Information Media for Water Supply and          Environmental Sanitation                                                  ...
F R O M E D I TO R    Dear readers, there is a good newsthat we want share with you. Percik isgetting more attention from ...
Y O U R VO I C E          Subscription                         ing your efforts to disseminate infor-            tion. Can...
M AIN REPORT   Sanitation Micro-credit                for the Poor                                                        ...
MAIN REPORT                                                                                                               ...
MAIN REPORTlowing two years, United Nation held a                                                 been spent for wastewate...
MAIN REPORT                                                                                                               ...
MAIN REPORT     tion needs to be clearly defined.      sive. The most successful micro-            approach.     Where cre...
MAIN REPORT                                                                                                               ...
M AIN REPORT     Lesson Learned from Micro-Credit Projects                         Across the World                       ...
M AIN REPORT                                                          SOURCE: COMMONORGARDEN.BLOGS.COM                    ...
M AIN REPORT            Experiences from Family Latrine                 Credit in Yogyakarta U           rban Yogyakarta i...
I NSIGHT                              Healthy Latrine                            and Strong Posyandu I       n rural area,...
I   NSIGHT       and 0,5% allocated to                                           Latrine Construction and Posyandu Strengt...
I    NSIGHT             Solid Waste management             through Eco-cycle Society     T              here are many ways...
I   NSIGHT           Community Participation to Support            Water Supply and Environmental             Sanitation o...
I   NSIGHT                                                                                                                ...
I    NSIGHTcantly depend on the effectiveness of            ronmental sanitation project assistance         its members to...
I    NSIGHT              Hygiene is an InvestmentW            e may often hear a slogan hat                               ...
I    NSIGHTits city. Thus, the hygiene quality classifi-                                                   unscrupoulous d...
Indonesia Water Supply and Sanitation Magazine 'PERCIK' vol. 9 July 2005
Indonesia Water Supply and Sanitation Magazine 'PERCIK' vol. 9 July 2005
Indonesia Water Supply and Sanitation Magazine 'PERCIK' vol. 9 July 2005
Indonesia Water Supply and Sanitation Magazine 'PERCIK' vol. 9 July 2005
Indonesia Water Supply and Sanitation Magazine 'PERCIK' vol. 9 July 2005
Indonesia Water Supply and Sanitation Magazine 'PERCIK' vol. 9 July 2005
Indonesia Water Supply and Sanitation Magazine 'PERCIK' vol. 9 July 2005
Indonesia Water Supply and Sanitation Magazine 'PERCIK' vol. 9 July 2005
Indonesia Water Supply and Sanitation Magazine 'PERCIK' vol. 9 July 2005
Indonesia Water Supply and Sanitation Magazine 'PERCIK' vol. 9 July 2005
Indonesia Water Supply and Sanitation Magazine 'PERCIK' vol. 9 July 2005
Indonesia Water Supply and Sanitation Magazine 'PERCIK' vol. 9 July 2005
Indonesia Water Supply and Sanitation Magazine 'PERCIK' vol. 9 July 2005
Indonesia Water Supply and Sanitation Magazine 'PERCIK' vol. 9 July 2005
Indonesia Water Supply and Sanitation Magazine 'PERCIK' vol. 9 July 2005
Indonesia Water Supply and Sanitation Magazine 'PERCIK' vol. 9 July 2005
Indonesia Water Supply and Sanitation Magazine 'PERCIK' vol. 9 July 2005
Indonesia Water Supply and Sanitation Magazine 'PERCIK' vol. 9 July 2005
Indonesia Water Supply and Sanitation Magazine 'PERCIK' vol. 9 July 2005
Indonesia Water Supply and Sanitation Magazine 'PERCIK' vol. 9 July 2005
Indonesia Water Supply and Sanitation Magazine 'PERCIK' vol. 9 July 2005
Indonesia Water Supply and Sanitation Magazine 'PERCIK' vol. 9 July 2005
Indonesia Water Supply and Sanitation Magazine 'PERCIK' vol. 9 July 2005
Indonesia Water Supply and Sanitation Magazine 'PERCIK' vol. 9 July 2005
Indonesia Water Supply and Sanitation Magazine 'PERCIK' vol. 9 July 2005
Indonesia Water Supply and Sanitation Magazine 'PERCIK' vol. 9 July 2005
Indonesia Water Supply and Sanitation Magazine 'PERCIK' vol. 9 July 2005
Indonesia Water Supply and Sanitation Magazine 'PERCIK' vol. 9 July 2005
Indonesia Water Supply and Sanitation Magazine 'PERCIK' vol. 9 July 2005
Indonesia Water Supply and Sanitation Magazine 'PERCIK' vol. 9 July 2005
Indonesia Water Supply and Sanitation Magazine 'PERCIK' vol. 9 July 2005
Indonesia Water Supply and Sanitation Magazine 'PERCIK' vol. 9 July 2005
Indonesia Water Supply and Sanitation Magazine 'PERCIK' vol. 9 July 2005
Indonesia Water Supply and Sanitation Magazine 'PERCIK' vol. 9 July 2005
Indonesia Water Supply and Sanitation Magazine 'PERCIK' vol. 9 July 2005
Indonesia Water Supply and Sanitation Magazine 'PERCIK' vol. 9 July 2005
Indonesia Water Supply and Sanitation Magazine 'PERCIK' vol. 9 July 2005
Indonesia Water Supply and Sanitation Magazine 'PERCIK' vol. 9 July 2005
Indonesia Water Supply and Sanitation Magazine 'PERCIK' vol. 9 July 2005
Indonesia Water Supply and Sanitation Magazine 'PERCIK' vol. 9 July 2005
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Indonesia Water Supply and Sanitation Magazine 'PERCIK' vol. 9 July 2005

1,146 views
1,088 views

Published on

0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
1,146
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
20
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Indonesia Water Supply and Sanitation Magazine 'PERCIK' vol. 9 July 2005

  1. 1. Information Media for Water Supply and Environmental Sanitation From The Editor 1 Published by: Your Voice 2 Working Group for Water Supply and Sanitation Main Report Sanitation Micro-credit for the Poor 3 Advisor: Director General for Urban and Lesson Learned from Micro-Credit Projects Across the World 9Rural Development, Department of Public Works Experiences from Family Latrine Credit in Yogyakarta 11 Board of Trustee: Insight Director of Human Settlement and Housing, Healthy Latrine and Strong Posyandu 12 National Development Planning Agency Republic of Indonesia Solid Waste Management through Eco-cycle Society 14 Director of Water and Sanitation, Community Participation to Support Water Supply and Environmental Ministry of Health Director of Urban and Rural Eastern Region, Sanitation of a Settlement Area 15 Department of Public Works Hygiene is an Investment 18Director of Natural Resources and Appropriate Technology, Director General on Village and Water Supply Services: The Present and Future Challenges 20 Community Empowerment, Implementation of Capacity Building Concept in PDAM (Regional Department of Home Affairs Director for Facilitation of Special Planning Drinking Water Enterprise) 22 Environment Management, Flood and Landslide in the Wet and Drought in the Dry Season 25 Department of Home Affairs Telescope Chief Editor: First Trial, Immediate Result 28 Oswar Mungkasa Communal Work to Build Latrine 29 Board of Editor: They Only want a Closet Type 30 Ismail, Johan Susmono, Indar Parawansa, Poedjastanto Building Simple Latrine 31 Reportage Editor:Maraita Listyasari, Rewang Budiyana, Rheidda When the Elites Get Better Acquainted with Their Environment 32 Pramudhy, Joko Wartono, Essy Asiah, Interview Mujiyanto, Andre Kuncoroyekti Community Empowerment Through Posyandu 34 Graphics Design & Illustrator: Website Info 37 Rudi Kosasih Book Info 38 Production: CD Info 39 Machrudin Around WSES 40 Distribution: Around WASPOLA 46 Meiza Aprizya, Agus Syuhada Bibliography 54 Address: Clinic IATPI 55 Jl. Cianjur No. 4, Menteng, Jakarta Pusat Phone/Fax.: 62-21-31904113 Agenda 56 http://www.ampl.or.id e-mail: redaksipercik@yahoo.com redaksi@ampl.or.id oswar@bappenas.go.id Unsolicited article or opinion items are welcome. Please send to our address This magazine is a translation of the official Bahasa version.or e-mail. Dont forget to be brief and accom- panied by identity. Cover by RUDI KOSASIH
  2. 2. F R O M E D I TO R Dear readers, there is a good newsthat we want share with you. Percik isgetting more attention from the stake-holders of water and sanitation sector.We are frequently receiving many sub-scription enquiries for the magazine.Some of the readers also said that theyuse Percik as one of their references.These facts surely are pleasant thingsfor us, the editorial team. It means thatour goal to set Percik as one of refe-rences in water and sanitation sector isnearly to be achieved. Readers, this year is the year ofmicro finance. In this edition, Percikpresent main report on micro financefor sanitation, especially for latrinesconstruction. We believe that this is animportant issue, because micro financescheme has not been directed to facili-tate sanitation development. Whereassanitation cannot be taken for granted,as it is very important for our health. Infact, there are many people in Indonesiathat do not have any sanitation facilities,particularly latrines. They defecate inany place they can find. Until today, Percik reporter Mujiyanto and Andre K. (the first and the second fromthere is no formal form of micro finance the left) with sanitarian and CLTS activists in Kertowono village,scheme to facilitate them. We hope, this Lumajang, East Java.report will build a discourse and furthermotivates policy makers to give moreattention for these people and provide a support from the government. All that are plotted as activity centers that notsmall portion of fund for latrine con- needed is a triggering. only include health services but alsostruction. Readers, the Interview column in other activities such as community em- For some communities, latrine con- this edition is different from that of pre- powerment activities.struction is not obstructed by fund vious editions. We used to present an in- We also present reportage on a com-unavailability. It is more a matter of wil- terview with a central government offi- munity that has a great concern aboutlingness and understanding. This is as cer and the topic is related to the Main environmental quality of their neigh-proved during Community Led Total Report. For this edition, we interviewed borhood. They are part of upper-middlesanitation (CLTS) pilot project in a Lumajang District official to capture class in Jakarta. We will take a closeLumajang that we will present in Teles- local perspective on water and sanitati- look on their efforts.cope column. At first, there are many on development. There are some lessons Readers, all that we present here aredoubts about this approach. The ques- that can be learned by central govern- not perfect. But surely we always maketion that have been tickling in some ment and other district governments. efforts to present you better informa-minds is "how its possible to build peo- For instance, Lumajang District has tion. We are looking forward for yourples awareness without any financial launched a program that named Luma- valuable critics and suggestions. Fromintervention?". The result is unexpec- jang Sehat 2007 (Healthy Lumajang the beginning, we are determining toted. In a relatively short time, almost all 2007) that included in Gerbang Mas make this magazine as a media for in-villagers in pilot project locations built campaign. To achieve the programs formation exchange between stake-their own latrine without any financial goal, Posyandu (integrated service post) holders. Percik July 2005 1
  3. 3. Y O U R VO I C E Subscription ing your efforts to disseminate infor- tion. Can I receive the magazine regu- Im very interested with the con- mation on water and sanitation. I also larly? I read from your website that thetent of Percik. I want to receive the hope that we can build a mutual magazine is free of charge. If I cantmagazine regularly to improve my cooperation in the future. get the hard copy, can I get the softknowledge of environmental manage- copy?ment. I also want to receive water and Ir. H. Isrin Agoessanitation interactive CD. Head of Bappedalda Propinsi Slamet Purwanto How can I subscribe to the maga- West Sumatera Jln. Raya Darmaga Gg Bara I No.184B,zine? I live outside Jakarta. Can I send Kelurahan Babakan RT 01/03my paper about environmental prob- We have sent all that you need. Darmaga,lems in my district, Batang district? Thank you for your kind interest and Bogor Barat 16680 support. We will send Percik to your Ir. Wisnu Suryotomo address. Environmental observer Reference Books Jl. Ahmad Yani Gang 28 (Tengger) No. 41 I am the Head of Environmental Kauman Kabupaten Batang, Engineering Department, Faculty of Percik Collection Jawa Tengah Engineering, University of Andalas, I got Percik in Waste Water Padang, West Sumatera. To improve Treatment Seminar in Yogyakarta (24- Percik is distributed free of our library, we need various reference 25 August 2005) and in Nationalcharge. You only have to send us your books especially that of related to Dialogue on Solid Waste in Jakarta (4request letter then we will send Percik environmental engineering (water June 2005). It turned out that the con-to your address. If the topic of your supply, waste water, air quality, envi- tents are very helpful for me to do mypaper is water and sanitation, you ronmental sanitation and hygiene) tasks.can send us your paper and we will such as regulations, technical gui- I really hope that you can help me topublish it on Percik. dance, journals, etc. Can Working have all editions of Percik, starting from Group help us for that? the earliest one. I only have seven edi- tions (August 2003, October 2003,Working Group Products Denny Helard, MT. February 2004, June 2004, August I have read Percik August 2004 Dept. of Environmental Engineering 2004, October 2004, and Decemberedition and we realize the value of Engineering Faculty, University of Andalas 2004). How much I must pay?information on water and sanitation. Kampus Limau Manis,Those information are very important Padang-25163 Roesmani, STto improve my knowledge. Infor- Head of Environmental Sanitation Sectionmation summary and documentation We will help you as we could. Permukiman Dinas KIMTARU Propinsiin form of newsletter, CD and news However, we will help you to contact Central Javaclipping produced by Water and related institution that might be able toSanitation Working Group are effec- help. You already have all the early edi-tive tools for socialization to various tions.stakeholders. Percik Subscription We will send you all the 2005 I want to receive all Working I am, a student in IPB. I find that editions.Groups products. I am fully support- Percik has a very valuable informa-2 Percik July 2005
  4. 4. M AIN REPORT Sanitation Micro-credit for the Poor CARICATURE: WWW.RUDIKOZ.COM T he village that part of Ngem- as revolving fund that can be borrowed by People of Umbulmartani plak sub-district administra- the community to build or improve their village are now tion, Sleman District, Yogya- family latrines. The program then named relieved. karta Province, is changed "Kredit Jamban Sehat" (Healthy Latrine thanks to the help from World Bank faci- Credit). The amount of loan for each Open defecation habit litated by a NGO, [e] Foundation. The household was from Rp 750 thousands to is drastically decreasing. amount is not big. However, it is able to Rp 1.275 thousands. The installment was This is because motivate the community to change their paid monthly in 10 - 24 months period life and create a healthier living environ- with 1,5% per month interest and the fine they now have family ment. for late repayment is 5% of the interest. latrine. The grant from World Bank was used The loan cannot be used for other Percik July 2005 3
  5. 5. MAIN REPORT SOURCE: MUJIYANTOpurpose. Mandated criteria of ahealthy latrine as follows: Equipped with cover, ventilation and adequate water for hand wash- ing and anal cleaning. Odorless Cemented floor The minimum distance form near- by water well is 10 meters. In August 2002 the grant alreadyused to facilitate 12 family latrines con-struction and improvement. The num-ber has reached 40 family latrines byFebruary 2005. The village chief, Atok Triyudianta,explained that approximately there arestill 30% of his people that do not havehealthy latrines. If the only fund avail-able is the World Bank grant, it willtakes ten years to provide healthylatrines for all villagers. Therefore, thechief ask for help to PT. Ford MotorIndonesia (FMI) that has allocated People defecate on this river.fund for environmental preservation. FMI provided a grant that dis-bursed in stages started from May and thus lead us to a healthy Yog- is probably worse, many basic sanita-2004. The amount of the grant is Rp 41 yakarta and further healthy tion facilities are unusable anymoremillion. Up until February 2005, the Indonesia", said Heny Kushayati, a and dont meet health and environ-total amount of disbursed fund has PPK (family educational program) mental standards.reached Rp 20,7 million. Because of activist and the wife of Atok Approximately, 73% of urbanthis additional grant, the loan platform Triyudianta. households have on-site sanitation butwas increased up to Rp 1,5 million for most of their septic tank facilities areeach household. Indonesia Condition not working properly. Besides, urban In May 2004, 11 new latrines were The Umbulmartani case is an illus- sewerage systems are not adequatebuilt and another 15 latrines built until tration of urban and rural basic sanita- and there are not enough domesticFebruary 2005. The interest that colle- tion condition in Indonesia - it is not waste treatment plants. This conditioncted from the borrowers was also used entirely representative though. By the leads to environmental degradation,for nutrition improvement program end of 2002, the proportion of nation- particularly ground water and riverfor under fiver year old children. This al population that have access to basic pollution.was done through additional food pro- sanitation (equipped with latrine pitgram in Posyandu (integrated health and septic tank) is 63,5%. In rural area Global Conditionservice post). the proportion is 52,5% while the In September 2000, the world "If healthy latrine program and urban proportion is 77,5%. These leaders declared Millennium Deve-nutrition improvement program are numbers regardless the quality of the lopment Goals (MDGs), a set of tar-sustainable, our dream to achieve a facilities, thus they dont reflect the gets to improve health and prosperityhealthy Umbulmartani can be realized actual condition. The actual condition of the world population. On the fol-4 Percik July 2005
  6. 6. MAIN REPORTlowing two years, United Nation held a been spent for wastewater treatmentWorld Summit on Sustainable each year. While there is still addition-Development in Johannesburg, em- al US$ 56 million required for MDGsphasized MDGs as a global commit- Diarrhoea to be reached.ment and added specific target for Population growth is much highersanitation and hygiene. in the world than basic sanitation development By the year 200, 2,4 billion people rate. There is a sanitation backlog.across the globe dont have adequate 1,8 million of people have died Therefore, a new approach to acceler-access to sanitation. Around 81 % of of diarrhoea and cholera. 90% ate basic sanitation development mustthem are live in rural area. More than be implemented to meet growing of them are children under five1,1 billion people dont have sustain- demand.able access to safe drinking water and years old, mostly live in devel- Classic financial schemes such as86% of them are live in rural area. oping countries. subsidy and grant to widen sanitation Inadequate access to safe drinking 88% of diarrhoea cases were service coverage are not suitable any-water and sanitation causes a variety caused by un-safe drinking more with current condition. Besideof diseases including diarrhea. More water and poor sanitation limited financial capacity of the gov-than 250 million people suffer water- ernment, subsidy scheme is facing Provision of safe drinking waterborne disease every year and 10 mil- three major problems: (i) the designlion of die from it. Sanitation condition can decrease death caused by for subsidy is difficult, because itin rural is worse than in urban. diarrhoea up to 21%. requires detailed information forApproximately, 970 million people live Improved sanitation can assessing communitys ability and will-in slums and urban population is decrease death caused by diar- ingness to pay, finding best-suitedgrowing rapidly. rhoea up to 37,5%. delivery mechanism, defining social By the year 2015, the global popu- and health benefits; (ii) there are too Hand washing practice canlation is predicted to reach 7 billion. many obstacles for subsidy delivery;Most of them will live in developing decrease diarrhoea cases up to (iii) Subsidy-based system is tend to becountries. This growth will increase 35%. unsustainable. However, subsidy sys-the number of people without ade- Water quality improvement can tem is part of government responsibil-quate access to basic sanitation to 3,4 decrease diarrhoea episodes up ity, thus it cannot be completely elimi-billion. World Health Organization to 45%. nated from sanitation sector develop-(WHO) estimates that every year there ment. It can only be minimized.are 150 million more people who are Some breakthroughs to developneed access to sanitation With regard to this condition and alternative financing for basic sanita- Will the target be achieved? This is limited financial capability of the gov- tion have been made. Micro finance isboth a question and a challenge. Sani- ernment and community, MDGs tar- one of them. This approach consideredtation development is not an easy task. gets can only be achieved by the year to be a reliable tool for poverty eradi-There are several major problems such 2025. Without a strong political will cation and has gained internationalas financial unavailability, cultural and commitment, those targets will recognition. This recognition is reflect-obstacles and public unawareness. never be achieved. The main challenge ed in the 53rd decree of UN GeneralOpen defecation is a common practice for Indonesia is how to achieve the tar- Assembly 1998 that proclaims the yearfor certain communities in poor coun- get with existing financial capacity. 2005 as International Micro Financetries. There are also people that dont Year. The decree then followed by thebuild sanitation facility because of Micro-finance Launching International Year offinancial problems. While some others Financial challenge has overshad- Micro-credit 2005, by UN Secretarythink that sanitation issue is govern- owed sanitation development globally. General in New York, 18 Novemberments responsibility not theirs. Up until now, US$ 14 million have 2004. Percik July 2005 5
  7. 7. MAIN REPORT SOURCE: RHEIDDA P This event is designed to endorsesustainable micro finance and microenterprise empowerment program toeradicate poverty. UN SecretaryGeneral called upon all world leaders,financial institutions, and donor intu-itions to use all their expertise in microcredit to help poor communities. In the event, all key speakersagreed that micro-finance is the mostsuccessful innovation in social andeconomic development and have a sig-nificant contribution to achieveMillennium Development Goals. Toachieve the goal, there are several nec-essary factors that have been identifiedsuch as micro-credit promotion,micro-finance training and capacitybuilding, private sector involvementand regulation improvement that willenable micro-finance development. President Susilo Bambang Yudho-yono has proclaimed Indonesia Micro-finance Year 2005, on 26th February Open latrine, many villagers own this type of latrine.2005. This will bring accommodativeatmosphere for microfinace institu-tions as key players in small-scale Nafadji proved that credit provision were facilitated with micro-credit haveenterprise development. for sanitation could decrease preva- satisfying repayment records. Financing sanitation for the poor lence of waterborne disease and Several common rules of micro-is not as easy as water financing. improve drinking water quality. finance for water and sanitation as fol-While water serve as basic need and However, the use of micro-finance lows:can be utilized for income generat- for sanitation provision remains a fair- Local demand research to assessing activities, sanitation will not ly new idea. There are lessons that can appropriate financial and accoun-bring a direct result. Many litera- be learned from those successful proj- ting system and thorough under-tures for water and sanitation ects. standing of the borrower and inter-financing give more focus on water mediary capabilities.sector. Key for Successful Implemen- Interest rate -- if any -- must be Using micro-finance to support sa- tation based on the cost of fund, adminis-nitation has had impressive results. Financing service for the poor is tration and labor costs, loan lossSeveral models have practiced in not a priority for formal banking insti- allowances, margin for inflationLesotho, Honduras, Ghana, South tutions. Their access to such service is and a return on capital. Cost reco-Africa, India and Pakistan. In low. This condition has hindered them very is central to the financingIndonesia, Yayasan Dian Desa has to improve their life into a more pro- mechanisms as in this way a sus-implemented sanitation microfinan- ductive and efficient one. Whereas tainable financial system iscing in Yogyakarta since 1993. An ini- there are some facts that low-income achieved.tiative by WaterAid and a local NGO in communities in Asia and Africa who The aim of micro-finance organiza-6 Percik July 2005
  8. 8. MAIN REPORT tion needs to be clearly defined. sive. The most successful micro- approach. Where credit is just a sideline to finance product is that of BRIs What if the person doesnt need the other activities there is a danger KUPEDES which was targeted for var- facility? If that is the case, necessary that financial rules wont be so ious purposes. efforts to create demand must be strictly enforced. Cost recovery in sanitation project taken. Public campaign to promote Loan administration and collection is possible and credit is one of many hygiene and pressure from other mem- system need to be simple. ways that can be used to achieve the ber of the community are some exam- It is necessary to link financial goal. The scheme is quite flexible and ples. Well--managed credit service canoption to develop sanitation facility for can be combined with subsidy, grant or also motivate the community to utilizelow-income community with produc- ownership contribution. Credit pro- the loan for sanitation improvement.tive activities to ensure repayment sus- gram is suitable as part of sanitation Credit providers must considertainability. Inline with sanitation cred- strategy that based on demand driven available options of sanitation facilityit, they provided with another creditfor income generating activities suchas grocery store, farming, transporta-tion service etc. Sanitation micro-finance program will be A revolving fund scheme was tried successful if the delivery and monitoringto facilitate latrine construction in the mechanism is well designed. Borrowers ability1990s. it was aimed to decrease non-performing loan cases. The loan was to repay and awareness of their sanitationgiven to groups of 5 - 9 persons. The demand are the perquisites.group then took the responsibility ofevery loan made by members. The SOURCE: RHEIDDA Pgroup served as bridging fund providerand pressure group for the borrowingmembers. Collected repayment used tofacilitate other members or groups. Insome cases, where all members alreadyhave sanitation facility, the loan usedfor another purpose. However, thisscheme is deemed to be a failure bysome micro-finance practitioners. Sanitation micro-finance programwill be successful if the delivery andmonitoring mechanism is welldesigned. Borrowers ability to repayand awareness of their sanitationdemand are the perquisites. It isimportant for the borrower to under-stand the demand. Otherwise, there isa great risk that the loan will be mis-used. From the loan provider side, theproduct must be targeted for a widerange of purposes since the service costfor single targeted loan is too expen- Although they are poor, the villagers able to construct proper latrines. Percik July 2005 7
  9. 9. MAIN REPORT SOURCE: ANDRE Ktypes for households. Low-incomehouseholds have various preferences.Some households prefer to have thecheapest simple latrine that suitablewith their budget while some othersprefer to build the complete one. Availability of resources for sanita-tion facility is also an important thing tobe considered. All materials that neededfor the construction must be available inlocal markets. This will include a varietyof latrine types and models. Amongother things, available technologyoptions must be easily adoptable byhouseholds. Thus micro-finance is not asingle independent entity but it need tobe supported by other elements. Credit mechanism can be managedto minimize sanitation investmentcosts. With credit facility, the client willbe able to purchase sanitation facilitymaterials in bulk so the supplier cangive discounts. Existing informal intermediaries arevery useful to minimize service costsbecause they already familiar withclients character.Timescale Sanitation development for low--in- Every person want to have a clean and healthy latrine.come communities must have a realistictimescale. The program will come intofailure if it only focused to widen service Financial institution can also pro- financial resource -- is not a reason tocoverage in a short period of time with- vide support to increase bargaining neglect the sector. There are manyout supported by efforts to build com- position of low-income households in alternatives to improve sanitation con-munitys commitment to repay and order to ensure that their rights and the dition. It takes patience and determina-revolve the loan. quality of sanitation facility are fulfilled tion. Relationship between credit by the contractors. Any kind of fund that provided forprovider and client cannot be built sanitation development will not bringovernight. It is a result of long-term Conclusion good result if there isnt behavioral cha-relationship. This credit relationship Sanitation development is impor- nge toward sanitation within the com-should not be managed as one-off trans- tant not only because it benefits the munity. It is worth to consider mixingaction that only targeted for single pur- owner but also it benefits the wider sanitation credit with another profitablepose. Trust and confidence are part of community as a whole. Good sanitation credit types such as micro-enterprisecredit quality development. These can can significantly decrease the spreading credit and water service credit so that aonly be achieved through long-term of bad hygiene related diseases. cross subsidy mechanism can be deve-relationship. A limited resource -- especially loped. (MJ) 8 Percik July 2005
  10. 10. M AIN REPORT Lesson Learned from Micro-Credit Projects Across the World SOURCE: WWW.QTAWWA.ORG Every country has its own method in sanitation development. Its experiences are valuable to be learned by another countries. The following are some lessons from micro-credit projects in several countries. Lesotho T he Lesotho project was initiated in 1980 as part of a wider urban deve- lopment scheme. The program provided credit to households for investment in VIP latrines. The program was motivated by the household need for extended pay- ment. In order to receive credit, house- holds had to first dig a pit and provide a One of latrines in Honduras. deposit of 30 - 40 per cent of the total cost. Loans were typically in the range US$ 50 - 300. Although the money came from the education; Honduras Lesotho government, the Lesotho Bank Integration of the project into existing administered the loan since they had a bet- government structures; and The Co-operative Housing Foun- ter record on loan defaulters. Strong coordination in policy and dation (CHF) program is a national stra- In 1990, 600 loans had been ap- planning between different depart- tegy to provide loans for housing proved in response to 4.500 enquiries, ments promoting improved sanita- improvements in Tegucigalpa the capital 252 latrines had been built and 81 per tion of Honduras. As of 1993, the shelter pro- cent of individuals had paid up. Close to Looking at the credit scheme itself, gram had disbursed around US$4 million 1000 VIP latrines were actually built in repayment with interest was supposed dollars to Honduran NGOs for on-lend- the target area revealing that 80 per cent to ensure that households accepted full ing to some 4000 households. Sanitation had actually been built through private responsibility for sanitation. However, was identified as a niche in this market initiatives highlights the success of pro- administration costs for the loan were and a UNICEF grant of US$350,000 was motion program and the availability of an high compared to their size and addi- provided to establish a revolving fund for affordable and acceptable sanitation op- tional costs like the promotion and sanitation improvements. tion. A report written for the UNDP in management of the scheme were not The goal of the CHF program was to 1994 identified several keys to the success charged to the borrower putting a ques- develop NGO capacity so that they would of the project: tion mark over its long-term sustain- be able to develop their own credit lines Affordable and acceptable latrine ability. from other government departments and design; This case study reveals the need for eventually the private banking sector. Minimal direct grants or subsidies to clear aims and objectives. The project This meant that they first had to establish householders; was successful at promoting sanitation a track record of making and recovering A comprehensive program of VIP but it did not create a sustainable micro- loans successfully. latrine promotion, health and hygiene finance institution. Loan agreements were made directly Percik July 2005 9
  11. 11. M AIN REPORT SOURCE: COMMONORGARDEN.BLOGS.COM were sometimes paid off early to be re- placed by larger longer-term agreements for more substantial housing improve- ments. Provision of reliable technical advice and help in negotiating construction con- tracts was a key factor in attracting bor- rowers with plans to upgrade their sanita- tion facilities. Low income households often did not have information necessary to make an informed decision about sa- nitation provision. A prime function of the loan officer was to monitor construc- tion quality for the customer and use the ability to refuse disbursement to keep contractors in line. A large subsidy is built into the loan program i.e. the technical support pro- vided by the CHF but there is also provi- sion in the financial planning for CHF to get sufficiently close-to-market rate from NGOs to preserve the value of the funds asset base. When the NGOs take over the CHF function, the cost of expert staff will A public toilet in India. be much lower. with the NGO. No collateral was required India although the backgrounds of borrowers were closely investigated. Co-signers The success of this Sulabh is an Indian NGO employing were used to guarantee payments. Typi- scheme can be related to 20,000 people which was set up to cally the loan would have a duration of 3 the wide range of options market low-cost twin pit latrines in years and be paid off in monthly install- in terms of the type of urban slum areas. 500,000 households ments. The average rate of interest was 15 have gained access to credit through per cent which was low compared with improvement made, the both formal and informal mechanisms, alternative sources of informal finance loan term and the quality the latter making use of agents who through money lenders or retail credit. of the improvement market loans and collect from pur- The NGOs achieved a very high recovery offered by lenders. chasers on flexible terms. rate 95 per cent in the early years. Some SULABH sets targets collection even developed alternative credit lines as rates for these collectors, but doesnt planned. The prospects for integration burden them with formal book-keep- with the formal sector therefore seem avoided the one size fits all approach. It ing. Although SULABH has received very encouraging. was discovered that household were often grants, the extent of the latrine pro- The success of this scheme can be prepared to chose the high cost option if gram indicates that it is financially related to the wide range of options in the incremental increase in property viable and reaches the poor. The non- terms of the type of improvement made, value was considered to be high. transparency of loan terms may reflect the loan term and the quality of the im- The flexibility of loan terms meant the use of truly informal systems based provement offered by lenders. Borrowers that borrower and lender could test the on price discrimination and minimal could tailor their lending package to their loan system at lower risk to them both. record keeping. individual needs and hence the initiative Smaller shorter-term loans for sanitation (MJ) 10 Percik July 2005
  12. 12. M AIN REPORT Experiences from Family Latrine Credit in Yogyakarta U rban Yogyakarta is consisted of Reasons why the community dont have family latrine Yogyakarta Municipality plus several villages in Sleman Reasons Yogyakarta Sleman Bantul District and Bantul District. For a glance, Financial difficulties 17 57 38 the city seems quite beautiful. Almost all There is no space available 37 10 8 people own good quality sanitation facili- Not settle enough yet 23 4 5 ties. Nevertheless, there are many house- Satisfied enough with current condition 11 15 35 holds that dont have family latrine. They Others 12 14 14 defecate on rivers, rice fields and drainage channels during dawn and dusk. tor. This is for people who dont have Based on a study, there are 79% of anymore space in their house for sa- To solve limited fund households in Urban Yogyakarta that nitation facility. have family latrine and 21% of them Well-planned and consistent cam- problems, there is a need (approximately 31.500 households) dont paign for hygiene. to develop a program to have any sanitation facility (5,34% defe- revolve soft loan within cate in river; 3,09% defecate in public toi- Sanitation Revolving Fund the community. lets built by government, private-owned Program The program must be public toilets and in their neighbors toi- To solve limited fund problems, there designed to suit with local lets ; 14,53% defecate in river, ponds, is a need to develop a program to revolve community condition. backyards, etc). soft loan within the community. The pro- If every person generates 0,2 kg of gram must be designed to suit with local feces per day, there will be 31,5 tons of community condition. To tap fund from There are 150 households that partici- feces discharged everyday directly to the formal financial institution for the pro- pated in the project, originated from environment by the community as a gram is very complicated and difficult. Potorono, Tegalmanding and Condong- whole or roughly 945 tons of feces per Sanitation is categorized as consumption catur. The amount of each loan was rang- month (equal to 250 trucks fully loaded activity while loans are only available for ing from Rp 350.000 - Rp 400.000 per with feces). productive activities. There is also a com- latrine. Within 2 years, the result was Several reasons why people dont mon assumption that the poor are unwill- satisfying enough : build family latrine: ing to repay their loans. However, there is There are only 4,8% of non-perfor- Main reasons: a fact that proves otherwise. A NGO, ming loans, 87% of total loans were Financial difficulties Yayasan Dian Desa (Dian Desa repaid as scheduled and a small pro- There is no space available Foundation), using a small amount of portions of loans were rescheduled. Other reasons: fund from SDC, conducted a pilot project The maintenance of built facilities Not settle enough yet. in 1995 - 1996. The program covered fol- were far better than those of public Satisfied enough with current lowing activities: facilities that built by governments condition Soft loan provision, with 8% interest loan. etc. per month and 30 months repayment Some reasons that motivate the com- period. munity to build latrines as follows: To solve this problem, there are three Free of charge technical assistance for Economic reasons ((possibility of to programs that can be developed: the community. open hostels, food stalls, etc.) Revolving fund for sanitation facility Design for underground construction. Higher social status. provision. This program directed for The design provided by Yayasan Dian Other those who have financial difficulties Desa to ensure the quality of the con- There were various obstacles and dif- but already have available space for struction. The design for upper gro- ficulties during the project execution. But construction. und construction wsa fully customi- was better to start something than doing Public toilets operated by private sec- zed to satisfy households preference. nothing. (Prianti Utami/MJ) Percik July 2005 11
  13. 13. I NSIGHT Healthy Latrine and Strong Posyandu I n rural area, latrine provision is then Posyandus. One of possible ways By: Momon Hermansyah* still a problem and cannot entire- is revolving fund program that de- ly solved. High population growth signed together with the community to and low income complicate the pro- ensure its sustainability. blem. Beside, there are reasons why Additional activities in Posyandu most of the community members dont include: Efforts and Results own a family latrine: Water and sanitation construction Revolving credit for latrine con- Unawareness. They think that all promotion struction in Yogyakarta pioneered by sanitation matters are bared upon Children and infant development Yayasan Dian Desa. They conducted a the government. monitoring pilot project in 1993. the project pro- Cultural. For some people that live Communicable diseases abatement vided loan for the community to con- near riverbanks or irrigation chan- And other rural community health struct latrine. The loan repaid within 12 nel, it is convenient enough for efforts months with 1% monthly interest. them to defecate on the river or irri- Within 4 years there were 400 latrines gation channel or even on their own constructed in Potorono, Umbulmar- backyard. Although they have to Communitys inability to tani and Condongcatur. walk as far as 500 to 1.000 meters build latrine and poor In 2002, [e] Foundation worked from their house. together with Coordination Body for performance of Posyan- Financial inability. To provide some Health Promotion and PKK (family money to construct a latrine is not du will result in nega- health education) of Umbulmartani easy. They dont get used to save tive impacts. Thus, it is village to develop community based money and their income is only necessary to find some development concept that combined enough for daily needs. with community action plan concept. ways to empower the Health service for children is also a The cooperation was aimed to em- problem. Most of local women institu- community and streng- power the community to construct tion such as Posyandu (integrated then Posyandus. their own latrine and to strengthen the health service post) are not optimally Posyandu. functioning. Nevertheless, Posyandu Because of positive impact resulted roles are: from the program, in 2003 Ford Motor Improving and maintaining com- It is a shame that most of these Conservation and Environment Grant munity health. activities and services are not available provided additional fund to enlarge the Improving social cohesion within anymore in Posyandus. Some services, coverage of the program. the community. due to limited supporting facility and The main feature of the program As a place to exchange information. fund, only available for weight mea- was simple. Credit was provide for surement and vitamins provision for latrine construction with 24 months of Services that provided in Posyandu children. repayment period. The interest is 1,5% are: Communitys inability to build la- per month that divided for three dif- Nutrition improvement trine and poor performance of Posyan- ferent allocations: Family planning du will result in negative impacts. 0,7% allocated to support Posyandu Diarrhoea and upper trachea infec- Thus, it is necessary to find some ways 0,3% allocated for administration tion prevention to empower the community and streng- cost,12 Percik July 2005
  14. 14. I NSIGHT and 0,5% allocated to Latrine Construction and Posyandu Strengthening increase the capital for the Concept revolving loan. Lessons learned Some lessons learned from [e] Foundation Revolving the program: PKK fund transparent partnership with the Star-up Village Chief among all parties that in- money select eligible volved in the program. Direct involvement of wo- debtors and administering men through local institution credits in neighbourhood health im- provement. 1. Latrine Lower investment cost for construction latrine construction. Monitoring & and develop- evaluation ment Repayment Conclusion 2. Strengthening To achieve those positive Posyandu results, trust and respect must with subsidy be given to the poor. It is based from repayment on perspective that the poor interest arent " the have not" but rather they are "the have little". Their little potentials as individuals target can be united and used as an group effective tool to solve their own problems. At the point where communi- ty able to solve their problems and develop synergic and sus- tainable way of life, community participation in development is achieved. The government does- PARTNER FIRST BUILT LATRINE AMOUNT OF SUBSIDY nt need to interfere any kind INSTITUTION BATCH UNTIL 2004 FOR POSYANDU matters that can be handle by the community themselves. This BKPK 12 units of 41 units of latrines 51 Posyandus that received Rp is the real principle of develop- [e]Foundation latrines were built, 50.000 each. The fund was used ment. The question is "are we Rp 1.250.000,- and another 29 units to buy new equipments and for Umbulmartanis of latrines were still Additional Food Program willing and brave enough to do PKK each under construction it?". *) Head of quality control division of Assosiasi Konsultan Pembangunan Ford Motor 15 units of 28 units of latrines 10 Posyandus that received Rp Permukiman Indonesia Cab. DIY dan Company latrines were built, 75.000 each. The fund was used to Staf pada Badan Koordinasi Promosi [e]Foundation Rp 1.500.000,- and another 11 units buy new equipments and for Kesehatan - Dinas Kesehatan DIY Umbulmartanis each of latrines were still Additional Food Program PKK under construction Percik July 2005 13
  15. 15. I NSIGHT Solid Waste management through Eco-cycle Society T here are many ways of Based on eco-cycle philoso- solid waste manage- By: Yuni Erni Agustin phy, SYSAV built various regio- ment. All of them ha- nal solid waste facilities, which ve their own unique charac- are: teristics. There is a model of Produk Waste to Energy Plant at Product solid waste management that Malmo worth to try in Indonesia. Around 25 ton solid waste con- This model is used in south- verted into heat every hour. ern Sweden. The plant connected to heat The model was developed generator plant in Malmo and by SYSAV, a company owned Bahan Raw Residu Residue Burlov, generates 600 GWh by 9 municipalities in south- Baku heat every year. ern Sweden. The company material serves 500.000 citizens. Eve- Integrated landfill Spillepengs ry municipality is responsible at Malmo for collecting solid waste The facility equipped with sep- from households and indus- arator, composteHousehold tries, while SYSAV is respon- Solid Waste Recycle Centre sible for further handling and There are 9 recycle centres, disposal of collected solid one in each municipality. The waste. Natural Sumberdaya Final Pembuangan recycle centre only take recy- The model is called Eco- resources Alam disposal Akhir clable solid waste such as Cycle Society, a concept of paper, bottles, electronics, regional closed-loop solid households tools and haz- waste management. The mo- ardous household waste (bat- del is intended to conserve teries, neon lamps, etc) energy and materials within the community. The philosophy is to Lund Transfer Station reduce solid waste generation by reuse, The model was developed by The station built to achieve efficient recycling and recovery activities. SYSAV, a company owned by solid waste transport from the At the picture above, can be 9 municipalities in southern source to the final disposal or han- described that generated solid waste Sweden. The company serves dling sites. can be: 500.000 citizens. The model should be implemented reused as the same original product in Indonesia. Even more, regarding the (i.e.; reused bottles) WJEMP (Western Java Environmental recycled as raw materials for biologically stabilized through Management Project), an aid from another products (i.e.: paper composting process or digestion World Bank, which one of its program waste) and feed back to nature. is to form Jabodetabek Waste Mana- used as fuel to reduce un-renew- disposed safety for long term envi- gement Corporation (JWMC). able fossil fuel consumption ronmental protection. 14 Percik July 2005
  16. 16. I NSIGHT Community Participation to Support Water Supply and Environmental Sanitation of a Settlement AreaD uring the New Order regime the- Service Priority re were many public facilities By: Erik Armundito*) Not all of the localities had the pleas- built all over the country. From Winner Third Place ure of project subsidized water supplywater supply facility, MCK (bathing, Article Writing Competition and environmental sanitation facility. Itwashing and latrine facility), hand pump, is limited to certain areas. It is thereforerural road, garbage bin, and so on. But at they drink is water that does not meet the necessary to determine the priority ofpresent most of those facilities are not qualification of drinking water. Similarly service delivery for a project subsidy. Thefunctioning. Even, the facilities built by with other hygiene facility they use daily. steps to be taken consist of:Directorate General of Cipta Karya, espe- It is, therefore, necessary to motivate Design a set of objective criteria tocially those for water supply and sanita- and push the community to actively par- determine the priority community.tion services are nicknamed "Cipta Karya ticipate in every project offered to them. What must always be borne in mind isMonument" because they are standing They will assume a responsibility because the availability of reliable data andthere alone and out of function. A lot of they belong to it. This makes the role of a information about the area and com-money has been spent. Most of it came facilitator very important. A facilitator munity condition so that the criteriafrom foreign loan. Similar case happens acts as liaison between the project could be applied objectively and accu-with physical construction projects im- provider with the community. The faci- rately.plemented by NGOs. Project or program litator interprets the objective and pur- Coordinate with the government andfailure is caused by inappropriateness pose of the project provider to the com- NGOs for site or community selection.(unsuitable technology) and lack of com- munity and conversely between the com- This is intended to avoid overlappingmunity participation. munity aspiration to the project provider. of projects in a given area. In the future water supply and eviron- Recruitment and training of facilita-mental sanitation development projects tor to help in community educationmust take into consideration the active Community participation and participatory processes. The faci-participation of the community will not grow by itself, litator recruitment should also take because the community into consideration the track record orCommunity Participation has never had any expe- experience of the candidates. Community paricipatio is defined as Priority should be given to the mostinvolvement of the respective in the plan- rience in planning a needy greedy area. There must be aning, construction and project operation. project. Most of the definitive criteria, for instance the poorThis includes community imvolvement times there is a lack of families, rural areas or other prioritizedin: awareness in the part of group. Example: Determining project objective; the community itself. Unproductive area where income Accumulation of resources; source is wanting; Benefit of the project; Areas where facility needs improve- Assessments whether the project has We will also see how sucessful the ment; achieved its objective(s); development and operation of AG Tank Areas with endemic diseases; Sustainable project management ba- in Malang that was tinitiated by Agus Areas where water is scarce and lack sed on the community resources. Gunarto. One man initiator is what is of health service facility; Community participation will not needed to persuade the whole community Areas with poor hygiene behaviour.grow by itself, because the community to participate in developing an environ- For areas with middle and rich fami-has never had any experience in planning mental sanitation facility of a settlemeent lies the awarenes to hygiene and environ-a project. Most of the times there is a lack area. Because it is fully supported by the mental sanitation is generally more fa-of awareness in the part of the communi- local community the AG tank is still func- vourable. For water supply and environ-ty itself. They never realize that what tioning up to the present. mental sanitation they wont hesitate to Percik July 2005 15
  17. 17. I NSIGHT SOURCE: RHEIDDA Pspend some money to build a private orpublic facility. They have left behind allthe habit that is detrimental to health.Promoting Participation If the performance of water supplyand environmental sanitation in a settle-ment area is unsatisfactory, mistargetedor non-sustaining, we have to find out theroot causes. There are several possiblereasons that must be taken into conside-ration, they are (i) difference in opinionbetween the community and the projectplanner pertaining to the particular facili-ty; (ii) the focus is set on subsidy ratherthan sustainable benefit; (iii) lack of sup-port assistance to the community, espe-cially after the construction. It is necessary to identify the factorsthat may trigger an active participation.In general, demand and urgency maystimulate active community participationin subsidy based projects. Take forinstance demand for water supply. Wateria a basic need for human to live and itmust be available every day. The commu-nity demands access to drinking watersupply and this will generate an aware- the future? It is therefore, important to or a new management team. In here aness to help in any way possible to have a make sure about the project sustainabili- common responsibility will be nurtured.water supply facility developed. ty. Are we going to end with physical After the formation of the management Similarly with environmental sanita- facility or do we want it to be used sus- organization the community must also betion. For instance, with the outbreak of tainably and serves as an example to other involved in contribution for O&M cost.contagious disease because of poor habit, places? The awareness and responsibility that hasthe community demand for sanitation After project construction and the de- been growing will make the contributionfacility is growing significantly. These are tails for reporting and publication are collection easier.the conditions that must be taken into completed the facility is usually transfer- Before the physical construction isconsideration by project provider when red directly to the community for opera- completed the community should beplanning a project for the community. tion. Problems will soon arise pertaining given the knowledge on how to operate to the use and management as to what the machinery such as hand pump, eletricSustainability of Project and Faci- institution is to do the job, amount O&M pump, septic tank, latrine, etc. The com-lity cost, how to operate the equipment, up to munity will later on operate those things A hamlet or a vllage has managed to the requirement for spare parts. by themselves.build an improved sanitation facility. From the beginning the community The role of facilitator in determiningWater supply for drinking, washing, ba- should be involved in organizing the res- the priority is to help in filling the gapthing and sanitation as well as impro- ponsible institution or organization to run between the community and the projectvement of their dwelling. But what about the facility. Whether it is the village ad- management. His job is to bring the com-their use. Whether they satisfy the peo- ministration, youth group, the local munity into the direction of the projectple? Can they manage it sustainably to neighbourhood level administration (RT), planning because the success will signifi- 16 Percik July 2005
  18. 18. I NSIGHTcantly depend on the effectiveness of ronmental sanitation project assistance its members to actively participate inpartners job. must be supported by the locally existing project assistance. For machineries that are used contin- organization. Whereas for organization that oppo-uously will naturally breakdown and The possible linkage between the ses the project (i) opposes the project byspare parts must be made available. The organization to the project is as an active organizing contradiction in meetingfacility to get the spare parts must be partner and collaborator in the project forum and debates that could hamper thetaken into consideration. implementation, both in terms of finan- project implementation; and (ii) provoke cing and in moral support. On the con- the community to deny the project assis-Selection of Facilitator trary, the organization may also act as the tance. The attitude to be taken towards Project planners usually speak with main opponent. the opposing organization should be tothe community through the local leaders Therefore, before starting with a pro- accommodate the aspiration they bringwho is considered as representing the ject it is necessary to make a preliminary forward. An honest opposition can becommunity. Male and female facilitators assesment on the existing organizations useful to test the proposal. Such a denialcould work with female and male indivi- within the project site and its vicinity. may serve a strong instrument to identifyduals or in group depending on the type With a better knowledge of the organiza- the weakness in planning, approach asof job that brings him or her to a planning tions a big potential for project imple- well as implementation.process. mentation is in hand. If an organization opposes a plan it Selection of a facilitator can be done What could be expected from the doesnt always mean it is entirely againstthrough an open advertisement like an partner organizations may be (i) take pre- the project. It may be that there were inemployment opportunity in a newspaper, liminary activity for local committee the past similar projects that were misori-or through a direct individual recruit- ented and unsustained. The resourcesment process. Or through a recommen- generated from within the communitydation from the local community leader, were spent in vain. This should be con-government or NGO. A facilitator may be sidered as a valuable input to improve therecruited from the local community If an organization opposes existing weakness. It is up to the projectmembers or from the neighbouring areas. a plan it doesnt always provider to make approaches to theThe most important thing is that he or mean it is entirely against opposing organizations in order to con-she must know the area, and is acceptable vince the value of the incoming project the project. It may beby the community. In areas where the and will not repeat the mistakes made bycommunity is deeply religious the facili- that there were in the the earlier projects.tator can be hired from religious leader, past similar projects thatreligious teacher, or a mosque youth were misoriented and Conclusionactivist. For a community who is fanati- From the above discussion one could unsustainedcal to a certain political party the facilita- conclude that the success of a regionaltor can be hired from party functionaries. level project subsidy, particularly waterFor other areas with specific dominant supply and environmental sanitation intendecy the facilitator whill have to be settlement areas, is grossly determinedadjusted with it. by the active participation and support of A facilitator must be able to become a (interviewing, project promotion, fun- the local community. Also by the specificgood listener within the community and draising, etc); (ii) fundraising for publici- issues that become the characteristic of amotivate the community to express their ty, consultancy, etc.; (iii) permission for given locality or community. Althoughopinion. A long experience and nice cha- using its organization name as sponsor, the project is intended for the communi-racter will be quite beneficial in making joining one or more program for the pro- ty, its sustainable use and managementwater supply and environmental sanita- ject; (iv) preparing a definite and clear also demands the respective communitytion development project especially in notice about the project in meetings or participation. There is a need for coordi-settlement area a success. leaflets and distribution of education nation between the sudsidy provder, the materials as means for membership edu- government, the village level govern-List of Organization Potentials cation; (v) conducting discussion in a ment, the community and the existing The success of water supply and envi- meeting about the project; (vi) organizing organization therein. Percik July 2005 17
  19. 19. I NSIGHT Hygiene is an InvestmentW e may often hear a slogan hat capacity. We may say that City A is clean- reads "Hygiene is an By : Sandhi Eko Bramono, er that City B. The question is how much Investment." The statement S.T., MEnvEngSc.*) is communty contribution in order tocontains a persuasion to the community reach the same level of hygiene quality? Ato always keep the environment hygienic, ideal situation. The number garbage bins different level of contribution, followedand the connotation of which is mostly must be adjusted, frequency of collection with limited government budget to pro-related to waste material dumping. But so and transport is reduced in accordance vide subsidy, as well as community will-far, there is no clear formula, what kind of with community payment capacity, waste ingness to accept a certain level of hygienehygiene quality is to be achieved in order material collection and transport will quality as a service from the government,to stimulate an investment initiative, how have to be adjusted with the availability of is a relative characteristic from city to city.big is the investment value in terms of cartmen and trucks that the community A possible simplification is assuming thatcurrency that may be generated as a result can pay, up to the quality of cleanliness of each city has the same level of contribu-of a hygiene parameter, or conversely how river that could be maintained at a level tion capacity both from the governmentbig is the real social investment building commensurate with community payment and the community, and the communityup within the society as a consequence of has an equal taste in producing hygienehygiene? quality. This confusion and This confusion and difficulty can beParameter of Hygiene Quality overcome through creating an ideal situa- difficulty can be over- It may not be quite clear and easily tion of a good waste material system andcomprehensible, what kind of hygiene come through creating formulation of hygiene quality classifica-quality is expected to be satisfied in an an ideal situation of a tion of a city based on its community con-urban environmental management. The good waste material tribution capacity. In this manner, wenumber of available domestic waste bas- will not blame anyone if City A is more system and formulationkets, number of roadside garbage bins, hygienic than City B. This is because thefrequency collection and transport of of hygiene quality clas- paying capacity of city B community iswaste material, capacity of collection and sification of a city lower than that of city A. On the othertransport all of the waste material pro- based on its community hand the community of city B does notduced, up to cleanliness of a river that have to be jealous with hygiene quality of contribution capacity.flows past an area are measureable city A because the community of city B isparameters to quantify hygiene level. comfortable with the hygiene condition of However, each area or city, has a limi- SOURCE: WORKING GROUPtation in its waste material managementcapacity to support the intended hygienelevel. The main limitation must be basedon availabiliy of fund for its waste materi-al management system. How far is thecapacity of the community and willing-ness to pay waste management fee at alevel of the intended hygiene quality, it isthe duty of the government to formulatethe quantifiable level of hygiene as thecommunity desire. This can be donethrough a calculation based on an idealsituation, the size of investment needed toreach the intended waste material man-agement. The availability of fund is theyardstick to measure the level of hygienequality to be achieved, in terms of the 18 Percik July 2005
  20. 20. I NSIGHTits city. Thus, the hygiene quality classifi- unscrupoulous dumping of wastes, suchcation of a city should be determined as it as the case in the Integratated Wastewill become the standard criterion. On Material Disposal Site at Bojong in The entry of outsidethe other hand the central government Jakarta and the Lewigajah Disposal Sitemust also determine the standard mini- investment that may in Bandung, will never happen again.mum cost for waste material manage- propel the economic This means that the community does notment system for every city in Indonesia, gear of one particular have to pay for a social cost arising fromone which sets a minimum hygiene qual- unrest or disaster caused by waste mate- area or a city, is alsoity standard of a sanitary and hygienic rial.community and environment. determined by the level of its environ- Limitation of InvestmentInvestment Entry mental hygiene The size of fund to be made available On the other hand, the entry of out- by the community and the government toside investment that may propel the eco- subsidize a waste material managementnomic gear of one particular area or a system depends on three factors, namelycity, is also determined by the level of its community contribution capacity, go-environmental hygiene. A strategically vernment subsidy, and the willingness oflocated city having a sufficiently good air- ning somewhere else. This will eventual- the community to obtain the intendedand seaport, convenient access to trans- ly eases the community burden as the hygiene quality. The government mustport facility, and availability of good serv- waste material producers in paying con- determine the minimum standard costice delivery system, can be adversely tribution, and reduces the amount of for waste material management that mi-affected by the level of its hygiene condi- waste material management subsidy by nimizes the negative effect of the hygienetion. As a consequence of poor waste the regional government. quality of the community and its environ-material management, it is not impossi- ment. Ech regional government mustble, that a city with such a favourable Social Investment have determined the intended hygienefacility is less attractive to the eyes of The hygiene level of a city would cer- quality for its respective area, taking intoinvestors. tainly affect the health and quality of consideration the above mentioned fac- On the contrary, a city with good environment of the surrounding commu- tors.waste material management system, a nity. The government must be able to cal- Therefore, the central governmentwell maintained and clean waterway, well culate the extent of social investment must determine the limit of minimun costcollected and daily transported of the within the community as a result of an and hygiene quality to be applied in theentire waste material produced, not loca- acceptable waste material management regions. The basic and simplest mile-ted in a strategic located, without a suffi- system. As an example, with an accept- stone is how much is the investment costciently good sea- nor airport, and lack of able waste material management system and O&M cost of waste material manage-excellent service delivery system, may there will a reduced epidemy from flies ment system that is being planned that isalso discourage investor to come in. and rats contaminated diseases, a reduc- capable of providing a minimum stan- In this case, it is necessary to make a tion in infection on the upper respiratory dard hygiene quality of the sanitary anddetailed cost analysis to determine the tract, increasing of recreational facilities, hygienic community and the environ-level of investment and O&M costs of a more business from within the communi- ment. In so doing, the slogan that readswaste material management system to ty, and even lessons learned and aware- "Hygiene is an Investment" can be formu-guarantee that investor would put up his ness of the luxury and importance of lated and spelled out in a comprehensiblecapital there. Each city does not need the hygienic environment. These conditions and quantifiable manner.same cost because each has its specific represent parameters that are quantifi-characteristics. It does not to expect that able in terms of currency unit. Money *) Graduate from School of Civil andthe hygiene quality of city C is equal to that was used to pay for health care Environmental Engineering, UNSW, Australia.that of city D. With a specific cost and because of illness caused by unscropolous Member of InSWA (Indonesian Soliddifference between the two cities, a city dumping of waste material, will be substi- Waste Association) and member of IATPI, currently UNDP Technical Consultantmust be able to provide investment tuted as a cost to buy more nutritious for Waste Management in Maluku andexpected to happen in it, and not happe- foodstuff. Social friction caused by North Maluku Recovery Programme. Percik July 2005 19

×