƉĞĚ ǁĂƚĞƌ͕ ďĂƐŝĐ ƐĂŶŝƚĂƟŽŶ͕ ĂŶĚ ƐŽůŝĚ 40 ǁĂƐƚĞ ĚŝƐƉŽƐĂů ĂƌĞ ŵƵĐŚ ĞĂƐŝĞƌ ĂŶĚ ŵŽƌĞ ĞĐŽŶŽŵŝĐĂů 30 ƚŽ ĐŽŶƐƚƌƵĐƚ͕ ŵĂŝŶƚĂŝŶ͕ ĂŶĚ ŽƉĞƌĂƚĞ ŝŶ ĂŶ ƵƌďĂŶ ƚŚĂŶ Ă 20 ƌƵƌĂů ƐĞƫŶŐ͘ /Ŷ ŽƚŚĞƌ ǁŽƌĚƐ͕ ƵƌďĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶ ĨĂĐŝůŝƚĂƚĞƐ ƚŚĞ ƐƵƉƉůLJ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ƌĞůĞǀĂŶƚ ĨĂĐŝůŝƟĞƐ ĂŶĚ ƐĞƌǀŝĐĞƐ ƚŽ Ă ůĂƌŐĞƌ 10 ƐŚĂƌĞ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ƉŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶ͘ KŶ ƚŚĞ ŽƚŚĞƌ ŚĂŶĚ͕ ƵƌďĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶ 0 ƉƌŽŵŽƚĞƐ ŐƌŽǁƚŚ ƚŚĂƚ ŚĞůƉƐ ĞŶŚĂŶĐĞ ĂīŽƌĚĂďŝůŝƚLJ ĂŶĚ 0 10,000 20,000 30,000 40,000 50,000 60,000 70,000 ĚĞŵĂŶĚ͘ /ƚ ŝƐ ƚŚƵƐ ŶŽƚ ƐƵƌƉƌŝƐŝŶŐ ƚŚĂƚ ŵĂŶLJ ŵŽƌĞ ƵƌďĂŶ ƌĞƐŝĚĞŶƚƐ ŚĂǀĞ ĂĐĐĞƐƐ ƚŽ ŝŶĨƌĂƐƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĞ ĂŶĚ ŽƚŚĞƌ ƐĞƌǀŝĐĞƐ c. ADB Developing Member Economies ƚŚĂŶ ƌƵƌĂů ƌĞƐŝĚĞŶƚƐ ;tĂŶ ĂŶĚ ŚĂŶŐ ϮϬϭϭ͕ ^ W͕ ͕ ĂŶĚ hEW ϮϬϭϮͿ͘ &Žƌ ĞdžĂŵƉůĞ͕ ĐŝƚLJ ƌĞƐŝĚĞŶƚƐ ŝŶ /ŶĚŝĂ 100 ŚĂǀĞ ŵƵĐŚ ŐƌĞĂƚĞƌ ĂĐĐĞƐƐ ƚŽ ŇƵƐŚ ƚŽŝůĞƚƐͶϲϬй ŝŶ ϭϵϵϮ 90 ;ƌĞůĂƟǀĞ ƚŽ Ă ŶĂƟŽŶĂů ĂǀĞƌĂŐĞ ŽĨ ϮϮйͿ ĂŶĚ ƚŚŝƐ ŝŶĐƌĞĂƐĞĚ 80 ƚŽ ϳϵй ďLJ ϮϬϬϲ ;ŽŶƵ ĂŶĚ <ŝŵ ϮϬϬϵͿ͘ Level of urbanization (%) 70 60 &ŽƵƌƚŚ͕ ƵƌďĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶ ĨĂĐŝůŝƚĂƚĞƐ ŝŶŶŽǀĂƟŽŶƐ͕ ĂŶĚ ƚŚŝƐ ĂƉƉůŝĞƐ ƚŽ ŐƌĞĞŶ ƚĞĐŚŶŽůŽŐŝĞƐ ĂƐ ǁĞůů͘ /Ŷ ƚŚĞ ůŽŶŐ 50 ƌƵŶ͕ ƚŚĞ ĞŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚͲĨƌŝĞŶĚůLJ ĞƋƵŝƉŵĞŶƚ͕ ŵĂĐŚŝŶĞƐ͕ 40 ǀĞŚŝĐůĞƐ͕ ĂŶĚ ƵƟůŝƟĞƐ ĚĞƚĞƌŵŝŶĞ ƚŚĞ ĨƵƚƵƌĞ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ŐƌĞĞŶ 30 ĞĐŽŶŽŵLJ͕ ĂŶĚ ƐŝĂ͛Ɛ ĐŝƟĞƐ ĂƌĞ ůŝŬĞůLJ ƚŽ ƉůĂLJ Ă ŬĞLJ ƌŽůĞ ŝŶ 20 ƉƌŽĚƵĐŝŶŐ ĂŶĚ ĞdžƉŽƌƟŶŐ ůŽǁͲĐŽƐƚ͕ ŚŝŐŚͲƋƵĂůŝƚLJ ƌĞŶĞǁĂďůĞ 10 ƉŽǁĞƌ ŐĞŶĞƌĂƟŽŶ ĞƋƵŝƉŵĞŶƚ ĂŶĚ ĞůĞĐƚƌŝĐ ǀĞŚŝĐůĞƐ͘ tŚĞŶ ŶĞǁ ĨŽƌŵƐ ŽĨ ŝŶĚƵƐƚƌLJ ŽƉĞŶ͕ ĮƌŵƐ ƵƐƵĂůůLJ ĐůƵƐƚĞƌ 0 0 10,000 20,000 30,000 40,000 50,000 60,000 70,000 ŝŶ ĐŝƟĞƐ ĨĞĂƚƵƌŝŶŐ ŚŝŐŚ ůĞǀĞůƐ ŽĨ ŚƵŵĂŶ ĐĂƉŝƚĂů͘ tŚĞŶ GDP per Capita (in 2005 PPP) ƚŚĞ ƚĞĐŚŶŽůŽŐLJ ŝƐ ŵĂƚƵƌĞ ƚŚĞLJ ĚĞĐĞŶƚƌĂůŝnjĞ ĂŶĚ ƌĞůŽĐĂƚĞ ƚŽ ůŽǁͲǁĂŐĞ ƌĞŐŝŽŶƐ ĨŽƌ ŵĂƐƐ ƉƌŽĚƵĐƟŽŶ ;ƵƌĂŶƚŽŶ ĂŶĚ GDP = gross domestic product, PPP = purchasing power parity. Source: World Bank (2012). WƵŐĂ ϮϬϬϭͿ͘ Ɛ Ă ĐŽŶƐĞƋƵĞŶĐĞ͕ ƐŝĂŶ ƵƌďĂŶ ŐƌŽǁƚŚ ĂŶĚ ŽƉĞŶŶĞƐƐ ƚŽ ŐůŽďĂů ŵĂƌŬĞƚƐ ĨĂĐŝůŝƚĂƚĞƐ ƚŚĞ ƌŝƐĞ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ŐůŽďĂů ŐƌĞĞŶ ĞĐŽŶŽŵLJ͘
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    • 24 <ĞLJ /ŶĚŝĐĂƚŽƌƐ ĨŽƌ ƐŝĂ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞ WĂĐŝĮĐ ϮϬϭϮ DĂŶƵĨĂĐƚƵƌŝŶŐ ZĞůŽĐĂƟŽŶ ĂŶĚ ZŝƐĞ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ƚŽƵƌŝƐƚƐ ǁŽƵůĚ ƐƚŽƉ ǀŝƐŝƟŶŐ ƚŚĞ ĂƌĞĂ͘ ^ĞƉĂƌĂƟŽŶ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ DŝĚĚůĞ ůĂƐƐ ĂŶĚ WƌŽƉĞƌƚLJ KǁŶĞƌƐ ƚǁŽ ĂĐƟǀŝƟĞƐ ŚĞůƉƐ ƚŽ ƌĞĚƵĐĞ ƚŚĞ ĞīĞĐƚƐ ŽĨ ƉŽůůƵƟŽŶ ĂŶĚ ƚŽ Ɛƚ ƚŽƵƌŝƐŵ͘ Ždž ϰ ƉƌĞƐĞŶƚƐ Ă ĐĂƐĞ ƐƚƵĚLJ ĨŽƌ WĞŶĂŶŐ ŝŶ DĂůĂLJƐŝĂ͘ hƌďĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶ ĐĂŶ ŚĞůƉ ĂůůĞǀŝĂƚĞ ĞŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚĂů ƉƌŽďůĞŵƐ ďLJ ƉƌŽŵƉƟŶŐ ƌĞůŽĐĂƟŽŶ ŽĨ ƚƌĂĚŝƟŽŶĂů ŵĂŶƵĨĂĐƚƵƌŝŶŐ hƌďĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶ ĂůƐŽ ŚĞůƉƐ ŶƵƌƚƵƌĞ ƚŚĞ ŵŝĚĚůĞ ĐůĂƐƐ ĂǁĂLJ ĨƌŽŵ ŵĂũŽƌ ĐŝƚLJ ĐĞŶƚĞƌƐ͘ dŚŝƐ ŝƐ ƉĂƌƚůLJ ĂƩƌŝďƵƚĂďůĞ ƚŽ ĂŶĚ ƌĂŝƐĞƐ ƉƌŝǀĂƚĞ ŽǁŶĞƌƐŚŝƉ ŽĨ ƉƌŽƉĞƌƟĞƐ ŝŶ ĐŝƟĞƐ͘ dŚĞ ƌŝƐŝŶŐ ůĂŶĚ ƉƌŝĐĞƐ ŝŶ ĐŝƚLJ ĐĞŶƚĞƌƐ ĂƐ ƵƌďĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶ ƉƌŽĐĞĞĚƐ͘ ĞdžƉĂŶĚŝŶŐ ŵŝĚĚůĞ ĐůĂƐƐ ǁŝůů ĚĞŵĂŶĚ Ă ďĞƩĞƌ ĞŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚ͕ ĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ ŽĨ ŝŶĨƌĂƐƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĞ ƐƵĐŚ ĂƐ ƉŽƌƚƐ ĂŶĚ ŚŝŐŚǁĂLJƐ ĂŶĚ ƉƌŽƉĞƌƚLJ ŽǁŶĞƌƐ ĂƌĞ Ă ƉŽǁĞƌĨƵů ŝŶƚĞƌĞƐƚ ŐƌŽƵƉ ĂůƐŽ ĨĂĐŝůŝƚĂƚĞƐ ƐƵĐŚ ŵŽǀĞŵĞŶƚƐ ;,ĞŶĚĞƌƐŽŶ ϮϬϬϮͿ͘ ǁŝƚŚ Ă ƐƚĂŬĞ ŝŶ ĞŶĂĐƟŶŐ ƉŽůŝĐŝĞƐ ƚŽ ĐƵƌď ĞŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚĂů DĂŶƵĨĂĐƚƵƌŝŶŐ ĮƌŵƐ ƌĞĐŽŐŶŝnjĞ ƚŚĂƚ ďLJ ĐŚŽŽƐŝŶŐ Ă ůĞƐƐ ĚĞŐƌĂĚĂƟŽŶ͘ dŚĞLJ ĚŝƌĞĐƚůLJ ŐĂŝŶ ĨƌŽŵ ŝŵƉƌŽǀĞŵĞŶƚƐ ŝŶ ƚŚĞ ĐĞŶƚƌĂůŝnjĞĚ ůŽĐĂƟŽŶ ƚŚĞLJ ĐĂŶ ƉĂLJ ůŽǁĞƌ ǁĂŐĞƐ ĂŶĚ ůĂŶĚ ůŽĐĂů ƋƵĂůŝƚLJ ŽĨ ůŝĨĞ͕ ŶŽƚ ůĞĂƐƚ ďĞĐĂƵƐĞ ƚŚĞ ŝŵƉƌŽǀĞŵĞŶƚƐ ƉƌŝĐĞƐ ǁŚŝůĞ ƐƟůů ĞŶũŽLJŝŶŐ ĂĐĐĞƐƐ ƚŽ ĐŽŶƐƵŵĞƌ ŵĂƌŬĞƚƐ ǁŝůů ůĞĂĚ ƚŽ ŚŝŐŚĞƌ ůŽĐĂů ƌĞĂů ĞƐƚĂƚĞ ƉƌŝĐĞƐ͘ WƵƚ ƐŝŵƉůLJ͕ ůĂŶĚ ĂŶĚ ŝŶƚĞƌŵĞĚŝĂƚĞ ŝŶƉƵƚ ƐƵƉƉůŝĞƌƐ͘ Ɛ ƐŝĂ͛Ɛ ŶĂƟŽŶƐ ŝŶǀĞƐƚ ŝƐ ŵŽƌĞ ǀĂůƵĂďůĞ ŝŶ ŶŝĐĞƌ ĂƌĞĂƐ ǁŝƚŚ ŶĂƚƵƌĂů ĂŶĚ ŚƵŵĂŶ ŝŶ ďĞƩĞƌ ƚƌĂŶƐƉŽƌƚ ŝŶĨƌĂƐƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĞ͕ ŵĂŶƵĨĂĐƚƵƌŝŶŐ ĐĂŶ ĂŵĞŶŝƟĞƐ͕ ǁŚŝĐŚ ŝƐ ǁĞůů ĚŽĐƵŵĞŶƚĞĚ ŝŶ ŵĂŶLJ ƌĞĂů ĞƐƚĂƚĞ ŵŽǀĞ ĨƵƌƚŚĞƌ ĨƌŽŵ ƚŚĞ ŵĂũŽƌ ĐŝƟĞƐ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞƐĞ ũŽďƐ ǁŝůů ďĞ ƐƚƵĚŝĞƐ ;ƐĞĞ LJŽƵƌŬŽ͕ <ĂŚŶ͕ ĂŶĚ dƌĂĐLJ ϭϵϵϵ ĨŽƌ Ă ƌĞǀŝĞǁ͖ ƌĞƉůĂĐĞĚ ďLJ ŬŶŽǁůĞĚŐĞ ĞĐŽŶŽŵLJ ĂŶĚ ƐĞƌǀŝĐĞ ũŽďƐ ǁŝƚŚ ĂŶĚ ŚĞŶŐ ĂŶĚ <ĂŚŶ ϮϬϬϴ ŽŶ ƚŚĞ WZͿ͘ ŚĞŶŐ ĂŶĚ <ĂŚŶ ůŽǁĞƌ ĞĐŽůŽŐŝĐĂů ĨŽŽƚƉƌŝŶƚƐ͘ &Žƌ ĞdžĂŵƉůĞ͕ ŝŶ ϭϵϳϬ͕ ^ĞŽƵů͛Ɛ ;ϮϬϬϴͿ ĚŽĐƵŵĞŶƚ ƚŚĂƚ ƌĞĂů ĞƐƚĂƚĞ ƉƌŝĐĞƐ ĂƌĞ ŚŝŐŚĞƌ ŝŶ ůŽǁͲ ƐŚĂƌĞƐ ŽĨ ƉŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶ ĂŶĚ ŵĂŶƵĨĂĐƚƵƌŝŶŐ ŝŶ ƚŚĞ ZĞƉƵďůŝĐ ŽĨ ƉŽůůƵƟŽŶ ƉĂƌƚƐ ŽĨ ĞŝũŝŶŐ ƚŚĂƚ ĨĞĂƚƵƌĞ ŐƌĞĞŶ ƐƉĂĐĞ ĂŶĚ ĂƌĞ <ŽƌĞĂ ǁĞƌĞ ϲϮй ĂŶĚ ϲϭй͕ ƌĞƐƉĞĐƟǀĞůLJ͘ Ƶƚ ďLJ ϭϵϵϯ͕ ǁŚŝůĞ ĐůŽƐĞ ƚŽ ƉƵďůŝĐ ƚƌĂŶƐŝƚ ƐƚĂƟŽŶƐ͘ ^ĞŽƵů͛Ɛ ƉŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶ ƌĞŵĂŝŶĞĚ Ăƚ ϲϭй ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ĐŽƵŶƚƌLJ͛Ɛ ƚŽƚĂů͕ ŝƚƐ ŵĂŶƵĨĂĐƚƵƌŝŶŐ ƐŚĂƌĞ ŚĂĚ ĨĂůůĞŶ ƚŽ ϯϬй͘ ĞƚǁĞĞŶ ϭϵϴϯ ĂŶĚ ϭϵϵϯ͕ ^ĞŽƵů͛Ɛ ƐŚĂƌĞ ŽĨ ŶĂƟŽŶĂů ŵĂŶƵĨĂĐƚƵƌŝŶŐ ũŽďƐ ĨĞůů Box 4 Malaysian Decentralization ĨƌŽŵ Ϯϭй ƚŽ ϭϰй ĂŶĚ WƵƐĂŶ ĂŶĚ dĂĞŐƵ͛Ɛ ƐŚĂƌĞ ĨĞůů ĨƌŽŵ Ϯϯй ƚŽ ϭϰй ;,ĞŶĚĞƌƐŽŶ ϮϬϬϮͿ͘ dŚĞƐĞ ĞdžĂŵƉůĞƐ ĞĐŚŽ ƚŚĞ Penang comprises an island and a mainland area twice the size ƚƌĞŶĚ ŽĨ ĚĞĐĞŶƚƌĂůŝnjĂƟŽŶ ŽĨ ŵĂŶƵĨĂĐƚƵƌŝŶŐ ĞŵƉůŽLJŵĞŶƚ of the island. Most high tech factories are in the southeastern part of the island (Bayan Lepas Free Industrial Zone [FIZ]), while ƚŚĂƚ ŚĂƐ ƚĂŬĞŶ ƉůĂĐĞ ĞůƐĞǁŚĞƌĞ ;ůĂĞƐĞƌ ĂŶĚ <ĂŚŶ ϮϬϬϰͿ͘ the heavy industry factories are primarily in suburbs such as Mak Mandin Free Trade Zone (FTZ) in Butterworth or Prai FTZ on the dŚĞ ŵŝŐƌĂƟŽŶ ŽĨ ŚĞĂǀLJ ŝŶĚƵƐƚƌLJ ĂǁĂLJ ĨƌŽŵ ŵĂũŽƌ mainland (along the coast opposite downtown Penang) and Kulim ĐŝƟĞƐ ŚĂƐ ŐĞŶĞƌĂƚĞĚ ůĂƌŐĞ ƉƵďůŝĐ ŚĞĂůƚŚ ďĞŶĞĮƚƐ ƚŚƌŽƵŐŚ in Kedah (a growing town at the border of Kedah and Penang). ŝŵƉƌŽǀĞĚ Ăŝƌ ĂŶĚ ǁĂƚĞƌ ƋƵĂůŝƚLJ ŝŶ ŵĂŶLJ ĐŝƟĞƐ ĂƌŽƵŶĚ Penang still serves as the regional financial city for the northern ƚŚĞ ǁŽƌůĚ ;<ĂŚŶ ϭϵϵϵ͕ ϮϬϬϯͿ͘ /Ŷ Ă ĐĂƐĞ ƐƚƵĚLJ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ϮϬϬϴ peninsula. Most of the tourist sites and service industries such as ^ƵŵŵĞƌ KůLJŵƉŝĐƐ ŝŶ ĞŝũŝŶŐ͕ ŚĞŶ Ğƚ Ăů͘ ;ϮϬϭϭͿ ĨŽƵŶĚ banking and tourism are in old Georgetown at the northern part of the island and along the northern shore and beaches such ƐŝŐŶŝĮĐĂŶƚ ŝŵƉƌŽǀĞŵĞŶƚƐ ŝŶ ĂŵďŝĞŶƚ Ăŝƌ ƋƵĂůŝƚLJ ĂƐ ƚŚĞ as Tanjung Bungah and Batu Feringghi. Due to Georgetown’s ĂƵƚŚŽƌŝƟĞƐ ĐŚĂŶŐĞĚ ƚƌĂŶƐƉŽƌƚ ƉĂƩĞƌŶƐ ĂŶĚ ƐŚƵƚ ĨĂĐƚŽƌŝĞƐ͘ status as a UNESCO World Heritage Site, the state government <ĂŚŶ ;ϮϬϬϯͿ ĚŽĐƵŵĞŶƚƐ ƚŚĞ ƐŚĂƌƉ ƌĞĚƵĐƟŽŶ ŽĨ ƉŽůůƵƟŽŶ has imposed many restrictions to preserve the heritage sites ŝŶ ƚŚĞ njĞĐŚ ZĞƉƵďůŝĐ ĂŶĚ WŽůĂŶĚ ĂƐ ƚŚĞLJ ĐůŽƐĞĚ ĞŶĞƌŐLJ and to boost the tourism industry. As a result, most heavy ŝŶĞĸĐŝĞŶƚ ŵĂŶƵĨĂĐƚƵƌŝŶŐ ƉůĂŶƚƐ ƚŚĂƚ ǁĞƌĞ ďƵŝůƚ ƵŶĚĞƌ industry factories are set up in or have moved to the mainland or ĐŽŵŵƵŶŝƐŵ͘ neighboring states and the majority of the firms on the island are relatively environmentally friendly, and are usually involved in high tech research and production. dŚĞ ĞĐŽŶŽŵŝĐ ĚĂŵĂŐĞ ĐĂƵƐĞĚ ďLJ ĞdžƉŽƐƵƌĞ ƚŽ ƉŽůůƵƟŽŶ ŝƐ Ă ĨƵŶĐƟŽŶ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ŶƵŵďĞƌ ŽĨ ƉĞŽƉůĞ ĞdžƉŽƐĞĚ Penang’s manufacturing sector is primarily related to electrical ĂŶĚ ŝƐ ƌĞŇĞĐƚĞĚ ďLJ ƚŚĞŝƌ ǁŝůůŝŶŐŶĞƐƐ ƚŽ ƉĂLJ ƚŽ ĂǀŽŝĚ and electronics categories of goods. To ease environmental strain ƉŽůůƵƟŽŶ͘ tŚĞŶ Ă ĨĂĐƚŽƌLJ ŵŽǀĞƐ ĨƌŽŵ Ă ŵĂũŽƌ ĐŝƚLJ ƚŽ Ă in the city of Georgetown’s centers, most factories are in FTZs ůĞƐƐ ƉŽƉƵůĂƚĞĚ ĂƌĞĂ͕ ƚŚĞ ĂŐŐƌĞŐĂƚĞ ĚĂŵĂŐĞ ĐĂƵƐĞĚ ŝƐ or industrial estates such as Bayan Lepas FIZ, Prai FTZ, or Kulim ůŝŬĞůLJ ƚŽ ĚĞĐůŝŶĞ ďĞĐĂƵƐĞ ĨĞǁĞƌ ƉĞŽƉůĞ ĂƌĞ ĞdžƉŽƐĞĚ ƚŽ along the Penang–Kedah border. Minimum taxes are levied in ƚŚĞ ƉŽůůƵƟŽŶ͘ Ɛ ĂŶ ŽůĚĞƌ ĨĂĐƚŽƌLJ ĐůŽƐĞƐ Ăƚ ƚŚĞ ŽƌŝŐŝŶ ĂŶĚ such zones and all imports and exports enjoy duty-free privileges. Ă ŶĞǁ ĨĂĐƚŽƌLJ ǁŝƚŚ ďĞƩĞƌ ƚĞĐŚŶŽůŽŐLJ ŝƐ ďƵŝůƚ Ăƚ ƚŚĞ ŶĞǁ Penang’s relocation of manufacturing away from tourist and ĚĞƐƟŶĂƟŽŶ͕ ĞŵŝƐƐŝŽŶƐ ƉĞƌ ƵŶŝƚ ŽĨ ŽƵƚƉƵƚ ĂƌĞ ĂůƐŽ ůŝŬĞůLJ cultural heritage sites highlights how an Asian city has physically ƚŽ ĨĂůů͘ separated the two activities. If they were in closer proximity, the tourism business would suffer from the pollution caused by /Ŷ ƐŽŵĞ ƐŝĂŶ ĐŝƟĞƐ͕ ƉŽůůƵƟŶŐ ŝŶĚƵƐƚƌŝĂů ĂĐƟǀŝƟĞƐ manufacturing. ĂƌĞ ŐĞŽŐƌĂƉŚŝĐĂůůLJ ƐĞƉĂƌĂƚĞĚ ĨƌŽŵ ŽƚŚĞƌ ůŽĐĂƟŽŶƐ͕ ƐƵĐŚ Sources: Authors and William (2011). ĂƐ ƚŽƵƌŝƐƚ ĂƌĞĂƐ͘ /Ĩ ŝŶĚƵƐƚƌŝĂů ĂĐƟǀŝƚLJ ƚŽŽŬ ƉůĂĐĞ ĐůŽƐĞ ƚŽ ƚŽƵƌŝƐƚ ůŽĐĂƟŽŶƐ͕ ƚŚĞLJ ǁŽƵůĚ ůŝŬĞůLJ ďĞ ĚĞŐƌĂĚĞĚ ĂŶĚ
    • ƌĞĞŶ hƌďĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶ ŝŶ ƐŝĂ 25ĞĐůŝŶŝŶŐ &ĞƌƟůŝƚLJ ĂŶĚ /ŶĐƌĞĂƐŝŶŐ ƚĂďƵůĂƚĞĚ ŝŶ dĂďůĞ ϵ ŝŵƉůLJ ƚŚĂƚ ĞǀĞƌLJ ϭ ƉĞƌĐĞŶƚĂŐĞ ƉŽŝŶƚ Special ChapterĚƵĐĂƟŽŶĂů ƩĂŝŶŵĞŶƚ ŝŶĐƌĞĂƐĞ ŝŶ ƚŚĞ ƵƌďĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶ ůĞǀĞů ůĞĚ ƚŽ Ϭ͘ϬϮ ƉĞƌĐĞŶƚĂŐĞ ƉŽŝŶƚ ƌĞĚƵĐƟŽŶ ŝŶ ƚŚĞ ŶĞƚ ƉŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶ ŐƌŽǁƚŚ ƌĂƚĞ͘ dŚŝƐ ƚƌĂŶƐůĂƚĞƐ ŝŶƚŽ Ă ƚŽƚĂů ƌĞĚƵĐƟŽŶ ŽĨ ϭϲϵ͘Ϯϴ ŵŝůůŝŽŶ ŝŶ ƚŚĞhƌďĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶ ŝƐ ĂůƐŽ ďĞŶĞĮĐŝĂů ƚŽ ƚŚĞ ĞŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚ ĚƵĞ ƚŽ ƉŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶ ŝŶĐƌĞĂƐĞ ƚŚĂƚ ŵŝŐŚƚ ŚĂǀĞ ŚĂƉƉĞŶĞĚ ǁŝƚŚŽƵƚŝƚƐ ĐůŽƐĞ ĂƐƐŽĐŝĂƟŽŶ ǁŝƚŚ ĚĞĐůŝŶŝŶŐ ĨĞƌƟůŝƚLJ͘ϵ dŚĞ ĞĐŽŶŽŵŝĐƐ ƵƌďĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶ ĚƵƌŝŶŐ ϮϬϭϬʹϮϬϱϬ͕ ŵŽƌĞ Žƌ ůĞƐƐ ĞǀĞŶůLJŽĨ ĚĞŵŽŐƌĂƉŚLJ ŽīĞƌƐ Ă ƐŝŵƉůĞ ĞdžƉůĂŶĂƟŽŶ ;ĞĐŬĞƌ ĚŝƐƚƌŝďƵƚĞĚ ŽǀĞƌ ĚŝīĞƌĞŶƚ ĚĞĐĂĚĞƐ ;&ŝŐƵƌĞ ϮϳͿ͘ hŶĚĞƌ ƚŚĞϭϵϵϭͿ͘ tŽŵĞŶ ǁŚŽ ůŝǀĞ ŝŶ ĐŝƟĞƐ ŚĂǀĞ ŵŽƌĞ ŽƉƉŽƌƚƵŶŝƟĞƐ ͞ďƵƐŝŶĞƐƐ ĂƐ ƵƐƵĂů͟ ƐĐĞŶĂƌŝŽ ŽĨ &ŝŐƵƌĞ Ϯϯ͕ ƚŚŝƐ ĂŵŽƵŶƚƐ ƚŽĨŽƌ ĞĚƵĐĂƟŽŶ ĂŶĚ ƚŽ ǁŽƌŬ ŝŶ ƚŚĞ ůĂďŽƌ ĨŽƌĐĞ ƚŚĂŶ ƌƵƌĂů ĂŶ ĂĚĚŝƟŽŶĂů ϭ͕ϳϮϳ ŵŝůůŝŽŶ ƚŽŶƐ ŽĨ KϮ ŝŶ ϮϬϱϬ͕ ϲϱ ŵŝůůŝŽŶǁŽŵĞŶ͘ ŽŶƐĞƋƵĞŶƚůLJ͕ ƵƌďĂŶ ǁŽŵĞŶ ƌĞƐƉŽŶĚ ďLJ ǁŽƌŬŝŶŐ ƚŽŶƐ ŵŽƌĞ ƚŚĂŶ ƚŚĞ ĐŽŵďŝŶĞĚ ĞŵŝƐƐŝŽŶƐ ŽĨ /ŶĚŝĂ ĂŶĚ sŝĞƚŵŽƌĞ͕ ŵĂƌƌLJŝŶŐ ůĂƚĞƌ͕ ĂŶĚ ŚĂǀŝŶŐ ĨĞǁĞƌ ĐŚŝůĚƌĞŶ͘ Ɛ LJŽƵŶŐ EĂŵ ŝŶ ϮϬϬϵ ;,ŽǁĞƐ ĂŶĚ tLJƌǁŽůů ϮϬϭϮͿ͘ǁŽŵĞŶ ĂŶƟĐŝƉĂƚĞ ƚŚĂƚ ƚŚĞLJ ǁŝůů ŚĂǀĞ ƚŚĞ ŽƉƉŽƌƚƵŶŝƚLJƚŽ ǁŽƌŬ ŝŶ ĐŝƟĞƐ͕ ƚŚĞLJ ŝŶǀĞƐƚ ŵŽƌĞ ŝŶ ƚŚĞŝƌ ĞĚƵĐĂƟŽŶ ĂƐ Table 9 Population Growth and Urbanization Independent Variable Coefficient Standard ErrorƚĞĞŶĂŐĞƌƐ ĂŶĚ ƚŚŝƐ ĨƵƌƚŚĞƌ ĞŶĐŽƵƌĂŐĞƐ ƚŚĞŵ ƚŽ ǁŽƌŬ ŝŶ ƚŚĞ Urbanization -0.019*** 0.005ŵĂƌŬĞƚ ƉůĂĐĞ͘ dŚĞ ŶĞƚ ĞīĞĐƚ ŝƐ ƚŽ ƐůŽǁ ƉŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶ ŐƌŽǁƚŚ͕ GDP per capita 0.000*** 0.000ǁŚŝĐŚ ŵĞĂŶƐ ůĞƐƐ ĂĚǀĞƌƐĞ ĞŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚĂů ĐŽŶƐĞƋƵĞŶĐĞƐ Educationa -0.049*** 0.015 Constant 2.534*** 0.250ƚŚĂŶ ǁŽƵůĚ ŽƚŚĞƌǁŝƐĞ ďĞ ƚŚĞ ĐĂƐĞ͘ Observations 194 R2 0.1623 ŶĞĐĚŽƚĂů ĞǀŝĚĞŶĐĞ ĨƌŽŵ ƐŝĂ ƐƵƉƉŽƌƚƐ ƚŚĞ ĂďŽǀĞ GDP = gross domestic productĂƌŐƵŵĞŶƚƐ͘ /Ŷ ŶĂƟŽŶƐ ƐƵĐŚ ĂƐ sŝĞƚ EĂŵ͕ ƚŚĞ ĨĞƌƟůŝƚLJ ƌĂƚĞ * significant at 10%; ** significant at 5%; *** significant at 1%ŚĂƐ ĚĞĐůŝŶĞĚ ĚƌĂŵĂƟĐĂůůLJ͕ ĨƌŽŵ ƚŚĞ ϭϵϴϬ ůĞǀĞů ŽĨ ϱ͘ϰ ƚŽ ϭ͘ϴ a education refers to percentage of complete tertiary schooling attained in female population.ŝŶ ϮϬϭϬ ;tŽƌůĚ ĂŶŬ ϮϬϭϮͿ͘ /Ŷ ƌŝĐŚ ĐŝƟĞƐ ŝŶ ƚŚĞ WZ ƐƵĐŚ ĂƐ Source: ADB estimation.^ŚĂŶŐŚĂŝ͕ ƚŚĞ ďŝƌƚŚ ƌĂƚĞ ŚĂƐ ĨĂůůĞŶ ďĞůŽǁ ƚŚĞ ƉŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶƌĞƉůĂĐĞŵĞŶƚ ƌĂƚĞ͘ ƌŽƵŶĚ ƚŚĞ ǁŽƌůĚ͕ ƚŚĞ ƐĂŵĞ ĐŽƌƌĞůĂƟŽŶŝƐ ŽďƐĞƌǀĞĚ͘ &ŝŐƵƌĞ Ϯϲ ŚŝŐŚůŝŐŚƚƐ ƚŚŝƐ ŶĞŐĂƟǀĞ ĐŽƌƌĞůĂƟŽŶ Figure 27 Reduction in Projected Population due to UrbanizationĨŽƌ ƐŝĂŶ ŶĂƟŽŶƐ͘ 60 Reduction in population (million) 48.4 50 Figure 26 Fertility Rates vs. Level of Urbanization in Asia 42.6 39.0 39.3 40 7Fertility rates (total, births/woman) 6 30 5 20 4 10 3 2 0 2010–2020 2020–2030 2030–2040 2040–2050 1 0 Source: ADB estimates. 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 Urbanization level (%) Ɛ ĚŝƐĐƵƐƐĞĚ ŝŶ ƚŚĞ ŝŶƚƌŽĚƵĐƟŽŶ ŽĨ ƚŚŝƐ ĐŚĂƉƚĞƌ͕ ŽŶĞ Source: World Bank (2012). ŵĂũŽƌ ĨƵŶĐƟŽŶ ŽĨ ĐŝƟĞƐ ŝƐ ƚŽ ŐĂƚŚĞƌ ŝŶƚĞůůĞĐƚƵĂů ĐĂƉŝƚĂů ƐŽ ƉĞŽƉůĞ ĐĂŶ ďĞĐŽŵĞ ŵŽƌĞ ĞĚƵĐĂƚĞĚ ďLJ ůĞĂƌŶŝŶŐ ĨƌŽŵ ĂŶĚ ŝŶƚĞƌĂĐƟŶŐǁŝƚŚĞĂĐŚŽƚŚĞƌ͘/ŶƚĞŶƐŝĮĞĚ ĐŽŵƉĞƟƟŽŶ ŝŶ ĐŝƟĞƐ hƐŝŶŐ ϭϵϴϬʹϮϬϭϬ ĚĂƚĂ ĨƌŽŵ ϯϭ ƐŝĂŶ ĐŽƵŶƚƌŝĞƐ ;ϭϵϰ ĂůƐŽ ŵŽƟǀĂƚĞƐ ƵƌďĂŶŝƚĞƐ ƚŽ ĂĐĐƵŵƵůĂƚĞ ŚƵŵĂŶ ĐĂƉŝƚĂů͘ /ŶŽďƐĞƌǀĂƟŽŶƐͿ͕ ƚŽƚĂů ƌĂǁ ĨĞƌƟůŝƚLJ ĐĂŶ ďĞ ƌĞŐƌĞƐƐĞĚ ŽŶ ůĞǀĞůƐ ĂĚĚŝƟŽŶ͕ ĐŝƟĞƐ ŽīĞƌ ďĞƩĞƌ ĂŶĚ ŵŽƌĞ ŽƉƉŽƌƚƵŶŝƟĞƐ ĨŽƌŽĨ ƵƌďĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶ͕ W ƉĞƌ ĐĂƉŝƚĂ͕ ĂŶĚ ĞĚƵĐĂƟŽŶ͘ >ŝƚĞƌĂůůLJ ůĞĂƌŶŝŶŐ͘ dŚĞ ƉŽƐŝƟǀĞ ĂƐƐŽĐŝĂƟŽŶ ďĞƚǁĞĞŶ ƵƌďĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶŝŶƚĞƌƉƌĞƚĞĚ͕ ƚŚĞ ŵŽĚĞůŝŶŐ ƌĞƐƵůƚƐ ŝŶĚŝĐĂƚĞ ƚŚĂƚ ĞǀĞƌLJ ϭ ĂŶĚ ĞĚƵĐĂƟŽŶ ŝƐ ĞǀŝĚĞŶƚ ŝŶ &ŝŐƵƌĞ Ϯϴ͘ƉĞƌĐĞŶƚĂŐĞ ƉŽŝŶƚ ŝŶĐƌĞĂƐĞ ŝŶ ƚŚĞ ƵƌďĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶ ůĞǀĞů ůĞĚ ƚŽϱ ĨĞǁĞƌ ďŝƌƚŚƐ ƉĞƌ ϭϬϬ ǁŽŵĞŶ ǁŚŽ ĂƌĞ ŽĨ ƌĞƉƌŽĚƵĐƟǀĞ /ŵƉƌŽǀĞĚ ĞĚƵĐĂƟŽŶĂů ĂƩĂŝŶŵĞŶƚ͕ ŝŶ ƚƵƌŶ͕ ĐĂŶĂŐĞ͘ dŽ ĚŝƌĞĐƚůLJ ĂƐƐĞƐƐ ƚŚĞ ŝŵƉĂĐƚ ŽĨ ƵƌďĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶ ŽŶ ĂīĞĐƚ ƚŚĞ ĞŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚ Ăƚ ůĞĂƐƚ ŝŶ ƚǁŽ ǁĂLJƐ͘ &ŝƌƐƚ͕ ƐŝŵŝůĂƌƉŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶ ŐƌŽǁƚŚ͕ ĂŶ ĞĐŽŶŽŵĞƚƌŝĐ ŵŽĚĞů ŝƐ ĮƩĞĚ ƚŽ ƚŽ ƵƌďĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶ͕ ĞĚƵĐĂƟŽŶ ŚĞůƉƐ ůŽǁĞƌ ĨĞƌƟůŝƚLJ͕ ĂƐĐƌŽƐƐͲĐŽƵŶƚƌLJ ĚĂƚĂ ĨƌŽŵ ƐŝĂ͘ dŚĞ ĞŵƉŝƌŝĐĂů ƌĞƐƵůƚƐ ƌĞŇĞĐƚĞĚ ďLJ ƚŚĞ ŶĞŐĂƟǀĞ ĂŶĚ ƐŝŐŶŝĮĐĂŶƚ ĐŽĞĸĐŝĞŶƚ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ĞĚƵĐĂƟŽŶ ǀĂƌŝĂďůĞ ŝŶ dĂďůĞ ϵ͘ ^ĞĐŽŶĚ͕ ƚŚĞ ŵŽƌĞ ĞĚƵĐĂƚĞĚ9 The fertility rate is the ratio of live births per woman of reproductive age in a given year.
    • 26 <ĞLJ /ŶĚŝĐĂƚŽƌƐ ĨŽƌ ƐŝĂ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞ WĂĐŝĮĐ ϮϬϭϮ ŽŌĞŶ ŽƉƚ ĨŽƌ Ă ďĞƩĞƌ ůŝǀŝŶŐ ĞŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚ ďLJ ǀŽƟŶŐ ĨŽƌ ŵŽƌĞ ǁŝůůŝŶŐ ƚŽ ƐĂĐƌŝĮĐĞ ƉĞƌƐŽŶĂů ŝŶĐŽŵĞ ƚŽ ƉƌŽƚĞĐƚ ƚŚĞ ĞŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚĂů ƌĞŐƵůĂƟŽŶ ;<ĂŚŶ ϮϬϬϮͿ͘ dŚĞLJ ĂƌĞ ĂůƐŽ ĞŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚ ;ϳϮйͿ ƚŚĂŶ ƚŚĞ ǁŽƌůĚ ĂǀĞƌĂŐĞ ;ϲϮйͿ͘ dŚĞLJ ŵŽƌĞ ǁŝůůŝŶŐ ƚŽ ƐĂĐƌŝĮĐĞ ĐŽŶƐƵŵƉƟŽŶ ƚŽĚĂLJ ĨŽƌ ƌĞƚƵƌŶƐ ŝŶ ĂƌĞ ϳ ƉĞƌĐĞŶƚĂŐĞ ƉŽŝŶƚƐ ŵŽƌĞ ůŝŬĞůLJ ƚŽ ƐƵƉƉŽƌƚ ŚŝŐŚĞƌ ƚŚĞ ůŽŶŐ ƌƵŶ ;DŽƌĞƫ ϮϬϬϰĂ͕ ĞĐŬĞƌ ĂŶĚ DƵůůŝŐĂŶ ϭϵϵϳͿ͘ ƚĂdžĞƐ ĨŽƌ ĞŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚĂů ƉƌŽƚĞĐƟŽŶ ĂůƚŚŽƵŐŚ ƌĞůĂƟǀĞůLJ ŶĚ ƉŽůŝƟĐŝĂŶƐ ĂƌĞ ůŝŬĞůLJ ƚŽ ƌĞƐƉŽŶĚ ďLJ ƐƵƉƉůLJŝŶŐ ƉŽůŝĐŝĞƐ ŵŽƌĞ ƐŝĂŶƐ ƉƌŝŽƌŝƟnjĞ ŐƌŽǁƚŚ ŽǀĞƌ ĞŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚ͘ /Ŷ ŽƚŚĞƌ ƚŚĂƚ ƵƌďĂŶ ǀŽƚĞƌƐ ĚĞƐŝƌĞ͘ ǁŽƌĚƐ͕ ƚŚĞLJ ĚŽ ŶŽƚ ǁĂŶƚ ƚŽ ƐĞĞ ŐƌŽǁƚŚ ƐůŽǁ ŝŶ ƚŚĞ ƌĞŐŝŽŶ ďƵƚ ĂƌĞ ǁŝůůŝŶŐ ƚŽ ƐĂĐƌŝĮĐĞ ƉĞƌƐŽŶĂů ŝŶĐŽŵĞ ĨŽƌ ďĞƩĞƌ Figure 28 Education vs. Urbanization in Asia, 1980–2010 ĞŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚ Ğdž ƉŽƐƚ͘ dŚĞƐĞ ĮŶĚŝŶŐƐ ƐƵŐŐĞƐƚ Ă ĐƵůƚƵƌĞ ŝŶ ƐŝĂ ƚŚĂƚ ŝƐ ĨŽƌŐŝŶŐ ŐƌĞĞŶĞƌ ƵƌďĂŶŝƐŵ͘ 15.0 Table 10 Percentage of Respondents’ Willingness to Support Environmental Protection Pay Years of schooling 10.0 Sacrifice Sacrifice Higher Support Population Subgroups Growth Income Taxes Regulation (%) (%) (%) (%) 5.0 By educational attainment No formal education 32.3 49.5 43.2 42.1 Less than Secondary Education 42.4 68.7 58.3 60.4 0.0 Secondary Education 45.2 75.3 62.8 60.8 At least Some University Education 46.8 80.8 67.7 61.0 0 20 40 60 80 100 Level of urbanization (%) World 49.3 61.8 53.3 67.2 Sources: UN (2012) and Barro-Lee (2010). Asia 43.4 71.8 60.4 58.5 Source: ADB estimates based on World Values Survey Data. ƌĞ ƚŚĞ ĞĚƵĐĂƚĞĚ ŝŶ ƐŝĂ ĂůƐŽ ƉƌŽͲĞŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚ͍ dŚĞ tŽƌůĚ sĂůƵĞƐ ^ƵƌǀĞLJ ŽīĞƌƐ ƚŚĞ ŽƉƉŽƌƚƵŶŝƚLJ ƚŽ ĂĚĚƌĞƐƐ ƚŚŝƐ ƋƵĞƐƟŽŶ͘ dŚĞ ƐƵƌǀĞLJ ĚĂƚĂ ĂůůŽǁ ŽŶĞ ƚŽ ŽďƐĞƌǀĞ ƚŚĞ YƵĂŶƟĨLJŝŶŐ ƚŚĞ ŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚʹ ƉĞƌƐŽŶĂů ƉƌŝŽƌŝƟĞƐ ŽĨ ƉĞŽƉůĞ ǁŚŽ ĂƌĞ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ƐĂŵĞ ĂŐĞ hƌďĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶ EĞdžƵƐ ďƵƚ ůŝǀĞ ŝŶ ĚŝīĞƌĞŶƚ ŶĂƟŽŶƐ͘ &Žƌ ƐŝĂ͕ ƚŚĞ ĚĂƚĂ ĐŽǀĞƌ ƚŚĞ WZ͖ /ŶĚŝĂ͖ /ŶĚŽŶĞƐŝĂ͖ ƚŚĞ ZĞƉƵďůŝĐ ŽĨ <ŽƌĞĂ͖ DĂůĂLJƐŝĂ͖ dĂŝƉĞŝ͕ŚŝŶĂ͖ dŚĂŝůĂŶĚ͖ ĂŶĚ sŝĞƚ EĂŵ͘ /Ŷ ϮϬϬϳ͕ ƚŚĞ ƐƵƌǀĞLJ dŚĞ ĐŚĂŶŶĞůƐ ĂŶĚ ŵĞĐŚĂŶŝƐŵƐ ƚŚƌŽƵŐŚ ǁŚŝĐŚ ĨŽĐƵƐĞĚ ŽŶ ĨŽƵƌ ĂƫƚƵĚŝŶĂů ƋƵĞƐƟŽŶƐ ƌĞŐĂƌĚŝŶŐ ǁŚĞƚŚĞƌ ƵƌďĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶ ĂīĞĐƚƐ ƚŚĞ ĞŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚ͕ ĂƐ ĚŝƐĐƵƐƐĞĚ ŝŶ ƚŚŝƐ ƌĞƐƉŽŶĚĞŶƚƐ ;ϭͿ ƉƌŝŽƌŝƟnjĞ ĞŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚĂů ƉƌŽƚĞĐƟŽŶ ŽǀĞƌ ĐŚĂƉƚĞƌ͕ ŝŵƉůLJ ƚŚĂƚ ƚŚĞ ƌĞůĂƟŽŶƐŚŝƉ ďĞƚǁĞĞŶ ƵƌďĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶ ĞĐŽŶŽŵŝĐ ŐƌŽǁƚŚ͕ ;ϮͿ ĂƌĞ ǁŝůůŝŶŐ ƚŽ ƐĂĐƌŝĮĐĞ ŝŶĐŽŵĞ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞ ĞŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚ ŵĂLJ ĚŝīĞƌ ĨƌŽŵ ƚŚĞ ĐŽŶǀĞŶƟŽŶĂů ƚŽ ƉƌŽƚĞĐƚ ƚŚĞ ĞŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚ͕ ;ϯͿ ǁŽƵůĚ ƉĂLJ ŚŝŐŚĞƌ ƚĂdžĞƐ <͘ tŚŝůĞ ŝƚ ŝƐ ĚŝĸĐƵůƚ ƚŽ ƉŝŶ ĚŽǁŶ ƚŚĞ ŝŵƉĂĐƚƐ ŽĨ ĞĂĐŚ ƚŽ ƉƌŽƚĞĐƚ ƚŚĞ ĞŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚ͕ ĂŶĚ ;ϰͿ ƐƵƉƉŽƌƚ ŐƌĞĂƚĞƌ ĐŚĂŶŶĞů͕ ĞĐŽŶŽŵĞƚƌŝĐ ŵŽĚĞůƐ ŵĂLJ ďĞ ƵƐĞĚ ƚŽ ĞƐƟŵĂƚĞ ƌĞŐƵůĂƟŽŶ ƚŽ ƉƌŽƚĞĐƚ ƚŚĞ ĞŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚ͘ Ă ƌĞůĂƟŽŶƐŚŝƉ͘ /Ŷ ĚŽŝŶŐ ƐŽ͕ ŝƚ ŝƐ ĐƌƵĐŝĂů ƚŽ ĐŽŶƚƌŽů ĨŽƌ W ŝŶ ƚŚĞ ŵŽĚĞů ƐŽ ƚŚĂƚ ƚŚĞ ĞīĞĐƚƐ ŽĨ ƵƌďĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶ ŽŶ dĂďůĞ ϭϬ ƌĞƉŽƌƚƐ ƚŚĞ ƌĞƐƵůƚƐ͘ dŚĞ ƚŽƉ ƌŽǁƐ ĨŽĐƵƐ ŽŶ ĞŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚĂů ŝŶĚŝĐĂƚŽƌƐ ĐĂŶ ďĞ ƉƌŽƉĞƌůLJ ŝĚĞŶƟĮĞĚ ĂŶĚ ƐŝĂŶ ƌĞƐƉŽŶĚĞŶƚƐ ĂŶĚ ƐƚƌĂƟĨLJ ƚŚĞ ĚĂƚĂ ďLJ ĞĚƵĐĂƟŽŶĂů ƋƵĂŶƟĮĞĚ͘ dŚƵƐ͕ ƚŚĞ ŵŽĚĞů ƚŽ ďĞ ĞƐƟŵĂƚĞĚ ƚĂŬĞƐ ƚŚĞ ĂƩĂŝŶŵĞŶƚ͘ ƉŽƐŝƟǀĞ ĐŽƌƌĞůĂƟŽŶ ďĞƚǁĞĞŶ ĞĚƵĐĂƟŽŶĂů ĨŽůůŽǁŝŶŐ ĨŽƌŵ͗ ĂƩĂŝŶŵĞŶƚ ĂŶĚ ƉƌŝŽƌŝƟnjŝŶŐ ŐƌĞĞŶ ŝƐƐƵĞƐ ŝƐ ĐůĞĂƌůLJ ƐŚŽǁŶ͘ &Žƌ ĞdžĂŵƉůĞ͕ ϰϳй ŽĨ ƌĞƐƉŽŶĚĞŶƚƐ ŝŶ ƐŝĂ ǁŚŽ ŚĂǀĞ Ăƚ >Ŷ KϮ Žƌ >Ŷ WDϭϬ с ɲϬ н ɲϭ >Ŷ W н ɲϮ ;>Ŷ WͿϮ + ůĞĂƐƚ Ă ƵŶŝǀĞƌƐŝƚLJ ĞĚƵĐĂƟŽŶ ƉƌŝŽƌŝƟnjĞ ƚŚĞ ĞŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚ Eϭ Urb + EϮ UrbϮ + Eϯ >Ŷ;WͿΎhƌď н Ƶ ŽǀĞƌ ĞĐŽŶŽŵŝĐ ŐƌŽǁƚŚ ǁŚŝůĞ ŽŶůLJ ϯϮй ǁŝƚŚ ŶŽ ĨŽƌŵĂů ĞĚƵĐĂƟŽŶ ŚĂǀĞ ƚŚŝƐ ƉƌŝŽƌŝƟnjĂƟŽŶ͘ Ɛ ĂŶŽƚŚĞƌ ĞdžĂŵƉůĞ͕ tŚĞƌĞ Ln с ŶĂƚƵƌĂů ůŽŐĂƌŝƚŚŵ͖ CO2 с ĂǀĞƌĂŐĞ ǁŚŝůĞ ůĞƐƐ ƚŚĂŶ ϱϬй ŽĨ ƚŚŽƐĞ ǁŝƚŚŽƵƚ ĨŽƌŵĂů ĞĚƵĐĂƟŽŶ ĞŵŝƐƐŝŽŶ ŽĨ ĐĂƌďŽŶ ĚŝŽdžŝĚĞ ;ƚŽŶƐ ƉĞƌ ĐĂƉŝƚĂͿ͖ ĂƌĞ ǁŝůůŝŶŐ ƚŽ ƐĂĐƌŝĮĐĞ ƉĞƌƐŽŶĂů ŝŶĐŽŵĞ ĨŽƌ ĞŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚ͕ PM10 ŝƐ ŵĞĂƐƵƌĞĚ ŝŶ ŵŝĐƌŽŐƌĂŵƐ ƉĞƌ ĐƵďŝĐ ŵĞƚĞƌ͖ ƚŚŝƐ ƉĞƌĐĞŶƚĂŐĞ ŝƐ ĂƐ ŚŝŐŚ ĂƐ ϴϭй ĨŽƌ ƵŶŝǀĞƌƐŝƚLJ ŐƌĂĚƵĂƚĞƐ͘ GDP с W ƉĞƌ ĐĂƉŝƚĂ ŝŶ ϮϬϬϱ WWW͖ Urb с ůĞǀĞů ŽĨ ƵƌďĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶ͖ u ŝƐ ƚŚĞ ƵƐƵĂů ĚŝƐƚƵƌďĂŶĐĞ ƚĞƌŵ ĂŶĚ ɲΖƐ dŚĞ ďŽƩŽŵ ƚǁŽ ƌŽǁƐ ŽĨ dĂďůĞ ϭϬ ĐŽŵƉĂƌĞ ƚŚĞ ĂŶĚ EΖƐ ĂƌĞ ƉĂƌĂŵĞƚĞƌƐ ƚŽ ďĞ ĞƐƟŵĂƚĞĚ͘ ĂƫƚƵĚĞƐ ŽĨ Ăůů ƌĞƐƉŽŶĚĞŶƚƐ ǀĞƌƐƵƐ ƚŚŽƐĞ ǁŚŽ ůŝǀĞ ŝŶ ƐŝĂ͘ dŚĞ ĚĂƚĂ ƐŚŽǁ ƚŚĂƚ ƌĞƐƉŽŶĚĞŶƚƐ ĨƌŽŵ ƐŝĂ ĂƌĞ
    • ƌĞĞŶ hƌďĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶ ŝŶ ƐŝĂ 27 Table 11 The Environment–Urbanization Model Special Chapter Models for 1990s 2000s Independent Variables Coefficient Standard Error Coefficient Standard ErrorLn CO2Ln GDP per capita 1.781*** 0.415 6.922*** 1.088(Ln GDP per capita)2 -0.064** 0.025 -0.414*** 0.083Urbanization 0.102*** 0.006 -0.082* 0.049Urbanization2 -0.001*** 0.000 -0.001*** 0.000Ln GDP per capita x Urbanization 0.026*** 0.008Constant -12.381*** 1.700 -31.214*** 3.610 Observations 370 374 R2 0.829 0.821Ln PM10Ln GDP per capita -1.161*** 0.345 -1.870*** 0.482(Ln GDP per capita)2 0.046** 0.021 0.101*** 0.028Urbanization 0.027*** 0.006 0.033*** 0.007Urbanization2 -0.0002*** 0.000 -0.0004*** 0.000Constant 9.746*** 1.408 11.670*** 1.979 Observations 310 304 R2 0.359 0.241 CO2 = carbon dioxode, GDP = gross domestic product, Ln = natural logarithm, PM10 = particulate matter with diameter of 10 micrometers or less. * significant at 10%; ** significant at 5%; *** significant at 1% Source: ADB estimation. dŚĞ ŵŽĚĞů ŝƐ ĮƩĞĚ ƐĞƉĂƌĂƚĞůLJ ƚŽ ϭϵϵϬʹϭϵϵϵ Ŷ ŝŵƉŽƌƚĂŶƚ ĂŶĚ ŝŶƚĞƌĞƐƟŶŐ ĮŶĚŝŶŐ ĞŵĞƌŐĞƐ ǁŚĞŶĂŶĚ ϮϬϬϬʹϮϬϬϴ ĚĂƚĂ ĨŽƌ ƐŝĂ ĞĐŽŶŽŵŝĞƐ ĨƌŽŵ ƚŚĞ ƚŚĞ ƵƌďĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶʹĞŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚ ĐƵƌǀĞƐ ĨŽƌ ƚŚĞ ϭϵϵϬƐ ĂŶĚtŽƌůĚ ĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ /ŶĚŝĐĂƚŽƌƐ ;tŽƌůĚ ĂŶŬ ϮϬϭϮͿ͘ dŚĞ ϮϬϬϬƐ ĂƌĞ ĐŽŵƉĂƌĞĚ͘ &ŝŐƵƌĞ Ϯϵ ƐŚŽǁƐ ƚŚĂƚ ŽǀĞƌ ƟŵĞŝŶƚĞƌĂĐƟǀĞ ƚĞƌŵ ǁĂƐ ĨŽƵŶĚ ƚŽ ďĞ ŚŝŐŚůLJ ŝŶƐŝŐŶŝĮĐĂŶƚ ŝŶ Ăůů ƚŚĞ ĐƵƌǀĞƐ ĨŽƌ KϮ ĞŵŝƐƐŝŽŶƐ ƉĞƌ ĐĂƉŝƚĂ ĂŶĚ WDϭϬ ;ђŐͬŵŽĚĞůƐ ĞdžĐĞƉƚ ŽŶĞ͘ dĂďůĞ ϭϭ ƐƵŵŵĂƌŝnjĞƐ ƚŚĞ ĞƐƟŵĂƟŽŶ ŵϯͿ ƐŚŝŌĞĚ ĚŽǁŶ ĂŶĚ ƚŽ ƚŚĞ ůĞŌ͘ ^ŚŝŌŝŶŐ ĚŽǁŶ ŵĞĂŶƐƌĞƐƵůƚƐ͘ ĞƐƉŝƚĞ ƚŚĞ ƉĂƌƐŝŵŽŶŝŽƵƐ ƐƉĞĐŝĮĐĂƟŽŶ͕ ƚŚĞ ŵƵĐŚ ůŽǁĞƌ ĞŵŝƐƐŝŽŶƐ ĂŶĚ ƉŽůůƵƟŽŶ Ăƚ ƚŚĞ ƐĂŵĞ ůĞǀĞů ŽĨŵŽĚĞůƐ Įƚ ƚŚĞ ĚĂƚĂ ǁĞůů ĂŶĚ ĂƌĞ ŽĨ ŐŽŽĚ ƋƵĂůŝƚLJ ŝŶ ƚĞƌŵƐ ƵƌďĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶ͘ ^ŚŝŌŝŶŐ ůĞŌ ŵĞĂŶƐ ƚŚĞ ƉĞĂŬ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ŝŶǀĞƌƚĞĚŽĨ ƚŚĞ ƵƐƵĂů ƐƚĂƟƐƟĐĂů ĂŶĚ ĞĐŽŶŽŵŝĐ ĐƌŝƚĞƌŝĂ͘ h ĐƵƌǀĞ ĐŽŵĞƐ ƐŽŽŶĞƌ ƵŶĚĞƌ ƚŚĞ ϮϬϬϬƐ ƚĞĐŚŶŽůŽŐŝĞƐ ĂŶĚ ƉŽůŝĐLJ ĞŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚ͘ &Žƌ ĞdžĂŵƉůĞ͕ ƚŚĞ ƉĞĂŬ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ϭϵϵϬƐ ĂƐĞĚ ŽŶ ƚŚĞ ŵŽĚĞůŝŶŐ ƌĞƐƵůƚƐ͕ ƚŚĞ ĞŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚʹ ĐƵƌǀĞ ĨŽƌ KϮ ĞŵŝƐƐŝŽŶƐ ŽĐĐƵƌƐ Ăƚ Ă ϲϴй ƵƌďĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶ ůĞǀĞůƵƌďĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶ ĐƵƌǀĞƐ ĂƌĞ ƉůŽƩĞĚ ŝŶ &ŝŐƵƌĞ Ϯϵ͘ dŚĞ ƉůŽƚƐ ǁŚŝůĞ ƚŚĂƚ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ϮϬϬϬƐ ĐƵƌǀĞ ŽĐĐƵƌƐ Ăƚ ϱϮй͘ &Žƌ WDϭϬ͕ ƚŚĞƐŚŽǁ ĂŶ ŝŶǀĞƌƚĞĚ hͲƉĂƩĞƌŶ͕ ƐŝŵŝůĂƌ ƚŽ ƚŚĞ ĐŽŶǀĞŶƟŽŶĂů ƉĞĂŬ ƵŶĚĞƌ ƚŚĞ ϮϬϬϬƐ ĐƵƌǀĞ ĐŽƌƌĞƐƉŽŶĚƐ ƚŽ Ă ϰϱй ůĞǀĞů< ŝŶ ƐŚĂƉĞ͘ dŚƵƐ͕ ĞŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚĂů ĚĞŐƌĂĚĂƟŽŶ ŽĐĐƵƌƐ ŝŶ ŽĨ ƵƌďĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶ ƌĂƚŚĞƌ ƚŚĂŶ ϲϲй ƵŶĚĞƌ ƚŚĞ ϭϵϵϬƐ ĐƵƌǀĞ͘ƚŚĞ ĞĂƌůLJ ƐƚĂŐĞ ŽĨ ƵƌďĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶ ǁŚĞŶ ƉƌŽĚƵĐƟǀŝƚLJ ŐĂŝŶƐ ĂŶĚ dŚĞƐĞ ƌĞƐƵůƚƐ ĂƌĞ ĐŽŶƐŝƐƚĞŶƚ ǁŝƚŚ ƚŚĞ ůŝƚĞƌĂƚƵƌĞ͕ ǁŚŝĐŚĂŐŐůŽŵĞƌĂƟŽŶ ĞīĞĐƚƐ ĂƌĞ ůŽǁ͕ ǁŚŝĐŚ ĐĂŶ ďĞ ŽǀĞƌǁĞŝŐŚĞĚ ŝŶĚŝĐĂƚĞƐ ƚŚĂƚ ůŽĐĂů ƉŽůůƵƟŽŶ ƵƐƵĂůůLJ ƐƚĂƌƚƐ ƚŽ ĚĞĐůŝŶĞďLJ ŝƚƐ ŶĞŐĂƟǀĞ ĞīĞĐƚƐ͘ ŌĞƌ ƌĞĂĐŚŝŶŐ Ă ĐĞƌƚĂŝŶ ůĞǀĞů ǁŚĞŶ ĞĂƌůŝĞƌ ƚŚĂŶ ŶŽŶůŽĐĂů ƉŽůůƵƟŽŶ͘ĂŐŐůŽŵĞƌĂƟŽŶ ĂŶĚ ƉƌŽĚƵĐƟǀŝƚLJ ŝŵƉƌŽǀĞŵĞŶƚ ďĞĐŽŵĞƐŝŐŶŝĮĐĂŶƚ͕ ƵƌďĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶ ůĞĂĚƐ ƚŽ ƌĞĚƵĐƟŽŶƐ ŝŶ ƉŽůůƵƟŽŶĂŶĚ ĞŵŝƐƐŝŽŶƐ͘ Figure 29 Environment-Urbanization Relationship in Asia 3 60 1990s 1990s CO2 emissions (t/capita) 50 2 PM10 (μg/m3) 40 2000s 30 1 2000s 20 10 0 0 20 40 60 80 100 0 20 40 60 80 100 Level of urbanization (%) Level of urbanization (%) CO2 = carbon dioxide, PM10 = particulate matter with diameter of 10 micrometers or less, μg/m3 = micrograms per cubic meter, t = ton. Source: ADB estimates.
    • 28 <ĞLJ /ŶĚŝĐĂƚŽƌƐ ĨŽƌ ƐŝĂ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞ WĂĐŝĮĐ ϮϬϭϮ dŚĞ ƐŚŝŌ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ĞŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚʹƵƌďĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶ ĐƵƌǀĞ͕ ƉƌŽĚƵĐƚƐͶƉƌŽĚƵĐƚƐ ƚŚĂƚ ĞŶĂďůĞ Ă ƌĞĚƵĐƟŽŶ ŝŶ ĐĂƌďŽŶ ůŝŬĞ ƚŚĞ ĐŽŶǀĞŶƟŽŶĂů <͕ ŝƐ ƉƌŝŵĂƌŝůLJ ĚƌŝǀĞŶ ďLJ ƚĞĐŚŶŽůŽŐLJ ĞŵŝƐƐŝŽŶƐ͘ dŚĞ ĐŽŵďŝŶĞĚ ĞīĞĐƚƐ ŽĨ ƚŚĞƐĞ ĨŽƌĐĞƐ ĐĂŶ ůĞĂĚ ĂĚǀĂŶĐĞƐ͕ ƐƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĂů ĐŚĂŶŐĞƐ͕ ĂŶĚ ƌĞŐƵůĂƟŽŶƐ͘ dŚĞ ŐĂƉ ƚŽ ďĞƩĞƌ ĞŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚĂů ŽƵƚĐŽŵĞƐ ĂƐ ƐŝĂ ƵƌďĂŶŝnjĞƐ͕ ĂƐ ďĞƚǁĞĞŶ ƚŚĞ ƚǁŽ ĐƵƌǀĞƐ ĐŽƌƌĞƐƉŽŶĚŝŶŐ ƚŽ ƚŚĞ ƐĂŵĞ ƌĞŇĞĐƚĞĚ ďLJ ƚŚĞ ƐŚŝŌ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ĞŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚʹƵƌďĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶ ƵƌďĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶ ƌĂƚĞ ŵĞĂƐƵƌĞƐ ƚŚĞ ŝŵƉĂĐƚ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ƐŚŝŌƐ ŽŶ ĐƵƌǀĞ͘ ƉŽůůƵƟŽŶ Žƌ ĞŵŝƐƐŝŽŶƐ͘ ƚ ƚŚĞ ϮϬϭϬ ůĞǀĞů ŽĨ ƵƌďĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶ ĨŽƌ ƐŝĂ͕ ƚŚĞ ŝŵƉĂĐƚƐ ĂŵŽƵŶƚĞĚ ƚŽ ϮϬй ƌĞĚƵĐƟŽŶƐ ĨŽƌ EĞǀĞƌƚŚĞůĞƐƐ͕ ƐŝĂ ŚĂƐ ŶŽƚ ƌĞĂĐŚĞĚ ƚŚĞ ƉĞĂŬ WDϭϬ ;ђŐͬŵϯͿ ĂŶĚ ĂŶĚ Ϯϳй ĨŽƌ KϮ ĞŵŝƐƐŝŽŶƐ ƉĞƌ ĐĂƉŝƚĂ͕ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ƵƌďĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶʹĞŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚ ŝŶǀĞƌƚĞĚ hͲĐƵƌǀĞ ĨŽƌĐĞĨƵůůLJ ĚĞŵŽŶƐƚƌĂƟŶŐ ƚŚĞ ůĂƌŐĞ ŝŵƉĂĐƚƐ ŽĨ ƚĞĐŚŶŽůŽŐLJ ĂŶĚ ŝƐ Ă ůŽŶŐ ǁĂLJ ĨƌŽŵ ƚŚĞ ƉĞĂŬ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ĐŽŶǀĞŶƟŽŶĂů ĂŶĚ ŐŽǀĞƌŶŵĞŶƚ ƉŽůŝĐŝĞƐ͘ <͘ ǀĞŶ ƚŚĞ ƉƌŽŵŝƐŝŶŐ ƚƌĞŶĚ ĚĞƉŝĐƚĞĚ ŝŶ &ŝŐƵƌĞ Ϯϵ ŝƐ ĐŽŶĚŝƟŽŶĂů ŽŶ ŵĂŝŶƚĂŝŶŝŶŐ ƚŚĞ ĐƵƌƌĞŶƚ ůĞǀĞů ŽĨ W͘ /Ŷ dŚƵƐ͕ ƵƌďĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶ ĐĂŶ ƐŝŐŶŝĮĐĂŶƚůLJ ĚĞĐƌĞĂƐĞ ŽƚŚĞƌ ǁŽƌĚƐ͕ ƚŚĞ ďĞŶĞĮĐŝĂů ĞīĞĐƚƐ ŽĨ ƵƌďĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶ ĐŽƵůĚ ƚŚĞ ĂŵŽƵŶƚ ŽĨ ĞŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚĂů ĚĞŐƌĂĚĂƟŽŶ͘ ,ŽůĚŝŶŐ ďĞ ŽīƐĞƚ ďLJ ƌŝƐŝŶŐ W͘ dŚƵƐ͕ ƐŝĂ ǁŝůů ĐŽŶƟŶƵĞ ƚŽ ĨĂĐĞ ĞǀĞƌLJƚŚŝŶŐ ĐŽŶƐƚĂŶƚ͕ ŝŶĐůƵĚŝŶŐ ƚĞĐŚŶŽůŽŐLJ ĂŶĚ ƉŽůŝĐLJ͕ ďLJ ƚŚĞ ƐĞƌŝŽƵƐ ĞŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚĂů ĐŚĂůůĞŶŐĞƐ ŽƵƚůŝŶĞĚ ŝŶ ƚŚĞ ϮϬϱϬ͕ KϮ ĞŵŝƐƐŝŽŶƐ ƉĞƌ ĐĂƉŝƚĂ ǁŝůů ďĞ ŚĂůǀĞĚ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞ ƐĞĐƟŽŶ ͞ŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚĂů /ŵƉůŝĐĂƟŽŶƐ ŽĨ hƌďĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶ ŝŶ WDϭϬ ;ђŐͬŵϯͿ ůĞǀĞů ǁŝůů ďĞ ĐƵƚ ďLJ ϯϳй ĞǀĞŶ ŝĨ ŶŽƚŚŝŶŐ ƐŝĂ͘͟ dŚƵƐ͕ ƚŚĞ ƌĞŐŝŽŶ ŵƵƐƚ ŵŽǀĞ ƵƌŐĞŶƚůLJ ƚŽ ĚĞƐŝŐŶ ĞůƐĞ ďƵƚ ƵƌďĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶ ĐŚĂŶŐĞƐ͘ ĞĐĂƵƐĞ ƚĞĐŚŶŽůŽŐLJ ĂŶĚ ŝŵƉůĞŵĞŶƚ ĂƉƉƌŽƉƌŝĂƚĞ ƉŽůŝĐŝĞƐ͕ Ă ƚŽƉŝĐ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ŶĞdžƚ ŬĞĞƉƐ ŝŵƉƌŽǀŝŶŐ ĂŶĚ ƉƌĞƐƐƵƌĞƐ ĨƌŽŵ ǀĂƌŝŽƵƐ ƐŽƵƌĐĞƐ ƐĞĐƟŽŶ͘ ĂƌĞ ŵŽƵŶƟŶŐ͕ ƚŚĞ ĞŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚʹƵƌďĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶ ĐƵƌǀĞ ǁŝůů ĂůŵŽƐƚ ĐĞƌƚĂŝŶůLJ ĐŽŶƟŶƵĞ ƚŽ ƐŚŝŌ ĚŽǁŶ ĂŶĚ ůĞŌ͕ ĂƐ ŝůůƵƐƚƌĂƚĞĚ ŝŶ &ŝŐƵƌĞ ϯϬ͘ dŚĞƌĞĨŽƌĞ͕ ƚŚĞ ĨƵƚƵƌĞ ŽĨ ƐŝĂ͛Ɛ Policy Options for Green ĞŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚ ǁŝůů ŵŽƐƚ ůŝŬĞůLJ ďĞ ďƌŝŐŚƚ ĂƐ ƵƌďĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶ ƉƌŽĐĞĞĚƐ͕ ǁŝƚŚ ĐĂƌĞĨƵů ŵĂŶĂŐĞŵĞŶƚ͘ Cities dŚĞ ŬĞLJ ŵĞƐƐĂŐĞ ĨƌŽŵ ƚŚĞ ƉƌĞǀŝŽƵƐ ƐĞĐƟŽŶ ŝƐ Ă ĐĂƵƟŽƵƐůLJ Figure 30 Illustrative Environment–Urbanization Curve ŽƉƟŵŝƐƟĐ ŽŶĞ͗ ƐŝĂ ĐĂŶ ĂĐŚŝĞǀĞ ŐƌĞĞŶ ƵƌďĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶ ďƵƚ ƚŽ ĚŽ ƐŽ͕ ĂƉƉƌŽƉƌŝĂƚĞ ŝŶƚĞƌǀĞŶƟŽŶƐ ŵƵƐƚ ďĞ ĚĞƐŝŐŶĞĚ ĂŶĚ ŝŵƉůĞŵĞŶƚĞĚ͘ dŚĞƐĞ ŝŶƚĞƌǀĞŶƟŽŶƐ ǁŽƵůĚ ĞŵďƌĂĐĞ ďŽƚŚ ĨƌĞĞ ŵĂƌŬĞƚ ŵĞĐŚĂŶŝƐŵƐ͕ ƐƵĐŚ ĂƐ ƉƌŝĐŝŶŐ ƌĞƐŽƵƌĐĞ ƵƐĞ ƚŽ ƌĞŇĞĐƚ ŝƚƐ ŶĞŐĂƟǀĞ ŝŵƉĂĐƚƐ ŽŶ ƚŚĞ ĞŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚ͕ ĂŶĚ ĚŝƌĞĐƚ Environment indicator ƌŽůĞƐ ŽĨ ŐŽǀĞƌŶŵĞŶƚ͕ ƐƵĐŚ ĂƐ ƌĞĨŽƌŵŝŶŐ Žƌ ŝŶƚƌŽĚƵĐŝŶŐ Past ƌĞŐƵůĂƟŽŶƐ͘ /Ŷ ƉĂƌƟĐƵůĂƌ͕ ƐƚƌŝŶŐĞŶƚ ƵƌďĂŶ ƉůĂŶŶŝŶŐ ŝƐ ƌĞƋƵŝƌĞĚ ƚŽ ĚĞǀĞůŽƉ ĞŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚͲĨƌŝĞŶĚůLJ ƐĂƚĞůůŝƚĞ ĐŝƟĞƐ ůŝŶŬĞĚ ǁŝƚŚ ŵĞŐĂĐŝƟĞƐ ďLJ ƚƌĂŝŶ͕ ůŝŐŚƚ ƌĂŝů͕ Žƌ ŵĞƚƌŽ ƌĂƚŚĞƌ ƚŚĂŶ ŚŝŐŚǁĂLJƐ͘ hƌďĂŶ ŝŶĨƌĂƐƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĞ ŝŶǀĞƐƚŵĞŶƚ ŵƵƐƚ Present ƚĂŬĞ ŝŶƚŽ ĐŽŶƐŝĚĞƌĂƟŽŶ ǀƵůŶĞƌĂďŝůŝƚLJ ƚŽ ŶĂƚƵƌĂů ĚŝƐĂƐƚĞƌƐ Future ƐƵĐŚ ĂƐ ŇŽŽĚŝŶŐ͕ ĂƐ ŽĐĐƵƌƌĞĚ ŝŶ ĂŶŐŬŽŬ͕ ĞŝũŝŶŐ͕ ĂŶĚ DĂŶŝůĂ ŝŶ ϮϬϭϭʹϮϬϭϮ͘ ŌĞƌ ƚŚĞ ŚŝŐŚůLJ ĐŽŵŵĞŶĚĂďůĞ ĂŶĚ Level of urbanization ƌĞĐĞŶƚ ƌĂƉŝĚ ĞdžƉĂŶƐŝŽŶ ŽĨ ƉŚLJƐŝĐĂů ŝŶĨƌĂƐƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĞ ŝŶ ƐŝĂ͕ ƚŚĞ ŐƌŽǁŝŶŐ ĐŚĂůůĞŶŐĞ ŶŽǁ ŝƐ ƚŽ ŝŵƉƌŽǀĞ ƚŚĞ ƋƵĂůŝƚLJ ŽĨ Source: Authors’ illustration. ŝŶĨƌĂƐƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĞ ;ƐƵĐŚ ĂƐ ŝŶ ŝƚƐ ƐĂĨĞƚLJ ƐƚĂŶĚĂƌĚƐ Žƌ ƌĞƐŝůŝĞŶĐĞ ƚŽ ĐůŝŵĂƟĐ ĞīĞĐƚƐͿ͕ ƚŚĞ ĞĸĐŝĞŶĐLJ ŽĨ ŝƚƐ ƐĞƌǀŝĐĞ ĚĞůŝǀĞƌLJ͕ ^ƵŵŵĂƌLJ ĂŶĚ ŝƚƐ ƐLJŶĞƌŐŝĞƐ ďŽƚŚ ǁŝƚŚ ŽƚŚĞƌ ĨŽƌŵƐ ŽĨ ƉŚLJƐŝĐĂů ŝŶĨƌĂƐƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĞ ĂŶĚ ǁŝƚŚ ƐŽŌ ŝŶĨƌĂƐƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĞ ŽĨ ƌĞŐƵůĂƟŽŶƐ͕ ůƚŚŽƵŐŚ ĐŝƟĞƐ ĨĂĐĞ ŵĂŶLJ ĞŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚĂů ĐŚĂůůĞŶŐĞƐ͕ ƐƚĂŶĚĂƌĚƐ͕ ĂŶĚ ŝŶƐƟƚƵƟŽŶƐ͘ ƵƌďĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶ ĐĂŶ ŚĞůƉ ƉƌŽŵŽƚĞ ŐƌĞĞŶŶĞƐƐ ĂƐ ŝƚ ůĞĂĚƐ ƚŽ ĚĞĐůŝŶŝŶŐ ĨĞƌƟůŝƚLJ ƌĂƚĞƐ͕ ŝŶĐƌĞĂƐŝŶŐ ůĞǀĞůƐ ŽĨ ĞĚƵĐĂƟŽŶ͕ /Ŷ ĚĞǀĞůŽƉŝŶŐ ƉŽůŝĐLJ ƌĞĐŽŵŵĞŶĚĂƟŽŶƐ͕ ŝƚ ŝƐ ŐƌŽǁŝŶŐ ƐƵƉƉŽƌƚ ĨŽƌ ͞ŐƌĞĞŶŝŶŐ͕͟ ƌĞůŽĐĂƟŶŐ ŝŶĚƵƐƚƌLJ ŝŵƉŽƌƚĂŶƚ ƚŽ ĞdžƉůŽŝƚ ƵŶŝƋƵĞ ĨĞĂƚƵƌĞƐ ŽĨ ƐŝĂ͛Ɛ ƵƌďĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶ ĂǁĂLJ ĨƌŽŵ ĐŝƚLJ ĐĞŶƚĞƌƐ͕ ĂŶĚ ĂĚǀĂŶĐŝŶŐ ƚĞĐŚŶŽůŽŐLJ͘ ĂŶĚ ƚĂŬĞ ĂĚǀĂŶƚĂŐĞ ŽĨ ƐŝĂ͛Ɛ ƉŽƐŝƟŽŶ ĂƐ Ă ůĂƚĞ ĐŽŵĞƌ ŝŶ ůƐŽ͕ ďLJ ŶƵƌƚƵƌŝŶŐ ƚŚĞ ƵƌďĂŶ ŵŝĚĚůĞ ĐůĂƐƐ ĂŶĚ ƉƌŽƉĞƌƚLJ ƵƌďĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶ͘ ůƐŽ͕ ƌĂƚŚĞƌ ƚŚĂŶ ƉƌŽĚƵĐŝŶŐ ĂŶ ĞdžŚĂƵƐƟǀĞ ŽǁŶĞƌƐ͕ ƵƌďĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶ ĐĂŶ ŚĞůƉ ĂŵĞůŝŽƌĂƚĞ ĂĚǀĞƌƐĞ ůŝƐƚ͕ ĂƩĞŶƟŽŶ ǁŝůů ďĞ ĨŽĐƵƐĞĚ ŽŶ ƉŽůŝĐŝĞƐ ƚŚĂƚ ĐĂŶ ďĞ ĞŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚĂů ŝŵƉĂĐƚƐ ĂƐ ĞĚƵĐĂƚĞĚ͕ ŝŶĨŽƌŵĞĚ ƵƌďĂŶ ƐƵƉƉŽƌƚĞĚ ďLJ ĞdžĂŵƉůĞƐ ĂŶĚ ĐĂƐĞ ƐƚƵĚŝĞƐ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĂƚ ĐĂŶ ŵŝĚĚůĞ ĐůĂƐƐ ŵĞŵďĞƌƐ ĂŶĚ ƉƌŽƉĞƌƚLJ ŽǁŶĞƌƐ ĂƌĞ ƵƐƵĂůůLJ ƉƌŽĚƵĐĞ ďĞŶĞĮƚƐ ůĂƌŐĞƌ ƚŚĂŶ ĐŽƐƚƐ͘ &ŽƵƌ ŐƌŽƵƉƐ ŽĨ ƐƵĐŚ ƉƌŽͲĞŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞLJ ƚĞŶĚ ƚŽ ƐƵƉƉŽƌƚ ͞ůŽǁͲĐĂƌďŽŶ͟ ƉŽůŝĐŝĞƐ ǁŝůů ďĞ ĚŝƐĐƵƐƐĞĚ ŚĞƌĞ͘
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 ϮϬϭϮď͕ tĂŶ ĂŶĚ ŚĂŶŐ ƉĂƌƟĐƵůĂƌ͕ ŵŽĚĞƌŶ ƚĞĐŚŶŽůŽŐLJ ŶŽǁ ĂůůŽǁƐ ǀĂƌŝĂďůĞ ƉƌŝĐŝŶŐϮϬϭϭͿ͘ ŽĨ ĞůĞĐƚƌŝĐŝƚLJ͕ ǁĂƚĞƌ͕ ĂŶĚ ĐŽŶŐĞƐƟŽŶ͕ ǁŚŝĐŚ ĐĂŶ ƌĞƐƵůƚ ŝŶ ŝŵƉƌŽǀĞĚ ĞŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚĂů ŝŵƉĂĐƚƐ ĂŶĚ ŵŽƌĞ ƐƵƐƚĂŝŶĂďůĞ dŚĞ ůĂƐƚ ƐƵďƐĞĐƟŽŶ ĂĚĚƌĞƐƐĞƐ ƚŚĞ ŝƐƐƵĞ ŽĨ ƉŽůŝĐLJ ƐĞƌǀŝĐĞ ĚĞůŝǀĞƌŝĞƐ ƚŚĂŶ ŇĂƚ ƌĂƚĞ ƚĂƌŝīƐ͘ŝŵƉůĞŵĞŶƚĂƟŽŶ͘ dǁŽ ĂƌĞĂƐ ĂƌĞ ƐŝŶŐůĞĚ ŽƵƚ ĨŽƌ ĚŝƐĐƵƐƐŝŽŶ͗ĮŶĂŶĐŝŶŐ ĨŽƌ ƵƌďĂŶ ĚĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ͕ ĂŶĚ ŐŽǀĞƌŶŵĞŶƚ ^ŝŶŐĂƉŽƌĞ ŝŶƚƌŽĚƵĐĞĚ ĐŽŶŐĞƐƟŽŶ ƉƌŝĐŝŶŐ ŝŶƚƌĂŶƐƉĂƌĞŶĐLJ ĂŶĚ ĂĐĐŽƵŶƚĂďŝůŝƚLJ͘ ǀĞŶ ƚŚĞ ďĞƐƚ ƉŽůŝĐŝĞƐ ϭϵϳϱ͘ϭϬ /ƚ ŶŽǁ ƉĞƌŵŝƚƐ ƌĞĂůͲƟŵĞ ǀĂƌŝĂďůĞ ƉƌŝĐŝŶŐ ďĂƐĞĚǁŝůů LJŝĞůĚ ĨĞǁ ƌĞƐƵůƚƐ ŝĨ ƉŽůŝƟĐŝĂŶƐ ĚŽ ŶŽƚ ŚĂǀĞ ƚŚĞ ŝŶĐĞŶƟǀĞ ŽŶ ĐŽŶŐĞƐƟŽŶ ůĞǀĞůƐ͘ ^ŝŶŐĂƉŽƌĞ ĂůƐŽ ŚĂƐ ŚŝŐŚ ǀĞŚŝĐůĞŽƌ ƌĞƐŽƵƌĐĞƐ ƚŽ ŝŵƉůĞŵĞŶƚ ĂŶĚ ĞŶĨŽƌĐĞ ƚŚĞŵ͘ ƌĞŐŝƐƚƌĂƟŽŶ ĨĞĞƐ ĂŶĚ Ă ƋƵŽƚĂ ƐLJƐƚĞŵ ĨŽƌ ŶĞǁ ǀĞŚŝĐůĞƐ͕ ǁŚŝĐŚ ŚĂǀĞ ƌĞĐĞŶƚůLJ ďĞĞŶ ƌĞƉůŝĐĂƚĞĚ ŝŶ ŵĂũŽƌ ĐŝƟĞƐ ŝŶ ƚŚĞ WZ͘ ŶŽƚŚĞƌ ĞdžĂŵƉůĞ ŝƐ ƚŚĞ ĞŶƚƌĂů >ŽŶĚŽŶ ĐŽŶŐĞƐƟŽŶŶŚĂŶĐŝŶŐ ĸĐŝĞŶĐLJ ĂŶĚ ŽŶƐĞƌǀĂƟŽŶ ĐŚĂƌŐĞ͘ ^ƵĐŚ ƉŽůŝĐŝĞƐ ŚĂǀĞ ŚĞůƉĞĚ ĐŽŶƚĂŝŶ ƚŚĞ ǀŽůƵŵĞ ŽĨ ĐĂƌ ŽǁŶĞƌƐŚŝƉ͕ ƌĞĚƵĐĞ ƵƌďĂŶ ƚƌĂĸĐ ĐŽŶŐĞƐƟŽŶ͕ ŝŶĐƌĞĂƐĞ ĨƵŶĚĂŵĞŶƚĂů ĐĂƵƐĞ ŽĨ ĞŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚĂů ĚĞŐƌĂĚĂƟŽŶ ƚŚĞ ƵƐĞ ŽĨ ƉƵďůŝĐ ƚƌĂŶƐƉŽƌƚ͕ ĂŶĚ ƌĂŝƐĞ ƌĞǀĞŶƵĞ ĨŽƌ ƵƌďĂŶĂƌŝƐĞƐ ǁŚĞŶ͕ ŝŶ ƚŚĞ ĂďƐĞŶĐĞ ŽĨ ƌĞŐƵůĂƟŽŶ͕ ŝŶĚŝǀŝĚƵĂůƐ ĚĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ ;>ĞĂƉĞ ϮϬϬϲͿ͘ĂŶĚ ĮƌŵƐ ŚĂǀĞ ŝŶƐƵĸĐŝĞŶƚ ŝŶĐĞŶƟǀĞ ŶŽƚ ƚŽ ƉŽůůƵƚĞ͘ dŚƵƐ͕ƚŚĞ ŬĞLJ ŝƐ ƚŽ ŝŶƚĞƌŶĂůŝnjĞ ƚŚĞ ĞdžƚĞƌŶĂůŝƟĞƐ Žƌ ƐŽĐŝĂů ĐŽƐƚƐ WŽůůƵƟŽŶ ĐĂŶ ĂůƐŽ ďĞ ĚŝƌĞĐƚůLJ ƉƌŝĐĞĚ͘ tŝƚŚĂƐƐŽĐŝĂƚĞĚ ǁŝƚŚ ĚĂŵĂŐĞ ƚŽ ƚŚĞ ĞŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚ͕ ƉĂƌƟĐƵůĂƌůLJ ŝŵƉƌŽǀĞŵĞŶƚƐ ŝŶ ŝŶĨŽƌŵĂƟŽŶ ƚĞĐŚŶŽůŽŐLJ ĂŶĚ ĚĂƚĂďĂƐĞƚĂƌŐĞƟŶŐ ƚŚĞ ƌŝƐŝŶŐ ŵŽƚŽƌŝnjĂƟŽŶ ŝŶ ƐŝĂ͘ /Ŷ ŽƚŚĞƌ ǁŽƌĚƐ͕ ŵĂŶĂŐĞŵĞŶƚ͕ ƚŚĞ ĂŶŶƵĂů ĚŝƐƚĂŶĐĞ ƚŚĂƚ ŝŶĚŝǀŝĚƵĂů ǀĞŚŝĐůĞƐ͞ŐĞƫŶŐ ƉƌŝĐĞƐ ƌŝŐŚƚ͟ Žƌ ͞ŵĂŬŝŶŐ ƵƐĞƌƐ ƉĂLJ͟ ŝƐ ŽŶĞ ŽĨ ŚĂǀĞ ďĞĞŶ ĚƌŝǀĞŶ ĐĂŶ ďĞ ŵŽŶŝƚŽƌĞĚ ǁŚĞŶ ƚŚĞŝƌ ŽǁŶĞƌƐƚŚĞ ŵŽƐƚ ĞīĞĐƟǀĞ ĂŶĚ ĨĞĂƐŝďůĞ ƉŽůŝĐLJ ŽƉƟŽŶƐ͘ ^ƵĐŚ ƌĞŐŝƐƚĞƌ ƚŚĞ ĐĂƌƐ ĞĂĐŚ LJĞĂƌ͘ dĂŬŝŶŐ ŝŶƚŽ ĂĐĐŽƵŶƚ Ă ǀĞŚŝĐůĞ͛ƐƉŽůŝĐŝĞƐ ůĞĂĚ ƚŽ ƌĞƐŽƵƌĐĞ ƐĂǀŝŶŐƐ ĂŶĚ Ăƚ ƚŚĞ ƐĂŵĞ ƟŵĞ ŵĂŬĞ͕ ŵŽĚĞů͕ ĂŐĞ͕ ĂŶĚ ĞŶŐŝŶĞ ƐŝnjĞ͕ ƚŚĞ ĂŶŶƵĂů ĞŵŝƐƐŝŽŶƐŚĞůƉ ƚŽ ƌĂŝƐĞ ŐŽǀĞƌŶŵĞŶƚ ƌĞǀĞŶƵĞ͘ ͞ĞƫŶŐ ƉƌŝĐĞƐ ƌŝŐŚƚ͟ ĐĂŶ ďĞ ĞƐƟŵĂƚĞĚ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞ ŽǁŶĞƌ ĐĂŶ ďĞ ĐŚĂƌŐĞĚĂůŽŶĞ ŝƐ ŶŽƚ ĞŶŽƵŐŚ ĂŶĚ ƌĞƋƵŝƌĞƐ ŝŶƚƌŽĚƵĐŝŶŐ ƌĞůĞǀĂŶƚ ĂĐĐŽƌĚŝŶŐůLJ͘ dŚŝƐ ĐĂŶ ŐĞŶĞƌĂƚĞ ƌĞǀĞŶƵĞ ĂŶĚ ƉƌŽǀŝĚĞ ĂŶƌĞŐƵůĂƟŽŶƐ͘ ŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚĂů ůĂǁƐ ĂŶĚ ƌĞŐƵůĂƟŽŶƐ ŶĞĞĚ ŝŶĐĞŶƟǀĞ ĨŽƌ ŝŶĚŝǀŝĚƵĂůƐ ƚŽ ĚƌŝǀĞ ŶĞǁĞƌ͕ ůŽǁĞƌ ƉŽůůƵƟŶŐƚŽ ďĞ ŝŶƚƌŽĚƵĐĞĚ ĞĂƌůLJ ŝŶ ƚŚĞ ĚĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ ƉƌŽĐĞƐƐ͘ ŶĚ͕ ǀĞŚŝĐůĞƐ ĂƐ ǁĞůů ĂƐ ƚŽ ĚƌŝǀĞ ůĞƐƐ͘ŐŝǀĞŶ ƚŚĞ ƉƌŽŵŝŶĞŶĐĞ ŽĨ ƉƵďůŝĐ ƚƌĂŶƐƉŽƌƚ ŝŶ ƵƌďĂŶ ůŝǀŝŶŐ 10 Congestion pricing is the practice of charging private motorists more to use a roadway, bridge, or tunnel where and when the traffic is heavy.
    • 30 <ĞLJ /ŶĚŝĐĂƚŽƌƐ ĨŽƌ ƐŝĂ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞ WĂĐŝĮĐ ϮϬϭϮ &ƵƌƚŚĞƌ͕ Ă ƐŵĂůů ƉĞƌĐĞŶƚĂŐĞ ŽĨ ƵƐĞĚ ǀĞŚŝĐůĞƐ ƵƐƵĂůůLJ ͞ĞƫŶŐ ƉƌŝĐĞƐ ƌŝŐŚƚ͟ ĂůƐŽ ŝŶǀŽůǀĞƐ ŵĂŶĂŐŝŶŐ ƉƌŽĚƵĐĞ Ă ůĂƌŐĞ ƐŚĂƌĞ ŽĨ Ă ĐŝƚLJ͛Ɛ ƚŽƚĂů ĞŵŝƐƐŝŽŶƐ͘ &Žƌ ĞdžƉĞĐƚĂƟŽŶƐ͘ /Ĩ ƐŝĂŶ ƉůĂŶŶĞƌƐ͕ ƌĞƐŝĚĞŶƚƐ͕ ĂŶĚ ĮƌŵƐ ĞdžĂŵƉůĞ͕ ŝŶ ƚŚĞ h^͕ ƌŽƵŐŚůLJ ϭϬй ŽĨ ǀĞŚŝĐůĞƐ ƉƌŽĚƵĐĞ ĞdžƉĞĐƚ ƌŝƐŝŶŐ ĞŶĞƌŐLJ ĂŶĚ ǁĂƚĞƌ ƉƌŝĐĞƐ͕ ƚŚĞLJ ǁŝůů ŝŶǀĞƐƚ ĂďŽƵƚ ϱϬй ŽĨ ƚŽƚĂů ǀĞŚŝĐůĞ ĞŵŝƐƐŝŽŶƐ ;^ŚĂĮnjĂĚĞŚ͕ ƚŽ ĞĐŽŶŽŵŝnjĞ ŽŶ ƐƵĐŚ ĐŽŶƐƵŵƉƟŽŶ͕ ůĞĂĚŝŶŐ ƚŽ ƌĞƐŽƵƌĐĞ EŝĞŵĞŝĞƌ͕ ĂŶĚ ŝƐŝŶŐĞƌ ϮϬϬϰͿ͘ dŚĞ ŽǁŶĞƌƐ ŽĨ ƐƵĐŚ ĐŽŶƐĞƌǀĂƟŽŶ͘ /ƚ ŝƐ ŶŽ ĂĐĐŝĚĞŶƚ ƚŚĂƚ ŝŶ ŶĂƟŽŶƐ ǁŝƚŚ ŚŝŐŚĞƌ ͞ƐƵƉĞƌ ĞŵŝƫŶŐ͟ ǀĞŚŝĐůĞƐ ŝŵƉŽƐĞ ŵƵĐŚ ůĂƌŐĞƌ ƐŽĐŝĂů ŐĂƐŽůŝŶĞ ƉƌŝĐĞƐ͕ ƉĞŽƉůĞ ƚĞŶĚ ƚŽ ůŝǀĞ ŝŶ ŚŝŐŚĞƌ ĚĞŶƐŝƚLJ ĂƌĞĂƐ ĐŽƐƚƐ ŽŶ ƐŽĐŝĞƚLJ ƚŚĂŶ ƚŚĞ ĂǀĞƌĂŐĞ ĐĂƌ ŽǁŶĞƌ͘ dŽ ŵŝƟŐĂƚĞ ĂŶĚ ŽǁŶ ŵŽƌĞ ĨƵĞůͲĞĸĐŝĞŶƚ ǀĞŚŝĐůĞƐ͘ ŶĚ͕ ƐƵĐŚ ĐŝƟĞƐ ƚŚŝƐ ƉƌŽďůĞŵ͕ ĞŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚĂů ĂƵƚŚŽƌŝƟĞƐ ĐŽƵůĚ ĞŵƉůŽLJ ŚĂǀĞ ŽŌĞŶ ŝŶǀĞƐƚĞĚ ŝŶ ŚŝŐŚĞƌ ƋƵĂůŝƚLJ ƉƵďůŝĐ ƚƌĂŶƐƉŽƌƚ͘ ƌĞŵŽƚĞ ŵŽŶŝƚŽƌŝŶŐ ƚĞĐŚŶŽůŽŐLJϭϭ ƚŚĂƚ ĂůůŽǁƐ ŝƐƐƵĂŶĐĞ ŽĨ ĂŶ ĞŵŝƐƐŝŽŶƐ ƟĐŬĞƚͶƚŚĞ ĞƋƵŝǀĂůĞŶƚ ŽĨ Ă ƐƉĞĞĚŝŶŐ ƟĐŬĞƚ͘ /Ŷ ĂĚĚŝƟŽŶ͕ ǁŚĞŶ ĐŽŶƐƵŵĞƌƐ ĞdžƉĞĐƚ ƌŝƐŝŶŐ ĞŶĞƌŐLJ ^ƵĐŚ ƚĂƌŐĞƟŶŐ ƉƌŽǀŝĚĞƐ ŚĞĂǀLJ ĞŵŝƩĞƌƐ ǁŝƚŚ ƚŚĞ ŝŶĐĞŶƟǀĞ ƉƌŝĐĞƐ͕ ĚĞŵĂŶĚ ĨŽƌ ŐƌĞĞŶ ƚĞĐŚŶŽůŽŐLJ ǁŝůů ƐŽĂƌ ĂŶĚ ƚŽ ŚĂǀĞ ƚŚĞŝƌ ǀĞŚŝĐůĞƐ ĐŚĞĐŬĞĚ ĂŶĚ ƌĞƉĂŝƌĞĚ͘ dŚĞ ŶĞƚ ĞīĞĐƚ ƐŝĂŶ ĞŶƚƌĞƉƌĞŶĞƵƌƐ ǁŝůů ƌĞƐƉŽŶĚ ƚŽ ƉƌŝĐĞ ƐŝŐŶĂůƐ͘ DƵĐŚ ǁŽƵůĚ ďĞ ƚŽ ƌĞĚƵĐĞ ĞŵŝƐƐŝŽŶƐ͘ϭϮ ĞǀŝĚĞŶĐĞ ŚĂƐ ƐŚŽǁŶ ƚŚĂƚ ǁŚĞŶ ĞŶĞƌŐLJ ƉƌŝĐĞƐ ŐŽ ƵƉ͕ ƚŚĞ ǀĞŚŝĐůĞ ŇĞĞƚ ďĞĐŽŵĞƐ ŵŽƌĞ ĞŶĞƌŐLJ ĞĸĐŝĞŶƚ ĂŶĚ ĮƌŵƐ /Ŷ ƚŚĞ ĐĂƐĞ ŽĨ KϮ ĞŵŝƐƐŝŽŶƐ͕ Ă ĨƵŶĚĂŵĞŶƚĂů ŝŶĐƌĞĂƐĞ ƚŚĞŝƌ ŝŶǀĞƐƚŵĞŶƚ ŝŶ ƌĞƐĞĂƌĐŚ ĂŶĚ ĚĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ ƚŽ ƉƌŽďůĞŵ ŝƐ ƚŚĂƚ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ͞ŐůŽďĂů ĨƌĞĞ ƌŝĚĞƌ͘͟ KŶĞ ƐŽůƵƟŽŶ ĞŶŚĂŶĐĞ ĨƵĞů ĞĸĐŝĞŶĐLJ͘ ^ŝŵŝůĂƌůLJ͕ ŚŝŐŚĞƌ ĞůĞĐƚƌŝĐŝƚLJ ƉƌŝĐĞƐ ŝƐ ĨŽƌ ŶĂƟŽŶƐ ƚŽ ƐŝŐŶ Ă ďŝŶĚŝŶŐ ŐůŽďĂů ĐĂƌďŽŶ ŵŝƟŐĂƟŽŶ ĂƌĞ ĂƐƐŽĐŝĂƚĞĚ ǁŝƚŚ ƐƵďƐĞƋƵĞŶƚ ŝŶƚƌŽĚƵĐƟŽŶ ŽĨ ŵŽƌĞ ƚƌĞĂƚLJ ƚŚĂƚ ǁŽƵůĚ ŝŶƚƌŽĚƵĐĞ ĞŝƚŚĞƌ Ă ŐůŽďĂů KϮ ƚƌĂĚŝŶŐ ĞŶĞƌŐLJ ĞĸĐŝĞŶƚ ĂƉƉůŝĂŶĐĞƐ ;EĞǁĞůů͕ :ĂīĞ͕ ĂŶĚ ^ƚĂǀŝŶƐ ŵĂƌŬĞƚ Žƌ Ă ĐĂƌďŽŶ ƚĂdž͘ hŶĨŽƌƚƵŶĂƚĞůLJ͕ ƚŚĞ ĨŽƌŵĞƌ ŚĂƐ ŶŽƚ ϭϵϵϵͿ͘ hƐŝŶŐ h^ ĚĂƚĂ͕ EĞǁĞůů͕ :ĂīĞ͕ ĂŶĚ ^ƚĂǀŝŶƐ ĨŽƵŶĚ ŚĂƉƉĞŶĞĚ LJĞƚ ĚĞƐƉŝƚĞ ĐŽŶƟŶƵŝŶŐ ŶĞŐŽƟĂƟŽŶƐ͘ ,ŽǁĞǀĞƌ͕ ƚŚĂƚ ƚŚĞ ƌĞůĂƟǀĞ ƉƌŝĐĞƐ ŽĨ ĞůĞĐƚƌŝĐŝƚLJ ĂŶĚ ŶĂƚƵƌĂů ŐĂƐ ƌŽƐĞ ƚŚĞ ŐƌĞĞŶ ĞĐŽŶŽŵLJ ŝƐ ĮƌŵůLJ ŽŶ ƚŚĞ ĂŐĞŶĚĂ ĂŶĚ ŵĂŶLJ Ϯϰй ĂŶĚ ϲϵй͕ ƌĞƐƉĞĐƟǀĞůLJ͕ ĚƵƌŝŶŐ ƚŚĞ ƐŝŵƵůĂƟŽŶ ƉĞƌŝŽĚ ĐŽƵŶƚƌŝĞƐ ǁŽƌůĚǁŝĚĞ ŚĂǀĞ ŶŽǁ ĐƌĞĂƚĞĚ Ă ĐĂƌďŽŶ ƚĂdž ĂŶĚͬ ;ϭϵϳϯʹϭϵϵϯͿ͘ /Ĩ ƚŚĞƐĞ ƌĞůĂƟǀĞ ƉƌŝĐĞƐ ŚĂĚ ƌĞŵĂŝŶĞĚ Ăƚ Žƌ ƉƌŝĐĞ͘ &Žƌ ĞdžĂŵƉůĞ͕ ƚŚĞ ZĞƉƵďůŝĐ ŽĨ <ŽƌĞĂ ĂƉƉƌŽǀĞĚ Ă ƚŚĞŝƌ ůŽǁ ϭϵϳϯ ůĞǀĞůƐ͕ ĂďŽƵƚ ŽŶĞͲƋƵĂƌƚĞƌ ƚŽ ŽŶĞͲŚĂůĨ ŽĨ ͞ĐĂƉͲĂŶĚͲƚƌĂĚĞ͟ ĐĂƌďŽŶ ƌĞĚƵĐƟŽŶ ƐLJƐƚĞŵ ŝŶ DĂLJ ϮϬϭϮ͘ϭϯ ƚŚĞ ŝŶĐƌĞĂƐĞ ŝŶ ĞŶĞƌŐLJ ĞĸĐŝĞŶĐLJ ǁŽƵůĚ ŶŽƚ ŚĂǀĞ ŽĐĐƵƌƌĞĚ͘ ŶĞƌŐLJ ĞĸĐŝĞŶĐLJ ǁŽƵůĚ ŚĂǀĞ ďĞĞŶ ϴй ůŽǁĞƌ ĨŽƌ ƌŽŽŵ Ăŝƌ dŚĞ ƉƌŝĐŝŶŐ ŽĨ ǁĂƚĞƌ ĂŶĚ ĞůĞĐƚƌŝĐŝƚLJ ƌĞƋƵŝƌĞƐ ƉĂLJŝŶŐ ĐŽŶĚŝƟŽŶĞƌƐ͕ ϭϲй ůŽǁĞƌ ĨŽƌ ĐĞŶƚƌĂů Ăŝƌ ĐŽŶĚŝƟŽŶĞƌƐ͕ ĂŶĚ ƐƉĞĐŝĂů ĂƩĞŶƟŽŶ ƚŽ ƚŚĞ ƉŽŽƌ͘ Ɛ ƚŚĞƐĞ ĂƌĞ ďĂƐŝĐ ŶĞĐĞƐƐŝƟĞƐ͕ ϱй ůŽǁĞƌ ĨŽƌ ŐĂƐ ǁĂƚĞƌ ŚĞĂƚĞƌƐ͘ ƚŚĞ ĂƵƚŚŽƌŝƟĞƐ ŵƵƐƚ ĐŚĂƌŐĞ ƉƌŝĐĞƐ ƚŚĂƚ ĂƌĞ ůŽǁ ĞŶŽƵŐŚ ƚŽ ĂůůŽǁ ĂĐĐĞƐƐ ďLJ ƚŚĞ ƉŽŽƌ ďƵƚ ŚŝŐŚ ĞŶŽƵŐŚ ƚŽ ƉƌĞǀĞŶƚ &ƵĞů ƐƵďƐŝĚŝĞƐ ĂƌĞ ĐůŽƐĞůLJ ƌĞůĂƚĞĚ ƚŽ ƚŚĞ ŝƐƐƵĞ ŽĨ ĞdžĐĞƐƐŝǀĞ ƵƐĞ͘ KŶĞ ŽƉƟŽŶ ŝƐ ƚŽ ĐŚĂƌŐĞ ŝŶĐƌĞĂƐŝŶŐ ďůŽĐŬ ĞŶĞƌŐLJ ƉƌŝĐĞ͘ ^ƵĐŚ ƐƵďƐŝĚŝĞƐ ĂƌĞ ĞĐŽŶŽŵŝĐĂůůLJ ĐŽƐƚůLJ ƚŽ ƚĂƌŝīƐ ĂƐ Ă ƉĂƌƟĐƵůĂƌ ĐŽŶƐƵŵĞƌ͛Ɛ ƵƐĂŐĞ ŝŶĐƌĞĂƐĞƐ͘ dŚŝƐ ƚĂdžƉĂLJĞƌƐ ĂŶĚ ĐĂŶ ĂĚĚ ĚĂŵĂŐĞ ƚŽ ƚŚĞ ĞŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚ͘ dŚĞƐĞ ĂůůŽǁƐ ƐŝŵƵůƚĂŶĞŽƵƐ ƉƌŽƚĞĐƟŽŶ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ƉŽŽƌ ĂŶĚ ĐŽůůĞĐƚƐ ƐƵďƐŝĚŝĞƐ ĂƌĞ ŝŶƚĞŶĚĞĚ ƚŽ ƉƌŽƚĞĐƚ ƚŚĞ ƉŽŽƌ͖ ŚŽǁĞǀĞƌ͕ ƚŚĞLJ ŚŝŐŚĞƌ ƌĞǀĞŶƵĞ ĨƌŽŵ ƵƐĞƌƐ ǁŚŽ ĂƌĞ ůŝŬĞůLJ ƚŽ ďĞ ǁĞĂůƚŚŝĞƌ͘ ĞŶĚ ƵƉ ďĞŶĞĮƟŶŐ ƚŚĞ ƌŝĐŚ͘ /Ŷ /ŶĚŽŶĞƐŝĂ ŝŶ ϮϬϭϭ͕ ĨƵĞů ĂŶĚ dĂďůĞ ϭϮ ŚŝŐŚůŝŐŚƚƐ ƚŚĞ ĐƌŽƐƐͲŶĂƟŽŶ ĚŝīĞƌĞŶĐĞƐ ŝŶ ǁĂƚĞƌ ĞůĞĐƚƌŝĐŝƚLJ ƐƵďƐŝĚŝĞƐ ĂŵŽƵŶƚĞĚ ƚŽ ϯ͘ϰй ŽĨ W͕ ǁŝƚŚ ƚŚĞ ƉƌŝĐĞƐ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞ ĚŝīĞƌĞŶĐĞƐ ĂĐƌŽƐƐ ƚŚĞ ƉƌŝĐŝŶŐ ƐƚĞƉƐ͘ &Žƌ ƌŝĐŚĞƐƚ ϭϬй ŽĨ ŚŽƵƐĞŚŽůĚƐ ĐŽŶƐƵŵŝŶŐ ϰϬй ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ƚŽƚĂů ĞdžĂŵƉůĞ͕ ŝŶ ĂŶŐĂůŽƌĞ ƚŚĞ ƉƌŝĐĞ ƉĞƌ ůŝƚĞƌ ŽĨ ǁĂƚĞƌ ĨŽƌ ƚŚĞ ƐƵďƐŝĚŝnjĞĚ ŐĂƐŽůŝŶĞ͕ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞ ƚŽƉ ŚĂůĨ ŽĨ ŚŽƵƐĞŚŽůĚƐ ƵƐŝŶŐ ƚŽƉ ƟĞƌ ŝƐ Ɛŝdž ƟŵĞƐ ƚŚĂƚ ĨŽƌ Ăƚ ƚŚĞ ďŽƩŽŵ ƟĞƌ͘ ^ŽŵĞ ĐŝƟĞƐ ĂůŵŽƐƚ ϴϰй ŽĨ ŝƚ ;ŝŶƟŶŐ ĂŶĚ ũŝ ϮϬϭϮͿ͘ dŚĞ /ŶƚĞƌŶĂƟŽŶĂů ;ƐƵĐŚ ĂƐ ,ŽŶŐ <ŽŶŐ͕ ŚŝŶĂ ĂŶĚ DĂŶŝůĂ͕ WŚŝůŝƉƉŝŶĞƐͿ ĐŚĂƌŐĞ DŽŶĞƚĂƌLJ &ƵŶĚ ĞƐƟŵĂƚĞĚ ƚŚĂƚ ϴϬй ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ƚŽƚĂů ďĞŶĞĮƚƐ Ă njĞƌŽ ŵĂƌŐŝŶĂů ƉƌŝĐĞ Ăƚ ƚŚĞ ůŽǁĞƐƚ ƉƌŝĐŝŶŐ ƟĞƌ͘ ĨƌŽŵ ƉĞƚƌŽůĞƵŵ ƐƵďƐŝĚŝĞƐ ŝŶ ϮϬϬϵ ĂĐĐƌƵĞĚ ƚŽ ƚŚĞ ƌŝĐŚĞƐƚ ϰϬй ŽĨ ŚŽƵƐĞŚŽůĚƐ͘ /Ŷ ĐŽŶƚƌĂƐƚ͕ ŽŶůLJ ĂďŽƵƚ ϴй ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ďĞŶĞĮƚƐ ƌĞĂĐŚ ƚŚĞ ƉŽŽƌĞƐƚ ϮϬй ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ƉŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶ ;ŽĂĚLJ 11 This system uses one basic principle: certain gases absorb infrared Ğƚ Ăů͘ ϮϬϭϬͿ͘ light at different rates. By placing an infrared light transmitter on one side of the road and aiming its beam into a receiver on the other side, a computer can compare the wavelength of the light passed ŶĐŽƵƌĂŐŝŶŐůLJ͕ ůĞĂĚĞƌƐ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ϮϬ ŚĂǀĞ ĐŽŵŵŝƩĞĚ through the exhaust plume when a vehicle drives through the beam ƚŽ ƌĂƟŽŶĂůŝnjĞ ĂŶĚ ƉŚĂƐĞ ŽƵƚ ŽǀĞƌ ƚŚĞ ŵĞĚŝƵŵ ƚĞƌŵ ŽĨ with the wavelength of the normal infrared light. It then calculates the percentage of hydrocarbons, nitrogen oxides, CO2, and carbon ŝŶĞĸĐŝĞŶƚ ĨŽƐƐŝů ĨƵĞů ƐƵďƐŝĚŝĞƐ͕ ĂĐƟŽŶ ƚŚĂƚ ŝƐ ĞƐƟŵĂƚĞĚ ƚŽ monoxide. If, and only if, a vehicles emissions are over the maximum ŚĞůƉ ƌĞĚƵĐĞ ,Ɛ ďLJ ϭϬй ŐůŽďĂůůLJ ďLJ ϮϬϱϬ͘ /Ŷ ƐŝĂ͕ ƚŚĞ limits, a camera records the license plate number and the authority /ŶĚŽŶĞƐŝĂŶ ŐŽǀĞƌŶŵĞŶƚ ƌĞĐĞŶƚůLJ ƉƌŽƉŽƐĞĚ Ă ƌĞǀŝƐĞĚ ϮϬϭϮ is notified. 12 For data from other countries on tailpipe emissions as judged by ďƵĚŐĞƚ ďŝůů ƚŽ ƌĞĚƵĐĞ ƵŶƚĂƌŐĞƚĞĚ ĨƵĞů ƐƵďƐŝĚŝĞƐ ĂŶĚ ƚŽ ƵƐĞ remote sensing see http://www.feat.biochem.du.edu/pub_list.shtml ƚŚĞ ƐĂǀĞĚ ďƵĚŐĞƚ ƌĞƐŽƵƌĐĞƐ ƚŽ ŝŶǀĞƐƚ ŝŶ ŝŶĨƌĂƐƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĞ͕ 13 A “cap-and-trade” carbon reduction system is a market-based pollution ƉƌŽŵŽƚĞ ŐƌĞĞŶ ŐƌŽǁƚŚ͕ ĂŶĚ ƉƌŽǀŝĚĞ ƚƌĂŶƐĨĞƌƐ ƚŽ ƉŽŽƌ reduction system that sets a limit (a “cap”) on the amount of pollution ƌĞŐŝŽŶƐ ĂŶĚ ŚŽƵƐĞŚŽůĚƐ ;/ Ğƚ Ăů͘ ϮϬϭϬͿ͘ that may be emitted. This cap is allocated to emitters. If companies need to emit more pollution than their allotted amount, they may purchase (“trade”) permits from those that emit less than their cap.
    • ƌĞĞŶ hƌďĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶ ŝŶ ƐŝĂ 31 Table 12 Water Pricing Special Chapter Blocks Per 1000 liter or cubic City With effect from Tariff Structure (Units in litres) metres (in local currency) Tariff ($) Dhakaa Jul-09 Flat Rate (Metered Connection) All Units 6.34 0.077 Chittagongb Dec-10 Flat Rate (Metered Connection) All Units 5.96 0.073 0 – 40,000 1.17 0.937 Singaporec IBT Above 40,000 1.4 1.121 0 – 8000 6 0.113 8001 – 25000 9 0.169 Bangalored Feb-05 IBT 25001 – 50000 15 0.282 50001 – 75000 30 0.564 75001 above 36 0.676 2.95/100 cf New Yorke Jul-10 Flat Rate (Metered Connection) 1.04/ 1000 l 1.040 Ottawaf May-10 Flat Rate (Metered Connection) 1.276 1.283 Sydneyg Jul-10 Flat Rate (Metered Connection) 2.012 2.076 0 – 5000 1.25 0.010 5 – 10,000 1.5 0.012 10 – 15,000 3 0.023 15 – 20,000 30 0.231 20 – 25,000 50 0.384 Sri Lankah Feb-09 IBT 25 – 30,000 75 0.577 30 – 40,000 90 0.692 40 – 50,000 105 0.807 50 – 75,000 110 0.846 Above 75, 000 120 0.922 Up to 10,000 2.2 0.041 10 – 20,000 3.3 0.062 Delhi i Jan-11 IBT 20 – 30,000 16.5 0.310 Above 30,000 27.5 0.517 Up to 12,000 0 0.000 12 – 43, 000 4.16 0.536 Hong Kong, China j Feb-95 IBT 43 – 62,000 6.45 0.831 Above 62,000 9.45 1.218 Up to 10,000 0 0.000 10 – 20,000 10.89 0.255 20 – 40,000 20.65 0.484 40 – 60,000 27.19 0.638 Manila East Zonek Jan-11 IBT 60 – 80,000 31.76 0.745 80 – 100,000 33.27 0.780 100,000 – 150,000 34.76 0.815 150, 000 – 200, 000 36.25 0.850 Above 200, 000 37.75 0.885 Up to 10,000 0 0.000 10 – 20,000 14.58 0.342 20 – 40,000 27.7 0.650 40 – 60,000 36.38 0.853 Manila West Zonel Jan-11 IBT 60 – 80,000 42.49 0.997 80 – 100,000 44.43 1.042 100,000 – 150,000 46.47 1.090 150, 000 – 200, 000 48.54 1.138 Above 200, 000 50.59 1.187 Up to 10,000 2.5 0.047 10 – 15,000 10 0.188 Chennai 2005 IBT 15 – 25,000 15 0.282 Above 25,000 25 0.470 Mumbaim 2005 Flat Rate (Metered Connection) 3.5 0.066 Almedabaadm 2005 Flat Rate (Metered Connection) 3 0.056 Group 1 (Flat Rate) 550 0.060 Group 2 (IBT) Up to 20,000 550 0.060 Above 20,000 1000 0.109 Group 3A (IBT) Up to 10,000 2450 0.266 10 – 20,000 3350 0.364 Above 20,000 4000 0.434 Jakarta 2005 Group 3B (IBT) Up to 10,000 3500 0.380 10 – 20,000 4400 0.478 Above 20,000 5600 0.608 Group 4A (IBT) Up to 10,000 5100 0.554 10 – 20,000 6200 0.673 Above 20,000 7500 0.815 Group 4B (Flat Rate) 9750 1.059IBT = increasing block tariffSource: Gunawansa and Hoque (2012) with data from: a - http://www.dwasa.org.bd/ b - http://cwasa.org/index.php?cPath=Tariff c - http://www.pub.gov.sg/general/factsandfigures/pages/watertariff.aspx d - http://www.bwssb.org/water_tarriff_prorata.html e - http://www.nyc.gov/html/nycwaterboard/html/rate_schedule/index.shtml f - http://www.ottawa.ca/residents/water/billing/new_rate_faq_en.html g - http://www.sydneywater.com.au/YourAccount/PricingInformation/ h - http://www.waterboard.lk/scripts/Downloads/Water_Tariff_E.pdf i - http://delhijalboard.nic.in/ j - http://www.wsd.gov.hk/en/customer_services_and_water_bills/water_and_sewage_tariff/water_and_sewage_tariff/index.html k - http://www.manilawater.com/downloads/ltr.pse.sec.pdex.tariff.adjustment.jan2011.pdf l - http://www.mayniladwater.com.ph/uploaded/2011_tariff.pdf m - Asian Development Bank (ADB) and Ministry of Urban Development, Government of India (2007). “The 2007 Benchmarking and Data Book of Water Utilities in India”. Accessed May 02, 2011. 15- http://www.adb.org/Documents/Reports/Benchmarking-Data-Book-Utilities-in-India/2007-Indian-Water-Utilities-Data- Book.pdf
    • 32 <ĞLJ /ŶĚŝĐĂƚŽƌƐ ĨŽƌ ƐŝĂ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞ WĂĐŝĮĐ ϮϬϭϮ dŝŵĞůLJ /ŶƚƌŽĚƵĐƟŽŶ ŽĨ ZĞŐƵůĂƟŽŶƐ ĂŶĚ ^ƚĂŶĚĂƌĚƐ͘ ŝŶ ƚŚŝƐ ĐŚĂƉƚĞƌ Žƌ ƌĞƉŽƌƚĞĚ ŝŶ ƚŚĞ ƚLJƉŝĐĂů ĐƌŽƐƐͲŶĂƟŽŶĂů ĐŽŶŽŵŝĐ ŐƌŽǁƚŚ ŝƐ ŽŌĞŶ ůŝŶŬĞĚ ǁŝƚŚ ŝŶĐƌĞĂƐŝŶŐ < ůŝƚĞƌĂƚƵƌĞ ;ƌŽƐƐŵĂŶ ĂŶĚ <ƌƵĞŐĞƌ ϭϵϵϱ͕ ,ŝůƚŽŶ ĂŶĚ ƉŽůůƵƟŽŶ ĂŶĚ ĞŵŝƐƐŝŽŶƐ͕ ďƵƚ ƚŚŝƐ ĚŽĞƐ ŶŽƚ ŶĞĞĚ ƚŽ >ĞǀŝŶƐŽŶ ϭϵϵϴͿ͘ ŚĂƉƉĞŶ͘ ŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚĂů ƉƌŽŐƌĞƐƐ ĐĂŶ ĐŽŵŵĞŶĐĞ ƐŽŽŶĞƌ ŝĨ ĚĞǀĞůŽƉŝŶŐ ŶĂƟŽŶƐ ŝŶƚƌŽĚƵĐĞ ĐƌĞĚŝďůĞ ĞŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚĂů /ŶĐƌĞĂƐŝŶŐ ƚŚĞ ƌĞŐƵůĂƚŽƌLJ ƐƚƌŝŶŐĞŶĐLJ ĨŽƌ ŶĞǁ ǀĞŚŝĐůĞƐ ƌĞŐƵůĂƟŽŶ ĞĂƌůLJ ŝŶ ƚŚĞŝƌ ŐƌŽǁƚŚ ƉƌŽĐĞƐƐ͘ DŽƌĞ ŝŵƉŽƌƚĂŶƚůLJ͕ ĂŶĚ ƉŚĂƐŝŶŐ ŽƵƚ ŽůĚ ŽŶĞƐ ŝƐ ĐƌƵĐŝĂů ĨŽƌ ĐƵƫŶŐ ĞŵŝƐƐŝŽŶƐ ĂŶĚ ďĞĐĂƵƐĞ ĐĞƌƚĂŝŶ ĐŽƐƚƐ ŽĨ ĞŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚĂů ĚĞŐƌĂĚĂƟŽŶ͕ ƐƵĐŚ ƉŽůůƵƟŽŶ ;,ŝůƚŽŶ ĂŶĚ >ĞǀŝŶƐŽŶ ϭϵϵϴͿ͘ &Žƌ ĞdžĂŵƉůĞ͕ ƚŚĞ h^ ĂƐ ŝŶĨĂŶƚ ŵŽƌƚĂůŝƚLJ͕ ĂƌĞ ŝƌƌĞǀĞƌƐŝďůĞ͕ ƐŝĂŶ ĐŝƟĞƐ ŵƵƐƚ ŚĂƐ ďĞĞŶ ĂďůĞ ƚŽ ƐŚĂƌƉůLJ ƌĞĚƵĐĞ ŝƚƐ ĂŵďŝĞŶƚ Ăŝƌ ƉŽůůƵƟŽŶ ĂĐƚ ƉƌŽŵƉƚůLJ ĂŶĚ ĐĂŶŶŽƚ ƌĞůLJ ŽŶ ĚĞǀĞůŽƉŝŶŐ ŶŽǁ ĂŶĚ ďLJ ĞŶĂĐƟŶŐ ĞǀĞƌ ŵŽƌĞ ƐƚƌŝŶŐĞŶƚ ĞŵŝƐƐŝŽŶƐ ƐƚĂŶĚĂƌĚƐ ĨŽƌ ͞ĐůĞĂŶŝŶŐ ƵƉ ůĂƚĞƌ͘͟ ŶĞǁ ǀĞŚŝĐůĞƐ͘ ƐŝĂ͛Ɛ ŶĂƟŽŶƐ ĂƌĞ ĨŽůůŽǁŝŶŐ ƐƵŝƚ͘ dŚĞ WZ ŚĂƐ ĞŶĂĐƚĞĚ ƐƚƌŝŶŐĞŶƚ ŶĞǁ ǀĞŚŝĐůĞ ĞŵŝƐƐŝŽŶƐ ƐƚĂŶĚĂƌĚƐ͗ tŚĞŶ ĚŝƐĐƵƐƐŝŶŐ ĞŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚĂů ƌĞŐƵůĂƟŽŶƐ͕ ŝƚ ŝƐ EĂƟŽŶĂů ^ƚĂŶĚĂƌĚ / ;ŝŶŝƟĂƚĞĚ ŝŶ ϭϵϵϵ ĨŽƌ ůŝŐŚƚ ǀĞŚŝĐůĞƐͿ͖ // ŝŵƉŽƌƚĂŶƚ ƚŽ ŶŽƚĞ ƚŚĞ ĨƵŶĚĂŵĞŶƚĂů ĂƐLJŵŵĞƚƌLJ ďĞƚǁĞĞŶ ;ϮϬϬϰͿ͖ /// ;ϮϬϬϳͿ͖ ĂŶĚ /s ;ϮϬϬϴ͕ ďƵƚ ŽŶůLJ ĂƉƉůŝĞĚ ŝŶ ƐĞůĞĐƚĞĚ ŝŶƚĞƌĞƐƚ ŐƌŽƵƉƐ ;KůƐŽŶ ϭϵϲϱͿ͘ tŚĞƌĞ ƚŚĞƌĞ ĂƌĞ Ă ĨĞǁ ĐŝƟĞƐͿͶǁŚŝĐŚ ĂƌĞ ĞƋƵŝǀĂůĞŶƚ ƚŽ ƚŚĞ ƵƌŽ /͕ //͕ /// ĂŶĚ /s ƉŽůůƵƚĞƌƐ ĂŶĚ ĞĂĐŚ ŐĂŝŶƐ ĨƌŽŵ ƚŚĞ ƐƚĂƚƵƐ ƋƵŽ͕ ƚŚĞLJ ŚĂǀĞ ƐƚĂŶĚĂƌĚƐ͘ϭϰ &Žƌ ĞĂĐŚ ƐƚĂŶĚĂƌĚ͕ ƚŚĞ ŝŵƉůĞŵĞŶƚĂƟŽŶ ĚĂƚĞ ƐƚƌŽŶŐ ŝŶĐĞŶƟǀĞƐ ƚŽ ŽƌŐĂŶŝnjĞ ĂŶĚ ǁŽƌŬ ƚŽŐĞƚŚĞƌ ƚŽ ĨĞŶĚ ĨŽƌ ŚĞĂǀLJ ǀĞŚŝĐůĞƐ ǁĂƐ ůĂƚĞƌ ƚŚĂŶ ƚŚĂƚ ĨŽƌ ůŝŐŚƚ ǀĞŚŝĐůĞƐ͘ Žī ĐŽƌƌĞĐƟǀĞ ƌĞŐƵůĂƟŽŶƐ͘ /Ŷ ĐŽŶƚƌĂƐƚ͕ ƚŚĞ ďĞŶĞĮĐŝĂƌŝĞƐ ŽĨ DĞĂŶǁŚŝůĞ͕ ƚŚĞ ŝŵƉůĞŵĞŶƚĂƟŽŶ ĚĂƚĞ ŽĨ ĞĂĐŚ ƐƚĂŶĚĂƌĚ ƌĞŐƵůĂƟŽŶƐ ĂƌĞ ŽŌĞŶ ŵŝůůŝŽŶƐ ŽĨ ƉĞŽƉůĞ ǁŚŽ ĂƌĞ ƐƉƌĞĂĚ ǀĞƌƐŝŽŶ ǁĂƐ ĂůǁĂLJƐ Ϯʹϯ LJĞĂƌƐ ĞĂƌůŝĞƌ ŝŶ ůĂƌŐĞ ĐŝƟĞƐ ƐƵĐŚ ĂƐ ŽƵƚ ĂŶĚ ŝƚ ŝƐ ŚĂƌĚ ĨŽƌ ƚŚĞŵ ƚŽ ŽƌŐĂŶŝnjĞ͘ dŚŝƐ ĂƐLJŵŵĞƚƌLJ ĞŝũŝŶŐ ĂŶĚ ^ŚĂŶŐŚĂŝ ƚŚĂŶ ĞůƐĞǁŚĞƌĞ͘ ĞŝũŝŶŐ ǁŝůů ŝŵƉŽƐĞ ĐĂůůƐ ĨŽƌ ŐŽǀĞƌŶŵĞŶƚ ƚŽ ƐƚĞƉ ŝŶ ƚŽ ĞŶĂĐƚ ĂŶĚ ŝŵƉůĞŵĞŶƚ EĂƟŽŶĂů ^ƚĂŶĚĂƌĚ s ;ĞƋƵŝǀĂůĞŶƚ ƚŽ ƵƌŽ sͿ ŝŶ ϮϬϭϮ͘ ƌĞůĞǀĂŶƚ ƌĞŐƵůĂƟŽŶƐ͘ ͕ /Ŷ ƚŚĞ WŚŝůŝƉƉŝŶĞƐ͕ ƚŚĞ ŐŽǀĞƌŶŵĞŶƚ ŚĂƐ ƉĂƐƐĞĚ dŚĞ ĞŶĐŽƵƌĂŐŝŶŐ ŶĞǁƐ ŝƐ ƚŚĂƚ ƐŽŵĞ ůĞĂĚĞƌƐ ŝŶ ƐŝĂ Ă ƐĞƌŝĞƐ ŽĨ ǀĞŚŝĐůĞ ĞŵŝƐƐŝŽŶƐ ƐƚĂŶĚĂƌĚƐ͕ ŝŶĐůƵĚŝŶŐ ƚŚĞ ŚĂǀĞ ĂůƌĞĂĚLJ ĐŽŵŵŝƩĞĚ ƚŽ Ă ŐƌĞĞŶ ĞĐŽŶŽŵLJ͘ /Ŷ ƵŐƵƐƚ ůĞĂŶ ŝƌ Đƚ ϭϵϵϵ͕ ǁŚŝĐŚ ŵĂŶĚĂƚĞƐ ƚŚĞ ŝŵƉůĞŵĞŶƚĂƟŽŶ ϮϬϬϴ͕ ƚŚĞ ZĞƉƵďůŝĐ ŽĨ <ŽƌĞĂ͛Ɛ WƌĞƐŝĚĞŶƚ ĂŶŶŽƵŶĐĞĚ ƚŚĂƚ ŽĨ ĞŵŝƐƐŝŽŶ ƐƚĂŶĚĂƌĚƐ͘ dŚĞ ƐĂůĞ ŽĨ ůĞĂĚĞĚ ŐĂƐŽůŝŶĞ ĂŶĚ ŐƌĞĞŶ ŐƌŽǁƚŚ ǁŽƵůĚ ďĞ ƚŚĞ ďĂƐŝƐ ĨŽƌ Ăůů ĨƵƚƵƌĞ ĚĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ ĞŶŐŝŶĞƐ ƚŚĂƚ ƵƐĞ ŝƚ ǁĂƐ ďĂŶŶĞĚ ŝŶ ϮϬϬϬ͘ /Ŷ ĂĚĚŝƟŽŶ͕ ƚŚĞ ŝŶ ƚŚĞ ĐŽƵŶƚƌLJ͘ dŚĞ WZ ŚĂƐ ĂůƐŽ ĐŽŵŵŝƩĞĚ ƚŽ Ă ůŽǁͲ WŚŝůŝƉƉŝŶĞƐ ŚĂƐ ĞŶĂĐƚĞĚ ƚŽƵŐŚĞƌ ŶĞǁ ĂŶĚ ůŝŐŚƚ ĚƵƚLJ ŵŽƚŽƌ ĐĂƌďŽŶ ĞĐŽŶŽŵLJ͕ ŝŶĐƌĞĂƐŝŶŐ ŝƚƐ ĞĂƌůŝĞƌ ĐŽŵŵŝƚŵĞŶƚ ĨŽƌ ϴй ǀĞŚŝĐůĞ ƌĞŐƵůĂƟŽŶƐ ƐŽ ƚŚĂƚ ŝŶ ϮϬϬϯʹϮϬϬϳ ŶĞǁ ǀĞŚŝĐůĞƐ ŽĨ ŝƚƐ ƉƌŝŵĂƌLJ ĞŶĞƌŐLJ ƚŽ ĐŽŵĞ ĨƌŽŵ ƌĞŶĞǁĂďůĞ ƐŽƵƌĐĞƐ ďLJ ŚĂĚ ƚŽ ŵĞĞƚ ƵƌŽ / ĞŵŝƐƐŝŽŶ ƐƚĂŶĚĂƌĚƐ͖ ŵŽĚĞůƐ ďƵŝůƚ ϮϬϮϬ ƚŽ ϭϱй͕ ĂŵŽƵŶƟŶŐ ƚŽ ϱϬϬ ŐŝŐĂǁĂƩƐ ŝŶ ƚŽƚĂů ;^ W͕ ĚƵƌŝŶŐ ϮϬϬϴʹϮϬϭϱ ĂƌĞ ƌĞƋƵŝƌĞĚ ƚŽ ŵĞĞƚ ƵƌŽ // ĞŵŝƐƐŝŽŶ ͕ ĂŶĚ hEW ϮϬϭϮ͗ϳϬͿ͘ /Ŷ ϮϬϭϬ͕ ƚŚĞ WZ ĂŶŶŽƵŶĐĞĚ ƐƚĂŶĚĂƌĚƐ͖ ĂŶĚ ďĞŐŝŶŶŝŶŐ ŝŶ ϮϬϭϲ͕ ďLJ ĂŶ ĂĚŵŝŶŝƐƚƌĂƟǀĞ Ă ƉƌŽŐƌĂŵ ĨŽƌ ĮǀĞ ůŽǁͲĐĂƌďŽŶ ƉŝůŽƚ ƉƌŽǀŝŶĐĞƐ ĂŶĚ ĞŝŐŚƚ ŽƌĚĞƌ͕ ƵƌŽ /s ĞŵŝƐƐŝŽŶ ƐƚĂŶĚĂƌĚƐ ǁŝůů ďĞ ĨŽůůŽǁĞĚ͘ ůŽǁͲĐĂƌďŽŶ ƉŝůŽƚ ĐŝƟĞƐ͕ ǁŝƚŚ Ă ƐƚƌŽŶŐ ĨŽĐƵƐ ŽŶ ƌĞŶĞǁĂďůĞ ĞŶĞƌŐLJ͘ dŚĞ ƉƌŽŐƌĂŵ ĐŽǀĞƌƐ , ĂĐĐŽƵŶƟŶŐ͖ ůŽǁͲĐĂƌďŽŶ ĚĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ ƉůĂŶŶŝŶŐ͖ ŝŶĚƵƐƚƌŝĂů ĂŶĚ ĞĐŽŶŽŵŝĐ ƉŽůŝĐLJ͖ ĂŶĚ ƚƌĂŝŶŝŶŐ ŽĨ ŐŽǀĞƌŶŵĞŶƚ ŽĸĐŝĂůƐ ŽŶ ĞŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚĂů Figure 31 Shift in Fitted PM10 Line in PRC Cities ƉƌŽƚĞĐƟŽŶ͕ ĐŽŵŵƵŶŝĐĂƟŽŶƐ͕ ĂŶĚ ŝŶƚĞƌŶĂƟŽŶĂů -1.5 ĐŽŽƉĞƌĂƟŽŶ͘ -2 ŵĞƌŐŝŶŐ ĞǀŝĚĞŶĐĞ ĚĞŵŽŶƐƚƌĂƚĞƐ ƚŚĂƚ ƐŝĂ ĐĂŶ ĚĞĨLJ 2006 ƚŚĞ ĐŽŶǀĞŶƟŽŶĂů < ĂŵŝĚ Ă ƌŝƐŝŶŐ ƐĐĂůĞ ŽĨ ĞĐŽŶŽŵŝĐ 2009 Ln PM10 ĂĐƟǀŝƚLJ͘ &Žƌ ĞdžĂŵƉůĞ͕ /ŶĚŝĂ ŚĂƐ ƌĞĐĞŶƚůLJ ĞŶĂĐƚĞĚ Ă ƐĞƌŝĞƐ -2.5 ŽĨ ǁĂƚĞƌ ĂŶĚ Ăŝƌ ƌĞŐƵůĂƟŽŶƐ ƚŚĂƚ ŚĂǀĞ ůĞĚ ƚŽ ƐƵĐĐĞƐƐĨƵůůLJ ĐŽŶƚƌŽůůŝŶŐ ƐŽŵĞ ǀĞŚŝĐƵůĂƌ ĞŵŝƐƐŝŽŶƐ ;ƌĞĞŶƐƚŽŶĞ ĂŶĚ -3 ,ĂŶŶĂ ϮϬϭϭͿ͘ ŶĚ ĨŽƌ ƚŚĞ WZ͕ ǁŚŝůĞ &ŝŐƵƌĞ ϯϭ ƐŚŽǁƐ Ă ƉŽƐŝƟǀĞ ĐŽƌƌĞůĂƟŽŶ ďĞƚǁĞĞŶ Ă ĐŝƚLJ͛Ɛ ƉŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶ ƐŝnjĞ ĂŶĚ ŝƚƐ -3.5 WDϭϬ ůĞǀĞů͕ ŽǀĞƌ ƟŵĞ ƚŚĞ ƐůŽƉĞ ŽĨ ƚŚŝƐ ĐƵƌǀĞ ŝƐ ĚŝŵŝŶŝƐŚŝŶŐ ï ï 0 1 2 3 ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞ ůŝŶĞ ŝƐ ƐŚŝŌŝŶŐ ĚŽǁŶ͘ ,ŽůĚŝŶŐ ĐŝƚLJ ƐŝnjĞ ĐŽŶƐƚĂŶƚ͕ Ln population WDϭϬ ŝƐ ĚĞĐůŝŶŝŶŐ ďLJ ƌŽƵŐŚůLJ ϱй ƉĞƌ LJĞĂƌ͕ ƐŚŽǁŝŶŐ ŚŽǁ Note: Ln = natural logarithm. ŶĞǁ ƌĞŐƵůĂƟŽŶ ĂŶĚ ƚĞĐŚŶŽůŽŐLJ ĐĂŶ ǁŽƌŬ ƚŽŐĞƚŚĞƌ ƚŽ Source: Zheng et al. (forthcoming). ĂůůĞǀŝĂƚĞ ĞŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚĂů ƉƌŽďůĞŵƐ ĂŵŝĚ ƵƌďĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶ͘ dŽ Ă ƐƚƌŝĐƚ ĂĚŚĞƌĞŶƚ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ <͕ ƚŚĞƐĞ ĞdžĂŵƉůĞƐ ĂƉƉĞĂƌ ƐƵƌƉƌŝƐŝŶŐ ďĞĐĂƵƐĞ /ŶĚŝĂ͛Ɛ ƉĞƌ ĐĂƉŝƚĂ ŝŶĐŽŵĞ ŝŶ ϮϬϭϬ ǁĂƐ 14 Details on the Euro standards can be found on the TNO Science ƌŽƵŐŚůLJ Ψϯ͕ϲϬϬ ;tŽƌůĚ ĂŶŬ ϮϬϭϭͿ͘ ǀĞŶ ƚŚĞ WZ ƉĞƌ Report, p. 15 available at http://ec.europa.eu/environment/air/pdf/ ĐĂƉŝƚĂ ŝŶĐŽŵĞ ŝƐ ǁĞůů ďĞůŽǁ ƚŚĞ ƚƵƌŶŝŶŐ ƉŽŝŶƚƐ ĞƐƟŵĂƚĞĚ euro_5.pdf
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ĚŝīĞƌĞŶƟĂů ĐůĞĂŶ ƚŚĞ ĚŝƐƚĂŶĐĞ ŽĨ ĞĂĐŚ ƉĂƐƐĞŶŐĞƌ͛Ɛ ƚƌĂǀĞů ĂŶĚ ƉƌŽŵŽƚĞ ƵƐĞĂŝƌ ĂĐƚ ƌĞŐƵůĂƟŽŶ ŝƐ ƚŚĂƚ ĚŝƌƚLJ ŵĂŶƵĨĂĐƚƵƌŝŶŐ ĚŽĞƐ ŵŝŐƌĂƚĞ ŽĨ ŵĂƐƐ ƉƵďůŝĐ ƚƌĂŶƐƉŽƌƚ͘ tŚŝůĞ ĐŽŶŐĞƐƟŽŶ ĂŶĚ ǀĞŚŝĐůĞƚŽ ůĞƐƐ ƌĞŐƵůĂƚĞĚ ĂƌĞĂƐ ;ĞĐŬĞƌ ĂŶĚ ,ĞŶĚĞƌƐŽŶ ϮϬϬϬ͕ <ĂŚŶ ĞŵŝƐƐŝŽŶ ƉƌŝĐŝŶŐ ŽīĞƌƐ ĚŝƌĞĐƚ ŝŶĐĞŶƟǀĞƐ ĨŽƌ ƌĞĚƵĐŝŶŐ ƚŚĞĂŶĚ DĂŶƐƵƌ ϮϬϭϬͿ͘ ƐŽĐŝĂů ĐŽƐƚƐ ŽĨ ƉƌŝǀĂƚĞ ǀĞŚŝĐůĞƐ͕ ŚŝŐŚ ƋƵĂůŝƚLJ ƉƵďůŝĐ ƚƌĂŶƐŝƚ ŽīĞƌƐ Ă ĐŽŵƉůĞŵĞŶƚĂƌLJ ĂǀĞŶƵĞ ĨŽƌ ƌĞĚƵĐŝŶŐ ĚĞŵĂŶĚ ĨŽƌ KŶĞ ƐŽůƵƟŽŶ ŝƐ ƚŽ ĚĞǀĞůŽƉ ƐƉĞĐŝĂů ŐƌĞĞŶ njŽŶĞƐ ĨŽƌ ƉƌŝǀĂƚĞ ǀĞŚŝĐůĞƐ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞŝƌ ƵƐĞ͘ƚŚĞƐĞ ŝŶĚƵƐƚƌŝĞƐ͘ ^ĞĞ Ždž ϰ ĨŽƌ Ă ŐŽŽĚ ĞdžĂŵƉůĞ͘ ŶŽƚŚĞƌŝƐ ƚŽ ŵŽďŝůŝnjĞ ƉƵďůŝĐ ƉƌĞƐƐƵƌĞ ďLJ ůĂƵŶĐŚŝŶŐ ĂǁĂƌĞŶĞƐƐ Ɛ ůĂĞƐĞƌ͕ <ĂŚŶ͕ ĂŶĚ ZĂƉƉĂƉŽƌƚ ;ϮϬϬϴͿ ĨŽƵŶĚ͕ ƚŚĞĐĂŵƉĂŝŐŶƐ ƐŽ ƚŚĞ ƉƵďůŝĐ ďĞĐŽŵĞƐ ŝŶĨŽƌŵĞĚ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ďĞŶĞĮƚƐ ŵŽƐƚ ĐƌƵĐŝĂů ĨĂĐƚŽƌ ĨŽƌ ƉƌŽŵŽƟŶŐ ƚŚĞ ƵƐĞ ŽĨ ŵĂƐƐ ƉƵďůŝĐŽĨ ƌĞĚƵĐŝŶŐ ƉŽůůƵƟŽŶ͘ tŚĞŶ ƚŚĞ ĞīĞĐƚƐ ŽĨ ƉŽůůƵƟŽŶ ŽŶůLJ ƚƌĂŶƐƉŽƌƚ ŝƐ ƚŽ ĞŶƐƵƌĞ ŵŽďŝůŝƚLJ ǁŝƚŚŝŶ ĂŶĚ ďĞƚǁĞĞŶ ĐŝƟĞƐ͕ďĞĐŽŵĞ ĂƉƉĂƌĞŶƚ ŝŶ ƚŚĞ ŵĞĚŝƵŵ ƚŽ ůŽŶŐ ƚĞƌŵ͕ ƚŚĞ ƉƵďůŝĐ ďĞĐĂƵƐĞ ƐƉĞĞĚ ŝƐ Ă ŬĞLJ ĚĞƚĞƌŵŝŶĂŶƚ ŝŶ ƉĞŽƉůĞ͛Ɛ ĚĞĐŝƐŝŽŶƐŵĂLJ ŶŽƚ ďĞ ƐƵĸĐŝĞŶƚůLJ ĂǁĂƌĞ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ŝƐƐƵĞƐ ĂŶĚ ƵůƟŵĂƚĞ ƚŽ ƵƐĞ ƉƌŝǀĂƚĞ ǀĞŚŝĐůĞƐ ǀĞƌƐƵƐ ƵƌďĂŶ ƉƵďůŝĐ ƚƌĂŶƐƉŽƌƚ͘ĐŽƐƚƐ͘ /Ŷ ƚŚŝƐ ĐĂƐĞ͕ ĞĚƵĐĂƟŽŶ ĂŶĚ ƉƵďůŝĐ ĂǁĂƌĞŶĞƐƐ ƐƵďǁĂLJ ƐLJƐƚĞŵ ƉƌŽǀŝĚĞƐ ƌĂƉŝĚ ƚƌĂŶƐƉŽƌƚ ĂŶĚ ŵĂŶLJ ŽĨĐĂŵƉĂŝŐŶƐ ĂƌĞ ŝŵƉŽƌƚĂŶƚ ĂŶĚ ĞīĞĐƟǀĞ ĨŽƌ ƐƚĞƉƉŝŶŐ ƵƉ ƐŝĂ͛Ɛ ĞŵĞƌŐŝŶŐ ĐŝƟĞƐ ŚĂǀĞ ƐƵĸĐŝĞŶƚůLJ ŚŝŐŚ ƉŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶŵĞĂƐƵƌĞƐ ƚŽ ƉƌĞǀĞŶƚ Ă ͞ƌĂĐĞ ƚŽ ƚŚĞ ďŽƩŽŵ͘͟ ĚĞŶƐŝƟĞƐ ƚŽ ĞŶƐƵƌĞ ŝƚƐ ĐŽƐƚ ĞīĞĐƟǀĞŶĞƐƐ͘ DĞĂŶǁŚŝůĞ͕ ƉŽůůƵƚĞƌƐ ŵĂLJ ďĞ ƌĞƋƵŝƌĞĚ ƚŽ ƌĞƉŽƌƚ ŶŽƚŚĞƌ ŽƉƟŽŶ ŝƐ ƚŽ ŝŶƚƌŽĚƵĐĞ ďƵƐ ƌĂƉŝĚ ƚƌĂŶƐŝƚƚŚĞŝƌ ĞĐŽůŽŐŝĐĂů ĨŽŽƚƉƌŝŶƚƐ͘ /Ŷ /ŶĚŽŶĞƐŝĂ͕ ŵĂŶƵĨĂĐƚƵƌĞƌƐ ;ZdͿ͘ ůŵŽƐƚ ϱϬ LJĞĂƌƐ ĂŐŽ͕ ƚƌĂŶƐƉŽƌƚ ĞdžƉĞƌƚƐ ƐƵĐŚ ĂƐĂƌĞ ƌĞƋƵŝƌĞĚ ƚŽ ĂŶŶŽƵŶĐĞ ƚŚĞŝƌ ĞŵŝƐƐŝŽŶƐ ŽĨ ƚŽdžŝĐ DĞLJĞƌ͕ <ĂŝŶ͕ ĂŶĚ tŽŚů ;ϭϵϲϱͿ ĂƌŐƵĞĚ ƚŚĂƚ ĚĞĚŝĐĂƚĞĚ ďƵƐƐƵďƐƚĂŶĐĞƐ ŝŶƚŽ ƚŚĞ Ăŝƌ͕ ůĂŶĚ͕ ĂŶĚ ǁĂƚĞƌ͘ EĂƟŽŶĂů ůĂŶĞƐ ĐĂŶ ĂĐŚŝĞǀĞ ƐƉĞĞĚƐ ƚŚĂƚ ĞŶĐŽƵƌĂŐĞ ƉĞŽƉůĞ ƚŽ ƵƐĞŶĞǁƐƉĂƉĞƌƐ ƉƵďůŝƐŚ ƚŚĞ ŶĂŵĞƐ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ǁŽƌƐƚ ŽīĞŶĚĞƌƐ ĂŶĚ ƉƵďůŝĐ ƚƌĂŶƐƉŽƌƚ ĂŶĚ ƌĞĚƵĐĞ ƚŚĞ ƵƐĞ ŽĨ ƉƌŝǀĂƚĞ ǀĞŚŝĐůĞƐ͘ƚŚŝƐ ŝŶĨŽƌŵĂƟŽŶ ĐƌĞĂƚĞƐ Ă ƉŽǁĞƌĨƵů ƐŚĂŵŝŶŐ ŵĞĐŚĂŶŝƐŵ ƐƵĐĐĞƐƐĨƵů ĞdžĂŵƉůĞ ŝƐ ƚŚĞ ƵĂŶŐnjŚŽƵ Zd ŝŶ ƚŚĞ WZ͘ŶƵĚŐŝŶŐ ĐŽŵƉĂŶŝĞƐ ƚŽ ƚĂŬĞ Ă ƐĞĐŽŶĚ ůŽŽŬ Ăƚ ƚŚĞŝƌ dŚĞ ƐLJƐƚĞŵ ŚĂƐ ƌĞƐƵůƚĞĚ ŝŶ ϯϬй ŚŝŐŚĞƌ ďƵƐ ƐƉĞĞĚƐ͕ ǁŝƚŚƉƌŽĚƵĐƟŽŶ ƉƌŽĐĞƐƐĞƐ͘ dŚĞ ŝŶĨŽƌŵĂƟŽŶ ĐĂŶ ďĞ ƵƐĞĚ ďLJ ďƵƐĞƐ ƚƌĂǀĞůůŝŶŐ Ăƚ ϭϳʹϭϵ Ŭŵ ƉĞƌ ŚŽƵƌ ĚƵƌŝŶŐ ƉĞĂŬ ŚŽƵƌƐ͕ĐŽŵŵƵŶŝƟĞƐ ƚŽ ůĂƵŶĐŚ Ă ŵĞĚŝĂ ĐĂŵƉĂŝŐŶ ĂŐĂŝŶƐƚ ŚĞĂǀŝůLJ ĂŶĚ ĂŶ ĂǀĞƌĂŐĞ ƟŵĞ ƐĂǀŝŶŐ ŽĨ ϲ͘ϲϯ ŵŝŶƵƚĞƐ ƉĞƌ Zd ƚƌŝƉ͘ƉŽůůƵƟŶŐ ĐŽŵƉĂŶŝĞƐ͘ ůƐŽ͕ ŵĂŬŝŶŐ ĂůůŽǁĂŶĐĞ ĨŽƌ ǀŝĐƟŵƐ dŚŝƐ ŝƐ ĞƋƵŝǀĂůĞŶƚ ƚŽ ƐĂǀŝŶŐ ϯϬ ŵŝůůŝŽŶ ƉĂƐƐĞŶŐĞƌͲŚŽƵƌƐƚŽ ƐƵĞ ĞŵŝƩĞƌƐ ĂŶĚ ƉŽůůƵƚĞƌƐ ǁŽƵůĚ ŝŶĐĞŶƟǀŝnjĞ ĨĂĐƚŽƌŝĞƐ ĞĂĐŚ LJĞĂƌ͘ dŚĞ ƐLJƐƚĞŵ ŚĂƐ ďĞĞŶ ǀĞƌLJ ƉŽƉƵůĂƌ͕ ǁŝƚŚ ďƵƐƚŽ ŝŶǀĞƐƚ ŝŶ ĞŵŝƐƐŝŽŶƐ ĐŽŶƚƌŽů ĞƋƵŝƉŵĞŶƚ͘ ƌŝĚĞƌƐ͛ ƐĂƟƐĨĂĐƟŽŶ ƌŝƐŝŶŐ ĨƌŽŵ Ϯϵй ŝŶ ĞĐĞŵďĞƌ ϮϬϬϵ͕ ďĞĨŽƌĞ ƚŚĞ Zd ǁĂƐ ŝŵƉůĞŵĞŶƚĞĚ͕ ƚŽ ϲϱй ĂŌĞƌ ŝƚ ƐƚĂƌƚĞĚ dŚĞ ĞŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚĂů ŝŵƉĂĐƚƐ ŽĨ ƐƵďƵƌďĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶ ;ƐƵĐŚ ŽƉĞƌĂƟŶŐ ŝŶ &ĞďƌƵĂƌLJ ϮϬϭϬ͘ /Ŷ ϮϬϭϭ͕ ƚŚĞ ƐLJƐƚĞŵ ŵŽǀĞĚĂƐ ƚŚĂƚ ĂƌŽƵŶĚ DƵŵďĂŝͿ ĂƌĞ ĞůĞǀĂƚĞĚ ĐĂƌďŽŶ ĨŽŽƚƉƌŝŶƚƐ͕ ϴϰϯ͕ϬϬϬ ƉĂƐƐĞŶŐĞƌƐ ƉĞƌ ĚĂLJ͘ ƚ ƉĞĂŬ ƟŵĞƐ͕ ƚŚĞ ŚŽƵƌůLJĞdžƉĞŶƐŝǀĞ ŚŽƵƐŝŶŐ͕ ŵŽƌĞ ĐŽŵŵƵƟŶŐ͕ ĂŶĚ ŝŶĐƌĞĂƐĞĚ ŇŽǁƐ ŽĨ ƉĂƐƐĞŶŐĞƌƐ ĐĂŶ ƌĞĂĐŚ Ϯϳ͕ϰϬϬ ƉĞƌ ĚŝƌĞĐƟŽŶ͕ ǁŝƚŚĐŽŶǀĞƌƐŝŽŶ ŽĨ ƵƌďĂŶ ĨƌŝŶŐĞ ůĂŶĚ ĨŽƌ ŚŽƵƐŝŶŐ͘ dŽ ƉƌŽŵŽƚĞ ϯϱϬ ďƵƐĞƐ ŵŽǀŝŶŐ ƉĞƌ ĚŝƌĞĐƟŽŶ͘ ;EĞǁŵĂŶ ĂŶĚ DĂƚĂŶ͕ĐŽŵƉĂĐƚ ĐŝƟĞƐ ;ƐĞĞ ƚŚĞ ŶĞdžƚ ƐƵďƐĞĐƟŽŶͿ͕ ƌĞŐƵůĂƟŽŶƐ ŽŶ ĨŽƌƚŚĐŽŵŝŶŐͿ͘ &Žƌ ĂŶŽƚŚĞƌ ĞdžĂŵƉůĞ ŽĨ Zd ŝŶ /ŶĚŝĂ͕ ƐĞĞďƵŝůĚŝŶŐ ŚĞŝŐŚƚ ƌĞƐƚƌŝĐƟŽŶƐ ĂƌĞ ǁŽƌƚŚ ƐƉĞĐŝĂů ŵĞŶƟŽŶ͘ Ždž ϱ͘^ƌŝĚŚĂƌ ;ϮϬϭϬͿ ĮŶĚƐ ƚŚĂƚ ƐƵĐŚ ƌĞƐƚƌŝĐƟŽŶƐ͕ ĂƐ ŵĞĂƐƵƌĞĚďLJ ƚŚĞ ŇŽŽƌ ĂƌĞĂ ƌĂƟŽ͕ ĂƌĞ ƐŝŐŶŝĮĐĂŶƚůLJ ĂƐƐŽĐŝĂƚĞĚ ǁŝƚŚ KƚŚĞƌ ƐƵƐƚĂŝŶĂďůĞ ƚƌĂŶƐƉŽƌƚ ƐŽůƵƟŽŶƐ ĂƌĞ ĂǀĂŝůĂďůĞĚĞŇĞĐƟŶŐ ƉŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶ ĂǁĂLJ ĨƌŽŵ /ŶĚŝĂ͛Ɛ ĐŝƚLJ ĐĞŶƚĞƌƐ ƚŽ ĂŶĚ ǁŽƌŬŝŶŐ͘  ŝƐ ĂĐƟǀĞůLJ ƐƵƉƉŽƌƟŶŐ ŐƌĞĞŶ ƚƌĂŶƐƉŽƌƚƚŚĞ ƐƵďƵƌďƐ͘ tŚŝůĞ ƚŚĞ ŇŽŽƌ ĂƌĞĂ ƌĂƟŽ ŝŶ ^ŝŶŐĂƉŽƌĞ ĂŶĚ ƐŽůƵƟŽŶƐ ĂĐƌŽƐƐ ƐŝĂ͕ ŝŶĐůƵĚŝŶŐ ůŽǁͲĐŽƐƚ ĞůĞĐƚƌŝĐ ǀĞŚŝĐůĞƐdŽŬLJŽ ŝƐ ƌŽƵŐŚůLJ ϮϬ ĂŶĚ ŝŶ ^ŚĂŶŐŚĂŝ ŝƚ ŝƐ ϴ͕ ŝƚ ŝƐ ũƵƐƚ ŽǀĞƌ ϭ ŝŶ ƚŚĞ WŚŝůŝƉƉŝŶĞƐ͕ ƵƌďĂŶ ŵĞƚƌŽƌĂŝů ƐLJƐƚĞŵƐ ŝŶ sŝĞƚ EĂŵ͕ŝŶ ƚŚƌĞĞ ůĂƌŐĞ /ŶĚŝĂŶ ĐŝƟĞƐ ;ŚĞŶŶĂŝ͕ ĞůŚŝ͕ ĂŶĚ DƵŵďĂŝͿ͘ ŝŶůĂŶĚ ǁĂƚĞƌǁĂLJ ƚƌĂŶƐƉŽƌƚ ŝŶ ƚŚĞ WZ͕ ĂŶĚ Zd ƐLJƐƚĞŵƐ ŝŶdŚĞ ŝŶĂďŝůŝƚLJ ƚŽ ďƵŝůĚ ƵƉ ĚŝƐƉůĂĐĞƐ ĞĐŽŶŽŵŝĐ ĂĐƟǀŝƚLJ ƚŽ ĂŶŐůĂĚĞƐŚ ĂŶĚ DŽŶŐŽůŝĂ͘
    • 34 <ĞLJ /ŶĚŝĐĂƚŽƌƐ ĨŽƌ ƐŝĂ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞ WĂĐŝĮĐ ϮϬϭϮ Box 5 Bus Rapid Transit: The People’s Way in Ahmedabad /Ŷ ƉĂƌƟĐƵůĂƌ͕ ŵŽĚĞƌŶ ǁĂƐƚĞͲƚŽͲĞŶĞƌŐLJ ƚĞĐŚŶŽůŽŐLJ ƉƌŽǀŝĚĞƐ Ă ƐƵƐƚĂŝŶĂďůĞ ŵĞĂŶƐ ŽĨ ǁĂƐƚĞ ŵĂŶĂŐĞŵĞŶƚ͘ “Janmarg” (the people’s way), in Ahmedabad city, India, is a /ƚ ƌĞĚƵĐĞƐ ǁĂƐƚĞ ǀŽůƵŵĞ ĂŶĚ ŐĞŶĞƌĂƚĞƐ ĐůĞĂŶ ĞŶĞƌŐLJ successful example of a bus rapid transit (BRT) system. Janmarg Ăƚ ƚŚĞ ƐĂŵĞ ƟŵĞ ;<ĂƵƐŚĂů ϮϬϭϮͿͶ͞ŬŝůůŝŶŐ ƚǁŽ ďŝƌĚƐ is India’s first full BRT system. The project was influenced by the ǁŝƚŚ ŽŶĞ ƐƚŽŶĞ͘͟ DĂŶLJ ƐŝĂŶ ĐŝƟĞƐ͕ ŝŶĐůƵĚŝŶŐ ^ŝŶŐĂƉŽƌĞ successful Transmilenio system in Bogota and the BRT system of Curitiba. However, its planning and design was adapted to suit ĂŶĚ dŽŬLJŽ͕ ŚĂǀĞ ůĂƌŐĞ ďŝŽŵĂƐƐͲƚŽͲĞŶĞƌŐLJ ƉůĂŶƚƐ Ahmedabad’s specific conditions. The BRT lines were planned ;Ždž ϲͿ͘ /Ŷ ƚŚĞ WŚŝůŝƉƉŝŶĞƐ͕ WƵĞƌƚŽ WƌŝŶĐĞƐĂ ŚĂƐ ŽŶĞ ŽĨ based on the land use, population density, and areas of maximum ƚŚĞƐĞ ƉůĂŶƚƐ͘ /Ŷ ϭϵϵϵ͕ WƵĞƌƚŽ WƌŝŶĐĞƐĂ ũŽŝŶĞĚ ƚŚĞ ŝƟĞƐ ĨŽƌ accidents. ůŝŵĂƚĞ WƌŽƚĞĐƟŽŶ ĐĂŵƉĂŝŐŶ͕ ƉůĞĚŐŝŶŐ ƚŽ ƌĞĚƵĐĞ ŝƚƐ KϮ ĞŵŝƐƐŝŽŶƐ ďLJ ϭϬй ĂŶŶƵĂůůLJ͕ ĞƋƵŝǀĂůĞŶƚ ƚŽ ϭϲ͕ϱϯϱ ƚŽŶƐ ƉĞƌ Janmarg has a network of 89 kilometers (km) throughout the city, LJĞĂƌ͕ ĂŐĂŝŶƐƚ ŝƚƐ ϮϬϭϬ ĨŽƌĞĐĂƐƚ͘ dŽ ŚĞůƉ ĂĐŚŝĞǀĞ ƚŚŝƐ ŐŽĂů͕ connecting the central areas with outlying industrial, residential, ŝŶ &ĞďƌƵĂƌLJ ϮϬϭϬ ƚŚĞ ĐŝƚLJ ŝŶƐƚĂůůĞĚ Ă ďŝŽĚŝŐĞƐƚĞƌ ƉůĂŶƚ Ăƚ and institutional areas. The buses travel on dedicated lanes in the center of the roads at an average speed of 26–29 km per ŝƚƐ ƐĂŶŝƚĂƌLJ ůĂŶĚĮůů ƚŽ ƉƌŽǀŝĚĞ ƌĞŶĞǁĂďůĞ ĞŶĞƌŐLJ ƚŚƌŽƵŐŚ hour. Ridership is 35,000 passengers per day on weekdays ďŝŽŐĂƐ͘ dŚĞ ƉůĂŶƚ ŝƐ Ă ƉƵďůŝĐʹƉƌŝǀĂƚĞ ƉĂƌƚŶĞƌƐŚŝƉ ƉƌŽũĞĐƚ and 40,000 passengers per day on weekends with a peak hour ǁŝƚŚ WŚŝůŝƉƉŝŶĞ ŝŽͲ^ĐŝĞŶĐĞƐ ŽŵƉĂŶLJ͕ ĂŶĚ ƉƌŽĚƵĐĞƐ ƵƉ frequency of 4 minutes. The buses have low floors allowing for ƚŽ ϭ ŵĞŐĂǁĂƩ ŽĨ ƉŽǁĞƌ͕ ƉƌŽǀŝĚŝŶŐ ƉŽǁĞƌ ƚŽ Ă ŇĞĞƚ ŽĨ easy access. The stations are well lit in the evening and are ĞͲũĞĞƉƐ ĂŶĚ ĞͲƚƌŝŬĞƐ ĂŶĚ ƚŚƵƐ ĐŽŵƉůĞƟŶŐ Ă ŐƌĞĞŶ ůŽŽƉ equipped with synchronized automatic sliding doors with digital ;EĞǁŵĂŶ ĂŶĚ DĂƚĂŶ ĨŽƌƚŚĐŽŵŝŶŐͿ͘ displays fed by a centrally controlled intelligent transport system. That system is linked to a global positioning system on each BRT bus, and advises waiting passengers when the next bus and the ŶŽƚŚĞƌ ĞdžĂŵƉůĞ ŝƐ ƚŚĞ ^ƵƌĂƚ dŚĂŶŝ ďŝŽŵĂƐƐ one after it are expected to arrive. Fares are collected and tickets ƉŽǁĞƌ ƉůĂŶƚ ŝŶ dŚĂŝůĂŶĚ ǁŚŝĐŚ ƵƟůŝnjĞƐ ƚŚĞ ǁĂƐƚĞƐ ŽĨ issued mainly at ticket counters at the stations allowing for rapid ůŽĐĂů ŝŶĚƵƐƚƌŝĞƐ ƚŽ ŐĞŶĞƌĂƚĞ ƌĞŶĞǁĂďůĞ ĞŶĞƌŐLJ ĨŽƌ ůŽĐĂů boarding. ƌĞƐŝĚĞŶƚƐ Ăƚ ůŽǁ ĐŽƐƚ͘ dŚĞ ƉůĂŶƚ ĐŽŵŵĞŶĐĞĚ ŽƉĞƌĂƟŽŶƐ ŝŶ ϮϬϬϳ ĂŶĚ ƵƐĞƐ ĞŵƉƚLJ ĨƌƵŝƚ ďƵŶĐŚĞƐ ;&ƐͿ ĨƌŽŵ Ɛŝdž ƉĂůŵ Sources: Newman and Matan (forthcoming), Institute for Transportation and Development Policy (2010). Žŝů ŵŝůůƐ ŝŶ ƚŚĞ ƉƌŽǀŝŶĐĞ ĂƐ Ă ƉƌŝŵĂƌLJ ŝŶƉƵƚ ;hE& ϮϬϬϳͿ͘ dŚĞ ƉůĂŶƚ ŐĞŶĞƌĂƚĞƐ ϳϬ͕ϭϲϴ ŵĞŐĂǁĂƩͲŚŽƵƌƐ ŽĨ ĞůĞĐƚƌŝĐŝƚLJ LJĞĂƌůLJ ĨƌŽŵ ϮϱϮ͕ϲϬϬ ƚŽŶƐ ŽĨ &͘ dŚĞ ĞůĞĐƚƌŝĐŝƚLJ ŝƐ ƐŽůĚ ƚŽ ƚŚĞ ůŽĐĂů ĞůĞĐƚƌŝĐŝƚLJ ŐƌŝĚ͘ dŚŝƐ ŝŶŶŽǀĂƟŽŶ ĂůƐŽ ƉƌŽǀŝĚĞƐ WƌŽŵŽƟŶŐ EĞǁ &ƌŽŶƟĞƌƐ ĂĚĚŝƟŽŶĂů ŝŶĐŽŵĞ ƚŽ ĨĂƌŵĞƌƐͶďĞĨŽƌĞ ƚŚĞ ƉůĂŶƚ ƐƚĂƌƚĞĚ ŽƉĞƌĂƟŽŶƐ͕ ƚŚĞ &Ɛ ŚĂĚ ŶŽ ĐŽŵŵĞƌĐŝĂů ǀĂůƵĞ ĂŶĚ ǁĞƌĞ Ɛ ƐŝĂŶƐ ďĞĐŽŵĞ ŵŽƌĞ ĂŋƵĞŶƚ ĂŶĚ ĐŽŶƐƵŵĞ ŵŽƌĞ͕ ůĞŌ ƚŽ ĚĞĐĂLJ Ăƚ ƐŽůŝĚ ǁĂƐƚĞ ĚŝƐƉŽƐĂů ƐŝƚĞƐ͘ ŵĞƌĞůLJ ƌĞůLJŝŶŐ ŽŶ ƐĂǀŝŶŐƐ ĨƌŽŵ ĞĸĐŝĞŶĐLJ ŝŵƉƌŽǀĞŵĞŶƚ ĂŶĚ ĐŽŶƐĞƌǀĂƟŽŶ ŝƐ ĨĂƌ ĨƌŽŵ ĞŶŽƵŐŚ͘ /Ŷ ƚŚĞ ůŽŶŐ ƌƵŶ͕ ƚŚĞ Box 6 From Waste to Energy in Singapore ƵůƟŵĂƚĞ ƐŽůƵƟŽŶ ŽĨ ƵƌďĂŶ ĞŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚĂů ƉƌŽďůĞŵƐ ůŝĞƐ Singapore has four waste-to-energy incineration plants—Tuas, ŝŶ ƉƌŽŵŽƟŶŐ ŶĞǁ ĨƌŽŶƟĞƌƐ ďLJ ĂĚŽƉƟŶŐ ŵŽƌĞ ĂĚǀĂŶĐĞĚ Senoko Waste-to-Energy Plant, Tuas South Incineration Plant, ƚĞĐŚŶŽůŽŐLJ͕ ĞŵďƌĂĐŝŶŐ ŶĞǁ ĨŽƌŵƐ ŽĨ ĐŝƟĞƐ͕ ĂŶĚ ŝŶĐƌĞĂƐŝŶŐ and Keppel Seghers Tuas Plant—and an offshore sanitary landfill, ƚŚĞ ƵƐĞ ŽĨ ĂůƚĞƌŶĂƟǀĞ ĞŶĞƌŐLJ ƐŽƵƌĐĞƐ͘ Semakau Landfill. The four plants have a total capacity of up to 7,600 tons of waste per day. dĞĐŚŶŽůŽŐLJ ĚǀĂŶĐĞ͘ dŚĞ ŵĂũŽƌ ĨŽƌĐĞ ƚŚĂƚ ŚĞůƉƐ ƐŚŝŌ ƚŚĞ < Žƌ ƚŚĞ ƵƌďĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶʹĞŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚ ĐƵƌǀĞ ůŝĞƐ The Tuas South Incineration Plant has the largest capacity, at 3,000 tons of waste per day and a power generation capacity ŝŶ ƚĞĐŚŶŽůŽŐLJ ĂĚǀĂŶĐĞ͘ &Žƌ ƐŝĂ͕ Ă ďĞŶĞĮƚ ŽĨ ĚĞǀĞůŽƉŝŶŐ of 80 megawatts. The plant cleans flue gas before releasing it ůĂƚĞ ŝƐ ƚŚĞ ŽƉƉŽƌƚƵŶŝƚLJ ƚŽ ͞ůĞĂƉĨƌŽŐ͟ ŽůĚĞƌ ƚĞĐŚŶŽůŽŐLJ ĂŶĚ using a three part system. The flue gas is first passed through an ĂĚŽƉƚ ŶĞǁĞƌ ƚĞĐŚŶŽůŽŐLJ ĚĞǀĞůŽƉĞĚ ĞůƐĞǁŚĞƌĞ͘ ZĞƐĞĂƌĐŚ electrostatic precipitator, which removes 95% of the fly ash and ŚĂƐ ƐŚŽǁŶ ƚŚĞ ŝŵƉŽƌƚĂŶĐĞ ŽĨ ŬĞĞƉŝŶŐ ƚƌĂĚĞ ƚĂƌŝīƐ ĂŶĚ dust particles. This is then passed through a catalytic fabric filter ƋƵŽƚĂƐ ůŽǁ ǁŝƚŚ ŶĂƟŽŶƐ ƚŚĂƚ ĞdžƉŽƌƚ ŐƌĞĞŶ ƉƌŽĚƵĐƚƐ͘ dŚŝƐ system to remove the remaining particles. Further, a hydrated ǁŝůů ůĞĂĚ ƚŽ ĐůĞĂŶĞƌ ŶĞǁ ĐĂƉŝƚĂů ƐƚŽĐŬ͘ϭϱ ĐůĂƐƐŝĐ ĞdžĂŵƉůĞ lime powder is mixed with the flue gas to reduce the acidity of the ŝƐ ƵƐŝŶŐ ĐĞůů ƉŚŽŶĞƐ ƌĂƚŚĞƌ ƚŚĂŶ ůĂŶĚ ůŝŶĞƐ͗ ƚŚĞ ĨŽƌŵĞƌ gas. This is then dispersed into the air through two 150-meter tall chimneys. The heat produced by the incineration process is ƌĞƋƵŝƌĞƐ ŵƵĐŚ ůĞƐƐ ƉŚLJƐŝĐĂů ŝŶĨƌĂƐƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĞ͘ ŶŽƚŚĞƌ used to generate electricity, 20% of which powers the plant and ĞdžĂŵƉůĞ ŝƐ ƚŚĂƚ ƵƌŽƉĞ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞ h^ ŚĂǀĞ ĂůƌĞĂĚLJ ĚĞǀĞůŽƉĞĚ the excess is sold to Singapore Power. The plant uses recycled ůŽǁ ĞŵŝƐƐŝŽŶƐ ƚĞĐŚŶŽůŽŐŝĞƐ ĨŽƌ ĐĂƌƐ͕ ŝŶĚƵƐƚƌLJ͕ ĂŶĚ ƉŽǁĞƌ industrial wastewater in its boilers along with captured exhaust ƉůĂŶƚƐ͕ ĂŶĚ ƐŝĂŶ ĞĐŽŶŽŵŝĞƐ ĐĂŶ ŝŵƉŽƌƚ ƚŚĞ ƚĞĐŚŶŽůŽŐLJ͘ steam. Scrap steel extracted from the incineration ash is sold to tŚŝůĞ ƐƵĐŚ ƚĞĐŚŶŽůŽŐŝĞƐ ŵĂLJ ďĞ ƌĞůĂƟǀĞůLJ ĞdžƉĞŶƐŝǀĞ Ăƚ a local steel mill. ƉƌĞƐĞŶƚ͕ ƚŚĞŝƌ ƉƌŝĐĞƐ ǁŝůů ĐŽŶƟŶƵĞ ƚŽ ĨĂůů ǁŝƚŚ ƟŵĞ͘ The four plants produce sufficient electricity to provide 2%–3% of the national electricity demand. 15 For an example of poor capital stock because a nation is closed to international trade, see Erdbrink (2012). Sources: National Environment Agency (2012), Newman and Matan (forthcoming).
    • ƌĞĞŶ hƌďĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶ ŝŶ ƐŝĂ 35 ƐŝĂŶ ĐŝƟĞƐ ĐĂŶ ĂůƐŽ ůĞĂĚ ŝŶŶŽǀĂƟŽŶƐ ŝŶ ŐƌĞĞŶ ;ŝŶĚƵƐƚƌŝĂů ĞĐŽůŽŐLJͿ ŝŶ ƚŚĞ WZ͘ dŚĞ ƉŝůŽƚ ĂƌĞĂ ĐŽǀĞƌƐ ϳϰ͘ϯ Special ChapterƚĞĐŚŶŽůŽŐLJ͘ dŚĞ ƐƵĐĐĞƐƐ ŽĨ ĂŽĚŝŶŐ ŝŶ ƚŚĞ WZ ŝƐ ƐƋƵĂƌĞ ŬŝůŽŵĞƚĞƌƐ ĂŶĚ ŝƐ ĞdžƉĞĐƚĞĚ ƚŽ ŚĂǀĞ Ă ƉŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶŝůůƵŵŝŶĂƟŶŐ͘ ĂŽĚŝŶŐ ĞŵďĂƌŬĞĚ ŽŶ Ă ŐƌĞĞŶ ŐƌŽǁƚŚ ƉĂƚŚ ŽĨ ϴϬϬ͕ϬϬϬ ďLJ ϮϬϮϬ ;^h^ ϮϬϭϬͿ͘ ^ƉĞĐŝĮĐ ĞŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚĂůĂƐ ĞĂƌůLJ ĂƐ ϭϵϵϮ ǁŚĞŶ ƚŚĞ ĂŽĚŝŶŐ /ŶĚƵƐƚƌLJ ,ŝŐŚͲdĞĐŚ ĐƌŝƚĞƌŝĂ ŝŶĐůƵĚĞ ƚŚĂƚ ϲϬй ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ƚƌŝƉƐ ǁŝƚŚŝŶ ƚŚĞ ĐŝƚLJ ǁŝůůĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ ŽŶĞ ǁĂƐ ĞƐƚĂďůŝƐŚĞĚ͘ dŚĞ ĐŝƚLJ ŚĂĚ ŵĂĚĞ ďĞ ďLJ ƉƵďůŝĐ ƚƌĂŶƐƉŽƌƚ͕ ĂǀĞƌĂŐĞ ǁĂƚĞƌ ƵƐĞ ǁŝůů ďĞ ϭϴϬĂ ĐŽŶƐĐŝŽƵƐ ĞīŽƌƚ ;ůĞĚ ďLJ ƚŚĞ ŵĂLJŽƌͿ ŶŽƚ ƚŽ ƉƵƌƐƵĞ ůŝƚĞƌƐ ƉĞƌ ƉĞƌƐŽŶ ĚĂŝůLJ͕ ĂŶĚ ĚĂŝůLJ ƉĞƌ ĐĂƉŝƚĂ ĞůĞĐƚƌŝĐŝƚLJƚƌĂĚŝƟŽŶĂů ŝŶĚƵƐƚƌŝĞƐ͘ ^ŝŶĐĞ ƚŚĞŶ͕ ĂŽĚŝŶŐ ŚĂƐ ŚĂĚ Ă ĐŽŶƐƵŵƉƟŽŶ ǁŝůů ďĞ ŵĞƌĞůLJ ϴ ŬŝůŽǁĂƩ ŚŽƵƌƐ͘ dŚĞƐĞ ƚĂƌŐĞƚƐƐƚƌŽŶŐ ĞĐŽŶŽŵŝĐ ŐƌŽǁƚŚ ƌĂƚĞ͕ ǁŚŝĐŚ ŝƐ ĂƩƌŝďƵƚĞĚ ƚŽ Ă ĐŽŶƚƌĂƐƚ ǁŝƚŚ ĂŶ ĂǀĞƌĂŐĞ ŽĨ Ϯϳϴ ůŝƚĞƌƐ ŽĨ ǁĂƚĞƌ ƵƐĂŐĞ ƉĞƌϰϬй ŐƌŽǁƚŚ ŝŶ ĐŽŵƉĂŶŝĞƐ ƚŚĂƚ ƉƌŽĚƵĐĞ ĂŶĚ ĚĞƉůŽLJ ůŽǁͲ ƉĞƌƐŽŶ ĨŽƌ Ă ŐƌŽƵƉ ŽĨ ƐŝĂŶ ĐŝƟĞƐ ĂŶĚ ϭϰ͘ϵϳ ŬŝůŽǁĂƩ ŚŽƵƌƐĐĂƌďŽŶ ƚĞĐŚŶŽůŽŐŝĞƐ ;ƉĂƌƟĐƵůĂƌůLJ ǁŝŶĚ͕ ƉŚŽƚŽǀŽůƚĂŝĐ ŽĨ ĞůĞĐƚƌŝĐŝƚLJ ƉĞƌ ƉĞƌƐŽŶ ĨŽƌ ĞŝũŝŶŐ ƌĞƐŝĚĞŶƚƐ ŝŶ ϮϬϬϴĂŶĚ ƚŚĞƌŵĂů ƐŽůĂƌ͕ ďŝŽŵĂƐƐ͕ ĂŶĚ ĞŶĞƌŐLJͲĞĸĐŝĞŶƚ ;ĐŽŶŽŵŝƐƚ /ŶƚĞůůŝŐĞŶĐĞ hŶŝƚ ϮϬϭϭͿ͘ƚĞĐŚŶŽůŽŐŝĞƐͿ͘ dŚŝƐ ŚĂƐ ƌĞƐƵůƚĞĚ ŝŶ ϮϬ͕ϬϬϬ ũŽďƐ ŝŶ ĐůĞĂŶĞŶĞƌŐLJ ƚĞĐŚŶŽůŽŐŝĞƐ͘ ƚ ƚŚĞ ŶĂƟŽŶĂů ůĞǀĞů͕ ƚŚĞ WZ ůĞĂĚƐ WƌŽũĞĐƚƐ ƐƵĐŚ ĂƐ ĂŽĨĞŝĚŝĂŶ ƉƌŽǀŝĚĞ Ă ƌŽůĞ ŵŽĚĞů ĨŽƌƚŚĞ ǁŽƌůĚ ŝŶ ŵĂŶLJ ĐůĞĂŶ ƚĞĐŚŶŽůŽŐLJ ƐĞĐƚŽƌƐ͕ ŝŶĐůƵĚŝŶŐ ƚŚĞ ƌĞƐƚ ŽĨ ƐŝĂ͘ ƌĞĂƟŶŐ Ă ŶĂƐĐĞŶƚ ŐƌĞĞŶ ĞĐŽŶŽŵLJ ĞŶƚĂŝůƐǁŝŶĚ ƚƵƌďŝŶĞƐ͕ ƐŽůĂƌ ƉŚŽƚŽǀŽůƚĂŝĐ ŚĂƌĚǁĂƌĞ͕ ĂŶĚ ŚŝŐŚͲ ŵĂŶLJ ƵŶŬŶŽǁŶƐ͘ Ɛ ŶĂƟŽŶƐ ƐƵĐŚ ĂƐ ƚŚĞ WZ ĞdžƉĞƌŝŵĞŶƚ͕ƐƉĞĞĚ ƌĂŝů ƚĞĐŚŶŽůŽŐŝĞƐ͘ /Ŷ ϮϬϬϴ͕ ƚŚĞ WZ ďĞĐĂŵĞ ƚŚĞ ƚŚĞ ƌĞƐƚ ŽĨ ƐŝĂ ĐĂŶ ůĞĂƌŶ ĨƌŽŵ ƚŚĞ ĞdžƉĞƌŝĞŶĐĞ ĂŶĚ ĂĚŽƉƚůĂƌŐĞƐƚ ƉƌŽĚƵĐĞƌ ŽĨ ĐůĞĂŶ ƚĞĐŚŶŽůŽŐLJ͕ ǁŚŝĐŚ ĞĂƌŶĞĚ ŵŽƌĞ ŝĚĞĂƐ ƚŚĂƚ ƐƵĐĐĞĞĚ͘ /Ŷ ƚŚŝƐ ƐĞŶƐĞ͕ ĞdžƉĞƌŝŵĞŶƚĂƟŽŶ ŝƐ ĂƚŚĂŶ Ψϱϰ ďŝůůŝŽŶ ;Φϰϰ ďŝůůŝŽŶͿ Žƌ ϭ͘ϰй ŽĨ ŝƚƐ W ;^ W͕ ƉƵďůŝĐ ŐŽŽĚ ƚŚĂƚ ƐŚŽƵůĚ ďĞ ƐƵďƐŝĚŝnjĞĚ͘ ͕ ĂŶĚ hEW ϮϬϭϮ͗ ϱϯͿ͘ ^ĂƚĞůůŝƚĞ ŝƟĞƐ͘ ƵƌŝŶŐ Ă ƟŵĞ ŽĨ ĞĐŽŶŽŵŝĐ ŐƌŽǁƚŚ ƌĞĂƟŶŐ ŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚͲ&ƌŝĞŶĚůLJ ŝƟĞƐ͘ /ƚ ŝƐ ǁĞůů ĂŶĚ ƌĂƉŝĚ ƵƌďĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶ͕ ƚŚĞƌĞ ŝƐ Ă ǀĂůŝĚ ĐŽŶĐĞƌŶ ƚŚĂƚƌĞĐŽŐŶŝnjĞĚ ƚŚĂƚ ƐŝĂ ƐŝŵƉůLJ ĐĂŶŶŽƚ ĨŽůůŽǁ ƚŚĞ ƵƌďĂŶ ĐŝƟĞƐ ŵĂLJ ŐƌŽǁ ͞ƚŽŽ ŵƵĐŚ͘͟ /ŶĚŝǀŝĚƵĂů ŚŽƵƐĞŚŽůĚƐ ĂŶĚĚĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ ƉĂƩĞƌŶ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ h^ ǁŚĞƌĞ ƚŚĞ ŵĂũŽƌŝƚLJ ĮƌŵƐ ŵĂLJ ŐĂŝŶ ĨƌŽŵ ŵŽǀŝŶŐ ƚŽ ĂŶ ĞdžŝƐƟŶŐ ůĂƌŐĞ ĐŝƚLJ ďƵƚŽĨ ƉĞŽƉůĞ ůŝǀĞ ŝŶ ƐƵďƵƌďƐ ĂŶĚ ĚƌŝǀĞ ƚŽ ǁŽƌŬ ŝŶ ĐŝƟĞƐ͘ ƚŚĞLJ ŽŌĞŶ ĚŽ ŶŽƚ ĐŽŶƐŝĚĞƌ ƚŚĞ ŝŵƉĂĐƚ ŽŶ ƉŽůůƵƟŽŶ Žƌ^ƵĐŚ ƵƌďĂŶ ƐƉƌĂǁů ĞŶĐŽƵƌĂŐĞƐ ƵƐĞ ŽĨ ƉƌŝǀĂƚĞ ĐĂƌƐ ĂŶĚ ƚƌĂĸĐ ĐŽŶŐĞƐƟŽŶ͘ tŚĞŶ ŵŝůůŝŽŶƐ ŽĨ ŶĞǁ ŚŽƵƐĞŚŽůĚƐ ĂŶĚŐĞŶĞƌĂƚĞƐ ĞdžƚƌĂ ĚĞŵĂŶĚ ĨŽƌ ƌŽĂĚƐ ǁŝƚŚŝŶ Ă ŵĞƚƌŽƉŽůŝƚĂŶ ƚŚŽƵƐĂŶĚƐ ŽĨ ĮƌŵƐ ĂŐŐůŽŵĞƌĂƚĞ ŝŶ Ă ƐŵĂůů ŐĞŽŐƌĂƉŚŝĐ ĂƌĞĂĂƌĞĂ͕ ƐĐĂůŝŶŐ ƵƉ Ăŝƌ ƉŽůůƵƟŽŶ ĂŶĚ ĞŵŝƐƐŝŽŶƐ͘ /Ŷ ƐƵĐŚ ĐŝƟĞƐ͕ ƚŚĞ ƋƵĂůŝƚLJ ŽĨ ůŝĨĞ ĐĂŶ ĚĞƚĞƌŝŽƌĂƚĞ ƋƵŝĐŬůLJ͘ KŶĞ ƐƚƌĂƚĞŐLJ ĨŽƌƉƵďůŝĐ ƚƌĂŶƐƉŽƌƚ ĐĂŶ ĞŶƚĞƌ Ă ͞ĚĞĂƚŚ ƐƉŝƌĂů͟ ĂƐ ƉŽůŝƟĐĂů ƌĞĚƵĐŝŶŐ ƚŚĞ ůŝŬĞůŝŚŽŽĚ ŽĨ ŵĞŐĂĐŝƟĞƐ ŐƌŽǁŝŶŐ ƚŽŽ ďŝŐ ŝƐƐƵƉƉŽƌƚ ĨŽƌ ŝŵƉƌŽǀŝŶŐ ŵĂƐƐ ƚƌĂŶƐŝƚ ƐŚƌŝŶŬƐ ;ůĂĞƐĞƌ ĂŶĚ ƚŽ ĨŽƐƚĞƌ ƚŚĞ ĚĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ ŽĨ ƐĂƚĞůůŝƚĞ ĐŝƟĞƐ͘ ^ƵĐŚ ĐŝƟĞƐ<ĂŚŶ ϮϬϬϰͿ͘ ŝŶĐƌĞĂƐĞ ƚŚĞ ŵĞŶƵ ŽĨ ĚĞƐƟŶĂƟŽŶ ŽƉƟŽŶƐ ĂŶĚ ŽīĞƌ Ă ƚLJƉĞ ŽĨ ƐĂĨĞƚLJ ǀĂůǀĞ ĨŽƌ ƚŚĞ ŵĞŐĂĐŝƟĞƐ͘ Ɛ ƐŝĂ ĚĞǀĞůŽƉƐ ŝƚƐ ĐŝƟĞƐ͕ ƵƌďĂŶ ƉůĂŶŶĞƌƐ ĂƌĞ ŵĂŬŝŶŐŝƌƌĞǀĞƌƐŝďůĞ ŝŶǀĞƐƚŵĞŶƚ ĚĞĐŝƐŝŽŶƐ͕ ƚŚĞ ĞīĞĐƚƐ ŽĨ ǁŚŝĐŚ ǁŝůů ŽŶƐƚƌƵĐƟŶŐ ƐĂƚĞůůŝƚĞ ĐŝƟĞƐ ƌĞƋƵŝƌĞƐ ŝŶǀĞƐƟŶŐďĞ ƐĞĞŶ ĂŶĚ ĨĞůƚ ĨŽƌ ĚĞĐĂĚĞƐ͘ WŽůŝĐLJ ŵĂŬĞƌƐ ŵƵƐƚ ĐŽŶƐŝĚĞƌ ŝŶ ƚƌĂŶƐƉŽƌƚ ŝŶĨƌĂƐƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĞ͕ ĞůĞĐƚƌŝĮĐĂƟŽŶ͕ ĂŶĚ ǁĂƚĞƌƚŚĞƐĞ ŝŵƉĂĐƚƐ ďŽƚŚ ŶŽǁ ĂŶĚ ĨŽƌ ŵĂŶLJ LJĞĂƌƐ ƚŽ ĐŽŵĞ ǁŚĞŶ ƚƌĞĂƚŵĞŶƚ ŝŶ ĂƌĞĂƐ ŶĞĂƌ ŵĞŐĂĐŝƟĞƐ͘ tŚŝůĞ ŝƚ ŝƐ ĚŝĸĐƵůƚ ƚŽĐŽŶƐƚƌƵĐƟŶŐ ŶĞǁ ĐŝƟĞƐ Žƌ ƚƌĂŶƐĨŽƌŵŝŶŐ ƚŚĞ ĞdžŝƐƟŶŐ ŽŶĞƐ͘ ĂŶƟĐŝƉĂƚĞ ǁŚŝĐŚ ǁŽƌŬĞƌƐ ĂŶĚ ĮƌŵƐ ǁŝůů ĐŚŽŽƐĞ ƚŽ ŵŽǀĞ/Ŷ ŶĂƟŽŶƐ ƚŚĂƚ ƐƵĐĐĞĞĚ ŝŶ ĐƌĞĂƟŶŐ ĂŶ ŽƉĞŶ ƐLJƐƚĞŵ ŽĨ ƚŽ ƐĂƚĞůůŝƚĞ ĐŝƟĞƐ͕ ĞŵƉŝƌŝĐĂů ĞǀŝĚĞŶĐĞ ƐŚŽǁƐ ƚŚĂƚ ŵĂŶLJĐŝƟĞƐ͕ ŶĞǁ ƵƌďĂŶŝƚĞƐ ĂŶĚ ĮƌŵƐ ǁŝůů ŚĂǀĞ Ă ŐƌĞĂƚĞƌ ĚĞŐƌĞĞ ŚŽƵƐĞŚŽůĚƐ ĂŶĚ ĮƌŵƐ ĚŽ ƌĞůŽĐĂƚĞ͘ dŚŝƐ ŝƐ ĂůŵŽƐƚ ŝŶĞǀŝƚĂďůĞŽĨ ĐŚŽŝĐĞ ŽǀĞƌ ǁŚĞƌĞ ƚŽ ůŽĐĂƚĞ͘ ^ƵĐŚ ĐŚŽŝĐĞƐ ĂƐ ͞ǀŽƟŶŐ ŐŝǀĞŶ ƚŚĞ ĚŝǀĞƌƐŝƚLJ ŽĨ ƉƌĞĨĞƌĞŶĐĞƐ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞ ĚŝīĞƌĞŶƚ ŶĞĞĚƐǁŝƚŚ LJŽƵƌ ĨĞĞƚ͟ ĐĂŶ ŚĞůƉ ƉƌŽƚĞĐƚ ŶĞǁ ƵƌďĂŶŝƚĞƐ ĂŐĂŝŶƐƚ ŽĨ ĮƌŵƐ ĨŽƌ ĨĂĐƚŽƌƐ ŽĨ ƉƌŽĚƵĐƟŽŶ ƐƵĐŚ ĂƐ ůĂŶĚ͘ ,ŽƵƐĞŚŽůĚƐĚĞŐƌĂĚĂƟŽŶ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ƋƵĂůŝƚLJ ŽĨ ůŝĨĞ ŝŶ ĐŝƟĞƐ͘ ĂŶĚ ĮƌŵƐ ŵĂLJ ƚĂŬĞ ĂĚǀĂŶƚĂŐĞ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ŽƉƉŽƌƚƵŶŝƚLJ ƚŽ ƉĂLJ ůŽǁĞƌ ƌĞŶƚƐ ĂŶĚ ƚŽ ůŝǀĞ ĂŶĚ ǁŽƌŬ ŝŶ Ă ůĞƐƐ ĐŽŶŐĞƐƚĞĚ͕ dŚƌĞĞ ĨŽƌŵƐ ŽĨ ĐŝƟĞƐ ĂƌĞ ƌĞĐŽŵŵĞŶĚĞĚ ĨŽƌ ƐŝĂŶ ƉŽůůƵƚĞĚ ůŽĐĂƟŽŶ͘ dŚĞ ĞŵĞƌŐĞŶĐĞ ŽĨ ƐĂƚĞůůŝƚĞ ĐŝƟĞƐ ǁŝůůƉŽůŝĐLJ ŵĂŬĞƌƐ ƚŽ ĐŽŶƐŝĚĞƌ ǁŚĞŶ ĐŽŶƐƚƌƵĐƟŶŐ ŶĞǁ Žƌ ƌĞĚƵĐĞ ƚŚĞ ĞŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚĂů ĐŽƐƚƐ ŽĨ ŵĞŐĂĐŝƚLJ ŐƌŽǁƚŚ͕ƚƌĂŶƐĨŽƌŵŝŶŐ ĞdžŝƐƟŶŐ ĐŝƟĞƐ͘ ƉĂƌƟĐƵůĂƌůLJ ŝĨ ƚŚĞ ĐŽŶĐĞƉƚƐ ŽĨ ŐƌĞĞŶ͕ ĐŽŵƉĂĐƚ͕ ĂŶĚ ĞĐŽͲ ĞĸĐŝĞŶƚ ĐŝƟĞƐ ĂƌĞ ĂĚŽƉƚĞĚ ;Ždž ϳͿ͘ ƌĞĞŶ ŝƟĞƐ͘ ŐƌĞĞŶ ĐŝƚLJ ĞŶĐŽŵƉĂƐƐĞƐĞŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚĂůůLJͲĨƌŝĞŶĚůLJ ŵĞƚŚŽĚƐ ŽĨ ƚƌĂŶƐƉŽƌƚ͕ ŝŶĐůƵĚŝŶŐ dŚĞ ĚĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ ŽĨ ƐĂƚĞůůŝƚĞ ĐŝƟĞƐ ĐůŽƐĞ ƚŽ ƚŚĞƉƌŽǀŝƐŝŽŶƐ ĨŽƌ ǁĂůŬŝŶŐ ĂŶĚ ĐLJĐůŝŶŐ͕ ĐůĞĂŶ Ăŝƌ͕ ŐŽŽĚ ƋƵĂůŝƚLJ ŵĂũŽƌ ĐŝƟĞƐ ĐĂŶ ĂůůŽǁ ĨŽƌ ƚŚĞ ͞ǁŝŶͲǁŝŶ͟ ƐŽůƵƟŽŶ ŽĨǁĂƚĞƌ͕ ƉƌĞĚŽŵŝŶĂŶƚ ĐŽŶƐƵŵƉƟŽŶ ŽĨ ƌĞŶĞǁĂďůĞ ƌĞƐŽƵƌĐĞƐ͕ ƚĂŬŝŶŐ ĂĚǀĂŶƚĂŐĞ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ĞĐŽŶŽŵŝĐ ĂŐŐůŽŵĞƌĂƟŽŶ ďĞŶĞĮƚƐĂŵƉůĞ ŐƌĞĞŶ ƐƉĂĐĞ͕ ĞŶĞƌŐLJͲƐĂǀŝŶŐ ďƵŝůĚŝŶŐƐ ĂŶĚ ƐƵƉƉŽƌƚ ŝŶ Ă ŵĞŐĂĐŝƚLJ ǁŚŝůĞ ĚĞŇĞĐƟŶŐ ƐŽŵĞ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ŐƌŽǁƚŚĨŽƌ ƌĞĐLJĐůŝŶŐ͘ ^ŽŵĞ ƐŝĂŶ ŶĂƟŽŶƐ ĂƌĞ ůĂƵŶĐŚŝŶŐ ĞdžĐŝƟŶŐ ƚŽ ƐƵďĐĞŶƚĞƌƐ͘ /Ŷ ƚŚŝƐ ĂŐĞ ŽĨ ŝŶĨŽƌŵĂƟŽŶ ƚĞĐŚŶŽůŽŐLJ͕ĞdžƉĞƌŝŵĞŶƚƐ ŝŶ ĚĞƐŝŐŶŝŶŐ ŶĞǁ ŐƌĞĞŶ ĐŝƟĞƐ͘ KŶĞ ĞdžĂŵƉůĞ ŵĂŶLJ ĮƌŵƐ ĚŽ ŶŽƚ ŶĞĞĚ ĚĂŝůLJ ĐŽŶƚĂĐƚ ǁŝƚŚ ďƵƐŝŶĞƐƐĞƐŝƐ ĂŽĨĞŝĚŝĂŶ ŶĞĂƌ dŝĂŶũŝŶ͕ ǁŚŝĐŚ ǁĂƐ ůŝƐƚĞĚ ŝŶ ϮϬϬϱ ĂƐ Ă ĂŶĚ ŐŽǀĞƌŶŵĞŶƚ ĂĐƟǀŝƟĞƐ ŝŶ ƚŚĞ ŵĞŐĂĐŝƚLJ͘ &ŝƌŵƐ ĂŶĚƉŝůŽƚ ĂƌĞĂ ĨŽƌ ĚĞǀĞůŽƉŝŶŐ Ă ƌĞĐLJĐůĂďůĞͬĐŝƌĐƵůĂƌ ĞĐŽŶŽŵLJ ŝŶĚŝǀŝĚƵĂůƐ ƚŚĂƚ ƌĞƋƵŝƌĞ ƉŚLJƐŝĐĂů ĐŽŶƚĂĐƚƐ ŽŶĐĞ Ă ǁĞĞŬ Žƌ
    • 36 <ĞLJ /ŶĚŝĐĂƚŽƌƐ ĨŽƌ ƐŝĂ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞ WĂĐŝĮĐ ϮϬϭϮ ŽŶĐĞ Ă ŵŽŶƚŚ ǁŝƚŚ ƚŚŽƐĞ ŝŶ ƚŚĞ ŵĞŐĂĐŝƚLJ ĐĂŶ ƉƌŽĮƚĂďůLJ ĂƌŽƵŶĚ ŚŝŐŚ ƋƵĂůŝƚLJ ƚƌĂŝŶ ƐLJƐƚĞŵƐ͕ ǁŝƚŚŽƵƚ ŚĞĂǀLJ ƌĞůŝĂŶĐĞ ůŽĐĂƚĞ ŝŶ Ă ŶĞĂƌďLJ ƐĂƚĞůůŝƚĞ ĐŝƚLJ Žƌ ƐƵďĐĞŶƚĞƌ ĂŶĚ ƵƐĞ ŶĞǁ ŽŶ ŚŝŐŚǁĂLJƐ ĂŶĚ ŵĂũŽƌ ƌŽĂĚƐ ĨŽƌ ĐŽŶŶĞĐƟŽŶ͘ dŚŝƐ ŵĂŬĞƐ ƉƵďůŝĐ ƚƌĂŶƐƉŽƌƚ ŝŶĨƌĂƐƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĞ ǁŚĞŶ ŶĞĞĚĞĚ ƚŽ ƚƌĂǀĞů ƚŽ ŝƚ ƉŽƐƐŝďůĞ ƚŽ ůŝǀĞ Ă ŚŝŐŚĞƌ ƋƵĂůŝƚLJ ůŝĨĞ ǁŝƚŚ ŐƌĞĂƚůLJ ƌĞĚƵĐĞĚ ƚŚĞ ŵĞŐĂĐŝƚLJ͘ ŶĞĞĚ ĨŽƌ ĚƌŝǀŝŶŐ ĂŶĚ ďƵƌŶŝŶŐ ĨŽƐƐŝů ĨƵĞůƐ͘ ,ŽǁĞǀĞƌ͕ ƚŚĞ ƉƌŽǀŝƐŝŽŶ ŽĨ ƚƌĂŶƐƉŽƌƚ ŝŶĨƌĂƐƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĞ ŽŵƉĂĐƚ ŝƟĞƐ͘ ŶŽƚŚĞƌ ƐƚƌĂƚĞŐLJ ƚŽ ĐŽŶƚƌŽů ƵƌďĂŶ ƚŽ ƐĂƚĞůůŝƚĞ ĐŝƟĞƐ ĐĂŶ ŚĂǀĞ ƚŚĞ ĂĚǀĞƌƐĞ ĞīĞĐƚ ŽĨ ŝŶĐƌĞĂƐŝŶŐ ƐƉƌĂǁů ŝƐ ƚŽ ƉƌŽŵŽƚĞ ŝŶǀĞƐƚŵĞŶƚ ŝŶ ĨĂƐƚ ĂŶĚ ĐůĞĂŶ ƵƌďĂŶ ƐƉƌĂǁů ĂƐ ƵƌďĂŶ ĚĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ ŐĞŶĞƌĂůůLJ ĨŽůůŽǁƐ ƚŚĞ ƚƌĂŶƐƉŽƌƚ ŝŶĨƌĂƐƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĞ ĨŽĐƵƐĞĚ ŽŶ ďƌŝŶŐŝŶŐ ƉĞŽƉůĞ ƚŽ ƚŚĞ ƚƌĂŶƐƉŽƌƚ ŝŶĨƌĂƐƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĞ͘ ŵƉŝƌŝĐĂů ƌĞƐĞĂƌĐŚ ŝŶ ƚŚĞ WZ ĐŝƚLJ ĐĞŶƚĞƌ͘ dŚŝƐ ƌĞĚƵĐĞƐ ƚŚĞ ƵƐĞ ŽĨ ƉƌŝǀĂƚĞ ǀĞŚŝĐůĞƐ ĂŶĚ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞ h^ ŚŝŐŚůŝŐŚƚƐ ƚŚĞ ƌŽůĞ ƚŚĂƚ ŚŝŐŚǁĂLJ ĐŽŶƐƚƌƵĐƟŽŶ ĞŶĐŽƵƌĂŐĞƐ ƚŚĞ ƉƌŝǀĂƚĞ ƐĞĐƚŽƌ ƚŽ ŝŶĐƌĞĂƐĞ ŝƚƐ ŝŶǀĞƐƚŵĞŶƚ ŝŶ ƉůĂLJƐ ŝŶ ĚĞĐŽŶĐĞŶƚƌĂƟŶŐ ĞĐŽŶŽŵŝĐ ĂĐƟǀŝƚLJ ĂŶĚ ƉƌŽŵŽƟŶŐ ĐŝƚLJ ĐĞŶƚĞƌƐ͕ ŵĂŬŝŶŐ ƚŚĞ ĐĞŶƚĞƌƐ ĐƌƵĐŝĂů ŚƵďƐ ŽĨ ĞĐŽŶŽŵŝĐ ŐƌŽǁƚŚ ŝŶ ĂƌĞĂƐ ĨĂƌ ĨƌŽŵ ƚŚĞ ĐĞŶƚĞƌ ĐŝƟĞƐ͘ ĂƵŵͲ^ŶŽǁ ĂĐƟǀŝƚLJ ŝŶ ŵĞƚƌŽƉŽůŝƚĂŶ ĂƌĞĂƐ͘ dŚĞ ƌĞƐƵůƚ ŝƐ ŵŽƌĞ ĐŽŵƉĂĐƚ ;ϮϬϬϳͿ ĮŶĚƐ ƚŚĂƚ ŚŝŐŚǁĂLJ ĐŽŶƐƚƌƵĐƟŽŶ ŝŶ ƚŚĞ h^ ĂůůŽǁĞĚ ŵŽŶŽĐĞŶƚƌŝĐ ĐŝƟĞƐ ƚŚĂƚ ĂƌĞ ůĞƐƐ ƐƉƌĂǁůŝŶŐ ĂŶĚ ŚĂǀĞ ůŽǁĞƌ ƉĞŽƉůĞ ĂŶĚ ũŽďƐ ƚŽ ŵŝŐƌĂƚĞ ĨƌŽŵ ĐŝƚLJ ĐĞŶƚĞƌƐ ƚŽ ƚŚĞ ĐĂƌďŽŶ ĨŽŽƚƉƌŝŶƚƐ͕ ĂŶĚ ŚĞůƉ ƉƌĞƐĞƌǀĞ ŐƌĞĞŶ ƐƉĂĐĞ͘ ƐƵďƵƌďƐ͘ ^ŝŵŝůĂƌ ƌĞƐƵůƚƐ ĂƌĞ ďĞŝŶŐ ĚŝƐĐŽǀĞƌĞĚ ĨŽƌ ƚŚĞ WZ ;ĂƵŵͲ^ŶŽǁ Ğƚ Ăů͘ ϮϬϭϮͿ͘ hƐŝŶŐ ϭϵϵϬʹϮϬϭϬ ĚĂƚĂ ĂŶĚ ŐŽŽĚ ĞdžĂŵƉůĞ ŝƐ ĞŝũŝŶŐ͕ ǁŚĞƌĞ ƚŚĞ ĐŝƚLJ ŐŽǀĞƌŶŵĞŶƚ ĨŽĐƵƐŝŶŐ ŽŶ ƚŚĞ ĐŚĂŶŐĞ ŝŶ ĐŽƌĞ ĐŝƚLJ ƉŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶƐ ĂŶĚ ƌĂĚŝĂů ŝƐ ŝŶǀĞƐƟŶŐ ƚŽ ŝŵƉƌŽǀĞ ůŽĐĂů ƚƌĂŶƐƉŽƌƚ ŝŶĨƌĂƐƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĞ͘ &ŝǀĞ ƌŽĂĚ ĐĂƉĂĐŝƚLJ ŽĨ ŵĂũŽƌ ŚŝŐŚǁĂLJƐ͕ ƚŚĞLJ ĮŶĚ ƚŚĂƚ ĞĂĐŚ ŶĞǁ ƐƵďǁĂLJ ůŝŶĞƐ ǁĞƌĞ ďƵŝůƚ ĚƵƌŝŶŐ ϮϬϬϬʹϮϬϬϵ͕ ǁŝƚŚ ŚŝŐŚǁĂLJ ĐĂƵƐĞƐ Ă ϯ͘Ϭйʹϱ͘ϱй ĚĞĐƌĞĂƐĞ ŝŶ ƚŚĞ ĐŽƌĞ ĐŝƚLJ Ă ƚŽƚĂů ŝŶǀĞƐƚŵĞŶƚ ŽĨ Ψϳ ďŝůůŝŽŶ ;zϱϬ͘ϯ ďŝůůŝŽŶͿ͕ϭϲ ŚĞŶŐ ƉŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶ͘ ĂŶĚ <ĂŚŶ ;ĨŽƌƚŚĐŽŵŝŶŐͿ ŝŶǀĞƐƟŐĂƚĞ ŚŽǁ ƐƵĐŚ ͞ƉůĂĐĞͲ ďĂƐĞĚ͟ ŝŶǀĞƐƚŵĞŶƚƐ ĂīĞĐƚ ƚŚĞ ƉƌŝǀĂƚĞ ƐĞĐƚŽƌ͘ϭϳ dŚĞLJ ĮŶĚ KŶĞ ƐŽůƵƟŽŶ ŝƐ ƚŽ ĂĚŽƉƚ ƚƌĂŶƐŝƚͲŽƌŝĞŶƚĞĚ ƚŚĂƚ ĚĞǀĞůŽƉĞƌƐ ĂƌĞ ŝŶĐƌĞĂƐŝŶŐ ƚŚĞ ŶƵŵďĞƌ ŽĨ ŚŽƵƐŝŶŐ ĚĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ ;ĞƌǀĞƌŽ ϮϬϬϴͿ͕ ǁŚĞƌĞŝŶ Ă ůŽĐĂů ƐLJƐƚĞŵ ŽĨ ƵŶŝƚƐ ŝŶ ƚŚĞ ǀŝĐŝŶŝƚLJ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ KůLJŵƉŝĐ ŝŶĨƌĂƐƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĞ ĂŶĚ ĐŽŵƉĂĐƚ͕ ǁĂůŬĂďůĞ ƐĂƚĞůůŝƚĞ ĐŝƟĞƐ ŝƐ ďƵŝůƚ ĂŶĚ ĐĞŶƚĞƌĞĚ ƚŚĂƚ ŶĞǁ ƌĞƐƚĂƵƌĂŶƚƐ ŚĂǀĞ ŽƉĞŶĞĚ ŝŶ ƚŚĞ ŶĞŝŐŚďŽƌŚŽŽĚƐ ĐůŽƐĞ ƚŽ ƚŚĞ KůLJŵƉŝĐ sŝůůĂŐĞ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞ ŶĞǁ ƐƵďǁĂLJƐ͘ dŚĞ Box 7 Kawasaki Eco-Town ĐŽŵďŝŶĂƟŽŶ ŽĨ ƉƵďůŝĐ ĂŶĚ ƉƌŝǀĂƚĞ ƐĞĐƚŽƌ ŝŶǀĞƐƚŵĞŶƚ ŚĞůƉƐ ĂƩƌĂĐƚ ĞĚƵĐĂƚĞĚ ĂŶĚ ǁĞĂůƚŚŝĞƌ ŝŶĚŝǀŝĚƵĂůƐ ƚŽ ŵŽǀĞ Eco-towns are industrial clusters oriented to recycling, creating ƚŽ ĂŶ ĂƌĞĂ͘ a circular, efficient, and closed-loop system. In 1997 a decision was taken to redevelop a 2,800 hectare large-scale industrial tŚŝůĞ Ă ĐŽŵƉĂĐƚ ƵƌďĂŶ ĨŽƌŵ ŝƐ Ă ŶĞĐĞƐƐĂƌLJ ĐŽŶĚŝƟŽŶ area in Kawasaki City into one of Japan’s first eco-towns. Recycling facilities were constructed to reuse wastes from the ĨŽƌ ĂŶ ĞŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚͲĨƌŝĞŶĚůLJ ĐŝƚLJ͕ ŝƚ ŝƐ ŶŽƚ ƐƵĸĐŝĞŶƚ͘ ŝƟĞƐ industries as resources for other industries, specifically the steel, ƚŚĂƚ ƵƐĞ Ă ŚƵŐĞ ĂŵŽƵŶƚ ŽĨ ĞůĞĐƚƌŝĐŝƚLJ ĐĂŶŶŽƚ ĞĂƐŝůLJ ďĞ nonferrous metal, cement, chemistry, and paper industries. ŐƌĞĞŶ͘ KŶĞ ƐŽůƵƟŽŶ ŝƐ ƚŽ ƚĂŬĞ ĂĚǀĂŶƚĂŐĞ ŽĨ ĐŽŵƉƵƚĞƌ Notable examples of the reuse of by-products and waste are ƚĞĐŚŶŽůŽŐLJ ƚŽ ĐƌĞĂƚĞ ͞ƐŵĂƌƚ͟ ŐƌĞĞŶ ĐŝƟĞƐ͘ /Ŷ ƚŚŝƐ ƌĞŐĂƌĚ͕ ĚLJŶĂŵŝĐ ƉƌŝĐŝŶŐ ĂŶĚ ƐŵĂƌƚ ŐƌŝĚ ĞŶĞƌŐLJ ĚŝƐƚƌŝďƵƟŽŶ ;ƐĞĞ ‡ 6KRZDHQNR ZKLFK XVHV ZDVWH SODVWLFV WR SURGXFH ƚŚĞ ŶĞdžƚ ƐƵďƐĞĐƟŽŶ ĂŶĚ Ždž ϴͿ ǁŝůů ĞŵƉŽǁĞƌ ƵƌďĂŶ ammonia in its manufacturing process; ĐŽŶƐƵŵĞƌƐ ƚŽ ĞĐŽŶŽŵŝnjĞ ŽŶ ƌĞƐŽƵƌĐĞ ĐŽŶƐƵŵƉƟŽŶ͘ ‡ &RUHOH[ &R /WG ZKLFK SURGXFHV LQFLQHUDWHG DVK IURP LWV paper processing and provides this by-product as a raw material to cement companies; ůƚĞƌŶĂƟǀĞ ŶĞƌŐLJ ĂŶĚ ŝƐƚƌŝďƵƚĞĚ ŶĞƌŐLJ ^LJƐƚĞŵƐ͘ ‡ &RUHOH[ &R /WG ZKLFK XVHV WKH VXUSOXV HOHFWULFLW RI -)( hƐĞ ŽĨ ĞŶĞƌŐLJ ƐŽƵƌĐĞƐ ŽƚŚĞƌ ƚŚĂŶ ĐŽĂů ŵƵƐƚ ďĞ ƉƌŽŵŽƚĞĚ͘ Steel Co. Ltd.; tŚŝůĞ ĐŽĂůͲĮƌĞĚ ƉŽǁĞƌ ƉůĂŶƚƐ ƚĞŶĚ ƚŽ ŚĂǀĞ Ă ůŽǁĞƌ ‡ 1LKRQ <DNLQ &R /WG ZKLFK XVHV WKH ZDVWH PDWHULDOV -)( ĂǀĞƌĂŐĞ ĐŽƐƚ Ăƚ ƚŚĞ ƉŽŝŶƚ ŽĨ ŐĞŶĞƌĂƟŽŶ͕ ƚŚĞLJ ŶĞĞĚ ůĂƌŐĞ Steel Co. Ltd. generates from recycling electric appliances ĂŶĚ ĞdžƉĞŶƐŝǀĞ ĚŝƐƚƌŝďƵƟŽŶ ƐLJƐƚĞŵƐ͘ ůƐŽ͕ ůŽĐĂů ƉŽůůƵƟŽŶ to produce a special alloy; and ĂŶĚ , ĞŵŝƐƐŝŽŶƐ ĨƌŽŵ ƚŚĞƐĞ ƉůĂŶƚƐ ĂƌĞ ĐŽŶƐŝĚĞƌĂďůĞ ‡ 7RNR (OHFWULF 3RZHU &RPSDQ ZKLFK VXSSOLHV VWHDP IURP its thermal electric power plant to surrounding industries. ;ĂǀŝƐ ϮϬϭϭ͕ ŚŽƵ Ğƚ Ăů͘ ϮϬϬϲͿ͘ In addition, a 20,000-kilowatt solar power plant commenced dǁŽ ƌĞĐŽŵŵĞŶĚĂƟŽŶƐ ĐĂŶ ďĞ ŵĂĚĞ ĨŽƌ ĞŶĞƌŐLJ operation in 2011. ƉƌŽĚƵĐƟŽŶ͘ &ŝƌƐƚ͕ ďƵŝůĚ ŶĞǁ ƉŽǁĞƌ ƉůĂŶƚƐ ĂǁĂLJ ĨƌŽŵ ƉŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶ ĐĞŶƚĞƌƐ ĂŶĚ ŝŶĐƌĞĂƐŝŶŐůLJ ƵƐĞ ŶĂƚƵƌĂů ŐĂƐ͕ This eco-town project helps to reduce carbon dioxide emissions ǁŝŶĚ͕ ĂŶĚ ƐŽůĂƌ ƌĞƐŽƵƌĐĞƐ͘ ůƚŚŽƵŐŚ ƚƌĂŶƐŵŝƐƐŝŽŶ ůŝŶĞ by 160,000 tons per year and illustrates how old industrial areas ůŽƐƐĞƐ ĐĂŶ ďĞ ƐƵďƐƚĂŶƟĂů͕ Ă ƚƌĂŶƐŵŝƐƐŝŽŶ ŐƌŝĚ ĐĂŶ ĂůůŽǁ can be transformed into a more efficient eco-town. By 2006, Japan had 26 such eco-towns. 16 The official exchange rate is Y6.5/$1. 17 “Place-based” refers to solutions or investments that focus on Source: Newman and Matan (forthcoming). developing local economies, improving local quality of life, fostering a commitment to the local community and environment, and enhancing the area’s unique sense of place.
    • ƌĞĞŶ hƌďĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶ ŝŶ ƐŝĂ 37ĨŽƌ Ă ƐĞƉĂƌĂƟŽŶ ďĞƚǁĞĞŶ ǁŚĞƌĞ ƉŽǁĞƌ ŝƐ ŐĞŶĞƌĂƚĞĚ ĂŶĚ ĨŽƐƐŝů ĨƵĞůƐ ;EĞǁŵĂŶ ĂŶĚ tŝůůƐ ϮϬϭϮĂ͕ ϮϬϭϮďͿ͘ /Ŷ ϮϬϬϰ͕ Special ChapterǁŚĞƌĞ ŝƚ ŝƐ ĐŽŶƐƵŵĞĚ ;Ždž ϴ ĚĞƐĐƌŝďĞƐ Ă ƐŵĂƌƚ ŐƌŝĚ ƐLJƐƚĞŵ ƌĞŶĞǁĂďůĞ ŝŶǀĞƐƚŵĞŶƚ ŝŶ ĚĞǀĞůŽƉĞĚ ŶĂƟŽŶƐ ǁĂƐ Ψϭϱ ďŝůůŝŽŶŽĨ ĞŶĞƌŐLJ ĚŝƐƚƌŝďƵƟŽŶͿ͘ /Ŷ ĂƌĞĂƐ ƚŚĂƚ ĂƌĞ ƐƵŝƚĂďůĞ ĨŽƌ ůĂƌŐĞͲ ĂŶĚ ŝŶ ƚŚĞ ĚĞǀĞůŽƉŝŶŐ ǁŽƌůĚ ŝƚ ǁĂƐ Ψϰ ďŝůůŝŽŶ͘ LJ ϮϬϭϭ͕ ƚŚĞLJƐĐĂůĞ ǁŝŶĚ ĂŶĚ ƐŽůĂƌ ƉŽǁĞƌ ŐĞŶĞƌĂƟŽŶ͕ ŝŶǀĞƐƚŵĞŶƚ ŝŶ Ă ƐǁŝƚĐŚĞĚ ƚŚĞŝƌ ƉŽƐŝƟŽŶƐ͕ ǁŚĞŶ ƐŝĂ ŝŶǀĞƐƚĞĚ ΨϳϮ ďŝůůŝŽŶ ŝŶŶĂƟŽŶĂů ĞůĞĐƚƌŝĐŝƚLJ ŐƌŝĚ ĂŶĚ ƚƌĂŶƐƉŽƌƚ ŵĞƌŝƚƐ ƐƵƉƉŽƌƚ͘ ƌĞŶĞǁĂďůĞƐ͕ ΨϮ ďŝůůŝŽŶ ŵŽƌĞ ƚŚĂŶ ƚŚĞ ĚĞǀĞůŽƉĞĚ ǁŽƌůĚ͘^ƵĐŚ ŝŶǀĞƐƚŵĞŶƚ ĐĂŶ ĐŽŶƚƌŝďƵƚĞ ƚŽ ƐŚĂƌƉůLJ ƌĞĚƵĐŝŶŐ ƚŚĞ ƐŝĂ͛Ɛ ŝŶǀĞƐƚŵĞŶƚƐ ŝŶ ƌĞŶĞǁĂďůĞƐ ĂƌĞ ůĂƌŐĞůLJ ĨƌŽŵ ƚŚĞ WZĐĂƌďŽŶ ĞŵŝƐƐŝŽŶƐ ĂƐƐŽĐŝĂƚĞĚ ǁŝƚŚ ƉŽǁĞƌ ŐĞŶĞƌĂƟŽŶ͘ ĂŶĚ /ŶĚŝĂ͕ ĂůƚŚŽƵŐŚ ŽƚŚĞƌ ƐŝĂŶ ŶĂƟŽŶƐ ĂƌĞ ďĞŐŝŶŶŝŶŐ ƚŚŝƐ&Žƌ ĞdžĂŵƉůĞ͕ ƚŚĞ EĂŶũŝŶŐ ĐŽ ,ŝŐŚ dĞĐŚ /ƐůĂŶĚ ĚƵĞ ĨŽƌ ƚƌĂŶƐŝƟŽŶ ƚŽŽ͘ /Ŷ ϮϬϭϬ͕ ƚŚĞ WZ ŝŶǀĞƐƚĞĚ Ψϰϴ͘ϵ ďŝůůŝŽŶ ŝŶĐŽŵƉůĞƟŽŶ ďLJ ϮϬϮϬ ŝŶ ƚŚĞ WZ ŝƐ ďĞŝŶŐ ĚĞǀĞůŽƉĞĚ ŝŶ ƌĞŶĞǁĂďůĞƐ͕ Ϯϴй ŵŽƌĞ ƚŚĂŶ ŝŶ ϮϬϬϵ͕ ŵĂŬŝŶŐ ŝƚ ƚŚĞ ǁŽƌůĚƉĂƌƚŶĞƌƐŚŝƉ ǁŝƚŚ ƚŚĞ ŐŽǀĞƌŶŵĞŶƚ ŽĨ ^ŝŶŐĂƉŽƌĞ͘ dŚĞ ůĞĂĚĞƌ ŝŶ ƌĞŶĞǁĂďůĞƐ ŝŶǀĞƐƚŵĞŶƚ͘ /Ŷ ƚŚĞ ƐĂŵĞ LJĞĂƌ͕ /ŶĚŝĂĚĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ ĂŝŵƐ ƚŽ ŚŽƵƐĞ ŚŝŐŚ ƚĞĐŚ ŝŶĚƵƐƚƌŝĞƐ ƚŚĂƚ ŝŶĐƌĞĂƐĞĚ ŝƚƐ ŝŶǀĞƐƚŵĞŶƚ ďLJ Ϯϱй ƚŽ Ψϯ͘ϴ ďŝůůŝŽŶ͕ ĂŶĚ ŽƚŚĞƌĨŽĐƵƐ ŽŶ ƐƵƐƚĂŝŶĂďŝůŝƚLJ͘ ^ŽŵĞ ŽĨ ŝƚƐ ĞĐŽͲĞĸĐŝĞŶĐLJ ĨĞĂƚƵƌĞƐ ĚĞǀĞůŽƉŝŶŐ ƐŝĂŶ ĐŽƵŶƚƌŝĞƐ ŝŶĐƌĞĂƐĞĚ ƚŚĞŝƌ ŝŶǀĞƐƚŵĞŶƚƐŝŶĐůƵĚĞ ŽƉƟŵŝnjĞĚ ƵƐĞ ŽĨ ǁĂƚĞƌ ĂŶĚ ƉŽǁĞƌ͕ ĂŶ ĞŵŝƐƐŝŽŶͲ ďLJ ϯϭй ƚŽ Ψϰ ďŝůůŝŽŶ ;hEW ĂŶĚ ůŽŽŵďĞƌŐ EĞǁ ŶĞƌŐLJĐŽŶƚƌŽůůĞĚ ĂŶĚ ƐŵĂƌƚ ǁĂƐƚĞǁĂƚĞƌ ŵĂŶĂŐĞŵĞŶƚ ƐLJƐƚĞŵ͕ &ŝŶĂŶĐĞ ϮϬϭϭͿ͘Ă ǁĂƐƚĞͲƚŽͲƌĞƐŽƵƌĐĞ ĂƉƉƌŽĂĐŚ͕ Ă ƐƵƐƚĂŝŶĂďůĞ ƚƌĂŶƐƉŽƌƚŶĞƚǁŽƌŬ͕ ĂŶĚ ƐƵƐƚĂŝŶĂďůĞ ŝŶĚƵƐƚƌLJ ĚĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ͘ Box 9 Small-Scale Energy Systems: Garment Factories in Bangladesh ^ĞĐŽŶĚ͕ ůŽĐĂů ĞŶĞƌŐLJ ƐLJƐƚĞŵƐ ĐĂŶ ďĞ ďƵŝůƚ ĂƐ ƉĂƌƚ There are many small-scale distributed energy systems scatteredŽĨ Ă ĐŝƚLJ͘ ĞĐĂƵƐĞ ƚŚĞLJ ĂƌĞ ƐŵĂůů ƐĐĂůĞ ĂŶĚ ŝŶǀŽůǀĞ ůŽǁͲ throughout the Asian region. Many small garment factories in Bangladesh are making efforts to contribute to sustainableƉŽůůƵƟŽŶ ŶĂƚƵƌĂů ŐĂƐ ĂŶĚ njĞƌŽ ƉŽůůƵƟŽŶ ƌĞŶĞǁĂďůĞƐ͕ ƐƵĐŚ development, particularly by using renewable energy and reducingƐLJƐƚĞŵƐ ĐĂŶ Įƚ ŝŶƚŽ ƚŚĞ ŚĞĂƌƚ ŽĨ Ă ĐŝƚLJ ĂŶĚ ƉƌŽǀŝĚĞ ƉŽǁĞƌ their electricity consumption.ǁŚĞƌĞ ŝƚ ŝƐ ŶĞĞĚĞĚ͘ Ždž ϵ ƉƌŽǀŝĚĞƐ ĞdžĂŵƉůĞƐ ŽĨ ƐŵĂůůͲƐĐĂůĞ ĞŶĞƌŐLJ ƐLJƐƚĞŵƐ ŝŶ ŐĂƌŵĞŶƚ ĨĂĐƚŽƌŝĞƐ ŝŶ ĂŶŐůĂĚĞƐŚ͘ Medlar Fashion in Ashulia, Dhaka, has an innovative cooling system in the rooms where the garment makers work. A metal ƐŝĂ ŚĂƐ ĂůƌĞĂĚLJ ŵĂĚĞ ƐŽŵĞ ƉƌŽŐƌĞƐƐ ǁŝƚŚ screen covered by a layer of flowing water was installed on one wallĂůƚĞƌŶĂƟǀĞ ĞŶĞƌŐŝĞƐ͘ /Ŷ ƚĞƌŵƐ ŽĨ ƉŽǁĞƌ ŐĞŶĞƌĂƟŽŶ͕ ŽŶůLJ with exhaust fans installed on the opposite. This system passes air entering the room through the water screen, cooling it. As aϰϭй ŽĨ /ŶĚŽŶĞƐŝĂ͛Ɛ ĞůĞĐƚƌŝĐŝƚLJ ŝƐ ŐĞŶĞƌĂƚĞĚ ďLJ ĐŽĂů ĂŶĚ ƚŚŝƐ result, the factory provides a cool working environment withoutƉĞƌĐĞŶƚĂŐĞ ǁĂƐ ĂƐ ůŽǁ ĂƐ Ϯϲй ŝŶ ƚŚĞ WŚŝůŝƉƉŝŶĞƐ ŝŶ ϮϬϬϴ͕ air conditioning. Further, the factory’s electricity is supplied by aǁŚĞƌĞ ϯϮй ŽĨ ŝƚƐ ƉŽǁĞƌ ǁĂƐ ŐĞŶĞƌĂƚĞĚ ƵƐŝŶŐ ŶĂƚƵƌĂů gas-powered generator with a transformer connected to the localŐĂƐ͘ /Ŷ ƚĞƌŵƐ ŽĨ ƉŽǁĞƌ ĐŽŶƐƵŵƉƟŽŶ͕ Ă ƐǁŝƚĐŚ ĨƌŽŵ power grid, which is able to provide standby power if necessary.ƉĞƚƌŽůĞƵŵ ƚŽ ĐŽŵƉƌĞƐƐĞĚ ŶĂƚƵƌĂů ŐĂƐ Žƌ ĞůĞĐƚƌŝĐŝƚLJ ĐĂŶ These are examples of small-scale, distributed technologies thatŵĂŬĞ Ă ƐŝŐŶŝĮĐĂŶƚ ĚŝīĞƌĞŶĐĞ ŝŶ Ăŝƌ ƉŽůůƵƟŽŶ ůĞǀĞůƐ͘ ŐŽŽĚ are context-specific and low cost.ĞdžĂŵƉůĞ ŝƐ ĨƌŽŵ ĞůŚŝ ŝŶ /ŶĚŝĂ͕ ǁŚĞƌĞ ƚŚĞ ůĂƌŐĞƐƚ ƐŽƵƌĐĞ ŽĨ Source: Newman and Matan (forthcoming).Ăŝƌ ƉŽůůƵƟŽŶ ǁĂƐ ďƵƐĞƐ ĂŶĚ ĂƵƚŽ ƌŝĐŬƐŚĂǁƐ ƚŚĂƚ ďƵƌŶĞĚĚŝĞƐĞů Žƌ Žŝů ǁŝƚŚŽƵƚ ĂĚĞƋƵĂƚĞ ĐŽŵďƵƐƟŽŶ Žƌ ĐŽŶƚƌŽů ŽǀĞƌƚŚĞ ƉŽůůƵƚĂŶƚƐ͘ dŚĞ ĐŝƚLJ ƚŽŽŬ ƚŚĞ ŝŶŝƟĂƟǀĞ ƚŽ ƐǁŝƚĐŚ ƚŚĞ Box 10 Delhi’s Shift to Compressed Natural GasĨƵĞů ŽĨ ŝƚƐ ƉƵďůŝĐ ƚƌĂŶƐƉŽƌƚ ǀĞŚŝĐůĞƐ ƚŽ ĐŽŵƉƌĞƐƐĞĚ ŶĂƚƵƌĂůŐĂƐ ;Ždž ϭϬͿ͕ ǁŝƚŚ ƉŽƐŝƟǀĞ ƌĞƐƵůƚƐ͘ The Delhi government presented its first action plan to combat air pollution in December 1996. On 28 July 1998, the Supreme DŽƌĞŽǀĞƌ͕ ƐŝĂ ĂůƌĞĂĚLJ ůĞĂĚƐ ƚŚĞ ŐƌŽǁƚŚ ŝŶ Court of India ordered that a compressed natural gas (CNG) program be introduced to reduce air pollution, with the followingŝŶǀĞƐƚŵĞŶƚ ŝŶ ƌĞŶĞǁĂďůĞƐ͕ ǁŚŝĐŚ ŽƵƚƐƚƌŝƉƐ ƚŚĂƚ ŝŶ guidelines: Box 8 Smart Grid Energy Distribution (1) All buses in the city should run on CNG fuel by 31 March 2001. A smart grid system can control the generation and distribution (2) Financial incentives would be provided for taxis and three- of energy, allowing for an integrated monitoring system, an wheeled vehicles (“auto rickshaws”) to use CNG. electricity information collection system, electric vehicle charging (3) Post 1990 taxies and auto rickshaws would be converted facilities, and a communications and information network. To to run on CNG. achieve this smart power grid, the telecommunications, internet, and information services will be in one network using the same In the few years after the Supreme Court decision, CNG was optical fiber composite low-voltage cable. The smart grid will introduced in 10,200 buses; 52,623 auto rickshaws; 10,350 enable a two-way electricity system that can distribute and private cars; 4,497 mini buses; 5,043 taxis; 5,909 light monitor electricity to and from users, allow for local renewables commercial vehicles; and 689 other commercial vehicles. This to enter into the grid system and for electric vehicle batteries to is a remarkable switch. All public transport in Delhi now runs on store electricity, and provide electricity to the grid when necessary. CNG. Source: Authors. Source: Newman and Matan (forthcoming).
    • 38 <ĞLJ /ŶĚŝĐĂƚŽƌƐ ĨŽƌ ƐŝĂ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞ WĂĐŝĮĐ ϮϬϭϮ WƌŽƚĞĐƟŶŐ ƚŚĞ WŽŽƌ dŚĞ ĐŽŶǀĞŶƟŽŶĂů ǀŝĞǁ ŝƐ ƚŚĂƚ Ăƚ ůĞĂƐƚ ƐŽŵĞ ƌĞĚŝƐƚƌŝďƵƟŽŶ ŵƵƐƚ ƚĂŬĞ ƉůĂĐĞ Ăƚ ƚŚĞ ŶĂƟŽŶĂů ůĞǀĞů Ɛ ƐŝĂ ĐŽŶƟŶƵĞƐ ƵƌďĂŶŝnjŝŶŐ͕ ĂŶ ŝŶĐƌĞĂƐĞĚ ŶƵŵďĞƌ ŽĨ ƚŽ ƉƌŽǀŝĚĞ ƐůƵŵ ĚǁĞůůĞƌƐ ǁŝƚŚ ƐĞƌǀŝĐĞƐ͘ /Ĩ ƚŚĞ ĐĞŶƚƌĂů ƵƌďĂŶ ƉŽŽƌ ŝƐ ĂůŵŽƐƚ ŝŶĞǀŝƚĂďůĞ͘ WƌŽƚĞĐƟŶŐ ƚŚĞ ƉŽŽƌ ŝƐ ŐŽǀĞƌŶŵĞŶƚ ƚƌĂŶƐĨĞƌƐ ƐŽŵĞ ŽĨ ŝƚƐ ƚĂdž ƌĞǀĞŶƵĞ ƚŽ ĐŝƟĞƐ ĨŽƌ ĞƐƐĞŶƟĂů ĨŽƌ ĚĞǀĞůŽƉŝŶŐ ĂŶ ŝŶĐůƵƐŝǀĞ ĂŶĚ ŚĂƌŵŽŶŝŽƵƐ ŝŵƉƌŽǀŝŶŐ ƐůƵŵ ĂƌĞĂƐ͕ ŝƚ ǁŝůů ŵŝƟŐĂƚĞ ƚŚĞ ĚŝƐŝŶĐĞŶƟǀĞƐ ƐŽĐŝĞƚLJ ;tĂŶ ĂŶĚ &ƌĂŶĐŝƐĐŽ ϮϬϬϵͿ͘ /Ŷ ƚŚŝƐ ĐŽŶƚĞdžƚ͕ ƚŚĂƚ ĐŝƟĞƐ ĨĂĐĞ ŝŶ ƐƵƉƉůLJŝŶŐ ͞ĐůĞĂŶ ĐŝƟĞƐ͟ ƐĞƌǀŝĐĞƐ ƚŽ ƉŽŽƌ ƐƉĞĐŝĂů ĂƩĞŶƟŽŶ ƐŚŽƵůĚ ďĞ ŐŝǀĞŶ ƚŽ ĚŝƐĂƐƚĞƌͲŝŶĚƵĐĞĚ ŶĞŝŐŚďŽƌŚŽŽĚƐ͘ ǀƵůŶĞƌĂďŝůŝƚLJ͕ ĂƐ ĚŝƐĐƵƐƐĞĚ ŝŶ ƚŚĞ ƐĞĐƟŽŶ ͞ŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚĂů /ŵƉůŝĐĂƟŽŶƐ ŽĨ hƌďĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶ ŝŶ ƐŝĂ͘͟ ƌĂĚŝĐĂƟŶŐ ƐůƵŵƐ ŝŶ dŚƌĞĞ ƉŽůŝĐLJ ŽƉƟŽŶƐ ĐĂŶ ďĞ ĐŽŶƐŝĚĞƌĞĚ ĨŽƌ ƐŝĂ ĂůƐŽ ƉƌĞƐĞŶƚƐ Ă ĐŽŶƐŝĚĞƌĂďůĞ ĐŚĂůůĞŶŐĞ͘ ĂĚĚƌĞƐƐŝŶŐ ƚŚĞ ƐůƵŵ ŝƐƐƵĞ͘ &ŝƌƐƚ͕ ŐƌĂŶƚ ĨŽƌŵĂů ƉƌŽƉĞƌƚLJ ĂŶĚ ůĂŶĚ ŽǁŶĞƌƐŚŝƉ ƚŽ ƵƌďĂŶ ƐůƵŵ ĚǁĞůůĞƌƐ͘ dŚŝƐ ŐŝǀĞƐ ƚŚĞŵ WƌŽƚĞĐƟŶŐ ƚŚĞ WŽŽƌ ĨƌŽŵ EĂƚƵƌĂů ŝƐĂƐƚĞƌƐ͘ The ƚŚĞ ŝŶĐĞŶƟǀĞ ƚŽ ŝŶǀĞƐƚ ŵŽƌĞ ŝŶ ƚŚĞ ĂƌĞĂ͛Ɛ ŵĂŝŶƚĞŶĂŶĐĞ ƵƌďĂŶ ƉŽŽƌ ĨĂĐĞ ƚŚĞ ŐƌĞĂƚĞƐƚ ƌŝƐŬ ĨƌŽŵ ŶĂƚƵƌĂů ĚŝƐĂƐƚĞƌƐ ĂŶĚ ƵƉŬĞĞƉ͘ ^ĞĐŽŶĚ͕ ǁŚĞƌĞ ĐŽƐƚͲĞīĞĐƟǀĞ͕ ƉƌŽǀŝĚĞ ďĞĐĂƵƐĞ ƚŚĞLJ ƚĞŶĚ ƚŽ ůŝǀĞ ŝŶ ĂƌĞĂƐ ƚŚĂƚ ĂƌĞ ŵŽƐƚ ƉƌŽŶĞ ƚŽ ŚŽƵƐŝŶŐ ǀŽƵĐŚĞƌƐ ƚŽ ƚŚĞ ƉŽŽƌ ǁŚŽ ĐĂŶ ƌĞůŽĐĂƚĞ ƚŽ ŚŝŐŚĞƌ ƐŚŽĐŬƐ ƐƵĐŚ ĂƐ ŇŽŽĚƐ ĂŶĚ ŚƵƌƌŝĐĂŶĞƐ͕ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞLJ ŚĂǀĞ ƚŚĞ ƋƵĂůŝƚLJ ŶĞŝŐŚďŽƌŚŽŽĚƐ͘ dŚĞƐĞ ǀŽƵĐŚĞƌƐ ĐŽƵůĚ ďĞ ŝŶĚĞdžĞĚ ůĞĂƐƚ ĂƐƐĞƚƐ ĨŽƌ ƉƌŽƚĞĐƟŶŐ ƚŚĞŵƐĞůǀĞƐ͘ >ŝŬĞǁŝƐĞ͕ ĂƌŽƵŶĚ ďLJ ƚŚĞ ŶƵŵďĞƌ ŽĨ LJĞĂƌƐ ƚŚĂƚ Ă ƉĞƌƐŽŶ Žƌ ŚŽƵƐĞŚŽůĚ ŚĂƐ ƚŚĞ ǁŽƌůĚ͕ ƌŝĐŚ ŶĂƟŽŶƐ ƐƵīĞƌ ĨĞǁĞƌ ĚĞĂƚŚƐ ĨƌŽŵ ŶĂƚƵƌĂů ůŝǀĞĚ ŝŶ ƚŚĞ ĐŝƚLJ ƐŽ ƚŚĂƚ ůŽŶŐͲƚĞƌŵ ƌĞƐŝĚĞŶƚƐ ǁŽƵůĚ ƌĞĐĞŝǀĞ ĚŝƐĂƐƚĞƌƐ ƚŚĂŶ ƉŽŽƌ ŽŶĞƐ ;<ĂŚŶ ϮϬϬϱͿ͘ ŵŽƌĞ ĂƐƐŝƐƚĂŶĐĞ͘ &ŝŶĂůůLJ͕ ƉƌŽǀŝĚĞ ďĞƩĞƌ ǁĂƚĞƌ͕ ƐĞǁĂŐĞ͕ ĂŶĚ ĞůĞĐƚƌŝĐŝƚLJ ŝŶĨƌĂƐƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĞ ƚŽ ƐůƵŵ ĂƌĞĂƐ͘ dŚŝƐ ŝƐ ůŝŬĞůLJ KŶĞ ƐŽůƵƟŽŶ ŝƐ ƚŽ ďƵŝůĚ ŶĞǁ ĐŝƟĞƐ ŝŶ ƌĞůĂƟǀĞůLJ ƐĂĨĞƌ ƚŽ ůĞĂĚ ƚŽ Ă ďĞƩĞƌ ůŝǀŝŶŐ ĞŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞƌĞďLJ ĂƩƌĂĐƚ ůŽĐĂƟŽŶƐ ĂŶĚ ƚŽ ŝŶǀĞƐƚ ƐƚƌĂƚĞŐŝĐĂůůLJ ƚŽ ͞ĐůŝŵĂƚĞ ƉƌŽŽĨ͟ ƚŚĞ ŵŽƌĞ ƵƌďĂŶ ŵŝŐƌĂŶƚƐ͕ ƐŽŵĞ ŽĨ ǁŚŽŵ ĂƌĞ ŶŽƚ ƉŽŽƌ͕ ƚŽ ůŝǀĞ ŶĞǁĚĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚĂŐĂŝŶƐƚƚŚĞƐĞƌŝƐŬƐ͘/ŶĂĚĚŝƟŽŶ͕ŝŵƉƌŽǀĞĚ ŝŶ ƚŚĞ ĂƌĞĂ͘ ĨŽƌĞĐĂƐƟŶŐ ŵŽĚĞůƐ ďLJ ĐůŝŵĂƚĞ ƐĐŝĞŶƟƐƚƐ ŵĂLJ ŽīĞƌ ŵŽƌĞ ŐĞŽŐƌĂƉŚŝĐĂůůLJ ƌĞĮŶĞĚ ƉƌĞĚŝĐƟŽŶƐ͘ hƌďĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶ ƐŚŽƵůĚ ^ŽŵĞ ƵƌďĂŶ ƐůƵŵƐ ŝŶ ƐŝĂ ĂƌĞ ďĞŝŶŐ ƐƵĐĐĞƐƐĨƵůůLJ ďĞ ŶƵĚŐĞĚ ƚŽǁĂƌĚ ĂƌĞĂƐ ƚŚĂƚ ŚĂǀĞ ƉŚLJƐŝĐĂů ĂƩƌŝďƵƚĞƐ ƌĞŚĂďŝůŝƚĂƚĞĚ ǁŝƚŚ ŐƌĞĞŶ ĞĐŽŶŽŵLJ ƚĞĐŚŶŽůŽŐŝĞƐ͘ ŐŽŽĚ ƚŚĂƚ ŝŶĐƌĞĂƐĞ ƚŚĞŝƌ ƌĞƐŝůŝĞŶĐĞ ƚŽ ůŝŬĞůLJ ĐůŝŵĂƚĞ ƐŚŽĐŬƐ ĞdžĂŵƉůĞ ŽĨ ƵƌďĂŶ ƐůƵŵ ŝŵƉƌŽǀĞŵĞŶƚƐ ĨŽĐƵƐŝŶŐ ŽŶ ƉůĂĐĞͲ ;<ĂŚŶ ϮϬϭϬͿ͘ ůƐŽ͕ ĐŝƟĞƐ ǁŝƚŚ ƌŝƐŬ ŽĨ ŇŽŽĚŝŶŐ ĂŶĚ ĐŝƟĞƐ ďĂƐĞĚ ƐƚƌĂƚĞŐŝĞƐ ŝƐ ƚŚĞ <ĂŵƉƵŶŐ ŽĚĞ ZŝǀĞƌ ŝŶ zŽŐLJĂŬĂƌƚĂ͕ ƚŚĂƚ ĞdžƉĞƌŝĞŶĐĞ ĞdžƚƌĞŵĞ ǁĞĂƚŚĞƌ ĞǀĞŶƚƐ ƐŚŽƵůĚ ƌĞĐĞŝǀĞ /ŶĚŽŶĞƐŝĂ ;Ždž ϭϭͿ͘ ƐƉĞĐŝĂů ĂƩĞŶƟŽŶ ǁŚĞŶ ŶĂƟŽŶĂů ŐŽǀĞƌŶŵĞŶƚƐ ĐŽŶƐŝĚĞƌ ƌĞŐŝŽŶĂů ĚĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ ƉůĂŶƐ͘ &ŝŶĂŶĐĞ͕ dƌĂŶƐƉĂƌĞŶĐLJ͕ ĂŶĚ ĐĐŽƵŶƚĂďŝůŝƚLJ /Ŷ ĂĚĚŝƟŽŶ͕ njŽŶŝŶŐ ƉŽůŝĐLJ ĂŶĚ ŝŶĨƌĂƐƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĞ ŝŶǀĞƐƚŵĞŶƚ ĂīĞĐƚ ĞdžƉŽƐƵƌĞ ƚŽ ŶĂƚƵƌĂů ĚŝƐĂƐƚĞƌƐ͘ Ɛ ƚŚĞ dŚĞ ǀĂƌŝŽƵƐ ƉŽůŝĐŝĞƐ ƐƵŐŐĞƐƚĞĚ ŝŶ ƚŚŝƐ ĐŚĂƉƚĞƌ ŵĂLJ ŶŽƚ ŐƌŽǁƚŚ ŽĨ ĐŝƟĞƐ ƐƵĐŚ ĂƐ ^ŚĞŶnjŚĞŶ ƐŚŽǁƐ͕ ǁŝƚŚŝŶ Ă ĐŽƵƉůĞ ďĞ ŝŵƉůĞŵĞŶƚĞĚ ƵŶůĞƐƐ ĨƵŶĚŝŶŐ ĨŽƌ ƉƵďůŝĐ ŝŶǀĞƐƚŵĞŶƚƐ͕ ŽĨ ĚĞĐĂĚĞƐ ŵŝůůŝŽŶƐ ŽĨ ƉĞŽƉůĞ ĐĂŶ ŵŽǀĞ ƚŽ ĂŶ ĂƌĞĂ͘ dŚĞ ŝŶĐůƵĚŝŶŐ ƐƵďƐŝĚŝĞƐ ĨŽƌ ƌĞŶĞǁĂďůĞƐ͕ ŝƐ ĂǀĂŝůĂďůĞ ĂŶĚ ĂďŝůŝƚLJ ƚŽ ŚŽƵƐĞ ƚŚĞŵ ŚŝŶŐĞƐ ŽŶ ǁŚĞƚŚĞƌ ŶĞǁ ŚŽƵƐŝŶŐ ĐĂŶ ƚƌĂŶƐƉĂƌĞŶĐLJ ĂŶĚ ĂĐĐŽƵŶƚĂďŝůŝƚLJ ŽĨ ƉŽůŝƟĐŝĂŶƐ ĂŶĚ ďĞ ĐŚĞĂƉůLJ ďƵŝůƚ ǁŚĞƌĞ ƉĞŽƉůĞ ƐĞĞŬ ƚŽ ůŝǀĞ͘ dŚĞ ƌĞĐĞŶƚ ŐŽǀĞƌŶŵĞŶƚ ĂƌĞ ĞŶƐƵƌĞĚ͘ ůŝƚĞƌĂƚƵƌĞ ŚŝŐŚůŝŐŚƚƐ ƚŚĂƚ ŐŽǀĞƌŶŵĞŶƚ ƌĞŐƵůĂƟŽŶ ĂŶĚ ƚŽƉŽŐƌĂƉŚLJ ĚĞƚĞƌŵŝŶĞ ƉƌŽƉĞƌƚLJ ƐƵƉƉůLJ ;ŚĞŶŐ͕ &Ƶ͕ ĂŶĚ &ŝŶĂŶĐŝŶŐ ĨŽƌ ƌĞĞŶ ŝƟĞƐ͘ ůů ĐŝƟĞƐ ǁŽƌůĚǁŝĚĞ >ŝƵ ϮϬϬϲ͖ ^Ăŝnj ϮϬϬϴͿ͘ dŚĞ ŐŽǀĞƌŶŵĞŶƚ ŶĞĞĚƐ ƚŽ ĐŽŶƐŝĚĞƌ ĨĂĐĞ ƚŚĞ ĐŚĂůůĞŶŐĞ ŽĨ ĮŶĂŶĐŝŶŐ ƵƌďĂŶ ĚĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ ĂƐ ŶĂƚƵƌĂů ĚŝƐĂƐƚĞƌ ƌŝƐŬƐ ǁŚĞŶ ŵĂŬŝŶŐ Žƌ ĂŵĞŶĚŝŶŐ ŚŽƵƐŝŶŐ ƵƉĨƌŽŶƚ ĐĂƉŝƚĂů ĞdžƉĞŶĚŝƚƵƌĞƐ ĂŶĚ ŽŶŐŽŝŶŐ ŵĂŝŶƚĞŶĂŶĐĞ ƌĞŐƵůĂƟŽŶƐ͕ ƐŽ ƚŚĂƚ Ă ůĂƌŐĞ ĂŵŽƵŶƚ ŽĨ ŶĞǁ ŚŽƵƐŝŶŐ ĂŶĚ ŝŶǀĞƐƚŵĞŶƚƐ ĂƌĞ ƵƐƵĂůůLJ ůĂƌŐĞ͘ dŚŝƐ ŝƐ ǁŚLJ ĐĞŶƚƌĂů ƵƌďĂŶ ŝŶĨƌĂƐƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĞ ĐĂŶ ďĞ ĐŽŶƐƚƌƵĐƚĞĚ ŝŶ ĂƌĞĂƐ ǁŝƚŚ ƚŚĞ ŐŽǀĞƌŶŵĞŶƚƐ ŽŌĞŶ ƉƌŽǀŝĚĞ ϳϬй Žƌ ŵŽƌĞ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ƵƉĨƌŽŶƚ ŐƌĞĂƚĞƐƚ ƉŽƚĞŶƟĂů ĨŽƌ ƌĞƐŝůŝĞŶĐLJ ƚŽ ĐůŝŵĂƚĞ ĐŚĂŶŐĞ͘ ĐŽƐƚƐ ĨŽƌ ŵĂũŽƌ ŝŶĨƌĂƐƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĞ ƉƌŽũĞĐƚƐ ƐƵĐŚ ĂƐ ŶĞǁ ƐƵďǁĂLJ ƐLJƐƚĞŵƐ͘ hƌďĂŶ ^ůƵŵ WŽůŝĐLJ͘ &ĞůĞƌ ĂŶĚ ,ĞŶĚĞƌƐŽŶ ;ϮϬϭϭͿ ĂƌŐƵĞ ƚŚĂƚ ĐŝƟĞƐ ŝŶ Ă ŵĂũŽƌŝƚLJ ŽĨ ĚĞǀĞůŽƉŝŶŐ ĐŽƵŶƚƌŝĞƐ /Ŷ ĚĞƐŝŐŶŝŶŐ Ă ƉƵďůŝĐ ƌĞǀĞŶƵĞ ƐLJƐƚĞŵ͕ ŝŶĐůƵĚŝŶŐ ĂƩĞŵƉƚ ƚŽ ŝŶŚŝďŝƚ ŝŶͲŵŝŐƌĂƟŽŶ ďLJ ƐĞƌǀŝĐŝŶŐ ƚŚĞ ŝŶĨŽƌŵĂů ĐŽůůĞĐƟŽŶ ŽĨ ƉƌŽƉĞƌƚLJ ƚĂdžĞƐ͕ ƐĞƌǀŝĐĞ ĐŚĂƌŐĞƐ͕ ŝŶĐŽŵĞ ƐĞĐƚŽƌƐ ƉŽŽƌůLJ͘ dŚĞ ƌĞƐƵůƚ ŝƐ ƚŚĂƚ ƚŚĞ ƉŽŽƌ ĐůƵƐƚĞƌ ŝŶ ƵƌďĂŶ ƚĂdžĞƐ͕ ĂŶĚ ƐŽ ŽŶ͕ ƚŚĞƌĞ ǁŝůů ďĞ ĞĸĐŝĞŶĐLJ ǀĞƌƐƵƐ ĞƋƵŝƚLJ ƐůƵŵƐ͕ ŽŌĞŶ ŽŶ ŐŽǀĞƌŶŵĞŶƚ ůĂŶĚ Žƌ ŽƵƚƐŝĚĞ ƚŚĞ ĐĞŶƚĞƌ ƚƌĂĚĞŽīƐ͘ dŚĞ ƉŽŽƌ ĐĂŶ ŽŶůLJ ĂīŽƌĚ ƚŽ ƉĂLJ Ă ůŝƩůĞ ĨŽƌ ĐŝƚLJ͛Ɛ ƉŽůŝƟĐĂů ũƵƌŝƐĚŝĐƟŽŶ͘ /Ŷ ŵŽƐƚ ĐĂƐĞƐ͕ ƐůƵŵ ĂƌĞĂƐ ƐĞƌǀŝĐĞƐ͘ WƌŽǀŝĚŝŶŐ ůŽǁ ƐĞƌǀŝĐĞ ƚĂƌŝīƐ ƚŽ ƚŚĞ ƉŽŽƌ ǁŽƵůĚ ĂƌĞ ŶŽƚ ĐŽŶŶĞĐƚĞĚ ƚŽ ǁĂƚĞƌ ĂŶĚ ĞůĞĐƚƌŝĐŝƚLJ͕ ƚŚĞŝƌ ůŝǀŝŶŐ ƌĞĚƵĐĞ ĐŽŶƐƵŵƉƟŽŶ ŝŶĞƋƵĂůŝƚLJ ďƵƚ ǁŽƵůĚ ĂůƐŽ ŐŝǀĞ ĐŽŶĚŝƟŽŶƐ ĂƌĞ ƵŶƉůĞĂƐĂŶƚ͕ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞŝƌ ůĂĐŬ ŽĨ ďĂƐŝĐ ƐĞƌǀŝĐĞƐ ŶŽ ŝŶĐĞŶƟǀĞ ĨŽƌ ƐƵƉƉůŝĞƌƐ ƚŽ ƉƌŽǀŝĚĞ ƚŚĞ ƐĞƌǀŝĐĞƐ͘ KŶĞ ƌĞƐƵůƚƐ ŝŶ ďĂĚ ƉƵďůŝĐ ŚĞĂůƚŚ ĐŽŶĚŝƟŽŶƐ͘ ƐŽůƵƟŽŶ ŝƐ ĚLJŶĂŵŝĐ ƉƌŝĐŝŶŐ ĂƐ ĚŝƐĐƵƐƐĞĚ ĞĂƌůŝĞƌ͘ ŶŽƚŚĞƌ
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The community center was built Indonesia. Previously, the site was a refuse dump. The informal from bamboo with mat flooring, with the exterior façade painted by settlement comprises 30–40 families whose members work in the local residents and volunteer art students. nearby city market. Many of the squatter dwellings were constructed of plastic covered cardboard. In 1983, the government wanted to Then electricity and a sewage system were provided by the demolish the informal settlement but was persuaded by community government, with communal toilets near the living areas and far from leaders, the local church, and others to upgrade the site instead. the river. The government also built a common septic tank and new toilets fitted with plumbing and vents for air circulation. The sewage There were a number of concerns about upgrading the site. The area from the septic tank was then collected and taken to the city sewage was subject to seasonal flooding and was very narrow and steep, plant. Finally, the residents were educated about the necessity for a separated from the river by a stone retaining wall. The first steps of clean and healthy environment. the project were to rehabilitate the river and to reinforce the retaining wall against flooding. To do this, a better environment was created Although the scale of this project is small, the improvements achieved by planting the riverbanks with potted tropical plants. The next step within the given constraints are immense and humane, making it a was to help formalize the settlement by building a community center, compelling model for other cities with similar problems. Source: Newman and Matan (forthcoming).
    • 40 <ĞLJ /ŶĚŝĐĂƚŽƌƐ ĨŽƌ ƐŝĂ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞ WĂĐŝĮĐ ϮϬϭϮ ĂǁĂƌĞŶĞƐƐ ŽĨ ƌĞĐĞŶƚ ƉŽůůƵƟŽŶ ƚƌĞŶĚƐ ĂŶĚ ŽĨ ŝŶŝƟĂƟǀĞƐ Ɛ ĞĐŽŶŽŵŝĞƐ ŝŶ ƚŚĞ ƌĞŐŝŽŶ ĂƌĞ Ăƚ ǁŝĚĞůLJ ĚŝīĞƌĞŶƚ ƚŚĂƚ ŝŶĚŝǀŝĚƵĂů ƉŽůŝƟĐŝĂŶƐ ŚĂǀĞ ƉƵƌƐƵĞĚ ƚŽ ĂĐŚŝĞǀĞ ŐƌĞĞŶ ƐƚĂŐĞƐ ŽĨ ĚĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ ĂŶĚ ŚĂǀĞ ǀĂƌŝĞĚ ƌĞŐƵůĂƚŽƌLJ ĐŝƟĞƐ͘ WŽůŝƟĐŝĂŶƐ ĐŽƵůĚ ďĞ ũƵĚŐĞĚ ŽŶ ŽďũĞĐƟǀĞ ĐƌŝƚĞƌŝĂ͕ ƐƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĞƐĂŶĚĞĐŽŶŽŵŝĐůĂŶĚƐĐĂƉĞƐϭϴ͕ŝŶĚŝǀŝĚƵĂůĐŽƵŶƚƌŝĞƐ ƐƵĐŚ ĂƐ ƌĞĚƵĐŝŶŐ ůŽĐĂů ĂŵďŝĞŶƚ Ăŝƌ ƉŽůůƵƟŽŶ ƚŽ ŵĞĞƚ tŽƌůĚ ŵƵƐƚ ĐĂƌĞĨƵůůLJ ĞǀĂůƵĂƚĞ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞŶ ƐĞůĞĐƚ ŝŶƚĞƌǀĞŶƟŽŶƐ ƚŚĂƚ ,ĞĂůƚŚ KƌŐĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶ ƐƚĂŶĚĂƌĚƐ͘ KƚŚĞƌ ĐƌŝƚĞƌŝĂ ŝŶĐůƵĚĞ ďĞƐƚ ƐƵŝƚ ƚŚĞŝƌ ƐƉĞĐŝĮĐ ƐŝƚƵĂƟŽŶƐ͘ ^ŽŵĞ ĐŽƵŶƚƌŝĞƐ ŵĂLJ ƌĞůLJ ƚŚĞ ƉĞƌĐĞŶƚĂŐĞ ŽĨ ĐŝƚLJ ƌĞƐŝĚĞŶƚƐ ǁŚŽ ĚŽ ŶŽƚ ŚĂǀĞ ĂĐĐĞƐƐ ŵŽƌĞ ŽŶ ƚĞĐŚŶŽůŽŐLJ ƚƌĂŶƐĨĞƌ͕ ǁŚŝůĞ ŽƚŚĞƌƐ ŵĂLJ ĚĞĐŝĚĞ ƚŽ ƚŽ ƚŽŝůĞƚƐ Žƌ ĚƌŝŶŬŝŶŐ ǁĂƚĞƌ͘ /Ŷ ĂĚĚŝƟŽŶ͕ ƚŚĞ ŶĂƟŽŶĂů ŝŶǀĞƐƚ ŝŶ ƌĞƐĞĂƌĐŚ ĂŶĚ ĚĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ ĨŽƌ ŐƌĞĞŶŶĞƐƐ͘ ^ŽŵĞ ŐŽǀĞƌŶŵĞŶƚ ĐŽƵůĚ ĨŽƐƚĞƌ Ă ĐŽŵƉĞƟƟŽŶ ďĞƚǁĞĞŶ ĐŝƟĞƐ ĂŶĚ ƉŽůŝĐŝĞƐ ƌĞƋƵŝƌĞ ƐŝŐŶŝĮĐĂŶƚ ŝŶǀĞƐƚŵĞŶƚ͕ ƐƵĐŚ ĂƐ ƐƵďǁĂLJƐ͕ ƌĞǁĂƌĚŝŶŐ ĐŝƟĞƐ ƚŚĂƚ ŽďũĞĐƟǀĞůLJ ĂĐŚŝĞǀĞ ŝŵƉƌŽǀĞŵĞŶƚƐ ŝŶ ďƵƚ ŽƚŚĞƌƐ͕ ƐƵĐŚ ĂƐ ĚLJŶĂŵŝĐ ƉƌŝĐŝŶŐ ĨŽƌ ǁĂƚĞƌ ĂŶĚ ͞ŐƌĞĞŶ ŵĞƚƌŝĐƐ͘͟ ĞůĞĐƚƌŝĐŝƚLJ ĂŶĚ Zd ĚŽ ŶŽƚ͘ /Ŷ Ăůů ĐĂƐĞƐ͕ ƉŽůŝƟĐŝĂŶƐ ŵƵƐƚ ďĞ ŵŽƟǀĂƚĞĚ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞ ƉƵďůŝĐ ŶĞĞĚƐ ƚŽ ďĞ ŵŽďŝůŝnjĞĚ ƚŽǁĂƌĚ /ŵƉƌŽǀĞŵĞŶƚƐ ŝŶ ŝŶĨŽƌŵĂƟŽŶ ƚĞĐŚŶŽůŽŐLJ ƐƵĐŚ ŐƌĞĞŶ ƵƌďĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶ ŝŶ ƐŝĂ͘ ĂƐ ǁŝĚĞͲƐƉƌĞĂĚ ĂĐĐĞƐƐ ƚŽ ƐŵĂƌƚ ƉŚŽŶĞƐ ĂŶĚ ƐŽĐŝĂů ŶĞƚǁŽƌŬŝŶŐ ƌĞĚƵĐĞ ƚŚĞ ĐŽƐƚ ŽĨ ĐŽůůĞĐƟŶŐ ĂŶĚ ĚŝƐƐĞŵŝŶĂƟŶŐ ŝŶĨŽƌŵĂƟŽŶ ĂďŽƵƚ ƌĞĂů ƟŵĞ ĞŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚĂů ŚĂnjĂƌĚƐ͘ ŝƟĞƐ Major Findings and ƚŚĂƚ ĂĐƟǀĞůLJ ĞŶĐŽƵƌĂŐĞ ĐŝƟnjĞŶƐ ƚŽ ƌĞƉŽƌƚ ŶĞǁ ĐŚĂůůĞŶŐĞƐ ;ďLJ ĞͲŵĂŝůŝŶŐ Žƌ ƚĞdžƟŶŐ ŝŶ Ă ƉŚŽƚŽ ĂŶĚ Ă ƐƚƌĞĞƚ ĂĚĚƌĞƐƐͿ͕ Conclusion ĐĂŶ ŝŶĐĞŶƟǀŝnjĞ ƉŽůŝƟĐŝĂŶƐ ƚŽ ďĞ ƌĞƐƉŽŶƐŝǀĞ ƚŽ ĐŽŶƐƟƚƵĞŶƚ ŶĞĞĚƐ͘ ůƚŚŽƵŐŚ ƐŝĂ͛Ɛ ƵƌďĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶ ůĞǀĞů ŚĂƐ ďĞĞŶ ůŽǁĞƌ ƚŚĂŶ ƚŚĂƚ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ƌĞƐƚ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ǁŽƌůĚ͕ ƚŚĞ ƌĞŐŝŽŶ ŝƐ ĐĂƚĐŚŝŶŐ ƵƉ ƐƉĞĞĚŝůLJ͘ Ɛ Ă ƌĞƐƵůƚ͕ ƐŝĂ͛Ɛ ĐŝƚLJ ƉŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶ ŚĂƐ ďĞĞŶ Box 12 Restoring the Cheonggyecheon River ĞdžƉĂŶĚŝŶŐ ŽŶ ĂŶ ƵŶƉƌĞĐĞĚĞŶƚĞĚ ƐĐĂůĞ͘ dŚĞ ƌĞŐŝŽŶ ŝƐ In 1968, the elevated Cheonggye Expressway (16 meters wide and ŶŽǁ ŚŽŵĞ ƚŽ ĂůŵŽƐƚ ŚĂůĨ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ǁŽƌůĚ͛Ɛ ƵƌďĂŶŝƚĞƐ͘ ƐŝĂ 5.6 kilometers long) was constructed over the Cheonggyecheon ŚĂƐ ŵŽƌĞ ŵĞŐĂĐŝƟĞƐ ƚŚĂŶ Ăůů ŽƚŚĞƌ ƌĞŐŝŽŶƐ ĐŽŵďŝŶĞĚ͕ River, which runs through downtown Seoul. In early 2000, a plan ĂŶĚ ĞǀĞŶ ŵŽƌĞ ŵĞŐĂĐŝƟĞƐ ĂƌĞ ĨŽƌŵŝŶŐ͘ dŽ Ă ůĂƌŐĞ ĞdžƚĞŶƚ͕ was devised to revive the area as an eco-friendly downtown. The ƵƌďĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶ ŚĂƐ ƉůĂLJĞĚ Ă ŬĞLJ ƌŽůĞ ŝŶ ƐŝĂ͛Ɛ ƌŝƐĞ͕ ƉĂƌƟĐƵůĂƌůLJ removal of the expressway and the revitalization of the river were ƚŚƌŽƵŐŚ ŝƚƐ ƌŽůĞ ŝŶ ŶƵƌƚƵƌŝŶŐ ĞdžƉŽƌƚĞƌƐ ŽĨ ŵĂŶƵĨĂĐƚƵƌĞĚ key elements of the plan. ŐŽŽĚƐ͘ Under the leadership of the then mayor beginning in 2005, the highway was demolished and the river was restored, with Ƶƚ ƌĂƉŝĚ ƵƌďĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶ ƉŽƐĞƐ ƐŝŐŶŝĮĐĂŶƚ ƋƵĂůŝƚLJͲ remarkable impact on the city center by providing space and an ŽĨͲůŝĨĞ ĐŚĂůůĞŶŐĞƐ ƐƵĐŚ ĂƐ ƌŝƐŝŶŐ ŝŶĞƋƵĂůŝƚLJ ĂŶĚ ĐƌŝŵĞƐ͘ improved environment. The river restoration has also enhanced /Ŷ ƉĂƌƟĐƵůĂƌ͕ ŝƚ ĂĚĚƐ ƚƌĞŵĞŶĚŽƵƐ ƉƌĞƐƐƵƌĞ ŽŶ ƚŚĞ ůŽĐĂů the area’s biodiversity, increasing the number of plants, fish, and ĂŶĚ ŐůŽďĂů ĞŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚ͘ dŽĚĂLJ͕ ƐŝĂ ŚĂƐ ƐŽŵĞ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ birds; improved air and water quality; decreased noise levels; ǁŽƌůĚ͛Ɛ ŵŽƐƚ ƉŽůůƵƚĞĚ ĐŝƟĞƐ ĂŶĚ ŵŽƐƚ ƐƚĞĞƉůLJ ƌŝƐŝŶŐ , decreased the urban temperature by an average of 3.6°C in ĞŵŝƐƐŝŽŶƐ͘ ŶĚ ŵŽƐƚ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ƵŶŝƋƵĞ ĨĞĂƚƵƌĞƐ ŽĨ ƐŝĂ͛Ɛ places up to 400 meters from the river; decreased the number of vehicles entering the city center by 2.3%; increased public ƵƌďĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶ ƚĞŶĚ ƚŽ ĂŐŐƌĂǀĂƚĞ ĞŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚĂů ƉƌŽďůĞŵƐ͘ transport use by 5.7%; and increased property values in the area. Approximately 500,000 people walk along the river promenade ĞƐƉŝƚĞ ƚŚĞƐĞ ĐŚĂůůĞŶŐĞƐ͕ ƚŚĞƌĞ ĂƌĞ ƌĞĂƐŽŶƐ ƚŽ ďĞ every week. ŽƉƟŵŝƐƟĐ͕ ĂƐ ƵƌďĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶ ĐĂŶ ŚĞůƉ ĂĚĚƌĞƐƐ ĞŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚĂů ĚĞŐƌĂĚĂƟŽŶ͘ Source: Newman and Matan (forthcoming). ͻ hƌďĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶ ĐŽŵĞƐ ǁŝƚŚ ƉŽƐŝƟǀĞ ĞdžƚĞƌŶĂůŝƟĞƐ ĂŶĚ ĞĐŽŶŽŵŝĞƐ ƚŚĂƚ ĞŶƚĂŝů ŝŵƉƌŽǀĞĚ ƉƌŽĚƵĐƟǀŝƚLJ͕ ^ƵŵŵĂƌLJ ŝŵƉůLJŝŶŐ ůĞƐƐ ƌĞƐŽƵƌĐĞ ĐŽŶƐƵŵƉƟŽŶ ĂŶĚ Ă ůŝŐŚƚĞƌ ĞĐŽůŽŐŝĐĂů ĨŽŽƚƉƌŝŶƚ ĨŽƌ Ă ŐŝǀĞŶ ůĞǀĞů ŽĨ ŽƵƚƉƵƚ͘ dŚĞ ĮƌƐƚ ƉŽůŝĐLJ ŽƉƟŽŶƐ ĚŝƐĐƵƐƐĞĚ Ăŝŵ Ăƚ ƌĞĚƵĐŝŶŐ ƚŚĞ dŚĞ ĞĐŽŶŽŵŝĞƐ ŽĨ ƐĐĂůĞ ŝŶ ƉƌŽǀŝĚŝŶŐ ĞŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚͲ ĐƵƌƌĞŶƚ ƵƐĞ ŽĨ ĨŽƐƐŝů ĨƵĞůƐ ĂŶĚ ŽƚŚĞƌ ƌĞƐŽƵƌĐĞƐ ƵŶĚĞƌ ŐŝǀĞŶ ƌĞůĂƚĞĚ ŝŶĨƌĂƐƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĞ ĂŶĚ ƐĞƌǀŝĐĞƐ ƐƵĐŚ ĂƐ ĚƌŝŶŬŝŶŐ ƚĞĐŚŶŽůŽŐŝĞƐ ǁŚŝůĞ ƚŚĞ ŶĞdžƚ ŽŶĞƐ Ăŝŵ Ăƚ ĂĚǀĂŶĐŝŶŐ ƚŚĞ ǁĂƚĞƌ ĂŶĚ ŐĂƌďĂŐĞ ĚŝƐƉŽƐĂů ĂĚĚ ƚŽ ƚŚĞ ďĞŶĞĮƚƐ ŽĨ ƵŶĚĞƌůLJŝŶŐ ƚĞĐŚŶŽůŽŐŝĞƐ ĂŶĚ ƐƵďƐƟƚƵƟŶŐ ĚŝƌƚLJ ĨƵĞůƐ ǁŝƚŚ ƵƌďĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶ ĨŽƌ ƚŚĞ ĞŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚ͘ ƌĞŶĞǁĂďůĞƐ͘ dŚĞ ƉŽŽƌ ŵƵƐƚ ďĞ ƉƌŽƚĞĐƚĞĚ ĨƌŽŵ ŚĂƌŵĨƵů ĞŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚĂů ĐŚĂŶŐĞƐ ĂƐ ƐŝĂ ƵƌďĂŶŝnjĞƐ ƌĂƉŝĚůLJ͘ &ŝŶĂůůLJ͕ 18 For example, the hukou system in the PRC where individuals and ŝŶĐĞŶƟǀĞƐ ŵƵƐƚ ďĞ ŝŶ ƉůĂĐĞ ƐŽ ƚŚĂƚ ŐŽŽĚ ƉŽůŝĐŝĞƐ͕ ŽŶĐĞ households are registered with local governments and require official permission to relocate can be utilized to regulate population flows ƚŚĞLJ ĂƌĞ ĚĞǀŝƐĞĚ͕ ĂƌĞ ĂĐƟǀĞůLJ ŝŵƉůĞŵĞŶƚĞĚ͘ from both the origin and destination of migrants, with both benefits and costs. This is not possible in many other countries.
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    • 42 <ĞLJ /ŶĚŝĐĂƚŽƌƐ ĨŽƌ ƐŝĂ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞ WĂĐŝĮĐ ϮϬϭϮ ZĞĨĞƌĞŶĐĞƐ ĞĞĚĞ͕ ͕͘ ĂŶĚ ͘ ůŽŽŵ͘ ϭϵϵϱ͘ dŚĞ ĐŽŶŽŵŝĐƐ ŽĨ DƵŶŝĐŝƉĂů ^ŽůŝĚ tĂƐƚĞ͘ tŽƌůĚ ĂŶŬ ZĞƐĞĂƌĐŚ KďƐĞƌǀĞƌ͘ ϭϬ;ϮͿ͗ ĐĞŵŽŐůƵ͕ ͕͘ ĂŶĚ :͘ >ŝŶŶ͘ ϮϬϬϰ͘ DĂƌŬĞƚ ^ŝnjĞ ŝŶ /ŶŶŽǀĂƟŽŶ͗ ϭϭϯʹϱϬ͘ dŚĞŽƌLJ ĂŶĚ ǀŝĚĞŶĐĞ ĨƌŽŵ ƚŚĞ WŚĂƌŵĂĐĞƵƟĐĂů ŽŶƵ͕ ^͕͘ ĂŶĚ ,͘ <ŝŵ͘ ϮϬϬϵ͘ ^ĂŶŝƚĂƟŽŶ ŝŶ /ŶĚŝĂ͗ WƌŽŐƌĞƐƐ͕ /ŶĚƵƐƚƌLJ͘ YƵĂƌƚĞƌůLJ :ŽƵƌŶĂů ŽĨ ĐŽŶŽŵŝĐƐ͕ ϭϭϵ͗ ŝīĞƌĞŶƟĂůƐ͕ ŽƌƌĞůĂƚĞƐ ĂŶĚ ŚĂůůĞŶŐĞƐ͘  ^ŽƵƚŚ ϭϬϰϵʹϵϬ͘ ƐŝĂ KĐĐĂƐŝŽŶĂů WĂƉĞƌ ^ĞƌŝĞƐ EŽ͘ Ϯ͘ DĂŶĚĂůƵLJŽŶŐ ŐĞŶĐĞͲ&ƌĂŶĐĞ WƌĞƐƐĞ ; &WͿ͘ ϮϬϭϭ͘ ŚŝŶĂ >ĞƚƐ ŝƚLJ͗ ͘ ŝƟĞƐ /ƐƐƵĞ ŽŶĚƐ͘ ;ŚƩƉ͗ͬͬǁǁǁ͘ŐŽŽŐůĞ͘ ƌŽĐŬ͕ t͕͘ ĂŶĚ ^͘ dĂLJůŽƌ͘ ϮϬϬϱ͘ ĐŽŶŽŵŝĐ ƌŽǁƚŚ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞ ĐŽŵͬŚŽƐƚĞĚŶĞǁƐͬĂĨƉͬĂƌƚŝĐůĞͬ >ĞƋDϱŝ<ϳĂ ŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚ͗ Ă ZĞǀŝĞǁ ŽĨ dŚĞŽƌLJ ĂŶĚ ŵƉŝƌŝĐƐ͘ /Ŷ Ğϰ^ĞWϯ hŵW&Ɖϴ ƐƋŽEϱ ͍ĚŽĐ/ĚсE͘ ^͘ ƵƌůĂƵĨ ĂŶĚ W͘ ŐŚŝŽŶ ;ĞĚƐ͘Ϳ dŚĞ ,ĂŶĚŬ ŽĨ ĞĨϳϰϵĐϰďϬϰĂĐĐϰďϵĂϲĚĂĨϳĨϰϴϯĐϯϯϮϮϵ͘ϱϬϭͿ ĐŽŶŽŵŝĐ ƌŽǁƚŚ͘ ŵƐƚĞƌĚĂŵ͗ EŽƌƚŚ ,ŽůůĂŶĚ͘ ŝƌ YƵĂůŝƚLJ ĂŶĚ EŽŝƐĞ DĂŶĂŐĞŵĞŶƚ ƵƌĞĂƵ͕ WŽůůƵƟŽŶ ƌƵĞĐŬŶĞƌ͕ :͕͘ ĂŶĚ <͘ ^ƌŝĚŚĂƌ͘ ϮϬϭϮ͘ DĞĂƐƵƌŝŶŐ tĞůĨĂƌĞ ŽŶƚƌŽů ĞƉĂƌƚŵĞŶƚ͘ ŶŶƵĂů ^ƵŵŵĂƌLJ ŽĨ ŝƌ ĂŝŶƐ ĨƌŽŵ ZĞůĂdžĂƟŽŶ ŽĨ >ĂŶĚͲhƐĞ ZĞƐƚƌŝĐƟŽŶƐ͗ YƵĂůŝƚLJ ĂƚĂ͘ ;ŚƩƉ͗ͬͬǁǁǁ͘ĂƋŶŝƐ͘ƉĐĚ͘ŐŽ͘ƚŚͬĞŶͬ dŚĞ ĂƐĞ ŽĨ /ŶĚŝĂ͛Ɛ ƵŝůĚŝŶŐͲ,ĞŝŐŚƚ >ŝŵŝƚƐ͘ ;ŚƩƉ͗ͬͬ ĚĂƚĂͿ ǁǁǁ͘ƉĂĐŝŶĚŝĂ͘ŽƌŐͬƉƵďůŝĐĂƟŽŶƐͬƌĞƐĞĂƌĐŚͲƉĂƉĞƌƐͬ ƐŝĂŶ ĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ ĂŶŬ ; Ϳ͘ ϮϬϭϭ͘ <ĞLJ /ŶĚŝĐĂƚŽƌƐ ĨŽƌ ŵĞĂƐƵƌŝŶŐͲǁĞůĨĂƌĞͲŐĂŝŶƐͲƌĞůĂdžĂƚŝŽŶͲůĂŶĚͲƵƐĞͲ ƐŝĂ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞ WĂĐŝĮĐ ϮϬϭϭ͘ DĂŶĚĂůƵLJŽŶŐ ŝƚLJ͗ ͘ ƌĞƐƚƌŝĐƟŽŶƐͬͿ ͶͶͶ͘ ϮϬϭϮĂ͘ Ψϭϳϱ ŝůůŝŽŶ ƚŽ ^ĐĂůĞ hƉ ^ƵƉƉŽƌƚ ĨŽƌ ĂŝŶ͕ >͕͘ ĂŶĚ ^Ͳ͘ ,ŽŶŐ͘ ϮϬϬϵ͘ ^ƵƌǀŝǀĂů ŝŶ ϭϵƚŚ ĞŶƚƵƌLJ dƌĂŶƐƉŽƌƚ ŶŶŽƵŶĐĞĚ Ăƚ ZŝŽнϮϬ͘ ;ŚƩƉ͗ͬͬǁǁǁ͘ ŝƟĞƐ͗ dŚĞ >ĂƌŐĞƌ ƚŚĞ ŝƚLJ͕ ƚŚĞ ^ŵĂůůĞƌ zŽƵƌ ĂĚď͘ŽƌŐͬŶĞǁƐͬϭϳϱͲďŝůůŝŽŶͲƐĐĂůĞͲƐƵƉƉŽƌƚͲƚƌĂŶƐƉŽƌƚͲ ŚĂŶĐĞƐ͘ džƉůŽƌĂƟŽŶƐ ŝŶ ĐŽŶŽŵŝĐ ,ŝƐƚŽƌLJ͘ ϰϲ;ϰͿ͗ ĂŶŶŽƵŶĐĞĚͲƌŝŽϮϬͿ͕ ĂĐĐĞƐƐĞĚ :ƵůLJ ϮϬϭϮ͘ ϰϱϬʹϲϯ͘ ͶͶͶ͘ ϮϬϭϮď͘ ƐŝĂŶ ĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ KƵƚůŽŽŬ͘ DĂŶĚĂůƵLJŽŶŐ ĂŝŶ͕ >͕͘ ĂŶĚ ͘ ZŽƚĞůůĂ͘ ϮϬϬϭ͘ ĞĂƚŚ ĂŶĚ ^ƉĞŶĚŝŶŐ͗ hƌďĂŶ ŝƚLJ͗ ͘ DŽƌƚĂůŝƚLJ ĂŶĚ DƵŶŝĐŝƉĂů džƉĞŶĚŝƚƵƌĞ ŽŶ ^ĂŶŝƚĂƟŽŶ͘ ͶͶͶ͘ ϮϬϭϮĐ͘ dŚĞ ^ƚĂƚĞ ŽĨ WĂĐŝĮĐ dŽǁŶƐ ĂŶĚ ŝƟĞƐ͗ ŶŶĂůĞƐ ĚĞ ĠŵŽŐƌĂƉŚŝĞ ,ŝƐƚŽƌŝƋƵĞ͘ ϮϬϬϭͬϭ ;ϭϬϭͿ͗ hƌďĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶ ŝŶ ͛Ɛ WĂĐŝĮĐ ĞǀĞůŽƉŝŶŐ DĞŵďĞƌ ϭϯϵʹϱϰ͘ ŽƵŶƚƌŝĞƐ͘ DĂŶĚĂůƵLJŽŶŐ ŝƚLJ͗ ͘ ĞŶƚĞƌ ĨŽƌ /ŶƚĞƌŶĂƟŽŶĂů ĂƌƚŚ ^ĐŝĞŶĐĞ /ŶĨŽƌŵĂƟŽŶ ĂŝƌŽĐŚ͕ W͘ ϭϵϴϴ͘ ŝƟĞƐ ĂŶĚ ĐŽŶŽŵŝĐ ĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ͗ &ƌŽŵ EĞƚǁŽƌŬ ;/^/EͿ͘ >Žǁ ůĞǀĂƟŽŶ ŽĂƐƚĂů ŽŶĞ ƚŚĞ ĂǁŶ ŽĨ ,ŝƐƚŽƌLJ ƚŽ ƚŚĞ WƌĞƐĞŶƚ͘ ŚŝĐĂŐŽ͗ dŚĞ ;>Ϳ hƌďĂŶͲZƵƌĂů ƐƟŵĂƚĞƐ͕ ůŽďĂů ZƵƌĂůͲ hŶŝǀĞƌƐŝƚLJ ŽĨ ŚŝĐĂŐŽ WƌĞƐƐ͘ hƌďĂŶ DĂƉƉŝŶŐ WƌŽũĞĐƚ ;ZhDWͿ͕ ůƉŚĂ sĞƌƐŝŽŶ͘ ĂůŬ͕ ͕͘ ĂŶĚ D͘ DŽŶƚŐŽŵĞƌLJ͘ ϮϬϭϮ͘ hƌďĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶ ĂŶĚ WĂůŝƐĂĚĞƐ͕ Ez͗ ^ŽĐŝŽĞĐŽŶŽŵŝĐ ĂƚĂ ĂŶĚ ƉƉůŝĐĂƟŽŶƐ ůŝŵĂƚĞ ŚĂŶŐĞ ,ĂnjĂƌĚƐ ŝŶ ƐŝĂ ;ƌĂŌ ZĞƉŽƌƚͿ͘ ĞŶƚĞƌ ;^ Ϳ͕ ŽůƵŵďŝĂ hŶŝǀĞƌƐŝƚLJ͘ ;ŚƩƉ͗ͬͬƐĞĚĂĐ͘ ĂƌƌŽͲ>ĞĞ ĚƵĐĂƟŽŶĂů ƩĂŝŶŵĞŶƚ ĂƚĂƐĞƚ͘ ϮϬϭϬ͘ EĞǁ ĐŝĞƐŝŶ͘ĐŽůƵŵďŝĂ͘ĞĚƵͬŐƉǁͬůĞĐnjͿ ĂƚĂ ^Ğƚ ŽĨ ĚƵĐĂƟŽŶĂů ƩĂŝŶŵĞŶƚ ŝŶ ƚŚĞ tŽƌůĚ͕ ĞƌǀĞƌŽ͕ Z͘ ϮϬϬϴ͘ īĞĐƚƐ ŽĨ dK ŽŶ ,ŽƵƐŝŶŐ͕ WĂƌŬŝŶŐ ϭϵϱϬʹϮϬϭϬ͘ ;ŚƩƉ͗ͬͬǁǁǁ͘ďĂƌƌŽůĞĞ͘ĐŽŵͿ͕ ĂĐĐĞƐƐĞĚ ĂŶĚ dƌĂǀĞů͘ dƌĂŶƐŝƚ ŽŽƉĞƌĂƟǀĞ ZĞƐĞĂƌĐŚ WƌŽŐƌĂŵ ϭϰ :ƵůLJ ϮϬϭϮ͘ ZĞƉŽƌƚ ϭϮϴ͘ tĂƐŚŝŶŐƚŽŶ͕ ͗ &ĞĚĞƌĂů dƌĂŶƐŝƚ ĂƵŵͲ^ŶŽǁ͕ E͘ ϮϬϬϳ͘ ŝĚ ,ŝŐŚǁĂLJƐ ĂƵƐĞ ĚŵŝŶŝƐƚƌĂƟŽŶ͘ ^ƵďƵƌďĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶ͍ YƵĂƌƚĞƌůLJ :ŽƵƌŶĂů ŽĨ ĐŽŶŽŵŝĐƐ͘ ŚĂLJ͕ <͕͘ ĂŶĚ D͘ ƌĞĞŶƐƚŽŶĞ͘ ϮϬϬϯ͘ ŝƌ YƵĂůŝƚLJ͕ /ŶĨĂŶƚ ϭϮϮ;ϮͿ͗ ϳϳϱʹϴϬϱ͘ DŽƌƚĂůŝƚLJ͕ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞ ůĞĂŶ ŝƌ Đƚ ŽĨ ϭϵϳϬ͘ EZ ĂƵŵͲ^ŶŽǁ͕ E͕͘ >͘ ƌĂŶĚƚ͕ :͘ ,ĞŶĚĞƌƐŽŶ͕ D͘ dƵƌŶĞƌ͕ ĂŶĚ Y͘ tŽƌŬŝŶŐ WĂƉĞƌƐ 10053͘ ĂŵďƌŝĚŐĞ͕ D ͗ EĂƟŽŶĂů ŚĂŶŐ͘ ϮϬϭϮ͘ ZŽĂĚƐ͕ ZĂŝůƌŽĂĚƐ ĂŶĚ ĞĐĞŶƚƌĂůŝnjĂƟŽŶ ƵƌĞĂƵ ŽĨ ĐŽŶŽŵŝĐ ZĞƐĞĂƌĐŚ͘ ŽĨ ŚŝŶĞƐĞ ŝƟĞƐ͘ ;ŚƩƉ͗ͬͬĐŽŶĨĞƌĞŶĐĞ͘ŶďĞƌ͘ŽƌŐͬ ŚĞŶ͕ z͕͘ ͘ :ŝŶ͕ E͘ <ƵŵĂƌ͕ ĂŶĚ ͘ ^Śŝ͘ ϮϬϭϭ͘ dŚĞ WƌŽŵŝƐĞ ŽĨ ĐŽŶĨĞƌͬϮϬϭϮͬ^/ϮϬϭϮͬhZͬĂƵŵͲ^ŶŽǁ͘ƉĚĨͿ͕ ĞŝũŝŶŐ͗ ǀĂůƵĂƟŶŐ ƚŚĞ /ŵƉĂĐƚ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ϮϬϬϴ KůLJŵƉŝĐ ĂĐĐĞƐƐĞĚ :ƵůLJ ϮϬϭϮ͘ ĂŵĞƐ ŽŶ ŝƌ YƵĂůŝƚLJ͘ EZ tŽƌŬŝŶŐ WĂƉĞƌƐ ĞĂƚůĞLJ͕ d͘ ϮϬϭϬ͘ ŝŽƉŚŝůŝĐ ŝƟĞƐ͗ /ŶƚĞŐƌĂƟŶŐ EĂƚƵƌĞ ŝŶƚŽ EŽ͘ ϭϲϵϬϳ͘ ĂŵďƌŝĚŐĞ͕ D ͗ EĂƟŽŶĂů ƵƌĞĂƵ ŽĨ hƌďĂŶ ĞƐŝŐŶ ĂŶĚ WůĂŶŶŝŶŐ͘ tĂƐŚŝŶŐƚŽŶ͕ ͗ ĐŽŶŽŵŝĐ ZĞƐĞĂƌĐŚ͘ /ƐůĂŶĚ WƌĞƐƐ͘ ŚŝŶĂ ^ŽĐŝĞƚLJ ĨŽƌ hƌďĂŶ ^ƚƵĚŝĞƐ ;^h^Ϳ͘ ϮϬϭϬ͘ dŚĞ ϮϬϭϬ ĞĐŬĞƌ͕ ͘ ϭϵϵϭ͘ dƌĞĂƟƐĞ ŽŶ ƚŚĞ &ĂŵŝůLJ͘ ĂŵďƌŝĚŐĞ͕ D ͗ WƌŽŐƌĞƐƐ ZĞƉŽƌƚ ŽŶ ƚŚĞ WZ͛Ɛ >ŽǁͲĂƌďŽŶ ĐŽͲ ,ĂƌǀĂƌĚ hŶŝǀĞƌƐŝƚLJ WƌĞƐƐ͘ ŝƚLJ ĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ͘ ĞŝũŝŶŐ͗ ŚŝŶĂ ƌĐŚŝƚĞĐƚƵƌĞ Θ ĞĐŬĞƌ͕ Z͕͘ ĂŶĚ s͘ ,ĞŶĚĞƌƐŽŶ͘ ϮϬϬϬ͘ īĞĐƚƐ ŽĨ ŝƌ YƵĂůŝƚLJ ƵŝůĚŝŶŐ WƌĞƐƐ͘ ZĞŐƵůĂƟŽŶƐ ŽŶ WŽůůƵƟŶŐ /ŶĚƵƐƚƌŝĞƐ͘ :ŽƵƌŶĂů ŽĨ ŝƚLJ DĂLJŽƌƐ͘ ϮϬϬϳ͘ ŝƚLJ DĂLJŽƌƐ ^ƚĂƟƐƟĐƐ͘ ;ŚƩƉ͗ͬͬ WŽůŝƟĐĂů ĐŽŶŽŵLJ͘ ϭϬϴ;ϮͿ͗ ϯϳϵʹϰϮϭ͘ ĐŝƚLJŵĂLJŽƌƐ͘ĐŽŵͿ͕ ĂĐĐĞƐƐĞĚ :ƵŶĞ ϮϬϭϮ͘ ĞĐŬĞƌ͕ ͕͘ ĂŶĚ ͘ DƵůůŝŐĂŶ͘ ϭϵϵϳ͘ dŚĞ ŶĚŽŐĞŶŽƵƐ ŽĂĚLJ͕ ͕͘ Z͘ ŝůůŝŶŐŚĂŵ͕ Z͘ KƐƐŽǁƐŬŝ͕ :͘ WŝŽƚƌŽǁƐŬŝ͕ ^͘ ĞƚĞƌŵŝŶĂƟŽŶ ŽĨ dŝŵĞ WƌĞĨĞƌĞŶĐĞ͘ dŚĞ YƵĂƌƚĞƌůLJ dĂƌĞƋ͕ ĂŶĚ :͘ dLJƐŽŶ͘ ϮϬϭϬ͘ WĞƚƌŽůĞƵŵ WƌŽĚƵĐƚ :ŽƵƌŶĂů ŽĨ ĐŽŶŽŵŝĐƐ͘ ϭϭϮ;ϯͿ͗ ϳϮϵʹϱϴ͘ ^ƵďƐŝĚŝĞƐ͗ ŽƐƚůLJ͕ /ŶĞƋƵŝƚĂďůĞ͕ ĂŶĚ ZŝƐŝŶŐ͘ /D&
    • ƌĞĞŶ hƌďĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶ ŝŶ ƐŝĂ 43 ^ƚĂī WŽƐŝƟŽŶ EŽƚĞ͘ tĂƐŚŝŶŐƚŽŶ͕ ͗ /ŶƚĞƌŶĂƟŽŶĂů ĞŶƐĞ͕ E>:͕͘ E͘ :ĂĐŬƐŽŶ͕ ĂŶĚ ͘ ^ĂŵĂƌĂƐ͘ ϮϬϬϱ͘ ƵƌŽ ϱ Special Chapter DŽŶĞƚĂƌLJ &ƵŶĚ͘ dĞĐŚŶŽůŽŐŝĞƐ ĂŶĚ ŽƐƚ ĨŽƌ >ŝŐŚƚͲƵƚLJ sĞŚŝĐůĞƐ͘ dEKŽůĞ͕ D͕͘ ͘ ZĂLJŶĞƌ͕ ĂŶĚ :͘ ĂƚĞƐ͘ ϭϵϵϳ͘ dŚĞ ŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚĂů ZĞƉŽƌƚ͘ ;ŚƩƉ͗ͬͬĞĐ͘ĞƵƌŽƉĂ͘ĞƵͬĞŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚͬĂŝƌͬ <ƵnjŶĞƚƐ ƵƌǀĞ͗ ĂŶ ŵƉŝƌŝĐĂů ŶĂůLJƐŝƐ͘ ŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚ ƉĚĨͬĞƵƌŽͺϱ͘ƉĚĨͿ ĂŶĚ ĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ ĐŽŶŽŵŝĐƐ͘ Ϯ͗ ϰϬϭʹϭϲ͘ ŝŶƟŶŐ͕ ͕͘ ĂŶĚ W͘ ũŝ͘ ϮϬϭϮ͘ DĂĐƌŽĞĐŽŶŽŵŝĐ DĂŶĂŐĞŵĞŶƚ͘ƵƌƌŝĞ͕ :͕͘ ĂŶĚ D͘ EĞŝĚĞůů͘ ϮϬϬϱ͘ ŝƌ WŽůůƵƟŽŶ ĂŶĚ /ŶĨĂŶƚ /Ŷ ,͘ ,ŝůů͕ D͘͘ <ŚĂŶ͕ ĂŶĚ :͘ ŚƵĂŶŐ ;ĞĚƐ͘Ϳ ŝĂŐŶŽƐŝŶŐ ,ĞĂůƚŚ͗ tŚĂƚ ĂŶ tĞ >ĞĂƌŶ ĨƌŽŵ ĂůŝĨŽƌŶŝĂ͛Ɛ ZĞĐĞŶƚ ƚŚĞ /ŶĚŽŶĞƐŝĂŶ ĐŽŶŽŵLJ͘ >ŽŶĚŽŶ ĂŶĚ DĂŶĚĂůƵLJŽŶŐ džƉĞƌŝĞŶĐĞ͍ dŚĞ YƵĂƌƚĞƌůLJ :ŽƵƌŶĂů ŽĨ ĐŽŶŽŵŝĐƐ͘ ŝƚLJ͗ ŶƚŚĞŵ WƌĞƐƐ ĂŶĚ ͘ ϭϮϬ;ϯͿ͗ ϭϬϬϯʹϯϬ͘ ůĂĞƐĞƌ͕ ͘ ϮϬϭϭ͘ dŚĞ dƌŝƵŵƉŚ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ŝƚLJ͗ ,Žǁ KƵƌƵƚůĞƌ͕ ͕͘ ĂŶĚ ͘ DŝůůĞƌ͘ ϮϬϬϲ͘ tĂƚĞƌ͕ tĂƚĞƌ ǀĞƌLJǁŚĞƌĞ͗ ƌĞĂƚĞƐƚ /ŶǀĞŶƟŽŶ DĂŬĞƐ hƐ ZŝĐŚĞƌ͕ ^ŵĂƌƚĞƌ͕ DƵŶŝĐŝƉĂů &ŝŶĂŶĐĞ ĂŶĚ tĂƚĞƌ ^ƵƉƉůLJ ŝŶ ŵĞƌŝĐĂŶ ƌĞĞŶĞƌ͕ ,ĞĂůƚŚŝĞƌ͕ ĂŶĚ ,ĂƉƉŝĞƌ͘ EĞǁ zŽƌŬ͗ WĞŶŐƵŝŶ ŝƟĞƐ͘ /Ŷ ͘ ůĂĞƐĞƌ ĂŶĚ ͘ ŽůĚŝŶ ;ĞĚƐ͘Ϳ ŽƌƌƵƉƚŝŽŶ WƌĞƐƐ͘ ĂŶĚ ZĞĨŽƌŵ͗ >ĞƐƐŽŶƐ ĨƌŽŵ ŵĞƌŝĐĂ͛Ɛ ,ŝƐƚŽƌLJ͘ ůĂĞƐĞƌ͕ ͕͘ ĂŶĚ D͘ <ĂŚŶ͘ ϮϬϬϰ͘ ^ƉƌĂǁů ĂŶĚ hƌďĂŶ ŚŝĐĂŐŽ͗ hŶŝǀĞƌƐŝƚLJ ŽĨ ŚŝĐĂŐŽ WƌĞƐƐ͘ ƌŽǁƚŚ͘ ,ĂŶĚŬ ŽĨ ZĞŐŝŽŶĂů ĂŶĚ hƌďĂŶĂǀŝƐ͕ >͘ ϮϬϭϭ͘ dŚĞ īĞĐƚ ŽĨ WŽǁĞƌ WůĂŶƚƐ ĐŽŶŽŵŝĐƐ͘ /Ŷ :͘ ,ĞŶĚĞƌƐŽŶ ĂŶĚ :͘ dŚŝƐƐĞ ;ĞĚƐ͘Ϳ ŽŶ >ŽĐĂů ,ŽƵƐŝŶŐ WƌŝĐĞƐ ĂŶĚ ZĞŶƚƐ͘ ,ĂŶĚŬ ŽĨ ZĞŐŝŽŶĂů ĂŶĚ hƌďĂŶ ĐŽŶŽŵŝĐƐ͘ h<͗ ZĞǀŝĞǁ ŽĨ ĐŽŶŽŵŝĐƐ ĂŶĚ ^ƚĂƟƐƟĐƐ͘ ϵϯ;ϰͿ͗ ϭϯϵϭʹ ůƐĞǀŝĞƌ͘ ϰϬϮ͘ ͶͶͶ͘ ϮϬϭϬ͘ dŚĞ ƌĞĞŶŶĞƐƐ ŽĨ ŝƟĞƐ͗ ĂƌďŽŶ ŝŽdžŝĚĞĞ ƌƵLJŶ͕ ^͘ ϭϵϵϳ͘ džƉůĂŝŶŝŶŐ ƚŚĞ ŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚĂů <ƵnjŶĞƚƐ ŵŝƐƐŝŽŶƐ ĂŶĚ hƌďĂŶ ĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ͘ :ŽƵƌŶĂů ŽĨ ƵƌǀĞ͗ ^ƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĂů ŚĂŶŐĞ ĂŶĚ /ŶƚĞƌŶĂƟŽŶĂů hƌďĂŶ ĐŽŶŽŵŝĐƐ͘ ϲϳ;ϯͿ͗ ϰϬϰʹϭϴ͘ ŐƌĞĞŵĞŶƚƐ ŝŶ ZĞĚƵĐŝŶŐ ^ƵůƉŚƵƌ ŵŝƐƐŝŽŶƐ͘ ůĂĞƐĞƌ͕ ͕͘ D͘ <ĂŚŶ͕ ĂŶĚ :͘ ZĂƉƉĂƉŽƌƚ͘ ϮϬϬϴ͘ tŚLJ Ž ƚŚĞ ŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚ ĂŶĚ ĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ ĐŽŶŽŵŝĐƐ͘ Ϯ;ϰͿ͗ WŽŽƌ >ŝǀĞ ŝŶ ŝƟĞƐ͗ dŚĞ ZŽůĞ ŽĨ WƵďůŝĐ dƌĂŶƐƉŽƌƚĂƟŽŶ͘ ϰϴϱʹϱϬϯ͘ :ŽƵƌŶĂů ŽĨ hƌďĂŶ ĐŽŶŽŵŝĐƐ͘ ϲϯ;ϭͿ͗ ϭʹϮϰ͘ƵƌĂŶƚŽŶ͕ ͕͘ ĂŶĚ ͘ WƵŐĂ͘ ϮϬϬϭ͘ EƵƌƐĞƌLJ ŝƟĞƐ͗ hƌďĂŶ ŽǀĞƌŶŵĞŶƚ ŽĨ ^ŝŶŐĂƉŽƌĞ͕ EĂƟŽŶĂů ŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚ ŐĞŶĐLJ ŝǀĞƌƐŝƚLJ͕ WƌŽĐĞƐƐ /ŶŶŽǀĂƟŽŶ͕ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞ >ŝĨĞ LJĐůĞ ŽĨ tĞďƐŝƚĞ͘ ϮϬϭϮ͘ ;ŚƩƉ͗ͬͬĂƉƉϮ͘ŶĞĂ͘ŐŽǀ͘ƐŐͬŝŶĚĞdž͘ WƌŽĚƵĐƚƐ͘ ŵĞƌŝĐĂŶ ĐŽŶŽŵŝĐ ZĞǀŝĞǁ͘ ϵϭ;ϱͿ͗ ϭϰϱϰʹ ĂƐƉdžͿ ϳϳ͘ ƌĞĞŶƐƚŽŶĞ͕ D͕͘ ĂŶĚ Z͘ ,ĂŶŶĂ͘ ϮϬϭϭ͘ ŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚĂůĐŽŶŽŵŝĐ ĂŶĚ ^ŽĐŝĂů ŽŵŵŝƐƐŝŽŶ ĨŽƌ ƐŝĂ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞ WĂĐŝĮĐ͕ ZĞŐƵůĂƟŽŶƐ͕ ŝƌ ĂŶĚ tĂƚĞƌ WŽůůƵƟŽŶ͕ ĂŶĚ /ŶĨĂŶƚ ƐŝĂŶ ĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ ĂŶŬ͕ ĂŶĚ hŶŝƚĞĚ EĂƟŽŶƐ DŽƌƚĂůŝƚLJ ŝŶ /ŶĚŝĂ͘ D/d WZ tŽƌŬŝŶŐ WĂƉĞƌ EŽ ĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ WƌŽŐƌĂŵŵĞ ;^ W͕ ͕ ĂŶĚ ϮϬϭϭͲϬϭϰ͘ ĂŵďƌŝĚŐĞ͕ D ͗ DĂƐƐĂĐŚƵƐĞƩƐ /ŶƐƟƚƵƚĞ hEWͿ͘ ϮϬϭϮ͘ ĐĐĞůĞƌĂƟŶŐ ƋƵŝƚĂďůĞ ĐŚŝĞǀĞŵĞŶƚ ŽĨ dĞĐŚŶŽůŽŐLJ͘ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ DƐ͗ ůŽƐŝŶŐ ĂƉƐ ŝŶ ,ĞĂůƚŚ ĂŶĚ EƵƚƌŝƟŽŶ ƌŽƐƐŵĂŶ͕ ͕͘ ĂŶĚ ͘ <ƌƵĞŐĞƌ͘ ϭϵϵϱ͘ ĐŽŶŽŵŝĐ ƌŽǁƚŚ KƵƚĐŽŵĞƐ͘ ĂŶŐŬŽŬ͗  ĂŶĚ hE͘ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞ ŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚ͘ dŚĞ YƵĂƌƚĞƌůLJ :ŽƵƌŶĂů ŽĨĐŽŶŽŵŝƐƚ /ŶƚĞůůŝŐĞŶĐĞ hŶŝƚ͘ ϮϬϭϭ͘ ƐŝĂŶ ƌĞĞŶ ŝƚLJ /ŶĚĞdž͘ ĐŽŶŽŵŝĐƐ͕ ϭϭϬ;ϮͿ͗ ϯϱϯʹϳϳ͘ DƵŶŝĐŚ͗ ^ŝĞŵĞŶƐ͘ ƵŶĂǁĂŶƐĂ͕ ͕͘ ĂŶĚ ^͘ &ĞĚŽƵƐ ,ŽƋƵĞ͘ ϮϬϭϮ͘ ZŝŐŚƚ ƚŽ tĂƚĞƌŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚĂů DĂŶĂŐĞŵĞŶƚ ƵƌĞĂƵ͘ ϮϬϬϮ͘ EĂƟŽŶĂů sĞƌƐƵƐ tĂƚĞƌ WƌŝĐŝŶŐ͗ ŚĂůůĞŶŐĞƐ ŝŶ ĞǀĞůŽƉŝŶŐ ŝƌ YƵĂůŝƚLJ ^ƚĂƚƵƐ ZĞƉŽƌƚ ϮϬϬϮ͘ YƵĞnjŽŶ ŝƚLJ͗ ŽƵŶƚƌŝĞƐ͘ >ĞĞ <ƵĂŶ zĞǁ ^ĐŚŽŽů ŽĨ WƵďůŝĐ WŽůŝĐLJ ĞƉĂƌƚŵĞŶƚ ŽĨ ŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚ ĂŶĚ EĂƚƵƌĂů ZĞƐŽƵƌĐĞƐ͘ tŽƌŬŝŶŐ WĂƉĞƌ ^ĞƌŝĞƐ͘ EŽ͘ ><z^WW ϭϮ ʹ Ϭϭ /tW͘ͶͶͶ͘ ϮϬϬϵ͘ ŽŵƉĞŶĚŝƵŵ ŽĨ ŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚ ĂŶĚ EĂƚƵƌĂů ^ŝŶŐĂƉŽƌĞ͗ EĂƟŽŶĂů hŶŝǀĞƌƐŝƚLJ ŽĨ ^ŝŶŐĂƉŽƌĞ͘ ZĞƐŽƵƌĐĞƐ ϮϬϬϬʹϮϬϬϴ͘ YƵĞnjŽŶ ŝƚLJ͗ ĞƉĂƌƚŵĞŶƚ ŽĨ LJŽƵƌŬŽ͕ :͕͘ D͘ <ĂŚŶ͕ ĂŶĚ :͘ dƌĂĐLJ͘ ϭϵϵϵ͘ YƵĂůŝƚLJ ŽĨ >ŝĨĞ ŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚ ĂŶĚ EĂƚƵƌĂů ZĞƐŽƵƌĐĞƐ͘ ĂŶĚ ŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚĂů ŽŵƉĂƌŝƐŽŶƐ͘ /Ŷ W͘ ŚĞƐŚŝƌĞƌĚďƌŝŶŬ͕ d͘ ϮϬϭϮ͘ /ƌĂŶ͛Ɛ ŐŝŶŐ ŝƌůŝŶĞƌ &ůĞĞƚ ^ĞĞŶ ĂƐ ĂŶĚ ͘ DŝůůƐ ;ĞĚƐ͘Ϳ ,ĂŶĚŬ ŽĨ ZĞŐŝŽŶĂů ĂŶĚ hƌďĂŶ &ĂůƚĞƌŝŶŐ ƵŶĚĞƌ h͘^͘ ^ĂŶĐƟŽŶƐ͘ EĞǁ zŽƌŬ dŝŵĞƐ͘ ĐŽŶŽŵŝĐƐ͘ ϭ;ϯͿ͗ ϭϰϭϯʹϱϰ͘ ϭϯ :ƵůLJ ;ŚƩƉ͗ͬͬǁǁǁ͘ŶLJƟŵĞƐ͘ĐŽŵͬϮϬϭϮͬϬϳͬϭϰͬ ,ĂŝŶĞƐ͕ D͘ ϮϬϬϭ͘ dŚĞ hƌďĂŶ DŽƌƚĂůŝƚLJ dƌĂŶƐŝƟŽŶ ŝŶ ƚŚĞ ǁŽƌůĚͬŵŝĚĚůĞĞĂƐƚͬŝƌĂŶƐͲĂŝƌůŝŶĞƌƐͲĨĂůƚĞƌͲƵŶĚĞƌͲ hŶŝƚĞĚ ^ƚĂƚĞƐ͕ ϭϴϬϬʹϭϵϰϬ͘ ŶŶĂůĞƐ ĚĞ ĠŵŽŐƌĂƉŚŝĞ ƐĂŶĐƟŽŶƐ͘Śƚŵů͍ͺƌсϭͿ ,ŝƐƚŽƌŝƋƵĞ͘ ϭͬϮϬϬϭ ;ϭϬϭͿ͗ ϯϯʹϲϰ͘&ĞůĞƌ͕ >͕͘ ĂŶĚ :͘ ,ĞŶĚĞƌƐŽŶ͘ ϮϬϭϭ͘ džĐůƵƐŝŽŶĂƌLJ WŽůŝĐŝĞƐ ,ĞŶĚĞƌƐŽŶ͕ :͘ ϮϬϬϮ͘ hƌďĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶ ŝŶ ĞǀĞůŽƉŝŶŐ ŽƵŶƚƌŝĞƐ͘ ŝŶ hƌďĂŶ ĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ͗ hŶĚĞƌͲ^ĞƌǀŝĐŝŶŐ DŝŐƌĂŶƚ tŽƌůĚ ĂŶŬ KďƐĞƌǀĞƌ͘ ϭϳ;ϭͿ͗ ϴϵʹϭϭϮ͘ ,ŽƵƐĞŚŽůĚƐ ŝŶ ƌĂnjŝůŝĂŶ ŝƟĞƐ͘ :ŽƵƌŶĂů ŽĨ hƌďĂŶ ͶͶͶ͘ ϮϬϬϵ͘ hƌďĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶ ŝŶ ŚŝŶĂ͗ WŽůŝĐLJ /ƐƐƵĞƐ ĂŶĚ ĐŽŶŽŵŝĐƐ͘ ϲϵ;ϯͿ͗ ϮϱϯʹϳϮ͘ KƉƟŽŶƐ͘ Z W ĂĐŬŐƌŽƵŶĚ ZĞƉŽƌƚ͘&ĞƌƌŝĞ͕ :͕͘ ĂŶĚ t͘ dƌŽĞƐŬĞŶ͘ ϮϬϬϴ͘ tĂƚĞƌ ĂŶĚ ŚŝĐĂŐŽ͛Ɛ ,ŝůƚŽŶ͕ &͕͘ ĂŶĚ ͘ >ĞǀŝŶƐŽŶ͘ ϭϵϵϴ͘ &ĂĐƚŽƌŝŶŐ ƚŚĞ DŽƌƚĂůŝƚLJ dƌĂŶƐŝƟŽŶ͕ ϭϴϱϬʹϵϮϱ͘ džƉůŽƌĂƟŽŶƐ ŝŶ ŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚĂů <ƵnjŶĞƚƐ ƵƌǀĞ͗ ǀŝĚĞŶĐĞ ĐŽŶŽŵŝĐ ,ŝƐƚŽƌLJ͘ ϰϱ;ϭͿ͗ ϭʹϭϲ͘ ĨƌŽŵ ƵƚŽŵŽƟǀĞ >ĞĂĚ ŵŝƐƐŝŽŶƐ͘ :ŽƵƌŶĂů ŽĨ&ƵĞů ĸĐŝĞŶĐLJ ƵƚŽŵŽďŝůĞ dĞƐƚ͘ ϮϬϭϮ͘ ;ŚƩƉ͗ͬͬǁǁǁ͘ĨĞĂƚ͘ ŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚĂů ĐŽŶŽŵŝĐƐ ĂŶĚ DĂŶĂŐĞŵĞŶƚ͘ ϯϱ;ϮͿ͗ ďŝŽĐŚĞŵ͘ĚƵ͘ĞĚƵͬƉƵďͺůŝƐƚ͘ƐŚƚŵůͿ ϭϮϲʹϰϭ͘
    • 44 <ĞLJ /ŶĚŝĐĂƚŽƌƐ ĨŽƌ ƐŝĂ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞ WĂĐŝĮĐ ϮϬϭϮ ,ŽǁĞƐ͕ ^͕͘ ĂŶĚ W͘ tLJƌǁŽůů͘ ϮϬϭϮ͘ ůŝŵĂƚĞ ŚĂŶŐĞ DĐƌĂŶĂŚĂŶ͕ ͕͘ ͘ ĂůŬ͕ ĂŶĚ ͘ ŶĚĞƌƐŽŶ͘ ϮϬϬϳ͘ dŚĞ DŝƟŐĂƟŽŶ ĂŶĚ ƌĞĞŶ ƌŽǁƚŚ ŝŶ ĞǀĞůŽƉŝŶŐ ƐŝĂ͘ ZŝƐŝŶŐ dŝĚĞ͗ ƐƐĞƐƐŝŶŐ ƚŚĞ ZŝƐŬƐ ŽĨ ůŝŵĂƚĞ ŚĂŶŐĞ / tŽƌŬŝŶŐ WĂƉĞƌ ^ĞƌŝĞƐ EŽ͘ ϯϲϵ͘ dŽŬLJŽ͗ ƐŝĂŶ ĂŶĚ ,ƵŵĂŶ ^ĞƩůĞŵĞŶƚƐ ŝŶ >Žǁ ůĞǀĂƟŽŶ ŽĂƐƚĂů ĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ ĂŶŬ /ŶƐƟƚƵƚĞ͘ ŽŶĞƐ͘ ŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚ Θ hƌďĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶ͘ ϭϵ;ϭͿ͗ ϭϳʹϯϳ͘ /ŶƐƟƚƵƚĞ ĨŽƌ dƌĂŶƐƉŽƌƚĂƟŽŶ ĂŶĚ ĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ WŽůŝĐLJ͘ DĞLJĞƌ͕ :͕͘ :͘ <ĂŝŶ͕ ĂŶĚ D͘ tŽŚů͘ ϭϵϲϱ͘ dŚĞ hƌďĂŶ ϮϬϭϬ͘ KƵƌ tŽƌŬ ŝŶ /ŶĚŝĂ͘ EĞǁ zŽƌŬ͗ /ŶƐƟƚƵƚĞ ĨŽƌ dƌĂŶƐƉŽƌƚĂƟŽŶ WƌŽďůĞŵ͘ ĂŵďƌŝĚŐĞ͗ ,ĂƌǀĂƌĚ dƌĂŶƐƉŽƌƚĂƟŽŶ ĂŶĚ ĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ WŽůŝĐLJ͘ ;ŚƩƉ͗ͬͬ hŶŝǀĞƌƐŝƚLJ WƌĞƐƐ͘ ǁǁǁ͘ŝƚĚƉ͘ŽƌŐͬŝŶĚĞdž͘ƉŚƉͬŽƵƌͺǁŽƌŬͬĚĞƚĂŝůͬŝŶĚŝĂͬͿ DŝůůĞŶŶŝƵŵ ĐŽƐLJƐƚĞŵ ƐƐĞƐƐŵĞŶƚ͘ ϮϬϬϱ͘ ĐŽƐLJƐƚĞŵƐ /ŶƚĞƌŶĂƟŽŶĂů ŶĞƌŐLJ ŐĞŶĐLJ͕ KƌŐĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ĂŶĚ ,ƵŵĂŶ tĞůůͲĞŝŶŐ͗ ^LJŶƚŚĞƐŝƐ͘ tĂƐŚŝŶŐƚŽŶ͕ ͗ WĞƚƌŽůĞƵŵ džƉŽƌƟŶŐ ŽƵŶƚƌŝĞƐ͕ KƌŐĂŶŝƐĂƟŽŶ ĨŽƌ /ƐůĂŶĚ WƌĞƐƐ͘ ĐŽŶŽŵŝĐ ŽͲŽƉĞƌĂƟŽŶ ĂŶĚ ĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ͕ ĂŶĚ DŝŶŝƐƚƌLJ ŽĨ EĂƚƵƌĂů ZĞƐŽƵƌĐĞƐ ĂŶĚ ŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚ͕ WŽůůƵƟŽŶ tŽƌůĚ ĂŶŬ ;/ ͕ KW͕ K͕ ĂŶĚ tŽƌůĚ ĂŶŬͿ͘ ŽŶƚƌŽů ĞƉĂƌƚŵĞŶƚ͘ ϮϬϭϭ͘ ^ƚĂƚĞ ŽĨ WŽůůƵƟŽŶ ϮϬϭϬ͘ ŶĂůLJƐŝƐ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ^ĐŽƉĞ ŽĨ ŶĞƌŐLJ ^ƵďƐŝĚŝĞƐ ĂŶĚ ZĞƉŽƌƚ ϮϬϭϬ͘ ĂŶŐŬŽŬ͗ d^ WƌĞƐƐ͘ ^ƵŐŐĞƐƟŽŶƐ ĨŽƌ ƚŚĞ ͲϮϬ /ŶŝƟĂƟǀĞ͘ ;ŚƩƉ͗ͬͬǁǁǁ͘ DŽƌĞƫ͕ ͘ ϮϬϬϰĂ͘ ƐƟŵĂƟŶŐ ƚŚĞ ^ŽĐŝĂů ZĞƚƵƌŶ ƚŽ ŽĞĐĚ͘ŽƌŐͬĞŶǀͬϰϱϱϳϱϲϲϲ͘ƉĚĨͿ ,ŝŐŚĞƌ ĚƵĐĂƟŽŶ͗ ǀŝĚĞŶĐĞ ĨƌŽŵ >ŽŶŐŝƚƵĚŝŶĂů <ĂŚŶ͕ D͘ ϭϵϵϵ͘ dŚĞ ^ŝůǀĞƌ >ŝŶŝŶŐ ŽĨ ZƵƐƚ Ğůƚ DĂŶƵĨĂĐƚƵƌŝŶŐ ĂŶĚ ZĞƉĞĂƚĞĚ ƌŽƐƐͲ^ĞĐƟŽŶĂů ĂƚĂ͘ :ŽƵƌŶĂů ŽĨ ĞĐůŝŶĞ͘ :ŽƵƌŶĂů ŽĨ hƌďĂŶ ĐŽŶŽŵŝĐƐ͘ ϰϲ;ϯͿ͗ ϯϲϬʹ ĐŽŶŽŵĞƚƌŝĐƐ͘ ϭϮϭ;ϭʹϮͿ͗ ϭϳϱʹϮϭϮ͘ ϳϲ͘ ͶͶͶ͘ ϮϬϬϰď͘ ,ƵŵĂŶ ĂƉŝƚĂů džƚĞƌŶĂůŝƟĞƐ ŝŶ ŝƟĞƐ͘ /Ŷ s͘ ͶͶͶ͘ ϮϬϬϮ͘ ĞŵŽŐƌĂƉŚŝĐ ŚĂŶŐĞ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞ ĞŵĂŶĚ ,ĞŶĚĞƌƐŽŶ ĂŶĚ :͘ dŚŝƐƐĞ ;ĞĚƐ͘Ϳ ,ĂŶĚŬ ŽĨ hƌďĂŶ ĨŽƌ ŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚĂů ZĞŐƵůĂƟŽŶ͘ :ŽƵƌŶĂů ŽĨ WŽůŝĐLJ ĐŽŶŽŵŝĐƐ sŽůƵŵĞ /s͘ h<͗ EŽƌƚŚ ,ŽůůĂŶĚ WƌĞƐƐ͘ ŶĂůLJƐŝƐ ĂŶĚ DĂŶĂŐĞŵĞŶƚ͘ Ϯϭ;ϭͿ͗ ϰϱʹϲϮ͘ EĞǁĞůů͕ Z͕͘ ͘ :ĂīĞ͕ ĂŶĚ Z͘ ^ƚĂǀŝŶƐ͘ ϭϵϵϵ͘ dŚĞ /ŶĚƵĐĞĚ ͶͶͶ͘ ϮϬϬϯ͘ EĞǁ ǀŝĚĞŶĐĞ ŽŶ ĂƐƚĞƌŶ ƵƌŽƉĞ͛Ɛ WŽůůƵƟŽŶ /ŶŶŽǀĂƟŽŶ ,LJƉŽƚŚĞƐŝƐ ĂŶĚ ŶĞƌŐLJͲ^ĂǀŝŶŐ WƌŽŐƌĞƐƐ͘ dŚĞ ͘͘ :ŽƵƌŶĂů ŽĨ ĐŽŶŽŵŝĐ ŶĂůLJƐŝƐ Θ dĞĐŚŶŽůŽŐŝĐĂů ŚĂŶŐĞ͘ dŚĞ YƵĂƌƚĞƌůLJ :ŽƵƌŶĂů ŽĨ WŽůŝĐLJ͘ Ϭ;ϭͿ͗ ϰ͘ ĐŽŶŽŵŝĐƐ͘ ϭϭϰ;ϯͿ͗ ϵϰϭʹϳϱ͘ ͶͶͶ͘ ϮϬϬϱ͘ dŚĞ ĞĂƚŚ dŽůů ĨƌŽŵ EĂƚƵƌĂů ŝƐĂƐƚĞƌƐ͗ dŚĞ EĞǁŵĂŶ͕ W͕͘ d͘ ĞĂƚůĞLJ͕ ĂŶĚ ,͘ ŽLJĞƌ͘ ϮϬϬϴ͘ ZĞƐƉŽŶĚŝŶŐ ZŽůĞ ŽĨ /ŶĐŽŵĞ͕ ĞŽŐƌĂƉŚLJ͕ ĂŶĚ /ŶƐƟƚƵƟŽŶƐ͘ ƚŽ WĞĂŬ Kŝů ĂŶĚ ůŝŵĂƚĞ ŚĂŶŐĞ͘ tĂƐŚŝŶŐƚŽŶ͕ ͗ ZĞǀŝĞǁ ŽĨ ĐŽŶŽŵŝĐƐ ĂŶĚ ^ƚĂƟƐƟĐƐ͘ ϴϳ;ϮͿ͗ Ϯϳϭʹϴϰ͘ /ƐůĂŶĚ WƌĞƐƐ͘ ͶͶͶ͘ϮϬϭϬ͘ ůŝŵĂƚŽƉŽůŝƐ͗ ,Žǁ KƵƌ ŝƟĞƐ tŝůů dŚƌŝǀĞ ŝŶ ƚŚĞ EĞǁŵĂŶ͕ W͕͘ ĂŶĚ :͘ <ĞŶǁŽƌƚŚLJ͘ ϭϵϵϵ͘ ^ƵƐƚĂŝŶĂďŝůŝƚLJ ĂŶĚ ,ŽƩĞƌ &ƵƚƵƌĞ͘ EĞǁ zŽƌŬ͗ ĂƐŝĐ ŽŽŬƐ͘ ŝƟĞƐ͗ KǀĞƌĐŽŵŝŶŐ ƵƚŽŵŽďŝůĞ ĞƉĞŶĚĞŶĐĞ͘ <ĂŚŶ͕ D͕͘ ĂŶĚ ͘ DĂŶƐƵƌ͘ ϮϬϭϬ͘ ,Žǁ Ž ŶĞƌŐLJ WƌŝĐĞƐ tĂƐŚŝŶŐƚŽŶ͕ ͗ /ƐůĂŶĚ WƌĞƐƐ͘ ĂŶĚ >ĂďŽƌ ĂŶĚ ŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚĂů ZĞŐƵůĂƟŽŶƐ īĞĐƚ EĞǁŵĂŶ͕ W͕͘ ĂŶĚ ͘ DĂƚĂŶ͘ &ŽƌƚŚĐŽŵŝŶŐ͘ ƌĞĞŶ hƌďĂŶŝƐŵ >ŽĐĂů DĂŶƵĨĂĐƚƵƌŝŶŐ ŵƉůŽLJŵĞŶƚ LJŶĂŵŝĐƐ͍ ŝŶ ƐŝĂ͗ dŚĞ ŵĞƌŐŝŶŐ ƌĞĞŶ dŝŐĞƌƐ͘ ^ŝŶŐĂƉŽƌĞ͗ ZĞŐƌĞƐƐŝŽŶ ŝƐĐŽŶƟŶƵŝƚLJ ƉƉƌŽĂĐŚ͘ EZ tŽƌŬŝŶŐ tŽƌůĚ ^ĐŝĞŶƟĮĐ͘ WĂƉĞƌƐ͘ EŽ͘ ϭϲϱϯϴ͘ ĂŵďƌŝĚŐĞ͕ D ͗ EĂƟŽŶĂů EĞǁŵĂŶ͕ W͕͘ ĂŶĚ Z͘ tŝůůƐ͘ ϮϬϭϮĂ͘ ŶĞƌŐLJ DLJƚŚƐ džƉŽƐĞĚ͗ ƵƌĞĂƵ ŽĨ ĐŽŶŽŵŝĐ ZĞƐĞĂƌĐŚ͘ <ŝŶŐ ŽĂů Žƌ <ŝŶŐ ^ŽůĂƌ͍ dŚĞ ŽŶǀĞƌƐĂƟŽŶ͘ ϭϲ :ƵŶĞ <ĂƵƐŚĂů͕ E͘ ϮϬϭϮ͘ ƌŽǁƚŚ ǀƐ ĂƌďĂŐĞ͗ ĂŶ tĞ ŚĂǀĞ ϮϬϭϮ͘ ;ŚƩƉ͗ͬͬƚŚĞĐŽŶǀĞƌƐĂƟŽŶ͘ĞĚƵ͘ĂƵͬĞŶĞƌŐLJͲ ĸĐŝĞŶƚ ŝƐƉŽƐĂů DĞĐŚĂŶŝƐŵ͍ ĐŽŶŽŵŝĐ dŝŵĞƐ͕ Ϯϲ ŵLJƚŚƐͲĞdžƉŽƐĞĚͲŬŝŶŐͲĐŽĂůͲŽƌͲŬŝŶŐͲƐŽůĂƌͲϳϲϭϭͿ Ɖƌŝů͘ ͶͶͶ͘ ϮϬϭϮď͘ <ŝŶŐ ŽĂů ĞƚŚƌŽŶĞĚ͘ dŚĞ ŽŶǀĞƌƐĂƟŽŶ͘ ϭϰ <ĞŶǁŽƌƚŚLJ͕ :͘ ϮϬϬϴ͘ ŶĞƌŐLJ hƐĞ ĂŶĚ KϮ WƌŽĚƵĐƟŽŶ DĂLJ ϮϬϭϮ͘ ;ŚƩƉƐ͗ͬͬƚŚĞĐŽŶǀĞƌƐĂƟŽŶ͘ĞĚƵ͘ĂƵͬŬŝŶŐͲ ŝŶ ƚŚĞ hƌďĂŶ WĂƐƐĞŶŐĞƌ dƌĂŶƐƉŽƌƚ ^LJƐƚĞŵ ŽĨ ĐŽĂůͲĚĞƚŚƌŽŶĞĚͲϲϵϳϳͿ ϴϰ /ŶƚĞƌŶĂƟŽŶĂů ŝƟĞƐ͗ &ŝŶĚŝŶŐƐ ĂŶĚ WŽůŝĐLJ KůƐŽŶ͕ D͘ ϭϵϲϱ͘ dŚĞ >ŽŐŝĐ ŽĨ ŽůůĞĐƟǀĞ ĐƟŽŶ͘ ĂŵďƌŝĚŐĞ͕ /ŵƉůŝĐĂƟŽŶƐ͘ /Ŷ W͘ ƌŽĞŐĞ ;ĞĚ͘Ϳ hƌďĂŶ ŶĞƌŐLJ D ͗ ,ĂƌǀĂƌĚ hŶŝǀĞƌƐŝƚLJ WƌĞƐƐ͘ dƌĂŶƐŝƟŽŶƐ͗ &ƌŽŵ &ŽƐƐŝů &ƵĞůƐ ƚŽ ZĞŶĞǁĂďůĞ WŽǁĞƌ͘ KƌŐĂŶŝƐĂƟŽŶ ĨŽƌ ĐŽŶŽŵŝĐ ŽͲŽƉĞƌĂƟŽŶ ĂŶĚ ĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ h<͗ ůƐĞǀŝĞƌ͘ ;KͿ͘ ϮϬϭϭ͘ dŽǁĂƌĚƐ ƌĞĞŶ ƌŽǁƚŚ͘ WĂƌŝƐ͗ K <ŽŚůŝ͕ ,͕͘ ͘ ^ŚĂƌŵĂ͕ ĂŶĚ ͘ ^ŽŽĚ ;ĞĚƐ͘Ϳ͘ ϮϬϭϭ͘ ƐŝĂ ϮϬϱϬ͗ WƵďůŝƐŚŝŶŐ͘ ZĞĂůŝnjŝŶŐ ƚŚĞ ƐŝĂŶ ĞŶƚƵƌLJ͘ EĞǁ ĞůŚŝ͗ ^ĂŐĞ͘ ^Ăŝnj͕ ͘ ϮϬϬϴ͘ KŶ >ŽĐĂů ,ŽƵƐŝŶŐ ^ƵƉƉůLJ ůĂƐƟĐŝƚLJ͘ tŽƌŬŝŶŐ <ƵnjŶĞƚƐ͕ ^͘ ϭϵϱϱ͘ ĐŽŶŽŵŝĐ ƌŽǁƚŚ ĂŶĚ /ŶĐŽŵĞ /ŶĞƋƵĂůŝƚLJ͘ WĂƉĞƌ͘ WŚŝůĂĚĞůƉŚŝĂ͗ hŶŝǀĞƌƐŝƚLJ ŽĨ WĞŶŶƐLJůǀĂŶŝĂ ŵĞƌŝĐĂŶ ĐŽŶŽŵŝĐ ZĞǀŝĞǁ͘ ϰϵ;ϭͿ͗ ϭʹϮϴ͘ Ͳ dŚĞ tŚĂƌƚŽŶ ^ĐŚŽŽů͘ ;ŚƩƉ͗ͬͬƐƐƌŶ͘ĐŽŵͬ >ĞĂƉĞ͕ :͘ ϮϬϬϲ͘ dŚĞ >ŽŶĚŽŶ ŽŶŐĞƐƟŽŶ ŚĂƌŐĞ͘ :ŽƵƌŶĂů ŽĨ ĂďƐƚƌĂĐƚсϭϭϵϯϰϮϮͿ ĐŽŶŽŵŝĐ WĞƌƐƉĞĐƟǀĞƐ͘ ϮϬ;ϰͿ͗ ϭϱϳʹϳϲ͘ ^ĂǁŶŚĞLJ͕ ͕͘ ĂŶĚ D͘ <ĂŚŶ͘ &ŽƌƚŚĐŽŵŝŶŐ͘ hŶĚĞƌƐƚĂŶĚŝŶŐ >ĞĞ͕/Ͳ<͘ϮϬϬϲ͘ŚĞŽŶŐLJĞŚĞŽŶZĞƐƚŽƌĂƟŽŶ͘WƌĞƐĞŶƚĂƟŽŶ ƌŽƐƐͲEĂƟŽŶĂů dƌĞŶĚƐ ŝŶ ,ŝŐŚͲdĞĐŚ ZĞŶĞǁĂďůĞ Ăƚ ƚŚĞ />/ tŽƌůĚ ŽŶŐƌĞƐƐ ϮϬϬϲ WƌŽũĞĐƚ͘ ĂƉĞ WŽǁĞƌ ƋƵŝƉŵĞŶƚ džƉŽƌƚƐ ƚŽ ƚŚĞ hŶŝƚĞĚ ^ƚĂƚĞƐ͘ dŽǁŶ͕ ^ŽƵƚŚ ĨƌŝĐĂ͘ Ϯϳ &ĞďƌƵĂƌLJʹϯ DĂƌĐŚ͘ ;ŚƩƉ͗ͬͬ ŶĞƌŐLJ WŽůŝĐLJ͘ ǁŽƌůĚĐŽŶŐƌĞƐƐϮϬϬϲ͘ŝĐůĞŝ͘ŽƌŐͬƵƉůŽĂĚƐͬŵĞĚŝĂͬ<ͺ ^ĞůĚĞŶ͕ d͕͘ ĂŶĚ ͘ ^ŽŶŐ͘ ϭϵϵϱ͘ EĞŽĐůĂƐƐŝĐĂů ƌŽǁƚŚ͕ ƚŚĞ : >/Ŷ<ĞƵŶͺ^ĞŽƵůͺͲͺZŝǀĞƌͺWƌŽũĞĐƚ͘ƉĚĨͿ ƵƌǀĞ ĨŽƌ ďĂƚĞŵĞŶƚ͕ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞ /ŶǀĞƌƚĞĚ h ƵƌǀĞ ĨŽƌ
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    • 46 <ĞLJ /ŶĚŝĐĂƚŽƌƐ ĨŽƌ ƐŝĂ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞ WĂĐŝĮĐ ϮϬϭϮ džƚĞƌŶĂůŝƟĞƐ͗ ǀŝĚĞŶĐĞ ĨƌŽŵ ŚŝŶĞƐĞ ŝƟĞƐ͘ :ŽƵƌŶĂů ŚŽƵ͕ z͕͘ :͘ >ĞǀLJ͕ :͘ ǀĂŶƐ͕ ĂŶĚ :͘ ,ĂŵŵŝƩ͘ ϮϬϬϲ͘ dŚĞ ŽĨ ZĞĂů ƐƚĂƚĞ &ŝŶĂŶĐĞ ĂŶĚ ĐŽŶŽŵŝĐƐ͘ /ŶŇƵĞŶĐĞ ŽĨ ĞŽŐƌĂƉŚŝĐ >ŽĐĂƟŽŶ ŽŶ WŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶ ŚĞŶŐ͕ ^͕͘z͘ &Ƶ͕ ĂŶĚ ,͘ >ŝƵ͘ ϮϬϬϲ͘ ,ŽƵƐŝŶŐͲŚŽŝĐĞ džƉŽƐƵƌĞ ƚŽ ŵŝƐƐŝŽŶƐ ĨƌŽŵ WŽǁĞƌ WůĂŶƚƐ ,ŝŶĚƌĂŶĐĞƐ ĂŶĚ hƌďĂŶ ^ƉĂƟĂů ^ƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĞ͗ ǀŝĚĞŶĐĞ dŚƌŽƵŐŚŽƵƚ ŚŝŶĂ͘ ŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚ /ŶƚĞƌŶĂƟŽŶĂů͘ ĨƌŽŵ DĂƚĐŚĞĚ >ŽĐĂƟŽŶ ĂŶĚ >ŽĐĂƟŽŶͲWƌĞĨĞƌĞŶĐĞ ϯϮ;ϯͿ͗ ϯϲϱʹϳϯ͘ ĂƚĂ ŝŶ ŚŝŶĞƐĞ ŝƟĞƐ͘ :ŽƵƌŶĂů ŽĨ hƌďĂŶ ĐŽŶŽŵŝĐƐ͘ ŚƵ͕ ͕͘ W͘ ƐŶĂŶŝ͕ ͘ ƵƌďƌƵŐ͕ ^͘ ŶĂƉŽůƐŬLJ͕ ĂŶĚ ^͘ DĂŶŝ͘ ϲϬ;ϯͿ͗ ϱϯϱͲϱϱϳ͘ ϮϬϬϴ͘ /ŵƉƌŽǀŝŶŐ ^ŽůŝĚ tĂƐƚĞ DĂŶĂŐĞŵĞŶƚ ŝŶ /ŶĚŝĂ͗ ŚĞŶŐ͕ ^͕͘ Z͘ tĂŶŐ͕ ͘ ůĂĞƐĞƌ͕ ĂŶĚ D͘ <ĂŚŶ͘ ϮϬϭϭ͘ dŚĞ ^ŽƵƌĐĞ ŽŽŬ ĨŽƌ WŽůŝĐLJ DĂŬĞƌƐ ĂŶĚ WƌĂĐƟƟŽŶĞƌƐ͘ ƌĞĞŶŶĞƐƐ ŽĨ ŚŝŶĂ͗ ,ŽƵƐĞŚŽůĚ ĂƌďŽŶ ŝŽdžŝĚĞ tĂƐŚŝŶŐƚŽŶ͕ ͗ tŽƌůĚ ĂŶŬ /ŶƐƟƚƵƚĞ͘ ŵŝƐƐŝŽŶƐ ĂŶĚ hƌďĂŶ ĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ͘ :ŽƵƌŶĂů ŽĨ ĐŽŶŽŵŝĐ ĞŽŐƌĂƉŚLJ͘ ϭϭ;ϱͿ͗ ϳϲϭʹϵϮ͘
    • PART IIMillennium Development Goals Trends and Tables
    • 49Introduction to the Millennium Development Goals Millennium Development GoalsAt the Millennium Summit in September 2000, the largest gathering of world leaders in history adopted the UnitedEĂƟŽŶƐ DŝůůĞŶŶŝƵŵ ĞĐůĂƌĂƟŽŶ͕ ĐŽŵŵŝƫŶŐ ƚŚĞŝƌ ŶĂƟŽŶƐ ƚŽ Ă ŶĞǁ ŐůŽďĂů ƉĂƌƚŶĞƌƐŚŝƉ ƚŽ ƌĞĚƵĐĞ ĞdžƚƌĞŵĞ ƉŽǀĞƌƚLJ͕ ĂŶĚƐĞƫŶŐ ŽƵƚ Ă ƐĞƌŝĞƐ ŽĨ ƚĂƌŐĞƚƐ ǁŝƚŚ Ă ĚĞĂĚůŝŶĞ ŽĨ ϮϬϭϱ͘ dŚĞƐĞ ŚĂǀĞ ĐŽŵĞ ƚŽ ďĞ ŬŶŽǁŶ ĂƐ ƚŚĞ DŝůůĞŶŶŝƵŵ ĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚŽĂůƐ ;DƐͿ͘ /Ŷ ϮϬϬϳ͕ ƚŚĞ D ŵŽŶŝƚŽƌŝŶŐ ĨƌĂŵĞǁŽƌŬ ǁĂƐ ƌĞǀŝƐĞĚ ƚŽ ŝŶĐůƵĚĞ ĨŽƵƌ ŶĞǁ ƚĂƌŐĞƚƐ ĂŐƌĞĞĚ ŽŶ ďLJ ŵĞŵďĞƌƐƚĂƚĞƐ Ăƚ ƚŚĞ ϮϬϬϱ tŽƌůĚ ^Ƶŵŵŝƚ͕ ŶĂŵĞůLJ͕ ĨƵůů ĂŶĚ ƉƌŽĚƵĐƟǀĞ ĞŵƉůŽLJŵĞŶƚ ĂŶĚ ĚĞĐĞŶƚ ǁŽƌŬ ĨŽƌ Ăůů͕ ĂĐĐĞƐƐ ƚŽ ƌĞƉƌŽĚƵĐƟǀĞŚĞĂůƚŚ͕ ĂĐĐĞƐƐ ƚŽ ƚƌĞĂƚŵĞŶƚ ĨŽƌ ,/sͬ /^͕ ĂŶĚ ƉƌŽƚĞĐƟŽŶ ŽĨ ďŝŽĚŝǀĞƌƐŝƚLJ͘ dŚĞ ŝŶĚŝĐĂƚŽƌƐ ĨŽƌ ƚŚĞƐĞ ŶĞǁ ƚĂƌŐĞƚƐ ďĞĐĂŵĞĞīĞĐƟǀĞ ŝŶ :ĂŶƵĂƌLJ ϮϬϬϴ͕ ĂŶĚ ƚŚŝƐ ŝƐ ƚŚĞ ĨƌĂŵĞǁŽƌŬ ƵƐĞĚ ŚĞƌĞ ƚŽ ŵŽŶŝƚŽƌ ƉƌŽŐƌĞƐƐ ƚŽǁĂƌĚ ĂĐŚŝĞǀŝŶŐ ƚŚĞ DƐ͘ Ždž ϭ ůŝƐƚƐ ƚŚĞ ĞŝŐŚƚ DƐ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞ ĐŽƌƌĞƐƉŽŶĚŝŶŐ ƚĂƌŐĞƚƐ ĂŶĚ ŝŶĚŝĐĂƚŽƌƐ ĨŽƌ ŵŽŶŝƚŽƌŝŶŐ ƉƌŽŐƌĞƐƐ͘ Box 1 Millennium Development Goals Goals and Targets Indicators for (from the Millennium Declaration) Monitoring ProgressGoal 1: Eradicate extreme poverty and hungerTarget 1.A: Halve, between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of people whose income 1.1 Proportion of population below $1 (PPP) per day1 is less than one dollar a day 1.2 Poverty gap ratio 1.3 Share of the poorest quintile in national consumptionTarget 1.B: Achieve full and productive employment and decent work for all, 1.4 Growth rate of GDP per person employed including women and young people 1.5 Employment-to-population ratio 1.6 Proportion of employed people living below $1 (PPP) per day 1.7 Proportion of own-account and contributing family workers in total employmentTarget 1.C: Halve, between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of people who suffer 1.8 Prevalence of underweight children under 5 years of age from hunger 1.9 Proportion of population below minimum level of dietary energy consumptionGoal 2: Achieve universal primary educationTarget 2.A: Ensure that, by 2015, children everywhere, boys and girls alike, will be 2.1 Net enrollment ratio in primary education able to complete a full course of primary schooling 2.2 Proportion of pupils starting grade 1 who reach the last grade of primary 2.3 Literacy rate of 15–24 year-olds, women and menGoal 3: Promote gender equality and empower womenTarget 3.A: Eliminate gender disparity in primary and secondary education, preferably 3.1 Ratios of girls to boys in primary, secondary, and tertiary education by 2005, and in all levels of education no later than 2015 3.2 Share of women in wage employment in the nonagricultural sector 3.3 Proportion of seats held by women in national parliamentGoal 4: Reduce child mortalityTarget 4.A: Reduce by two-thirds, between 1990 and 2015, the under-5 mortality 4.1 Under-5 mortality rate rate 4.2 Infant mortality rate 4.3 Proportion of 1-year-old children immunized against measlesGoal 5: Improve maternal healthTarget 5.A: Reduce by three-quarters, between 1990 and 2015, the maternal 5.1 Maternal mortality ratio mortality ratio 5.2 Proportion of births attended by skilled health personnelTarget 5.B: Achieve, by 2015, universal access to reproductive health 5.3 Contraceptive prevalence rate 5.4 Adolescent birth rate 5.5 Antenatal care coverage (at least one visit and at least four visits) 5.6 Unmet need for family planningGoal 6: Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseasesTarget 6.A: Have halted by 2015 and begun to reverse the spread of HIV/AIDS 6.1 HIV prevalence among population aged 15–24 years 6.2 Condom use at last high-risk sex 6.3 Proportion of population aged 15–24 years with comprehensive correct knowledge of HIV/AIDS 6.4 Ratio of school attendance of orphans to school attendance of nonorphans aged 10–14 yearsTarget 6.B: Achieve, by 2010, universal access to treatment for HIV/AIDS for all 6.5 Proportion of population with advanced HIV infection with access to those who need it antiretroviral drugsTarget 6.C: Have halted by 2015 and begun to reverse the incidence of malaria and 6.6 Incidence and death rates associated with malaria other major diseases 6.7 Proportion of children under 5 sleeping under insecticide-treated bednets 6.8 Proportion of children under 5 with fever who are treated with appropriate antimalarial drugs 6.9 Incidence, prevalence, and death rates associated with tuberculosis 6.10 Proportion of tuberculosis cases detected and cured under the Directly Observed Treatment Short (DOTS) course continued.
    • 50 <ĞLJ /ŶĚŝĐĂƚŽƌƐ ĨŽƌ ƐŝĂ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞ WĂĐŝĮĐ ϮϬϭϮ Box 1 Millennium Development Goals (continued) Goals and Targets Indicators for (from the Millennium Declaration) Monitoring Progress Goal 7: Ensure environmental sustainability Target 7.A: Integrate the principles of sustainable development into country policies 7.1 Proportion of land area covered by forest and programs and reverse the loss of environmental resources 7.2 CO2 emissions, total, per capita and per $1 GDP (PPP) 7.3 Consumption of ozone-depleting substances 7.4 Proportion of fish stocks within safe biological limits 7.5 Proportion of total water resources used Target 7.B: Reduce biodiversity loss, achieving, by 2010, a significant reduction in 7.6 Proportion of terrestrial and marine areas protected the rate of loss 7.7 Proportion of species threatened with extinction Target 7.C: Halve, by 2015, the proportion of people without sustainable access to 7.8 Proportion of population using an improved drinking water source safe drinking water and basic sanitation 7.9 Proportion of population using an improved sanitation facility Target 7.D: By 2020, to have achieved a significant improvement in the lives of at 7.10 Proportion of urban population living in slums2 least 100 million slum dwellers Goal 8: Develop a global partnership for development Target 8.A: Develop further an open, rule-based, predictable, nondiscriminatory Some of the indicators listed below are monitored separately for the least developed trading and financial system countries, Africa, landlocked developing countries, and small island developing states. Official Development Assistance (ODA) 8.1 Net ODA, total and to the least developed countries, as percentage of OECD/ DAC donors’ gross national income Includes a commitment to good governance, development, and poverty 8.2 Proportion of total bilateral, sector-allocable ODA of OECD/DAC donors to basic reduction—both nationally and internationally social services (basic education, primary health care, nutrition, safe water, and sanitation) Target 8.B: Address the special needs of the least developed countries 8.3 Proportion of bilateral ODA of OECD/DAC donors that is untied 8.4 ODA received in landlocked developing countries as a proportion of their gross Includes: tariff and quota free access for the least developed countries’ national incomes exports; enhanced programme of debt relief for heavily indebted poor 8.5 ODA received in small island developing states as a proportion of their gross countries (HIPC) and cancellation of official bilateral debt; and more national incomes generous ODA for countries committed to poverty reduction Market Access Target 8.C: Address the special needs of landlocked developing countries and small 8.6 Proportion of total developed country imports (by value and excluding arms) island developing States (through the Programme of Action for the from developing countries and least developed countries, admitted free of duty Sustainable Development of Small Island Developing States and the 8.7 Average tariffs imposed by developed countries on agricultural products and outcome of the twenty-second special session of the General Assembly) textiles and clothing from developing countries 8.8 Agricultural support estimate for OECD countries as a percentage of their gross domestic product 8.9 Proportion of ODA provided to help build trade capacity Debt Sustainability Target 8.D: Deal comprehensively with the debt problems of developing countries 8.10 Total number of countries that have reached their HIPC decision points and through national and international measures in order to make debt number that have reached their HIPC completion points (cumulative) sustainable in the long term 8.11 Debt relief committed under HIPC and MDRI Initiatives 8.12 Debt service as a percentage of exports of goods and services Target 8.E: In cooperation with pharmaceutical companies, provide access to 8.13 Proportion of population with access to affordable essential drugs on a affordable essential drugs in developing countries sustainable basis Target 8.F: In cooperation with the private sector, make available the benefits of new 8.14 Telephone lines per 100 population technologies, especially information and communications 8.15 Cellular subscribers per 100 population 8.16 Internet users per 100 population AIDS = acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, CO2 = carbon dioxide, DAC = Development Assistance Committee, GDP = gross domestic product, HIPC = heavily indebted poor countries, HIV = human immunodeficiency virus, MDRI = Multilateral Debt Relief Initiative, ODA = official development assistance, OECD = Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, PPP = purchasing power parity. 1 For monitoring country poverty trends, indicators based on national poverty lines should be used, where available. 2 The actual proportion of people living in slums is measured by a proxy, represented by the urban population living in households with at least one of the four characteristics: (a) lack of access to improved water supply; (b) lack of access to improved sanitation; (c) overcrowding (three or more persons per room); and (d) dwellings made of nondurable material. Source: Millennium Development Goals Indicators: The Official United Nations Site for the MDG Indicators. July 2012. Progress toward Achieving the Millennium Development Goals and Targets dŚĞ ƉƌŽŐƌĞƐƐ ŽĨ  ĚĞǀĞůŽƉŝŶŐ ŵĞŵďĞƌƐ ƚŽǁĂƌĚ ĂĐŚŝĞǀŝŶŐ ƚŚĞ DƐ ĂŶĚ ƚĂƌŐĞƚƐ ŝƐ ĚŝƐĐƵƐƐĞĚ ŝŶ ƚŚŝƐ ƉĂƌƚ͘ &Žƌ ĞĂĐŚ ŐŽĂů͕ ƚŚĞƌĞ ŝƐ Ă ƐŚŽƌƚ ĂŶĂůLJƐŝƐ ƚŽŐĞƚŚĞƌ ǁŝƚŚ ƐƵƉƉŽƌƟŶŐ ƐƚĂƟƐƟĐĂů ŝŶĨŽƌŵĂƟŽŶ ƉƌĞƐĞŶƚĞĚ ŝŶ ĮŐƵƌĞƐ͕ ďŽdžĞƐ͕ ĂŶĚ ƚĂďůĞƐ ŽŶ ƚŚĞ ƉĞƌĨŽƌŵĂŶĐĞ ŽĨ ĐŽƵŶƚƌŝĞƐ ƚŽǁĂƌĚ ĂĐŚŝĞǀŝŶŐ ƚŚĞ ŐŽĂůƐ͘ WƌŽŐƌĞƐƐ ĐůĂƐƐŝĮĐĂƟŽŶ ǁĂƐ ĚĞƚĞƌŵŝŶĞĚ ƵƐŝŶŐ ƚŚĞ ŵĞƚŚŽĚŽůŽŐLJ ŽƵƚůŝŶĞĚ ŝŶ dĞĐŚŶŝĐĂů EŽƚĞ / ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ƌĞƉŽƌƚ͕ ĐĐĞůĞƌĂƟŶŐ ƋƵŝƚĂďůĞ ĐŚŝĞǀĞŵĞŶƚ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ DƐ ;hE^ W͕ ͕ ĂŶĚ hEW ϮϬϭϭͿ͘ dŚĞ ƌĂƚĞ ŽĨ ĐŚĂŶŐĞ ŝƐ ĐĂůĐƵůĂƚĞĚ ƵƐŝŶŐ ƚŚĞ ůŝŶĞĂƌ ƟŵĞ ƚƌĞŶĚ ŽĨ Ă ƐƵŝƚĂďůĞ ƚƌĂŶƐĨŽƌŵĂƟŽŶ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ŝŶĚŝĐĂƚŽƌ ǀĂůƵĞƐ͘ KŶ
    • /ŶƚƌŽĚƵĐƟŽŶ ƚŽ ƚŚĞ DŝůůĞŶŶŝƵŵ ĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ ŽĂůƐ 51ƚŚĞ ďĂƐŝƐ ŽĨ ƚŚĞŝƌ ƉĞƌĨŽƌŵĂŶĐĞ ƚŽ ĚĂƚĞ͕ ĐŽƵŶƚƌŝĞƐ ĂƌĞ ĐůĂƐƐŝĮĞĚ ĂƐ early achiever, on track, slow progress, no progress, Millennium Development Goalsand regressing, ĂƐ ŵĞĂƐƵƌĞĚ ďLJ ƚĂƌŐĞƚ ŝŶĚŝĐĂƚŽƌƐ ĞƐƟŵĂƚĞĚ ĨƌŽŵ ĚĂƚĂ ĂǀĂŝůĂďůĞ ƐŝŶĐĞ ϭϵϵϬ͗ ͻ ĂƌůLJ ĂĐŚŝĞǀĞƌƐ ʹ ĐŽƵŶƚƌŝĞƐ ƚŚĂƚ ŚĂǀĞ ĂůƌĞĂĚLJ ƌĞĂĐŚĞĚ ƚŚĞ ƚĂƌŐĞƚ͖ ͻ KŶ ƚƌĂĐŬ ʹ ĐŽƵŶƚƌŝĞƐ ƚŚĂƚ ĂƌĞ ĞdžƉĞĐƚĞĚ ƚŽ ŵĞĞƚ ƚŚĞ ƚĂƌŐĞƚ ďLJ ϮϬϭϱ͖ ͻ ^ůŽǁ ƉƌŽŐƌĞƐƐ ʹ ĐŽƵŶƚƌŝĞƐ ƚŚĂƚ ĂƌĞ ĞdžƉĞĐƚĞĚ ƚŽ ŵĞĞƚ ƚŚĞ ƚĂƌŐĞƚ ĂŌĞƌ ϮϬϭϱ͖ ͻ EŽ ƉƌŽŐƌĞƐƐ ʹ ĐŽƵŶƚƌŝĞƐ ƚŚĂƚ ƐƚĂƌƚĞĚ Ăƚ ĚĞƐŝƌĂďůĞ ůĞǀĞůƐ ƌĞůĂƟǀĞ ƚŽ ƚŚĞ ϮϬϭϱ ŐŽĂů ďƵƚ ĞdžŚŝďŝƚĞĚ ĞŝƚŚĞƌ Ă ĚŽǁŶǁĂƌĚ ƚƌĞŶĚ Žƌ ŶŽ ĐŚĂŶŐĞ ŝŶ ŵŽƌĞ ƌĞĐĞŶƚ LJĞĂƌƐ͖ ͻ ZĞŐƌĞƐƐŝŶŐ ʹ ĐŽƵŶƚƌŝĞƐ ƚŚĂƚ ŚĂǀĞ ĂĐƚƵĂůůLJ ƐůŝƉƉĞĚ ďĂĐŬǁĂƌĚ ƌĞůĂƟǀĞ ƚŽ ϭϵϵϬ Žƌ ĞĂƌůŝĞƐƚ ƌĞĨĞƌĞŶĐĞ LJĞĂƌ͘ DĂŶLJ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ĮŐƵƌĞƐ ŝŶ ƚŚĞ ĨŽůůŽǁŝŶŐ ĂŶĂůLJƐĞƐ ƚŚĂƚ ŝůůƵƐƚƌĂƚĞ ƉƌŽŐƌĞƐƐ ŽŶ ƚŚĞ DƐ ƌĞĨĞƌ ƚŽ ƚŚĞ ͞ĞĂƌůŝĞƐƚ͟ ĂŶĚ͞ůĂƚĞƐƚ͟ LJĞĂƌ͕ ƌĞŇĞĐƟŶŐ ƚŚĞ ĞĂƌůŝĞƐƚ LJĞĂƌ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞ ůĂƚĞƐƚ LJĞĂƌ ĨŽƌ ǁŚŝĐŚ ĚĂƚĂ ĂƌĞ ĂǀĂŝůĂďůĞ͘ /ĚĞĂůůLJ͕ Ăůů ĐŽƵŶƚƌŝĞƐ ǁŽƵůĚ ŚĂǀĞƚŚĞ ŶĞĐĞƐƐĂƌLJ ƐƚĂƟƐƟĐƐ ĨŽƌ ĞǀĞƌLJ LJĞĂƌ ĨƌŽŵ ϭϵϵϬ ƚŽ ƚŚĞ ĐƵƌƌĞŶƚ LJĞĂƌ͘ ,ŽǁĞǀĞƌ͕ ůĂĐŬ ŽĨ ĚĂƚĂ ĨƌŽŵ ĞĐŽŶŽŵŝĞƐ ƌĞŇĞĐƚ ƚŚĞĚŝĸĐƵůƚLJ ŝŶ ĐŽůůĞĐƟŶŐ ĂŶĚ ĚŝƐƐĞŵŝŶĂƟŶŐ ĚĂƚĂ͘ dŚĞ ƐƚĂƟƐƟĐĂů ƚĂďůĞƐ ĂƌĞ ƚŚĞ ƐŽƵƌĐĞƐ ĨŽƌ ƚŚĞ ĮŐƵƌĞƐ ƵƐĞĚ ŝŶ ƚŚĞ ĂŶĂůLJƐŝƐĂŶĚ ƐŚŽǁ ƚŚĞ ĂĐƚƵĂů LJĞĂƌƐ ƚŽ ǁŚŝĐŚ ƚŚĞ ĚĂƚĂ ƌĞĨĞƌ͘ /Ŷ ĂĚĚŝƟŽŶ͕ ƚŚĞ ƉƌŽŐƌĞƐƐ ĐůĂƐƐŝĮĐĂƟŽŶ ŚĂƐ ďĞĞŶ ŵĂĚĞ ĨŽƌ ŝŶĚŝĐĂƚŽƌƐ ƚŚĂƚ ŚĂǀĞ ĞdžƉůŝĐŝƚ ƚĂƌŐĞƚƐ͕ ƐƵĐŚ ĂƐ Ψϭ͘ϮϱͲĂͲĚĂLJWWW ƉŽǀĞƌƚLJ͕ ŵĂƚĞƌŶĂů ĂŶĚ ŝŶĨĂŶƚ ŵŽƌƚĂůŝƚLJ͕ ƐĐŚŽŽů ĞŶƌŽůůŵĞŶƚ͕ ĂŶĚ ŐĞŶĚĞƌ ƉĂƌŝƚLJ͘ /Ŷ ŵŽŶŝƚŽƌŝŶŐ ƉƌŽŐƌĞƐƐ͕ ͞ĐƵƚŽīƐ͟ǁĞƌĞ ŝŶƚƌŽĚƵĐĞĚ ĨŽƌ ƐĞǀĞƌĂů ƚĂƌŐĞƚƐ ;ƐĞĞ dĂďůĞ ϭͿ͕ ǁŚŝĐŚ ĂƌĞ ƚŚĞ ĐƵƚŽīƐ ĂĚŽƉƚĞĚ ŝŶ ƚŚĞ hE^ W͕ ͕ ĂŶĚ hEW ;ϮϬϭϭͿƌĞƉŽƌƚ͘ &Žƌ ĞdžĂŵƉůĞ͕ Ă ĐƵƚŽī ŽĨ Ϯй ŝƐ ƵƐĞĚ ĨŽƌ ƚŚĞ ƚĂƌŐĞƚ ͞ŚĂůǀŝŶŐ ĞdžƚƌĞŵĞ ƉŽǀĞƌƚLJ ďĞƚǁĞĞŶ ϭϵϵϬ ĂŶĚ ϮϬϭϱ͘͟ dŚŝƐ ŵĞĂŶƐƚŚĂƚ ǁŚĞŶ ƚŚĞ ƉĞƌĐĞŶƚĂŐĞ ŽĨ ƚŚŽƐĞ ůŝǀŝŶŐ ŽŶ ůĞƐƐ ƚŚĂŶ Ψϭ͘Ϯϱ Ă ĚĂLJ ŝƐ ƌĞĚƵĐĞĚ ƚŽ Ϯй͕ ƚŚĞ ƚĂƌŐĞƚ ŝƐ ĐŽŶƐŝĚĞƌĞĚ ƚŽ ŚĂǀĞ ďĞĞŶƌĞĂĐŚĞĚ ĞǀĞŶ ŝĨ Ϯй ŝƐ ŶŽƚ ŚĂůĨ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ƉĞƌĐĞŶƚĂŐĞ ŝŶ ϭϵϵϬ͘ &Žƌ ŝŶĚŝĐĂƚŽƌƐ ǁŚŽƐĞ ƚĂƌŐĞƚ ŝƐ ƚŽ ƌĞǀĞƌƐĞ ƚŚĞ ƚƌĞŶĚ͕ ƐƵĐŚ ĂƐ ŝŶ ,/s ƉƌĞǀĂůĞŶĐĞ͕ d ƉƌĞǀĂůĞŶĐĞ͕ d ŝŶĐŝĚĞŶĐĞ͕ ĨŽƌĞƐƚĐŽǀĞƌ͕ ƉƌŽƚĞĐƚĞĚ ĂƌĞĂ͕ K2 ĞŵŝƐƐŝŽŶƐ͕ ĂŶĚ ĐŽŶƐƵŵƉƟŽŶ ŽĨ ŽnjŽŶĞͲĚĞƉůĞƟŶŐ ƐƵďƐƚĂŶĐĞƐ͕ ŽŶůLJ ĨŽƵƌ ĐĂƚĞŐŽƌŝĞƐ ǁĞƌĞƵƐĞĚͶŝŶĚŝĐĂƚŽƌƐ ƚƌĞŶĚŝŶŐ ŝŶ ƚŚĞ ͞ƌŝŐŚƚ͟ ĚŝƌĞĐƟŽŶ ƐŝŶĐĞ ϭϵϵϬ ĂƌĞ ĐĂƚĞŐŽƌŝnjĞĚ ĂƐ ĂƌůLJ ĂĐŚŝĞǀĞƌƐ͖ ŝŶĚŝĐĂƚŽƌƐ ƐŚŽǁŝŶŐ ŶŽĐŚĂŶŐĞ Ăƚ Ăůů ŽǀĞƌ ƚŚĞ ƉĞƌŝŽĚ ĂƌĞ ĐĂƚĞŐŽƌŝnjĞĚ ĂƐ KŶ ƚƌĂĐŬ͖ ŝŶĚŝĐĂƚŽƌƐ ƚƌĞŶĚŝŶŐ ŝŶ ƚŚĞ ͞ǁƌŽŶŐ͟ ĚŝƌĞĐƟŽŶ ĂƌĞ ĐĂƚĞŐŽƌŝnjĞĚ ĂƐKī ƚƌĂĐŬ ʹ ZĞŐƌĞƐƐŝŶŐ͖ ĂŶĚ ŝŶĚŝĐĂƚŽƌƐ ƚŚĂƚ ƐƚĂƌƚĞĚ ǁŝƚŚ ŚŝŐŚ ůĞǀĞůƐ ďƵƚ ĞdžŚŝďŝƚĞĚ Ă ĚŽǁŶǁĂƌĚ ƚƌĞŶĚ ŝŶ ŵŽƌĞ ƌĞĐĞŶƚ LJĞĂƌƐĂƌĞ ĐĂƚĞŐŽƌŝnjĞĚ ĂƐ EŽ ƉƌŽŐƌĞƐƐ͘Table 1. Cutoff Values for Selected MDG Indicators No. Indicator MDG Target Cutoff 1.1 Proportion of population below $1.25 (PPP) a day half the 1990 percentage 2% 1.8 Prevalence of underweight children under 5 years of age half the 1990 percentage none 2.1 Total net enrollment ratio in primary education (both sexes) 100% 95% 2.2 Proportion of pupils starting grade 1 who reach the last grade of primary (both sexes) 100% 95% 3.1 Ratios of girls to boys in primary, secondary, and tertiary education 1 0.95 4.1 Under-five mortality rate per 1,000 live births one-third the 1990 percentage none 4.2 Infant mortality rate per 1,000 live births one-third the 1990 percentage none 5.1 Maternal mortality ratio reduce by ¾ (without) none 5.2 Proportion of births attended by skilled health personnel reduce by ¾ (without) none 5.5 Antenatal care coverage (at least one visit) 100% 95% 6.1 HIV prevalence reverse the trend none 6.9a TB incidence reverse the trend none 6.9b TB prevalence reverse the trend none 7.1 Forest cover reverse the trend none 7.2 CO2 emissions reverse the trend none 7.3 ODP substance consumption reverse the trend none 7.6 Protected area reverse the trend none 7.8 Population using improved water sources (urban and rural combined) half the 1990 percentage (without) none 7.9 Population having access to improved sanitation facilities (urban and rural combined) half the 1990 percentage (without) none CO2 = carbon dioxide, ODP = ozone depletion potential, PPP = purchasing power parity, TB = tuberculosis dĂďůĞ Ϯ ŝůůƵƐƚƌĂƚĞƐ ƚŚĞ D ƉƌŽŐƌĞƐƐ ĐůĂƐƐŝĮĐĂƟŽŶ͕ ĂĚĂƉƚĞĚ ĨƌŽŵ ƚŚĞ ϮϬϭϭ ũŽŝŶƚ hE^ W͕  ĂŶĚ hEW ƌĞƉŽƌƚ͕ǁŚŝĐŚ ƌĞŇĞĐƚƐ ƚŚĞ ƉƌŽŐƌĞƐƐ ƚŚĂƚ ĚĞǀĞůŽƉŝŶŐ ĞĐŽŶŽŵŝĞƐ ŝŶ ƐŝĂ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞ WĂĐŝĮĐ ƌĞŐŝŽŶ ŚĂǀĞ ŵĂĚĞ ŽǀĞƌ ƚǁŽ ĚĞĐĂĚĞƐ͘dŚĞ ĐůĂƐƐŝĮĐĂƟŽŶƐ ŝŶƚŽ ĮǀĞ ĐĂƚĞŐŽƌŝĞƐ ǁĞƌĞ ŵĂĚĞ ĨŽƌ ŝŶĚŝĐĂƚŽƌƐ ǁŚĞƌĞ ĚĂƚĂ ǁĞƌĞ ĂǀĂŝůĂďůĞ ĨƌŽŵ hE ďŽĚŝĞƐ ƚŚĂƚ ŚĂǀĞďĞĞŶ ĚĞƐŝŐŶĂƚĞĚ ƚŽ ŵŽŶŝƚŽƌ ƚŚĞ DƐ ĂŶĚ ĂůƐŽ ĨƌŽŵ ƚŚĞ hŶŝƚĞĚ EĂƟŽŶƐ DŝůůĞŶŶŝƵŵ ĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ ŽĂůƐ /ŶĚŝĐĂƚŽƌƐĚĂƚĂďĂƐĞ ;hŶŝƚĞĚ EĂƟŽŶƐ ϮϬϭϮͿ ĨŽůůŽǁŝŶŐ ƚŚĞ :ƵůLJ ϮϬϭϮ ƵƉĚĂƚĞ͘ ŝīĞƌĞŶĐĞƐ ŝŶ ƉƌŽŐƌĞƐƐ ĐůĂƐƐŝĮĐĂƟŽŶ ďĞƚǁĞĞŶ dĂďůĞ ϮĂŶĚ ƚŚĞ hE^ W͕  ĂŶĚ hEW ƌĞƉŽƌƚ ĂƌŝƐĞ ŶŽƚ ĚƵĞ ƚŽ ŵĞƚŚŽĚŽůŽŐŝĐĂů ƉƌŽĐĞƐƐĞƐ ďƵƚ ĚŝīĞƌĞŶĐĞƐ ŝŶ ĚĂƚĂ ƵƐĞĚ͘
    • 52 <ĞLJ /ŶĚŝĐĂƚŽƌƐ ĨŽƌ ƐŝĂ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞ WĂĐŝĮĐ ϮϬϭϮ Table 2. Millennium Development Goals Progress Tracking Goal 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 $1.25 per day poverty Underweight children Reaching last grade Safe drinking water Primary enrolment Gender Secondary Maternal Mortality Under-5 mortality Basic sanitation Gender Primary ODP substance Infant Mortality Gender Tertiary HIV prevalence Protected area Antenatal care CO2 emissions TB prevalence consumption Developing Member Economies TB incidence Forest cover Skilled birth attendance •  YLVLW
    • Central and West Asia Afghanistan Armenia Azerbaijan Georgia Kazakhstan Kyrgyz Republic Pakistan Tajikistan Turkmenistan Uzbekistan East Asia China, People’s Rep. of Hong Kong, China Korea, Rep. of Mongolia Taipei,China South Asia Bangladesh Bhutan India Maldives Nepal Sri Lanka Southeast Asia Brunei Darussalama Cambodia Indonesia Lao PDR Malaysia Myanmar Philippines Singapore Thailand Viet Nam The Pacific Cook Islands Fiji Kiribati Marshall Islands Micronesia, Fed. States of Nauru Palau Papua New Guinea Samoa Solomon Islands Timor-Leste Tonga Tuvalu Vanuatu = Early Achiever = On track = Slow = No progress = Regressing a Brunei Darussalam is a regional member of ADB, but it is not classified as a developing member. Source: Staff estimates based on UNESCAP ADB, and UNDP method for assessing the MDGs (Accelerating Equitable Achievement of the MDGs. February, 2012). ,
    • /ŶƚƌŽĚƵĐƟŽŶ ƚŽ ƚŚĞ DŝůůĞŶŶŝƵŵ ĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ ŽĂůƐ 53dĂďůĞ Ϯ ĂůƐŽ ƵƐĞĚ ƵƉĚĂƚĞĚ ĚĂƚĂ ǁŚĞƌĞ ĚĂƚĂ ĨŽƌ ůĂƚĞƐƚ LJĞĂƌƐ ĂƌĞ ĂǀĂŝůĂďůĞ ĂŶĚ ƌĞǀŝƐŝŽŶƐ ŽŶ ĚĂƚĂ ŽŶ ĞĂƌůŝĞƐƚ LJĞĂƌƐ ǁĞƌĞ Millennium Development GoalsĂĚĂƉƚĞĚ͘ /Ŷ ĂĚĚŝƟŽŶ͕ ĚŝīĞƌĞŶĐĞƐ ŝŶ D WƌŽŐƌĞƐƐ ĐůĂƐƐŝĮĐĂƟŽŶ ďĞƚǁĞĞŶ dĂďůĞ Ϯ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞ ũŽŝŶƚ hE^ W͕  ĂŶĚhEW ƌĞƉŽƌƚ ŵĂLJ ĂƌŝƐĞ ĚƵĞ ƚŽ ƚŚĞ ƌĞĐůĂƐƐŝĮĐĂƟŽŶ ƵƐĞĚ ŝŶ ƚŚŝƐ ƌĞƉŽƌƚ͕ ǁŚŝĐŚ ĚĞĐŽŵƉŽƐĞƐ ƚŚĞ hE^ W ĐůĂƐƐŝĮĐĂƟŽŶ͞ƌĞŐƌĞƐƐŝŶŐͬŶŽ ƉƌŽŐƌĞƐƐ͟ ŐƌŽƵƉ ŝŶƚŽ ƚǁŽ ƐĞƉĂƌĂƚĞ ŐƌŽƵƉƐ͕ ƉĂƌƟĐƵůĂƌůLJ ĨŽƌ ŝŶĚŝĐĂƚŽƌƐ ǁŝƚŚ ĞdžƉůŝĐŝƚ ƚĂƌŐĞƚƐ͘ &Žƌ ŝŶĚŝĐĂƚŽƌƐǁŚŽƐĞ ƚĂƌŐĞƚ ŝƐ ƚŽ ƌĞǀĞƌƐĞ ƚŚĞ ƚƌĞŶĚ͕ ĐŽƵŶƚƌŝĞƐ ƚŚĂƚ ƐƚĂƌƚĞĚ ǁŝƚŚ ŚŝŐŚ ůĞǀĞůƐ ďƵƚ ĞdžŚŝďŝƚĞĚ Ă ĚŽǁŶǁĂƌĚ ƚƌĞŶĚ Žƌ ŶŽĐŚĂŶŐĞ ŝŶ ŵŽƌĞ ƌĞĐĞŶƚ LJĞĂƌƐ ǁĞƌĞ ĐůĂƐƐŝĮĞĚ ĂƐ ͞ŶŽ ƉƌŽŐƌĞƐƐ͟ ŝŶƐƚĞĂĚ ŽĨ hE^ W ĐůĂƐƐŝĮĐĂƟŽŶ ͞Žī ƚƌĂĐŬ͘͟ džƚƌĞŵĞ ƉŽǀĞƌƚLJ͕ ƵŶŝǀĞƌƐĂů ƉƌŝŵĂƌLJ ĞĚƵĐĂƟŽŶ ĂŶĚ ŐĞŶĚĞƌ ŐŽĂůƐ ;D ϭ͕ D Ϯ ĂŶĚ D ϯͿ ŚĂǀĞ ďĞĞŶ ŐĞŶĞƌĂůůLJĂĐŚŝĞǀĞĚ ĞĂƌůŝĞƌ ƚŚĂŶ ƚŚĞŝƌ ƚĂƌŐĞƚ ĚĂƚĞƐ ǁŝƚŚ ^ŽƵƚŚ ƐŝĂ ůĂŐŐŝŶŐ ďĞŚŝŶĚ ŝŶ ƚŚĞŝƌ ŐĞŶĚĞƌ ŐŽĂůƐ͘ dŚĞ ƉƌŽďůĞŵ ŝŶ ƉƌŝŵĂƌLJĞĚƵĐĂƟŽŶ ŝƐ ĞŶƐƵƌŝŶŐ ƚŚĞ ĐŽŵƉůĞƟŽŶ ŽĨ ƉƌŝŵĂƌLJ ƐĐŚŽŽůŝŶŐ͕ ĂŶĚ ŶŽƚ ŵĞƌĞůLJ ŝŶĐƌĞĂƐŝŶŐ ĞŶƌŽůůŵĞŶƚ͘ hŶĚĞƌͲϱ ŵŽƌƚĂůŝƚLJĂŶĚ ŝŶĨĂŶƚ ŵŽƌƚĂůŝƚLJ ŐŽĂůƐ ;D ϰͿ ƌĞŵĂŝŶ ƚŽ ďĞ Ă ƉƌŽďůĞŵ ŝŶ ƚŚĞ ƌĞŐŝŽŶ͘ ^ŝŶĐĞ ŝŶĨĂŶƚ ŵŽƌƚĂůŝƚLJ ŝƐ Ă ƐŝŐŶŝĮĐĂŶƚ ƉƌŽƉŽƌƟŽŶŽĨ ƵŶĚĞƌͲϱ ŵŽƌƚĂůŝƚLJ͕ ĨŽĐƵƐŝŶŐ ĞīŽƌƚƐ ŽŶ ƌĞĚƵĐŝŶŐ ŝŶĨĂŶƚ ŵŽƌƚĂůŝƚLJ ĐĂŶ ƚƌĂŶƐůĂƚĞ ƚŽ ŵƵĐŚ ůŽǁĞƌ ƵŶĚĞƌͲϱ ŵŽƌƚĂůŝƚLJ ƌĂƟŽƐ͘dŚĞƌĞ ŝƐ Ă ƐůŽǁ ƉƌŽŐƌĞƐƐ ŝŶ ŵĞĞƟŶŐ ŵĂƚĞƌŶĂů ŵŽƌƚĂůŝƚLJ ŐŽĂůƐ ;D ϱͿ͕ ĞƐƉĞĐŝĂůůLJ ŝŶ ĞŶƚƌĂů ĂŶĚ tĞƐƚ ƐŝĂ ĂŶĚ ^ŽƵƚŚĞĂƐƚ ƐŝĂ͘ ůƐŽ͕ Ă ŶƵŵďĞƌ ŽĨ ĞĐŽŶŽŵŝĞƐ ŝŶ ĞŶƚƌĂů ĂŶĚ tĞƐƚ ƐŝĂ ĂŶĚ ^ŽƵƚŚĞĂƐƚ ƐŝĂ ĂƌĞ ƌĞŐƌĞƐƐŝŶŐ ŝŶ ƌĞĚƵĐŝŶŐ ,/s ƉƌĞǀĂůĞŶĐĞ;D ϲͿ͘ d ŝŶĐŝĚĞŶĐĞ ĂŶĚ ƉƌĞǀĂůĞŶĐĞ ŐŽĂůƐ ;D ϲͿ ŚĂǀĞ ĂůƐŽ ďĞĞŶ ĂĐŚŝĞǀĞĚ ŝŶ ŵŽƐƚ ĐŽƵŶƚƌŝĞƐ ŝŶ ƚŚĞ ƌĞŐŝŽŶ͕ ďƵƚ ǁŝƚŚƐŽŵĞ ĞŶƚƌĂů ĂŶĚ tĞƐƚ ƐŝĂ ĞĐŽŶŽŵŝĞƐ ƌĞŐƌĞƐƐŝŶŐ ŝŶ ƌĞĚƵĐŝŶŐ d ŝŶĐŝĚĞŶĐĞ͘ tŝƚŚ ƌĞƐƉĞĐƚ ƚŽ ĞŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚĂů ƐƵƐƚĂŝŶĂďŝůŝƚLJ;D ϳͿ͕ ĨŽƌĞƐƚ ĐŽǀĞƌ ŝƐ ĚĞƉůĞƟŶŐ͕ ĞƐƉĞĐŝĂůůLJ ŝŶ ^ŽƵƚŚĞĂƐƚ ƐŝĂ ďƵƚ ƚŚĞƌĞ ŚĂƐ ďĞĞŶ ĂŶ ŝŶĐƌĞĂƐĞ ŝŶ ĂƌĞĂƐ ƉůĂĐĞĚ ƵŶĚĞƌƉƌŽƚĞĐƟŽŶ͘ K2 ĞŵŝƐƐŝŽŶƐ ĨŽƌ ƚŚĞ ƌĞŐŝŽŶ ĂƌĞ ŝŶĐƌĞĂƐŝŶŐ͕ ǁŚŝĐŚ ŝƐ ĚŝƌĞĐƚůLJ ƌĞůĂƚĞĚ ƚŽ ƚŚĞ ŝŶĐƌĞĂƐĞ ŝŶ ĞĐŽŶŽŵŝĐ ĂĐƟǀŝƟĞƐĂŶĚ ŚŝŐŚĞƌ ŝŶĐŽŵĞƐ ŝŶ ƚŚĞ ƌĞŐŝŽŶ͘ KnjŽŶĞ ĚĞƉůĞƟŶŐ ƐƵďƐƚĂŶĐĞ ĐŽŶƐƵŵƉƟŽŶ ƚĂƌŐĞƚƐ ŚĂǀĞ ďĞĞŶ ĂĐŚŝĞǀĞĚ ĚƵĞ ƚŽ ƚŚĞƉŚĂƐŝŶŐ ŽƵƚ ŽĨ ĐŚůŽƌŽŇƵŽƌŽĐĂƌďŽŶƐ ĂƐ ĞŶǀŝƐŝŽŶĞĚ ŝŶ ƚŚĞ DŽŶƚƌĞĂů WƌŽƚŽĐŽů͘ &ŝŶĂůůLJ͕ ƚŚĞ ƉƌŽǀŝƐŝŽŶ ŽĨ ďĂƐŝĐ ƐĂŶŝƚĂƟŽŶƉƌŽǀĞƐ ƚŽ ďĞ ŵŽƌĞ ƉƌŽďůĞŵĂƟĐ ƚŚĂŶ ƉƌŽǀŝƐŝŽŶ ŽĨ ƐĂĨĞ ĚƌŝŶŬŝŶŐ ǁĂƚĞƌ͘Data Sources and Comparability with Other Publications ĂƚĂ ƵƐĞĚ ĨŽƌ ĂƐƐĞƐƐŝŶŐ ƚŚĞ ĞĐŽŶŽŵŝĞƐ͛ ƉƌŽŐƌĞƐƐ ŝŶ ĂĐŚŝĞǀŝŶŐ ƚŚĞ DƐ ĂƌĞ ƉƌĞƐĞŶƚĞĚ ŝŶ ƚŚĞ ĨŽůůŽǁŝŶŐ ƐƚĂƟƐƟĐĂůƚĂďůĞƐ͘ dŚĞƐĞ ǁĞƌĞ ĐŽŵƉŝůĞĚ ĨƌŽŵ ƚŚĞ hE ďŽĚŝĞƐ ƚŚĂƚ ŚĂǀĞ ďĞĞŶ ĚĞƐŝŐŶĂƚĞĚ ƚŽ ŵŽŶŝƚŽƌ ƚŚĞ ƌĞƐƉĞĐƟǀĞ DƐ ĂŶĚƚŚĞ hŶŝƚĞĚ EĂƟŽŶƐ DŝůůĞŶŶŝƵŵ ĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ ŽĂůƐ ĂƚĂďĂƐĞ͘ &Žƌ ƐŽŵĞ ŝŶĚŝĐĂƚŽƌƐ͕ ĚĂƚĂ ĨŽƌ ƚŚĞ WĂĐŝĮĐ ĐŽƵŶƚƌŝĞƐ ǁĞƌĞƐŽƵƌĐĞĚ ĨƌŽŵ ƚŚĞ EĂƟŽŶĂů DŝŶŝŵƵŵ ĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ /ŶĚŝĐĂƚŽƌƐ ;ED/Ϳ ĂƚĂďĂƐĞ ŵĂŝŶƚĂŝŶĞĚ ďLJ ƚŚĞ ^ĞĐƌĞƚĂƌŝĂƚ ŽĨ ƚŚĞWĂĐŝĮĐ ŽŵŵƵŶŝƚLJ͕ ǁŚŝůĞ ĨŽƌ dĂŝƉĞŝ͕ŚŝŶĂ͕ ĚĂƚĂ ǁĞƌĞ ƐŽƵƌĐĞĚ ĨƌŽŵ ƚŚĞ ŝƌĞĐƚŽƌĂƚĞͲĞŶĞƌĂů ŽĨ ƵĚŐĞƚ͕ ĐĐŽƵŶƟŶŐ ĂŶĚ^ƚĂƟƐƟĐƐ ; ^Ϳ ǁĞďƐŝƚĞ͘ EĞǁ ĚĂƚĂ ƉŽŝŶƚƐ ĨŽƌ ĞĂƌůŝĞƌ LJĞĂƌƐ ĂƌĞ ĂĚĚĞĚ ǁŚŝůĞ ƚŚĞ ŵŽƐƚ ƌĞĐĞŶƚ ĞƐƟŵĂƚĞƐ ĂƌĞ ƌĞǀŝƐĞĚǁŚĞŶĞǀĞƌ ĚĂƚĂ ďĞĐŽŵĞ ĂǀĂŝůĂďůĞ͘ ĂƚĂ ŚĂǀĞ ďĞĞŶ ǀĞƌŝĮĞĚ ƚŽ ƚŚĞ ĞdžƚĞŶƚ ƉŽƐƐŝďůĞ͕ ďƵƚ ƌĞƐƉŽŶƐŝďŝůŝƚLJ ĨŽƌ ƚŚĞ ƌĞůŝĂďŝůŝƚLJ ŽĨƚŚĞ ƐƚĂƟƐƟĐƐ ƌĞŵĂŝŶƐ ǁŝƚŚ ƚŚĞ ĂŐĞŶĐŝĞƐ ƚŚĂƚ ĂƌĞ ůŝƐƚĞĚ ĂƐ ƚŚĞ ƐŽƵƌĐĞƐ ŽĨ ĞĂĐŚ ƚĂďůĞ͘ ŝīĞƌĞŶĐĞƐ ƚŚĂƚ ĞdžŝƐƚ ďĞƚǁĞĞŶ ƚŚŝƐ ƉƵďůŝĐĂƟŽŶ ĂŶĚ ƌĞƉŽƌƚƐ ĨƌŽŵ ŽƚŚĞƌ ŽƌŐĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶƐ ŽŶ ƚŚĞ ƉĞƌĨŽƌŵĂŶĐĞ ŽĨĐŽƵŶƚƌŝĞƐ ŝŶ ŵĞĞƟŶŐ ƚŚĞ DƐ ŵĂLJ ďĞ ĚƵĞ ƚŽ ƐĞǀĞƌĂů ĨĂĐƚŽƌƐ͕ ŝŶĐůƵĚŝŶŐ ĚĂƚĂ ƐŽƵƌĐĞƐ͕ ĚĂƚĞƐ ǁŚĞŶ ƐƚĂƟƐƟĐƐ ǁĞƌĞĐŽůůĞĐƚĞĚ ĂŶĚ ƉƵďůŝƐŚĞĚ͕ ĂŶĚ ĚŝīĞƌĞŶƚ ŵĞƚŚŽĚŽůŽŐLJ ƵƐĞĚ ŝŶ ĂƐƐĞƐƐŝŶŐ ƚŚĞ ƉƌŽŐƌĞƐƐ͘Selected ReferenceshE^ W͕ ͕ ĂŶĚ hEW͕ ϮϬϭϮ͘ ĐĐĞůĞƌĂƟŶŐ ƋƵŝƚĂďůĞ ĐŚŝĞǀĞŵĞŶƚ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ DƐ͘ ƐŝĂͲWĂĐŝĮĐ ZĞŐŝŽŶĂů ZĞƉŽƌƚ ϮϬϭϭͬϭϮ͘ hŶŝƚĞĚ EĂƟŽŶƐ ĐŽŶŽŵŝĐ ĂŶĚ ^ŽĐŝĂů ŽŵŵŝƐƐŝŽŶ ĨŽƌ ƐŝĂ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞ WĂĐŝĮĐ͕ ƐŝĂŶ ĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ ĂŶŬ͕ ĂŶĚ hŶŝƚĞĚ EĂƟŽŶƐ ĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ WƌŽŐƌĂŵŵĞ͘ ĂŶŐŬŽŬ͘ ;ŚƩƉ͗ͬͬĂƐŝĂͲƉĂĐŝĮĐ͘ƵŶĚƉ͘ŽƌŐͬͿ͕ ĂĐĐĞƐƐĞĚ ƵŐƵƐƚ ϮϬϭϮ͘hŶŝƚĞĚ EĂƟŽŶƐ͘ ϮϬϭϮ͘ dŚĞ DŝůůĞŶŶŝƵŵ ĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ ŽĂůƐ ZĞƉŽƌƚ ϮϬϭϮ͘ EĞǁ zŽƌŬ͘hŶŝƚĞĚ EĂƟŽŶƐ ĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ ƌŽƵƉ͘ ϮϬϬϯ͘ /ŶĚŝĐĂƚŽƌƐ ĨŽƌ DŽŶŝƚŽƌŝŶŐ ƚŚĞ DŝůůĞŶŶŝƵŵ ĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ ŽĂůƐ͗ ĞĮŶŝƟŽŶƐ͕ ZĂƟŽŶĂůĞ͕ ŽŶĐĞƉƚƐ ĂŶĚ DĞƚŚŽĚƐ͘ EĞǁ zŽƌŬ͘ ;ŵĚŐƐ͘ƵŶ͘ŽƌŐͬƵŶƐĚͬŵĚŐͬZĞƐŽƵƌĐĞƐͬ ƩĂĐŚͬ/ŶĚŝĐĂƚŽƌƐͬ ,ĂŶĚŬŶŐůŝƐŚ͘ƉĚĨͿ͕ ĂĐĐĞƐƐĞĚ ƵŐƵƐƚ ϮϬϭϮ͘
    • 54 Goal 1: Eradicate Extreme Poverty and Hunger Snapshots ‡ Despite the global financial crisis, a majority of the region’s economies achieved declining poverty rates, but the latest poverty headcount ratios remain over 20% in eight economies, including three of the region’s most populous ones. ‡ The depth of poverty also declined significantly. While many poor people are moving out of extreme poverty, a lot remain moderately poor. ‡ While most economies are able to significantly lower their proportions of working poor, many still have working poverty rates above 10% and vulnerability rates above 50%. ‡ A majority of the economies reduced their proportions of underweight or malnourished children and undernourished populations, although the most recent rates of child malnourishment and undernourished remain high in many economies—above 20% and above 10%, respectively. Introduction Goal 1 has three targets: 1.A: ,ĂůǀĞ͕ ďĞƚǁĞĞŶ ϭϵϵϬ ĂŶĚ ϮϬϭϱ͕ ƚŚĞ ƉƌŽƉŽƌƟŽŶ ŽĨ ƉĞŽƉůĞ ǁŚŽƐĞ ŝŶĐŽŵĞ ŝƐ ůĞƐƐ ƚŚĂŶ ŽŶĞ ĚŽůůĂƌ Ă ĚĂLJ͘ The “dollar-a-day” poverty threshold is a purchasing power parity (PPP) adjusted dollar that has the same purchasing power in all countries. The threshold was reviewed and increased to $1.25 (PPP) at 2005 prices. &Žƌ ĐŽŶǀĞŶŝĞŶĐĞ ŝƚ ŝƐ ƐƟůů ƌĞĨĞƌƌĞĚ ƚŽ ďLJ ŝƚƐ ŽůĚ ŶĂŵĞ͘ 1.B: ĐŚŝĞǀĞ ĨƵůů ĂŶĚ ƉƌŽĚƵĐƟǀĞ ĞŵƉůŽLJŵĞŶƚ ĂŶĚ ĚĞĐĞŶƚ ǁŽƌŬ ĨŽƌ Ăůů͕ ŝŶĐůƵĚŝŶŐ ǁŽŵĞŶ ĂŶĚ LJŽƵŶŐ ƉĞŽƉůĞ͘ DĞĂƐƵƌĞƐ ĨŽƌ ƚŚŝƐ ƚĂƌŐĞƚ ĂƌĞ ƚŚĞ ĞŵƉůŽLJŵĞŶƚͲƚŽͲƉŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶ ƌĂƟŽ͕ ƚŚĞ ƉĞƌĐĞŶƚĂŐĞ ŽĨ ǁŽƌŬĞƌƐ ůŝǀŝŶŐ ŽŶ ůĞƐƐ ƚŚĂŶ Ψϭ͘Ϯϱ Ă ĚĂLJ͕ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞ ƉƌŽƉŽƌƟŽŶ ŽĨ ŽǁŶͲĂĐĐŽƵŶƚ ĂŶĚ ĐŽŶƚƌŝďƵƟŶŐ ĨĂŵŝůLJ ǁŽƌŬĞƌƐ ŝŶ ƚŽƚĂů ĞŵƉůŽLJŵĞŶƚ͘ dŚĞ ĮƌƐƚ ŝŶĚŝĐĂƚŽƌ ŝƐ Ă ŵĞĂƐƵƌĞ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ĂďŝůŝƚLJ ƚŽ ƉƌŽǀŝĚĞ ĞŵƉůŽLJŵĞŶƚ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞ ŽƚŚĞƌ ƚǁŽ ĂƌĞ ŝŶĚŝĐĂƚŽƌƐ ŽĨ ĚĞĐĞŶƚ ǁŽƌŬ͘ 1.C: ,ĂůǀĞ͕ ďĞƚǁĞĞŶ ϭϵϵϬ ĂŶĚ ϮϬϭϱ͕ ƚŚĞ ƉƌŽƉŽƌƟŽŶ ŽĨ ƉĞŽƉůĞ ǁŚŽ ƐƵīĞƌ ĨƌŽŵ ŚƵŶŐĞƌ͘ ,ƵŶŐĞƌ ĂŶĚ ŵĂůŶƵƚƌŝƟŽŶ ĂƌĞ ŵĞĂƐƵƌĞĚ ďLJ ƚŚĞ ƉĞƌĐĞŶƚĂŐĞ ŽĨ ĐŚŝůĚƌĞŶ ƵŶĚĞƌ ϱ LJĞĂƌƐ ŽĨ ĂŐĞ ǁŚŽ ĂƌĞ ƵŶĚĞƌǁĞŝŐŚƚ ;ŵĂůŶŽƵƌŝƐŚĞĚͿ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞ ƉƌŽƉŽƌƟŽŶ ŽĨ ƉŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶ ĐŽŶƐƵŵŝŶŐ ůĞƐƐ ƚŚĂŶ ƚŚĞ ĚĂŝůLJ ŵŝŶŝŵƵŵ ĞŶĞƌŐLJ ƌĞƋƵŝƌĞŵĞŶƚ ;ƵŶĚĞƌŶŽƵƌŝƐŚĞĚͿ͘ Key Trends džƚƌĞŵĞ ƉŽǀĞƌƚLJ ĐŽŶƟŶƵĞĚ ƚŽ ĚĞĐůŝŶĞ ĚĞƐƉŝƚĞ ƚŚĞ Figure 1.2 shows the annualized percentage point ŐůŽďĂů ĮŶĂŶĐŝĂů ĐƌŝƐŝƐ͕ ďƵƚ ƌĞŵĂŝŶĞĚ ŽǀĞƌ ϮϬй ŝŶ ƐŽŵĞ ĐŚĂŶŐĞ ŝŶ ƚŚĞ ƉƌŽƉŽƌƟŽŶ ŽĨ ƉŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶ ƚŚĂƚ ŝƐ ĞdžƚƌĞŵĞůLJ ůĂƌŐĞ ĞĐŽŶŽŵŝĞƐ͘ People living on less than $1.25 a day ƉŽŽƌ͘ dƵƌŬŵĞŶŝƐƚĂŶ͛Ɛ ƉƌŽŐƌĞƐƐ ǁĂƐ ƚŚĞ ŵŽƐƚ ŝŵƉƌĞƐƐŝǀĞ͕ ĂƌĞ ĐŽŶƐŝĚĞƌĞĚ ƚŽ ďĞ ĞdžƚƌĞŵĞůLJ ƉŽŽƌ͘ ĂƐĞĚ ŽŶ ƚŚĞ ůĂƚĞƐƚ ǁŝƚŚ Ă ϳ͘ϳ ƉĞƌĐĞŶƚĂŐĞ ƉŽŝŶƚ ƌĞĚƵĐƟŽŶ ƉĞƌ LJĞĂƌ͘ ŚƵƚĂŶ͕ ĞƐƟŵĂƚĞƐ ;&ŝŐƵƌĞ ϭ͘ϭͿ ƚŚĞ ƐŚĂƌĞ ŽĨ ƉĞŽƉůĞ ƵŶĚĞƌ ƚŚĞ &ŝũŝ͕ ƚŚĞ DĂůĚŝǀĞƐ͕ EĞƉĂů͕ dĂũŝŬŝƐƚĂŶ͕ ĂŶĚ sŝĞƚ EĂŵ ĂůƐŽ Ψϭ͘ϮϱͲĂͲĚĂLJ ƉŽǀĞƌƚLJ ůŝŶĞ ĚĞĐůŝŶĞĚ ŝŶ Ăůů ĞĐŽŶŽŵŝĞƐ ĞdžĐĞƉƚ ŵĂĚĞ ƐŝŐŶŝĮĐĂŶƚ ĂŶŶƵĂů ƌĞĚƵĐƟŽŶƐ͘ dŚĞ ĞdžƚƌĞŵĞ ƉŽǀĞƌƚLJ ĞŽƌŐŝĂ͘ ,ŽǁĞǀĞƌ͕ ĞŝŐŚƚ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ƌĞŐŝŽŶ͛Ɛ ĞĐŽŶŽŵŝĞƐ ƐƟůů ŚĂĚ ƌĂƚĞ ĚĞĐůŝŶĞĚ ďLJ Ϯ͘ϲ ƉĞƌĐĞŶƚĂŐĞ ƉŽŝŶƚƐ ĂŶŶƵĂůůLJ ŝŶ ƚŚĞ ƌĂƚĞƐ ŽĨ ĞdžƚƌĞŵĞ ƉŽǀĞƌƚLJ ƚŚĂƚ ǁĞƌĞ ŽǀĞƌ ϮϬй͕ ŝŶĐůƵĚŝŶŐ WĞŽƉůĞ͛Ɛ ZĞƉƵďůŝĐ ŽĨ ŚŝŶĂ ;WZͿ͕ ƚŚĞ ƌĞŐŝŽŶ͛Ɛ ŵŽƐƚ ƚŚƌĞĞ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ŵŽƐƚ ƉŽƉƵůŽƵƐͶĂŶŐůĂĚĞƐŚ ;ϰϯ͘ϯйͿ͕ /ŶĚŝĂ ƉŽƉƵůŽƵƐ ĞĐŽŶŽŵLJ͖ ĂŶĚ ŝŶ WĂŬŝƐƚĂŶ͕ ƚŚĞ ƌĂƚĞ ĚĞĐůŝŶĞĚ ;ϯϮ͘ϳйͿ͕ ĂŶĚ WĂŬŝƐƚĂŶ ;Ϯϭ͘ϬйͿ͘ tŚŝůĞ ƐŝĂ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞ WĂĐŝĮĐ ďLJ Ϯ͘ϲ ƉĞƌĐĞŶƚĂŐĞ ƉŽŝŶƚƐ͖ /ŶĚŽŶĞƐŝĂ͕ ďLJ ϭ͘ϴ͖ ĂŶŐůĂĚĞƐŚ͕ ŚĂƐ ĂĐŚŝĞǀĞĚ Ă ƐŝŐŶŝĮĐĂŶƚ ƌĞĚƵĐƟŽŶ ŝŶ ĞdžƚƌĞŵĞ ƉŽǀĞƌƚLJ͕ ďLJ ϭ͘ϱ͖ ĂŶĚ /ŶĚŝĂ͕ ďLJ ϭ͘Ϭ͘ dŚĞ WZ ŚĂĚ ƚŚĞ ůĂƌŐĞƐƚ ĚĞĐůŝŶĞ ƚŚĞ ƌĞŐŝŽŶ ƌĞŵĂŝŶƐ ŚŽŵĞ ƚŽ ĂďŽƵƚ ƚǁŽͲƚŚŝƌĚƐ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ŝŶ ƚŚĞ ƚŽƚĂů ŶƵŵďĞƌ ŽĨ ĞdžƚƌĞŵĞůLJ ƉŽŽƌ ƉĞŽƉůĞ͕ ǁŝƚŚ ǁŽƌůĚ͛Ɛ ĞdžƚƌĞŵĞůLJ ƉŽŽƌ͘ ĂŶŶƵĂů ƌĞĚƵĐƟŽŶƐ ŽĨ Ϯϴ͘ϯ ŵŝůůŝŽŶ ĞdžƚƌĞŵĞ ƉŽŽƌ ĚƵƌŝŶŐ
    • ŽĂů ϭ͗ ƌĂĚŝĐĂƚĞ džƚƌĞŵĞ WŽǀĞƌƚLJ ĂŶĚ ,ƵŶŐĞƌ 55 Figure 1.1 Proportion of Population Living on Less than $1.25 a Day, Figure 1.2 Annual Percentage Point Change in Proportion of Millennium Development Goals Earliest (1990–2003) and Latest (1996–2010) Years (%) Population Living on Less than $1.25 a Day (percentage points) Bangladesh –7.7 Turkmenistan ² Tajikistan Timor-Leste ² Maldives ² Bhutan Lao PDR ² Fiji India ² Viet Nam ² Nepal Nepal ² China, Peoples Rep. of ² Timor-Leste Turkmenistan ² Pakistan Cambodia ² Indonesia ² Cambodia Pakistan –1.5 Bangladesh Philippines ² Lao PDR ² Armenia Indonesia ² Azerbaijan ² India Viet Nam ² Kyrgyz Republic Georgia ² Philippines ² Thailand China, Peoples Rep. of ² Sri Lanka ² Kazakhstan Bhutan ² Malaysia Sri Lanka  Georgia Tajikistan ï ï ï ï ï   Kyrgyz Republic Percentage Point Change Fiji Source: Table 1.1. Maldives Armenia Thailand report indicates that even the remote areas and the poorest Azerbaijan ƌĞĐĞŝǀĞĚ ƌĞŵŝƩĂŶĐĞƐ͘ ďŽƵƚ ϭ͘ϰ ŵŝůůŝŽŶ ŚŽƵƐĞŚŽůĚƐ ;Žƌ ĂďŽƵƚ Kazakhstan ϯϬйͿ ƌĞĐĞŝǀĞĚ ƌĞŵŝƩĂŶĐĞƐ ŝŶ ϮϬϬϴ͘ /ŶĞƋƵĂůŝƚLJ ŝŶ EĞƉĂů ĂůƐŽ Malaysia ĚĞĐůŝŶĞĚ ďLJ Ϯ͘ϰ ƉĞƌĐĞŶƚĂŐĞ ƉŽŝŶƚƐ ĚƵƌŝŶŐ ƚŚĞ ƐĂŵĞ ƉĞƌŝŽĚ͕ 0 20 40 60 80 ǁŚŝĐŚ ĐŽƵůĚ ŚĂǀĞ Ă ƉŽƐŝƟǀĞ ĞīĞĐƚ ŽŶ ƉŽǀĞƌƚLJ͘ Headcount Ratio (%) Earliest Year Latest Year ,ŽǁĞǀĞƌ͕ ŝŶ ĞŽƌŐŝĂ͕ ŐƌŽǁƚŚ ŚĂƐ ŶŽƚ ďĞĞŶ ƚƌĂŶƐůĂƚĞĚ ŝŶƚŽ ůŽǁĞƌ ĞdžƚƌĞŵĞ ƉŽǀĞƌƚLJ͘ /Ŷ ĨĂĐƚ͕ ƚŚĞ ŽƉƉŽƐŝƚĞ ŚĂƐ Source: Table 1.1. ŽĐĐƵƌƌĞĚ͕ ĚĞƐƉŝƚĞ ƚŚĞ ŐŽǀĞƌŶŵĞŶƚ͛Ɛ ĞīŽƌƚƐ ƚŽ ƌĞĚƵĐĞ ƉŽǀĞƌƚLJ͘ dŚĞ ĞŽƌŐŝĂ ,ƵŵĂŶ ĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ ZĞƉŽƌƚ ϮϬϬϴ ŝŶĚŝĐĂƚĞƐ ƉŽƐƐŝďůĞ ƌĞĂƐŽŶƐ͕ ŝŶĐůƵĚŝŶŐ ;ϭͿ ƐŚŽĐŬƐ ƐƵĐŚ ĂƐϭϵϵϬʹϮϬϬϴ͖ ŶĞdžƚ ǁĂƐ /ŶĚŝĂ͕ ǁŝƚŚ ĂŶŶƵĂů ĚĞĐƌĞĂƐĞƐ ŽĨ ŇŽŽĚŝŶŐ ŝŶ ƌƵƌĂů ĂƌĞĂƐ ĂŶĚ ĐůŽƐƵƌĞ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ZƵƐƐŝĂŶ ŵĂƌŬĞƚϰ͘Ϯ ŵŝůůŝŽŶ ĚƵƌŝŶŐ ϭϵϵϰʹϮϬϭϬ͘ dŚĞ ĂŶŶƵĂů ƌĞĚƵĐƟŽŶ ŝŶ ƚŽ ƐĞůĞĐƚĞĚ ĞŽƌŐŝĂŶ ƉƌŽĚƵĐƚƐ͕ ǁŚŝĐŚ ĂīĞĐƚĞĚ ƚŚĞ ŵŽƐƚ^ƌŝ >ĂŶŬĂ͛Ɛ ĞdžƚƌĞŵĞ ƉŽǀĞƌƚLJ ƌĂƚĞ ŝƐ ƐŵĂůůĞƌ ƚŚĂŶ ƚŚĂƚ ŝŶ ǀƵůŶĞƌĂďůĞ ŐƌŽƵƉƐ ŽĨ ƐŽĐŝĞƚLJ ŵŽƌĞ ƐĞǀĞƌĞůLJ ƚŚĂŶ ƚŚĞŽƚŚĞƌ ^ŽƵƚŚ ƐŝĂŶ ĐŽƵŶƚƌŝĞƐ͕ ďƵƚ ŝƚƐ ƌĂƚĞ ĨŽƌ ƚŚĞ ůĂƚĞƐƚ LJĞĂƌ ƌĞƐƚ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ƉŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶ͖ ;ϮͿ ƚŚĞ ĚĞĐůŝŶŝŶŐ ƐŚĂƌĞ ŝŶ W ŽĨ;ϮϬϬϳͿ ŝƐ ŵƵĐŚ ůŽǁĞƌ ƚŚĂŶ ƚŚĂƚ ŝŶ ůĂƌŐĞ ĐŽƵŶƚƌŝĞƐ ƐƵĐŚ ĂƐ ĂŐƌŝĐƵůƚƵƌĞ͕ ǁŚŝĐŚ ĞŵƉůŽLJƐ ŚĂůĨ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ƉŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶ͖ ;ϯͿ ƐŽĐŝĂůĂŶŐůĂĚĞƐŚ ĂŶĚ /ŶĚŝĂ͘ ƉĂLJŵĞŶƚƐ ƚŚĂƚ ĂƌĞ ŶŽƚ ǁĞůů ƚĂƌŐĞƚĞĚ͖ ĂŶĚ ;ϰͿ ƚĂdžĞƐ ĂŶĚ ŚŝŐŚ ŝŶŇĂƟŽŶ ƚŚĂƚ ƌĞĚƵĐĞ ƚŚĞ ƉŽŽƌ͛Ɛ ĚŝƐƉŽƐĂďůĞ ŝŶĐŽŵĞ ^ƵƐƚĂŝŶĞĚ ŐƌŽǁƚŚ ĚĞƐƉŝƚĞ ƚŚĞ ŐůŽďĂů ĮŶĂŶĐŝĂů ĐƌŝƐŝƐ ǁĂƐ ĨŽƌ ĐŽŶƐƵŵƉƟŽŶ ;hEW ϮϬϬϴͿ͘ŽŶĞ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ŵĂŝŶ ĚƌŝǀĞƌƐ ŽĨ ƉŽǀĞƌƚLJ ƌĞĚƵĐƟŽŶ ŝŶ ƚŚĞ ƌĞŐŝŽŶĂŶĚ ŵŽƐƚ ŽĨ ŝƚƐ ĞĐŽŶŽŵŝĞƐ ǁŝƚŚ ĚĞĐůŝŶŝŶŐ ĞdžƚƌĞŵĞ ƉŽǀĞƌƚLJ tŚŝůĞŐƌŽǁƚŚŚĂƐďĞĞŶƌŽďƵƐƚŝŶŵŽƐƚĞĐŽŶŽŵŝĞƐ͕ƚŚĞƌĂƚĞƐ͘ EĞƉĂů ƉƌĞƐĞŶƚƐ ĂŶ ŝŶƚĞƌĞƐƟŶŐ ĐĂƐĞ͘ ƵƌŝŶŐ ϭϵϵϲʹϮϬϭϬ͕ ŐĂŝŶƐ ǁĞƌĞ ŶŽƚ ĞƋƵĂůůLJ ĚŝƐƚƌŝďƵƚĞĚ ĂĐƌŽƐƐ ƐƵďƉŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶƐ͘ŝƚƐ ĞdžƚƌĞŵĞ ƉŽǀĞƌƚLJ ĚĞĐůŝŶĞĚ ĨƌŽŵ ϲϴ͘Ϭй ƚŽ Ϯϰ͘ϴй͘ dŚŝƐ ZŝƐŝŶŐ ŝŶĞƋƵĂůŝƚLJ ŚĂƐ Ă ŶĞŐĂƟǀĞ ĞīĞĐƚ ŽŶ ƉŽǀĞƌƚLJ ƌĞĚƵĐƟŽŶ͕ŝƐ ĞƋƵŝǀĂůĞŶƚ ƚŽ Ă ϯ ƉĞƌĐĞŶƚĂŐĞ ƉŽŝŶƚ ĚĞĐůŝŶĞ ƉĞƌ LJĞĂƌ͕ ďƵƚ Ă ĮŶĚŝŶŐ ƚŚĂƚ ŝƐ ŚŝŐŚůŝŐŚƚĞĚ ŝŶ ƚŚĞ ƐŝĂŶ ĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚĂŶŶƵĂů ŐƌŽǁƚŚ ŝŶ ƉĞƌ ĐĂƉŝƚĂ ŐƌŽƐƐ ĚŽŵĞƐƟĐ ƉƌŽĚƵĐƚ ;WͿ ǁĂƐ KƵƚůŽŽŬ ϮϬϭϮ ƚŚĞŵĞ ĐŚĂƉƚĞƌ ŽŶ ŝŶĞƋƵĂůŝƚLJ ;  ϮϬϭϮͿ͘ƌŽƵŐŚůLJ Ϯй ŝŶ ƚŚĞ ƐĂŵĞ ƉĞƌŝŽĚ͕ ƌĂŝƐŝŶŐ ƚŚĞ ƋƵĞƐƟŽŶ͗ tŚĂƚ dŽ ĨƵƌƚŚĞƌ ŝůůƵƐƚƌĂƚĞ͕ ďĂƐĞĚ ŽŶ ĞƐƟŵĂƚĞƐ ŝŶ D dĂďůĞ ϭ͘ϭĐŽƵůĚ ŚĂǀĞ ĂĐĐŽƵŶƚĞĚ ĨŽƌ ƚŚĞ ĚĞĐůŝŶŝŶŐ ƉŽǀĞƌƚLJ͍ dŚĞ EĞƉĂů ĂŶĚ ZĞŐŝŽŶĂů dĂďůĞ ϭ͘ϭϰ͕ ƐĞǀĞƌĂů ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ĞĐŽŶŽŵŝĞƐ ƚŚĂƚϮϬϭϬ D ZĞƉŽƌƚ ŵĂLJ ƉƌŽǀŝĚĞ ĂŶ ĂŶƐǁĞƌ͕ ĂƐ ŝƚ ŝŶĚŝĐĂƚĞƐ ƚŚĂƚ ĞŶũŽLJĞĚ ĂŶ ŝŵƉƌŽǀĞĚ ŝŶĐŽŵĞ ĚŝƐƚƌŝďƵƟŽŶ ;Žƌ ƌĞĚƵĐĞĚƌĞŵŝƩĂŶĐĞƐ ƉůĂLJĞĚ ĂŶ ŝŵƉŽƌƚĂŶƚ ƌŽůĞ ;ŽǀĞƌŶŵĞŶƚ ŽĨ EĞƉĂů ŝŶĞƋƵĂůŝƚLJ ĂƐ ŵĞĂƐƵƌĞĚ ďLJ ƚŚĞ ŝŶŝ ĐŽĞĸĐŝĞŶƚͿ ƐŚŽǁĞĚϮϬϭϬͿ͘ ZĞŵŝƩĂŶĐĞƐ ŝŶĐƌĞĂƐĞ ƉĞƌ ĐĂƉŝƚĂ ŝŶĐŽŵĞ͕ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞ ƐŝŐŶŝĮĐĂŶƚ ƉƌŽŐƌĞƐƐ ŝŶ ƉŽǀĞƌƚLJ ƌĞĚƵĐƟŽŶ͘ dŚĞƐĞ ŝŶĐůƵĚĞ
    • 56 <ĞLJ /ŶĚŝĐĂƚŽƌƐ ĨŽƌ ƐŝĂ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞ WĂĐŝĮĐ ϮϬϭϮ ƚŚĞ DĂůĚŝǀĞƐ ;ϰ͘Ϭ ƉĞƌĐĞŶƚĂŐĞ ƉŽŝŶƚ ƌĞĚƵĐƟŽŶ ĂŶŶƵĂůůLJͿ͕ Figure 1.4 Increase in People (in thousands) Living Below &ŝũŝ ;ϯ͘ϵ ƉĞƌĐĞŶƚĂŐĞ ƉŽŝŶƚͿ͕ ĂŶĚ sŝĞƚ EĂŵ ;ϯ͘ϭ ƉĞƌĐĞŶƚĂŐĞ $2-a-Day Poverty Line in Selected Economies ƉŽŝŶƚͿ͘ ĐŽŶŽŵŝĞƐ ƚŚĂƚ ĞdžƉĞƌŝĞŶĐĞĚ ƌŝƐŝŶŐ ŝŶĞƋƵĂůŝƚLJ ĐŽƵůĚ 80,000 ŚĂǀĞ ĂĐŚŝĞǀĞĚ ŐƌĞĂƚĞƌ ƉŽǀĞƌƚLJ ƌĞĚƵĐƟŽŶ ŝĨ ƚŚĞŝƌ ŝŶĞƋƵĂůŝƚLJ ŚĂĚ ĚĞĐůŝŶĞĚ Žƌ Ăƚ ůĞĂƐƚ ƌĞŵĂŝŶĞĚ ƚŚĞ ƐĂŵĞ͘ &Žƌ ĞdžĂŵƉůĞ͕ 70,000 68,091 ŝŶ ĂŶŐůĂĚĞƐŚ͕ ƚŚĞ ŝŶŝ ĐŽĞĸĐŝĞŶƚ ŝŶĐƌĞĂƐĞĚ ĨƌŽŵ Ϯϳ͘ϲ ƚŽ 60,000 ϯϮ͘ϭ ĚƵƌŝŶŐ ϭϵϵϮʹϮϬϭϬ͕ ďƵƚ ŝĨ ƚŚĞ ĚŝƐƚƌŝďƵƟŽŶ ŽĨ ŝŶĐŽŵĞ 50,000 ŚĂĚ ƌĞŵĂŝŶĞĚ ĂƐ ŝƚ ǁĂƐ ŝŶ ϭϵϵϮ͕ ƚŚĞŶ ĞdžƚƌĞŵĞ ƉŽǀĞƌƚLJ ĐŽƵůĚ ŚĂǀĞ ĚĞĐůŝŶĞĚ ďLJ ĂďŽƵƚ ϳ ƉĞƌĐĞŶƚĂŐĞ ƉŽŝŶƚƐ ŵŽƌĞ 40,000 ĚƵƌŝŶŐ ƚŚĞ ƐĂŵĞ ƉĞƌŝŽĚ͕ ŚŽůĚŝŶŐ Ăůů ŽƚŚĞƌ ƚŚŝŶŐƐ ĐŽŶƐƚĂŶƚ͘ 30,000 20,000 &ŝŐƵƌĞ ϭ͘ϯ ƉƌĞƐĞŶƚƐ ƚŚĞ ƉƌŽƉŽƌƟŽŶ ŽĨ ƉŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶ 11,219 10,000 ďĞůŽǁ ƚŚĞ ΨϮͲĂͲĚĂLJ ƉŽǀĞƌƚLJ ůŝŶĞ͘ dŚĞ ƌĂƟŽƐ Ăƚ ƚŚŝƐ ƉŽǀĞƌƚLJ 99 2,453 ůŝŶĞ ĚĞĐůŝŶĞĚ ŝŶ Ăůů ĞĐŽŶŽŵŝĞƐ ĞdžĐĞƉƚ ĞŽƌŐŝĂ͘ /ŶƚĞƌĞƐƟŶŐůLJ͕ 0 Timor-Leste Philippines Bangladesh India ǁŚŝůĞ ƚŚĞƐĞ ƌĂƟŽƐ ĂůƐŽ ĚĞĐůŝŶĞĚ ŝŶ ĂŶŐůĂĚĞƐŚ͕ /ŶĚŝĂ͕ ƚŚĞ (2001–2007) (1994–2009) (1996–2010) (1994–2010) WŚŝůŝƉƉŝŶĞƐ͕ ĂŶĚ dŝŵŽƌͲ>ĞƐƚĞ͕ ƚŚĞ ŶƵŵďĞƌ ŽĨ ƉŽŽƌ ůŝǀŝŶŐ ŽŶ Source: Derived using Regional Table 1.14 and population data from ůĞƐƐ ƚŚĂŶ ΨϮ Ă ĚĂLJ ĂĐƚƵĂůůLJ ŝŶĐƌĞĂƐĞĚ ;&ŝŐƵƌĞ ϭ͘ϰͿ ďĞĐĂƵƐĞ PovcalNet Database. ŝŶ ƚŚĞƐĞ ĐŽƵŶƚƌŝĞƐ͕ ƉŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶ ŐƌŽǁƚŚ ŽƵƚƉĂĐĞĚ ƉŽǀĞƌƚLJ ƌĞĚƵĐƟŽŶ ŵĞĂƐƵƌĞĚ Ăƚ ƚŚĞ ΨϮͲĂͲĚĂLJ ƉŽǀĞƌƚLJ ůŝŶĞ͘ Figure 1.3 Proportion of Population Living on Less than $2 a Day, ŵĂũŽƌŝƚLJ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ĞĐŽŶŽŵŝĞƐ ŚĂǀĞ ĂůƌĞĂĚLJ ĂĐŚŝĞǀĞĚ ƚŚĞ 1995* and Latest (1998–2009) Years (%) ƉŽǀĞƌƚLJ ƌĞĚƵĐƟŽŶ ƚĂƌŐĞƚ͘ KĨ ƚŚĞ Ϯϰ ĞĐŽŶŽŵŝĞƐ ĨŽƌ ǁŚŝĐŚ ĚĂƚĂ ĂƌĞ ĂǀĂŝůĂďůĞ͕ ϭϳ ŚĂǀĞ ĂĐŚŝĞǀĞĚ ƚŚĞ ƉŽǀĞƌƚLJ ƚĂƌŐĞƚ Bangladesh ĂŶĚ ĂŵďŽĚŝĂ ŝƐ ǀĞƌLJ ĐůŽƐĞ ƚŽ ƌĞĂĐŚŝŶŐ ƚŚĞ ƚĂƌŐĞƚ ďLJ ϮϬϭϱ͘ Timor-Leste ,ŽǁĞǀĞƌ͕ ĂŶŐůĂĚĞƐŚ͕ /ŶĚŝĂ͕ ƚŚĞ >ĂŽ WĞŽƉůĞ͛Ɛ ĞŵŽĐƌĂƟĐ India ZĞƉƵďůŝĐ ;>ĂŽ WZͿ͕ ƚŚĞ WŚŝůŝƉƉŝŶĞƐ͕ ĂŶĚ dŝŵŽƌͲ>ĞƐƚĞ ĂƌĞ Lao PDR ƉƌŽŐƌĞƐƐŝŶŐ ŽŶůLJ ƐůŽǁůLJ ƚŽǁĂƌĚ ĂĐŚŝĞǀŝŶŐ ƚŚĞ ƚĂƌŐĞƚ͕ ǁŚŝůĞ Pakistan ĞŽƌŐŝĂ ŝƐ ƌĞŐƌĞƐƐŝŶŐ ĂŶĚ ŵŝŐŚƚ ŶŽƚ ŵĞĞƚ ƚŚĞ ƚĂƌŐĞƚ ďLJ ϮϬϭϱ͘ Nepal Cambodia ĞƉƚŚ ŽĨ ƉŽǀĞƌƚLJ ĂůƐŽ ĚĞĐůŝŶĞĚ ƐŝŐŶŝĮĐĂŶƚůLJ͘ Poverty Turkmenistan ŐĂƉ ƌĂƟŽƐ͕ ǁŚŝĐŚ ƌĞŇĞĐƚ ďŽƚŚ ƚŚĞ ƐĞǀĞƌŝƚLJ ĂŶĚ ŝŶĐŝĚĞŶĐĞ ŽĨ ƉŽǀĞƌƚLJ͕ ĚĞĐůŝŶĞĚ ŝŶ Ăůů ĞĐŽŶŽŵŝĞƐ ĨŽƌ ǁŚŝĐŚ ĚĂƚĂ ĂƌĞ Mongolia ĂǀĂŝůĂďůĞ͕ ĞdžĐĞƉƚ ĞŽƌŐŝĂ ;&ŝŐƵƌĞ ϭ͘ϱͿ͘ ůŽǁ ƉŽǀĞƌƚLJ ŐĂƉ Indonesia ŵĞĂŶƐ Ă ŐƌĞĂƚĞƌ ĞĂƐĞ ŽĨ ďƌŝŶŐŝŶŐ ƉĞŽƉůĞ ĂďŽǀĞ ƚŚĞ ƉŽǀĞƌƚLJ Viet Nam ůŝŶĞ͘ ĞƐƉŝƚĞ ƐŝŐŶŝĮĐĂŶƚ ĚĞĐůŝŶĞƐ ŝŶ ƉŽǀĞƌƚLJ ŐĂƉƐ͕ ƚŚĞLJ Philippines ƌĞŵĂŝŶ ƌĞůĂƟǀĞůLJ ŚŝŐŚ ŝŶ ƐŽŵĞ ĐŽƵŶƚƌŝĞƐͶĂŶŐůĂĚĞƐŚ Georgia ;ϭϭ͘ϮйͿ͕ ƚŚĞ >ĂŽ WZ ;ϵйͿ͕ dŝŵŽƌͲ>ĞƐƚĞ ;ϴ͘ϵйͿ͕ /ŶĚŝĂ &KLQD 3HRSOHV 5HS RI ;ϳ͘ϱйͿ͕ ĂŶĚ dƵƌŬŵĞŶŝƐƚĂŶ ;ϳйͿ ŚĂǀĞ ƚŚĞ ŚŝŐŚĞƐƚ ƉŽǀĞƌƚLJ Sri Lanka gaps in the region. Tajikistan Kyrgyz Republic /Ŷ ƌĞůĂƟŽŶ ƚŽ ƚŚĞ ƉŽǀĞƌƚLJ ŐĂƉƐ͕ ŝƚ ŝƐ ĞĂƐŝĞƌ ĨŽƌ ĐŽƵŶƚƌŝĞƐ ƚŽ ůŝŌ ƉĞŽƉůĞ ŽǀĞƌ ƚŚĞ Ψϭ͘ϮϱͲĂͲĚĂLJ ůŝŶĞ ŽĨ Armenia ĞdžƚƌĞŵĞ ƉŽǀĞƌƚLJ ƚŚĂŶ ƚŽ ĐŽŶƟŶƵĞ ƚŽ ŵŽǀĞ ƚŚĞŵ ŽǀĞƌ Thailand ƚŚĞ ΨϮͲĂͲĚĂLJ ƉŽǀĞƌƚLJ ůŝŶĞ͘ /Ŷ ŽƚŚĞƌ ǁŽƌĚƐ͕ ǁŚŝůĞ ƉĞŽƉůĞ Azerbaijan ĂƌĞ ŵŽǀŝŶŐ ŽƵƚ ŽĨ ĞdžƚƌĞŵĞ ƉŽǀĞƌƚLJ͕ ƚŚĞLJ ƌĞŵĂŝŶ ƉŽŽƌ͘ Malaysia WĞŽƉůĞ ďĞƚǁĞĞŶ ƚŚĞ ƚǁŽ ůŝŶĞƐ ĂƌĞ ǀƵůŶĞƌĂďůĞ ďĞĐĂƵƐĞ Kazakhstan ƐŽĐŝĂů ƉĂLJŵĞŶƚƐ ĂŶĚ ƉŽǀĞƌƚLJ ƌĞĚƵĐƟŽŶ ĞīŽƌƚƐ ĂƌĞ ŽŌĞŶ       ĚŝƌĞĐƚĞĚ ƚŽǁĂƌĚ ƚŚĞ ĞdžƚƌĞŵĞ ƉŽŽƌ ĂŶĚ ŶŽƚ ƚŚĞ ŵŽĚĞƌĂƚĞ Headcount Ratio (%) ƉŽŽƌ͘ tĂŶ ĂŶĚ ^ĞďĂƐƟĂŶ ;ϮϬϭϭͿ ŝŶĚŝĐĂƚĞ ƚŚĂƚ͕ ĚƵƌŝŶŐ 1995* Latest Year ϮϬϬϱʹϮϬϬϴ ŝŶ ƐŝĂ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞ WĂĐŝĮĐ͕ ƚŚĞ ŶƵŵďĞƌ ŽĨ ŵŽĚĞƌĂƚĞ ƉŽŽƌ ;ƉĞŽƉůĞ ůŝǀŝŶŐ ďĞƚǁĞĞŶ ƚŚĞ Ψϭ͘ϮϱͲ ĂŶĚ 1RWH UHIHUV WR ï ΨϮͲĂͲĚĂLJ ƉŽǀĞƌƚLJ ůŝŶĞƐͿ ĚĞĐůŝŶĞĚ ďLJ ŽŶůLJ ϭϴ͘ϰ ŵŝůůŝŽŶ ǁŚŝůĞ 6RXUFH 5HJLRQDO 7DEOH  ƚŚĞ ƌĞĚƵĐƟŽŶ ŝŶ ƚŚĞ ĞdžƚƌĞŵĞ ƉŽŽƌ ǁĂƐ ϭϱϬ ŵŝůůŝŽŶ͘
    • ŽĂů ϭ͗ ƌĂĚŝĐĂƚĞ džƚƌĞŵĞ WŽǀĞƌƚLJ ĂŶĚ ,ƵŶŐĞƌ 57 Figure 1.5 Poverty Gap Ratios, Earliest (1990– Figure 1.6 Share of Poorest Quintile in National Millennium Development Goals 2003) and Latest (1996–2010) Years (%) Income or Consumption, 1996–2010 (%) Bangladesh Pakistan Afghanistan Lao PDR Kazakhstan Timor-Leste Timor-Leste India Bangladesh Turkmenistan Armenia India Nepal Nepal Cambodia Tajikistan Georgia Azerbaijan Korea, Rep. of Viet Nam Lao PDR Philippines Indonesia Pakistan Cambodia Indonesia Viet Nam Mongolia China, Peoples Rep. of Uzbekistan Bhutan Sri Lanka Kyrgyz Republic Kyrgyz Republic Tajikistan Thailand Bhutan Fiji Maldives Sri Lanka Fiji Armenia Turkmenistan Philippines Azerbaijan Hong Kong, China Thailand Georgia Maldives Singapore Malaysia China, Peoples Rep. of Papua New Guinea Kazakhstan Malaysia 0.0 10.0 20.0 30.0 Micronesia, Fed. States of Earliest Year Latest Year 0 2 4 6 8 10 Source: Table 1.1. Source: Table 1.1.dŚĞ ƉŽŽƌĞƐƚ ƋƵŝŶƟůĞ͛Ɛ ƐŚĂƌĞ ŽĨ ŶĂƟŽŶĂů ŝŶĐŽŵĞ Žƌ DƵĐŚƌĞŵĂŝŶƐƚŽďĞĚŽŶĞŝŶƉƌŽǀŝĚŝŶŐƋƵĂůŝƚLJĞŵƉůŽLJŵĞŶƚĐŽŶƐƵŵƉƟŽŶ ƌĞŵĂŝŶƐ ůŽǁ͘ dŚĞ ƐŚĂƌĞ ƚŚĂƚ ƚŚĞ ďŽƩŽŵ ϮϬй ƚŽ ƚŚĞ ƉŽŽƌ͘1 dŚĞ ĞŵƉůŽLJŵĞŶƚͲƚŽͲƉŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶ ƌĂƟŽ͕ ǁŚŝĐŚŽĨ ƚŚĞ ƉŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶ ŚĂƐ ŽĨ ŶĂƟŽŶĂů ŝŶĐŽŵĞ Žƌ ĐŽŶƐƵŵƉƟŽŶ ƚLJƉŝĐĂůůLJ ĨĂůůƐ ďĞƚǁĞĞŶ ϱϬй ĂŶĚ ϳϱй͕ ŝƐ ĂŶ ŝŶĚŝĐĂƚŽƌ ŽĨ ƚŚĞƌĞŵĂŝŶƐ ďĞůŽǁ ϭϬй ŝŶ Ăůů ĚĞǀĞůŽƉŝŶŐ ĞĐŽŶŽŵŝĞƐ ĨŽƌ ĂďŝůŝƚLJ ƚŽ ƉƌŽǀŝĚĞ ĞŵƉůŽLJŵĞŶƚ͘ &ŝŐƵƌĞ ϭ͘ϳ ƐŚŽǁƐ ƚŚĂƚ ŝŶǁŚŝĐŚ ĚĂƚĂ ĂƌĞ ĂǀĂŝůĂďůĞ͘ &ŝŐƵƌĞ ϭ͘ϲ ƉƌĞƐĞŶƚƐ ƚŚĞ ƐŚĂƌĞ 2011 most countries are within this range. At the high endŽĨ ƚŚĞ ďŽƩŽŵ ϮϬй ŽĨ ŶĂƟŽŶĂů ŝŶĐŽŵĞ Žƌ ĐŽŶƐƵŵƉƟŽŶ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ƌĂŶŐĞ ĂƌĞ ĂŵďŽĚŝĂ ĂŶĚ EĞƉĂů͕ ǁŝƚŚ ĞŵƉůŽLJŵĞŶƚͲĨŽƌ ƚŚĞ ůĂƚĞƐƚ ĂǀĂŝůĂďůĞ LJĞĂƌ͘ /ƚ ŝƐ ŶŽƚ ƐƵƌƉƌŝƐŝŶŐ ƚŚĂƚ ƚŚĞ ƚŽͲƉŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶ ƌĂƟŽƐ ŝŶ ϮϬϭϭ ĞdžĐĞĞĚŝŶŐ ϴϬй͘2 At theĞĐŽŶŽŵŝĞƐ ǁŝƚŚ ƚŚĞ ůŽǁĞƐƚ ƌĂƟŽƐ ĂůƐŽ ŚĂǀĞ ŚŝŐŚ ŝŶĞƋƵĂůŝƚLJ ůŽǁ ĞŶĚ ĂƌĞ ƌŵĞŶŝĂ ;ϰϬ͘ϵйͿ ĂŶĚ ĨŐŚĂŶŝƐƚĂŶ ;ϰϱ͘ϭйͿ͘Žƌ ŝŶŝ ĐŽĞĸĐŝĞŶƚƐ͘ dŚĞ ŝŶĐŽŵĞ ƐŚĂƌĞ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ďŽƩŽŵ ϮϬй dŚĞ DĂůĚŝǀĞƐ ƉƵƚ ŽŶ Ă ƐƚƌŝŬŝŶŐ ƉĞƌĨŽƌŵĂŶĐĞ ĂƐ ŝƚƐ ƌĂƟŽǁĂƐ ŽŶůLJ ϭ͘ϲй ŝŶ ƚŚĞ &ĞĚĞƌĂƚĞĚ ^ƚĂƚĞƐ ŽĨ DŝĐƌŽŶĞƐŝĂ ŝŶ ĞdžƉĂŶĚĞĚ ƐŚĂƌƉůLJ͕ ďLJ ϭϮ͘ϱ ƉĞƌĐĞŶƚĂŐĞ ƉŽŝŶƚƐ ĨƌŽŵ ϭϵϵϭϮϬϬϬ͖ ŝƚƐ ŝŶŝ ĐŽĞĸĐŝĞŶƚ ĨŽƌ ƚŚĞ ƐĂŵĞ ƉĞƌŝŽĚ ǁĂƐ ϲϭй͘/Ŷ ƚŚĞ WZ ĂŶĚ DĂůĂLJƐŝĂ͕ ǁŚĞƌĞ ƚŚĞ ƉŽŽƌĞƐƚ ƋƵŝŶƟůĞ͛Ɛ 1 Previous Key Indicators issues used the national estimates of employment-ŝŶĐŽŵĞ ƐŚĂƌĞ ǁĂƐ ůĞƐƐ ƚŚĂŶ ϱй ŽĨ ŶĂƟŽŶĂů ĐŽŶƐƵŵƉƟŽŶ͕ to-population ratio as gathered from the UNSD-MDG database. For this issue, the International Labour Organization (ILO) estimates from itsƚŚĞ ŝŶŝ ĐŽĞĸĐŝĞŶƚƐ ǁĞƌĞ ϰϮй ĂŶĚ ϰϲй͕ ƌĞƐƉĞĐƟǀĞůLJ͘ /Ŷ Trend Estimation Model were used. For the proportion of working poor,WĂŬŝƐƚĂŶ͕ ǁŚŽƐĞ ďŽƩŽŵ ƋƵŝŶƟůĞ ŝŶĐŽŵĞ ƐŚĂƌĞ ŝŶ ŶĂƟŽŶĂů ILO direct estimates were used except for economies and years withĐŽŶƐƵŵƉƟŽŶ ŝƐ ƚŚĞ ŚŝŐŚĞƐƚ͕ ƚŚĞ ŝŶŝ ŝƐ ŽŶůLJ ϯϬй͘ available poverty estimates from the World Bank’s PovcalNet database but for which no national working poverty estimate is available. In such cases, estimates are derived from an ILO econometric model. 2 No optimal employment-to-population ratio is prescribed. However, the ratio should not be too high or too low. Ratios above 80% often occur in very poor countries and usually indicate an abundance of low quality jobs (ILO 2009).
    • 58 <ĞLJ /ŶĚŝĐĂƚŽƌƐ ĨŽƌ ƐŝĂ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞ WĂĐŝĮĐ ϮϬϭϮ Figure 1.7 Employment-to-Population Ratio, 2011 (%) Figure 1.8 Percentage Point Change in the Employment- to-Population Ratio from 1991 to 2011 (%) Nepal Maldives Cambodia Mongolia Lao PDR Bhutan Myanmar Azerbaijan Viet Nam Sri Lanka Thailand Kazakhstan China, Peoples Rep. of Pakistan Papua New Guinea Fiji Bhutan Myanmar Kazakhstan Uzbekistan Bangladesh Turkmenistan Solomon Islands