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Indonesia Water Supply and Sanitation Magazine. 'PERCIK' Vol 5  August 2004
Indonesia Water Supply and Sanitation Magazine. 'PERCIK' Vol 5  August 2004
Indonesia Water Supply and Sanitation Magazine. 'PERCIK' Vol 5  August 2004
Indonesia Water Supply and Sanitation Magazine. 'PERCIK' Vol 5  August 2004
Indonesia Water Supply and Sanitation Magazine. 'PERCIK' Vol 5  August 2004
Indonesia Water Supply and Sanitation Magazine. 'PERCIK' Vol 5  August 2004
Indonesia Water Supply and Sanitation Magazine. 'PERCIK' Vol 5  August 2004
Indonesia Water Supply and Sanitation Magazine. 'PERCIK' Vol 5  August 2004
Indonesia Water Supply and Sanitation Magazine. 'PERCIK' Vol 5  August 2004
Indonesia Water Supply and Sanitation Magazine. 'PERCIK' Vol 5  August 2004
Indonesia Water Supply and Sanitation Magazine. 'PERCIK' Vol 5  August 2004
Indonesia Water Supply and Sanitation Magazine. 'PERCIK' Vol 5  August 2004
Indonesia Water Supply and Sanitation Magazine. 'PERCIK' Vol 5  August 2004
Indonesia Water Supply and Sanitation Magazine. 'PERCIK' Vol 5  August 2004
Indonesia Water Supply and Sanitation Magazine. 'PERCIK' Vol 5  August 2004
Indonesia Water Supply and Sanitation Magazine. 'PERCIK' Vol 5  August 2004
Indonesia Water Supply and Sanitation Magazine. 'PERCIK' Vol 5  August 2004
Indonesia Water Supply and Sanitation Magazine. 'PERCIK' Vol 5  August 2004
Indonesia Water Supply and Sanitation Magazine. 'PERCIK' Vol 5  August 2004
Indonesia Water Supply and Sanitation Magazine. 'PERCIK' Vol 5  August 2004
Indonesia Water Supply and Sanitation Magazine. 'PERCIK' Vol 5  August 2004
Indonesia Water Supply and Sanitation Magazine. 'PERCIK' Vol 5  August 2004
Indonesia Water Supply and Sanitation Magazine. 'PERCIK' Vol 5  August 2004
Indonesia Water Supply and Sanitation Magazine. 'PERCIK' Vol 5  August 2004
Indonesia Water Supply and Sanitation Magazine. 'PERCIK' Vol 5  August 2004
Indonesia Water Supply and Sanitation Magazine. 'PERCIK' Vol 5  August 2004
Indonesia Water Supply and Sanitation Magazine. 'PERCIK' Vol 5  August 2004
Indonesia Water Supply and Sanitation Magazine. 'PERCIK' Vol 5  August 2004
Indonesia Water Supply and Sanitation Magazine. 'PERCIK' Vol 5  August 2004
Indonesia Water Supply and Sanitation Magazine. 'PERCIK' Vol 5  August 2004
Indonesia Water Supply and Sanitation Magazine. 'PERCIK' Vol 5  August 2004
Indonesia Water Supply and Sanitation Magazine. 'PERCIK' Vol 5  August 2004
Indonesia Water Supply and Sanitation Magazine. 'PERCIK' Vol 5  August 2004
Indonesia Water Supply and Sanitation Magazine. 'PERCIK' Vol 5  August 2004
Indonesia Water Supply and Sanitation Magazine. 'PERCIK' Vol 5  August 2004
Indonesia Water Supply and Sanitation Magazine. 'PERCIK' Vol 5  August 2004
Indonesia Water Supply and Sanitation Magazine. 'PERCIK' Vol 5  August 2004
Indonesia Water Supply and Sanitation Magazine. 'PERCIK' Vol 5  August 2004
Indonesia Water Supply and Sanitation Magazine. 'PERCIK' Vol 5  August 2004
Indonesia Water Supply and Sanitation Magazine. 'PERCIK' Vol 5  August 2004
Indonesia Water Supply and Sanitation Magazine. 'PERCIK' Vol 5  August 2004
Indonesia Water Supply and Sanitation Magazine. 'PERCIK' Vol 5  August 2004
Indonesia Water Supply and Sanitation Magazine. 'PERCIK' Vol 5  August 2004
Indonesia Water Supply and Sanitation Magazine. 'PERCIK' Vol 5  August 2004
Indonesia Water Supply and Sanitation Magazine. 'PERCIK' Vol 5  August 2004
Indonesia Water Supply and Sanitation Magazine. 'PERCIK' Vol 5  August 2004
Indonesia Water Supply and Sanitation Magazine. 'PERCIK' Vol 5  August 2004
Indonesia Water Supply and Sanitation Magazine. 'PERCIK' Vol 5  August 2004
Indonesia Water Supply and Sanitation Magazine. 'PERCIK' Vol 5  August 2004
Indonesia Water Supply and Sanitation Magazine. 'PERCIK' Vol 5  August 2004
Indonesia Water Supply and Sanitation Magazine. 'PERCIK' Vol 5  August 2004
Indonesia Water Supply and Sanitation Magazine. 'PERCIK' Vol 5  August 2004
Indonesia Water Supply and Sanitation Magazine. 'PERCIK' Vol 5  August 2004
Indonesia Water Supply and Sanitation Magazine. 'PERCIK' Vol 5  August 2004
Indonesia Water Supply and Sanitation Magazine. 'PERCIK' Vol 5  August 2004
Indonesia Water Supply and Sanitation Magazine. 'PERCIK' Vol 5  August 2004
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Indonesia Water Supply and Sanitation Magazine. 'PERCIK' Vol 5 August 2004

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  • 1. Information Media for Water Supply and Environmental Sanitation From the Editor 1 Your Voice 2 Advisor: Main Feature Director General for Urban and Solid waste is still a "waste" 3 Rural Development, Ministry of Settlement Facts about solid waste 3 and Regional Infrastructure Reducing methane gas emission from a final disposal site 6 Learn about solid waste from the Chinese 9 Board of Head: Good environmental governance to increase the regional governmentsDirector of Human Settlement and Housing, concern to environment 11 National Development Planning Agency Republic of Indonesia Interview Bad solid waste management, poor health condition 13 Director of Water and Sanitation, Ministry of Health ArticleDirector of Urban and Rural Eastern Region, Solid waste as a source of energy. A challenge to the world of Ministry of Settlement and Regional solid waste management in Indonesia 16 Infrastructure Pre-study on waste material. Case study: The city of Surabaya 18 Director of Natural Resources and Solid waste management in Makassar 20Appropriate Technology, Director General on Water supply and environmental sanitation program Village and Community Empowerment, management and future challenges 22 Ministry of Home Affairs The problem with water supply and environmental sanitation Director for Facilitation of Special Planning in Kab. Kebumen 23 Domestic waste water processing system in the city of Tangerang 25 Environment Management, Solid waste brings a blessing to the village of Temesi, Ministry of Home Affairs Kab. Gianyar, Bali 27 Chief Editor: Reportase Oswar Mungkasa Mrs. Bambang Wahonos role play: Manager solid waste, makes Banjarsari green Board of Editor: Solid waste capsule, a model for long termHartoyo, Johan Susmono, Indar Parawansa, solid waste storage 29 Poedjastanto Telescope Bandung Municipal Cleaners, Inc. 35 Editor: Maraita Listyasari, Rewang Budiyana, Book Info 37 Rheidda Pramudhy, Joko Wartono, Essy CD Info 38 Asiah, Mujiyanto Website Info 39 Visit Design: WASPOLA program dissemination in the province of Gorontalo 40 Rudi Kosasih Windfall over Pringga Jurang 41 Production: About WASPOLA Machrudin The implementation of National Policy for Community Based WSS Development at the regional level 42 WASPOLA working group workshop 44 Distribution: WASPOLA Central Project Committee meeting 45 Anggie Rifki About WSS Address: MPA/PHAST Orientation Training 46 Jl. Cianjur No. 4, Menteng, Jakarta Pusat WWS Working Group Took Part in Nusantara Water 2004 47 Phone/Fax.: 62-21-31904113 ProAir Project Planning and Evaluation Meeting 47 e-mail: redaksipercik@yahoo.com Appropriate Technology Seminar: Waste water processing 48 Preparation of ProAir Project in Kabupaten Alor 49 WSS Bibliography 50Unsolicited article or opinion items are welcome. Agenda 51 Please send to our address or e-mail. Glossary 52 Dont forget to be brief and accompanied by identity.
  • 2. F ROM EDITOR Dear Reader, SOURCE: OM Percik is now pacing into a new stage in its effort to reach a wide rage of drinking water and environmental sanitation stakeholders all over the country. Percik is now spreading itself all over the areas between Sabang and Merauke, though, yet in a limited number. Praise to God, Percik has gained a wider acceptance. This is evidenced from the many responses addressed to us. Some even wish to subscribe with payment -whereas Percik is distri- buted free of charge. This of course is quite pleasing. Last week, together with WASPOLA Program and the WSS Working Group as our parent organization we attended Nusantara Water 2004 at the Jakarta Convention Center. This we did as an effort to bring Percik closer into the inner circle of WSS related stakehol- ders. We will keep on trying to make this magazine better and better acknowledged as a reference and is WSS Working Group always sit down on floor if they met in workshops. used as a means for communication by those involved in this field. Dear reader, in this edition, Percik presents to you the main feature about solid waste. Why? Solid waste is still a a systemic manner. More than that, material since a long time ago. Thanks nagging problem in this country. M. Gempur Adnan, Deputy State to her perseverance her neighbour- Environmental sanitation issue cannot Minister of Environmental Affairs for hood, located in the heart of Jakarta, is be separated from solid waste. Regional Environmental Management now green and nice looking. This place Everyone knows that, but not many Improvement indicates that it all has turned into a tourist attraction. have real concern about this problem. depends on the mutual commitment of Many visitors both domestic and for- This is like a saying, "Let the dogs bark, the stakeholders. Without such com- eigners come to learn what the woman the caravan will keep moving," solid mitment do not expect any complete has done. And, because of her efforts waste problem never finds its solution solution could be reached. Funding is she has won several distinction and despite many words have been said only a priority number so-and-so. acknowledgements. about cleanliness and health. This time Percik also presents you As always, Percik comes with the Solid waste is not simply a techni- articles from solid waste material usual columns. We hope there will be cal problem. One that relates to what related activists and practitioners. We comments and inputs from the readers technology is to apply and how much hope that the various articles in refer- so that the magazine could steadily money is to avail. The Secretary ence to the main feature will con- improving itself. Lastly, we hope this General of Ministry of Settlement and tribute to our common knowledge magazine is useful to you, our dear Regional Infrastructures, Budiman about waste material. readers. Arief, explains that. The key, he says Not less interesting, there is a Best regards. that waste material must be treated in report of a woman managing waste 1 Percik August 2004
  • 3. Y OUR VOICE MDGs lack eagerness making their best effort towards the solid waste safety section of Kabupaten socialization. We are also having our Musia Rawas, South Sumatra, towards Congratulations for the publication of share in this effort by publishing it in Healthy Indonesia 2010. Percik. Permit me to suggest that Percik of the last edition. What we did is H. Syamsul Anwar Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) nothing without a systematized social- Head of Dinas Kesehatan should be more strongly socialized to the ization movement by the stakeholders Kabupaten Musi Rawas regional community in order to generate themselves. (The Editor) eagerness and its echo more audible in We are very pleased if the readers the ears of all in the community. In this could obtain benefit from Percik. The way the community would be inspired magazine is published to disseminate and eventually develop a moral obligation Helping Regional various policies and programs related to to make the MDGs goals and targets into drinking water and environmental sani- reality. Stakeholders tation and at the same time also as a means for stakeholders to mutually Natalia Silitonga With the publication of a media spe- share information and experience. Office of the Bupati Toba samosir cialized in water supply and environmen- (Editor) Economic Section-Head of Kimpraswil tal sanitation (Percik) it has helped us in Sub Section, Jl. Pagar Batu No. 1 Balige our job to build interaction with the We have received many letters North Sumatra stakeholders in order to create a common expressing congratulations and acknow- understanding and cooperation between ledgements from the readers who have Your suggestion does indeed conform the stakeholders and the Dinas Kese- received Percik that it is impossible for us to our expectation. The stakeholders are hatan particularly hygienic water and to mention them one by one. (Editor) PAPER WRITING COMPETITION The Water Supply and Environmental Sanitation Working REQUIREMENTS Group in collaboration with the Ministry of Settlement and 1. Competition is open to the public Regional Infrastructure invite authors to a competition in 2. Length of paper is 10-15 pages folio, at writing essay: 1.5 spacing and is written in Indonesian language 3. The paper has never been published TITLE: anywhere else MANAGEMENT OF COMMUNITY BASED WATER 4. The participant must enclosed a photocopy of his SUPPLY AND ENVIRONMENTAL SANITATION personal identity 5. The paper must be submitted to the Committee the SUB TITLE: latest on October 28, 2004 1) Community Empowerment in the management of 6. The winner of the competition will be made known water supply and environmental sanitation to the public on November 28, 2004 7. Winner Prizes: 2) Community based funding in the management of First Prize : Rp5.000.000 water supply and environmental sanitation Second Prize : Rp3.000.000 3) The institution for the community based water Third Prize : Rp1.500.000 supply and environmental sanitation management For further details please contact: 4) The role of women in the community based The Committee of Writing Competition water supply and environmental sanitation Jl. Cianjur No.4 MentengJakarta Pusat management Telp. 62-21-31904113 2 Percik August 2004
  • 4. MA I N F E A T U R E SOLID WASTE Is Still A Waste SOURCE: MUJIYANTO thousand tons, Surabaya 1,7 thousand We cannot escape from solid waste. Every day there must tons, and Makassar 0,8 thousand tons of be something we have to throw away. In the office, at solid waste every day (Damanhuri, home, and elsewhere. It is not surprising, therefore, that 2002). Such an amount calls for a con- if we fail to properly manage solid waste it will become siderable amount of effort to handle it. Based on the above data the total area scattered all around us. for final disposal site is estimated at 675 ha in 1995 and will increase up to 1.610 ha F or some people a piece of paper or generation in Indonesia. But based on in 2020. This condition will cause a big a bagful of waste doesnt mean Bappenas estimate as quoted from Buku problem considering that the scarcity of anything. But as the paper and Infrastruktur Indonesia (Indonesian empty space especially in big cities. One domestic waste accumulate with similar Infrastructure Book) in 1995 the waste of the examples is the difficulty faced by material from many people, problem will material production in Indonesia is esti- the government of Jakarta after Bantar arise, especially in urban areas where mated at 22,5 million tons, and in 2020 it Gebang facility is no more available. land space is a scarce resource. The fact will increase to more than twofold into indicates that the potential area for the 53,7 million tons. In big cities of Solid Waste Handling formation of waste material generation Indonesia each person is estimated to Based on BPS data in 2001 only 18,03 keeps on increasing from time to time. cast away 600-830 grams of solid waste percent of the waste was transported, every day. 10,46 percent buried, 3,51 percent turned Waste material generation As an illustration, we could quote the into compost, 43,76 percent burned, and There is no accurate data that tell us data from several big cities. Jakarta pro- the remaining 24,24 percent was dumped accurately the amount of waste material duces 6,2 thousand tons, Bandung 2,1 into rivers, empty lots, etc. It can be seen Percik 3 August 2004
  • 5. M AIN FEATURE that the amount of waste transport- The community awareness ed was very little, the same is the Waste Handling Penanganan Sampah (%) of cleanliness is relatively suffi- portion for compost production, cient though it is limited within while the portion which was burned ones own property. Their 60 and dumped into an unlikely place homes are free from litters but reached 68 percent. This condition 50 unfortunately the waste materi- 40 persen Percentage indicates the potential source for al is dumped into places like water and air pollution including a 30 drainage, river, and even an medium for disease contamination. 20 empty lot belonging to a neigh- Even in the city proper, the portion 10 bour. NIMBY (not in my back- of waste material burned and un- 0 yard) phenomenon is quite Carried scrupulously dumped in unlikely Diangkut Piled composting Burned Lainnya Ditimbun Made Dibuat Dibakar Other dominant here. This condition place amounts to 50,76 percent. Kompos has developed from the absence The portion of the total waste being of a satisfactory waste material buried is still relatively high at management service. 10,46 percent. Plastic and similar Perkotaan Perdesaan Total Urban Rural Total If we try to compare between material is a resistant compound Source: National Bureau of Statistics, 2002 the communitys willingness to and is relatively difficult to decom- contribute for water supply and pose, therefore, burying such kind of The Main Issue garbage handling service, the latter is re- waste is not a good idea. Compost ma- The low coverage of waste material latively lower. This is because the com- king is not widely known among the pop- management service, especially in the munity does not have any idea what waste ulation. cities can adversely affect health condi- material handling looks like. Most of the final disposal sites are tion, may cause various abdominal as well The requirement for land space for designed to apply sanitary landfill tech- as rat infested diseases. Part of the waste final disposal site is increasing. It is nec- nique. But as time progresses most of is disposed of into a river which is potent essary to find an alternative waste materi- them turn back into open dumping (70 cause to flooding during wet season. The al handling method that requires the least percent) and only 30 percent still practic- method and practice for reducing the land area. ing controlled landfill and sanitary land- amount of waste is generally known to us On the other hand, there is presently no fill. Several cities are practicing con- and though in a small scale it is practiced national policy for waste material manage- trolled landfill technique. They are: Ja- particularly by the scavengers. Com- ment that may serve as a legal umbrella for karta, Bandung, Semarang, Surabaya, posting is also done but in a very limited an initiative taken by an interested group or Padang, Malang, Yogyakarta, Pontianak, scale. stakeholders. The existing regulations are Balikpapan, Banjarmasin and Denpasar. In the meantime, the existing final partial and scattered in various regional ad- The reason for less sanitary landfill in disposal facilities are not properly ma- ministrations or government sector agen- Indonesia is because of lack of manage- naged. In order to bring down the size of cies. It is natural therefore, that up to now ment discipline in following the technical pile and the failure to benefit from the there is neither institutionalized system, co- procedure, insufficient O&M budget, dif- methane gas produced from the decom- ordination nor integration in waste material ficulty in obtaining dirt soil for cover, position process part of the waste materi- management. shortage of heavy machinery, low techni- al is burnt down. While in the Kyoto With the beginning of regional auto- cal capacity, and an absence of scavengers Protocol duly ratified by the government, nomy the responsibility for waste materi- organization in the final disposal as an a reducing methane gas emission is pre- al management is relinquished to the integrated part of the operation. requisite. Other issues related to final regional government. But unfortunately, disposal management include unplea- there are many regions do not consider Characteristic of Waste Material sant smell, degradation of water quality waste material issue a priority. This is Solid waste in cities is different from from waste material disposed of directly evidenced from the lean budget set aside the villages. In general, 80 percent of into the river, penetration of leachate into for dealing with waste material problem. city wastes consist of organic material, surface and ground water sources, air the remainder is inorganic. Half of the pollution and spreading of carcinogenic Policy for the future inorganic waste is plastic material. dioxin compound. It is compulsory that in order to find a 4 Percik August 2004
  • 6. M AIN FEATURE solution to solid waste problem, a sys- 3. Increasing inter-regional coordi- temic and integrated approach must be Waste material issue is not nation in waste material management applied involving all the stakeholders. limited within a single city, Solid waste issue is not limited within The more so with the proclamation that rather it also involves the a single city, rather it also involves the world zero waste must be reached in neighbouring regions. Air, neighbouring regions. Air, water and soil 2025. Several steps that can be taken pollution involves an extensive area water and soil pollution towards that direction are among others: beyond an administrative boundary. involves an extensive area Therefore, selection of a final disposal site 1. Minimizing the production of waste beyond an administrative which up to now is based on administra- through the application of 3R (reduce, boundary. tive region is irrelevant. In the future it reuse and recycle) principle. will become compulsory to develop a It is necessary to introduce this princi- regional solid waste management system ple extensively into the community at this matter is improvement of awareness as a common effort to solve difficulty in large in order to make them willing to and responsibility in solid waste manage- obtaining a land space for solid waste dis- reuse and to recycle their waste. This step ment. The community can assume the posal site. is of course preceded with a community role in, (i) management (reducing its pro- education program about the importance duction); (b) supervision (keeping an eye 4. Development of new technologies of separating domestic waste to make the throughout the management process); (c) The capacity in solid waste related ser- following process easier. The 3R concept user (as individual, group or together vices depend on the available technology. will be more effective if it is supported by with the business sector take benefit from An optimum management can be achieved a legislation, provision of reward and the waste material); (d) operator (operate if it involves a suitable technology. That is punishment as appropriate, to all related and maintain a waste material treatment why, an application of new technology can stakeholders, whether the scavengers, the facility); (e) funding agency (see the dia- be one alternative for improvement of solid ordinary community members, and oth- gram). waste management capacity especially in ers. Further, the conversion of waste to cities. energy is worth a serious attention because there is no 5. Extensive campaign in hy- one is presently taking a seri- SYSTEM AND MECHANISM OF ROLE OF COMMUNITY giene behaviour ous attention in this. If the Solid waste management will MONITORING SYSTEM waste has found its utilization not be effective unless there is a since the very beginning of its Funding agency common awareness that a hygien- Supervision production than the sanitary ic environment is also their basic landfill facility will not need a demand. The improvement of large area any more. Sanitary awareness must be done con- landfill is only used for the Management Community tinuously to all segments of the treatment of residue from an community. Hygiene education Reduce incinerator. Operator Compost program must be inserted in Reuse school curriculum since early on. 2. Increasing the role of Human Resource Finally, increasing the interest the community and the busi- Recycle as operator and Economic Activity off all solid waste related stakehol- maintenance Industry ness sector ders can no longer wait. How so- Sorting Recycle The step in minimizing - Transportation phisticated in the technology, plenty feet Source of solid waste production will Organic Waste of money to send, good human - Biogas plant production not be effective unless there is Inorganic Waste - Incenerator resources capacity, but without - Final Disposal an active participation of the Dangerous Waste Site interest from the stakeholders, community. They are the pro- Together with solid waste will remain waste. ducers and they will suffer the business sector OM/MJ most if waste material is not properly managed. The key to Source: Ministry of Environment Percik 5 August 2004
  • 7. M AIN FEATURE Facts About Solid Waste FOTO: OSWAR MUNGKASA What is solid waste? Waste is a material rid of or thrown away from mans or natures activity and has no immediate economic value What is the classification of solid waste? Based on its origin solid waste can be classified as, (i) domestic waste con- sisting of household refuse, rubble from a building demolition, sanitation and road litters. In general this kind of waste comes from settlement and commercial areas, (ii) dangerous materials such as refuse from industrial plant and from a hospital, which may contain poisonous substance, such as used battery, shoe po- lish, drug containers, (iii) medical waste. Based on its shape it can be classi- fied as, (i) dry inorganic waste such as metal, can, bottle which will not decay naturally, (ii) wet inorganic waste such as Type of waste material Time to decompose durable material instead of one time only. from kitchen, restaurant wastes, food Organic waste (plant, fruit 1-2 weeks The advantage of 4R principle is crumbs which will decay naturally. (iii) etc.) reducing greenhouse effect, less air and Paper 10-30 days dangerous waste material, such as used Cotton dress 2-5 months water pollution, energy saving, conserva- battery, used syringe. Wood 10-15 years tion of resources, less land space for final Based on degradability solid waste Woolen dress 1 year disposal, generating employment, and Aluminium, can, and similar 100-500 years can be classified as, (i) biodegradable, material promoting green technology. solid waste that will decompose naturally Plastic bag 1 million years? Solid waste type depends on com- such as organic wastes including kitchen Glassware Not known munitys cultural habit. In modern so- waste, fruit, flower, leaf and paper, (ii) must be made as near as possible to its ciety especially in big cities plastic non-biodegradable consisting of recy- origin. In connection with solid waste material is widely used. As an illustra- cleable wastes such as plastic, paper, reduction we are acquainted with 3R prin- tion, the majority of domestic waste is glassware; poisonous waste like medicine, ciple (Reduce, Reuse, Recycle) which later plastic bag brought home from the paint, battery, shoe polish, medical waste became 4R (Reduce, Reuse, Recycle, store, or styrofoam ex food container. such as syringe. Refuse). The basic difference between 3R Plastic waste is a great threat to our and 4R principle is the additional of environment because it takes about one What is the time needed for solid Refuse principle (sometimes also called million years before it fully decompos- waste to decompose? Replace) which focuses on using a more es (at that time world may have ended The time needed for solid waste to in a doomsday). This condition makes decompose depends on the type of the us aware of the importance of applica- 4R (Refuse, Reuse, Recycle, Reduce) material. In general, organic waste tion of 4R principle in order to mini- decomposes immediately, while other 1. Refuse. Use a more durable material mize solid waste production. Therefore material such as plastic is estimated to instead of one time only the movement for reducing solid waste decompose in one million years. 2. Reduce. Produce less waste production must start from its place of 3. Reuse. Use material that can be used origin, i.e. the household. Therefore What step can be taken to minimize more than once. the application of this principle domestic solid waste production? 4. Recycle. Use a material than can be depends to a large extent on the com- Solid waste production can be mini- recycled later on. munity awareness. mized. The principle is the reduction 6 Percik August 2004
  • 8. M AIN FEATURE FOTO: MUJIYANTO The time needed for waste material to decompose depends on the type of the material. In general, organic waste decomposes immediate- ly, while other material such as plastic is esti- mated to decompose in one million years thick dirt layer. Later the site will be made into a parking lot. How can solid waste be treated? taken. (iii) Sanitary Landfills. Unlike an ordi- There are at least 5 widely known (ii) Landfills. This is a relative better nary Landfill a sanitary landfill uses water- methods in solid waste treatment: disposal site as compared to open dump. proff material to prevent leachate pollute (i) Open dumps. Solid waste is dis- After dumping the solid waste is covered the surrounding. The operational cost for a posed of in an open space and let it to rot with dirt soil and compacted. After all the sanitary landfill is considerably higher. naturally without any further action space is used the site is covered with a (iv) Incinerator. Solid waste is put into a separator to pick out all the recycla- ble material. What is not recyclable is incinerated. Incineration is usually the FACTS ABOUT SOLID WASTE IN THE U.S. last alternative to pick. Solid waste han- In 2001 waste production amounted to 209 million tones or approx. 4,4 dling is more inclined to medically pounds per capita per day. Increased twofold from the amount of 1960. favourable handling technique. About 30% is recycled, 15% burned, and 56% transported to disposal site. (v) Composting. A biological process In 1990 recycling and composting reduced 64 million tons of solid waste that enables microorganisms decompose that should have been transported to disposal site. At present 30% of waste organic wastes into farm manure. material is recycled. This percentage increases twice compared to the condition 15 years ago. Recycling of used batteries reached 94%, paper 42%, plastic bottles 40%, What is the responsibility of the beverage and beer can 55%. producers? The number of final waste disposal sites reduces from 8.000 in 1998 to If the household is given a role to 1.858 in 2001 with relatively the same capacity. reduce solid waste production through 4R principle, then the producers must FACTS in OTHER COUNTRIES also be imposed with a clear responsibili- ty. The producers could help the house- United States is an industrialized nation with the biggest waste material hold in applying 4R principle. One of producer 4,4 pounds of waste per capita per day, followed by Canada 3,75 them is through EPR (Extended Producer pounds, and the Netherlands 3 pounds. Germany and Sweden are two industri- Responsibility) program which repre- alized nations with the least waste material production. sents an effort to promote the producer to United State is an industrialized nation with the highest recycling propor- reuse the product and packaging it pro- tion at 24%, followed by Switzerland 23% and Japan 20%. duces. An incentive program to produc- ers is a must. OM Percik 7 August 2004
  • 9. M AIN FEATURE Reducing Methane Gas Emission SOURCE: FANI WEDAHUDITAMA F inal disposal site is the largest contributor in methane gas emis- sion in the US, and probably also in Indonesia. Whereas a disposal site is actually one of energy source potentials. LFG (landfill gas) is produced when solid waste is undergoing decomposition. This gas comprises 50% methane (CH4), the main component of natural gas, and the rest is carbon dioxide (CO2). As an illus- tration, in December 2003, there are 360 LFG based power generating projects in the US and another 600 potential final disposal sites for similar establishment. Some of the advantageous from using LFG based energy are, (i) reduce unplea- sant smell, (ii) minimize methane gas tricity is equivalent to planting 60.000 and cost saving. emission and negative effect to global cli- acres of forest a year or reducing CO2 The LFG utilization program in US mate. It is estimated an LFG project can emission of 45.000 cars a year. This has significantly reduce methane emis- reduce up to 60-90% of methane gas pro- amount of energy can replace the use of sion at an amount of 14 metric million duced in the disposal site, depending on coal for 1.000 locomotives or the use of tons carbon equivalent (MMTCE), a be- the technology applied. Methane gas is 500 barrels of fuel oil, (iii) reduce air pol- nefit in reducing green house gases from processed to produce water and CO2 lution through burning less non-renew- planting 18 million acres of forest or when the gas is converted into electricity. able fuel, such as coal, natural gas and oil, reducing annual emission of 13 millions To produce approximately 4 MW of elec- (iv) creating new employment, income of cars. While the other 600 waste dis- posal sites with potentials for generating Solid Waste and Climatic Change electricity from methane gas, based on calculation, can generate power for the W e may not quite aware that solid What is the waste material man- consumption of 1 million homes. waste can influence the climate agement strategy for reducing There are several processing alterna- through emission of green house gases in emission of green house gases? tives for converting methane gas into several ways. energy, (i) electric power generator, (ii) Minimizing the production of organic direct use in lieu of the ordinary fuel like What is the linkage between solid waste for processing in the final disposal natural gas, coal and petroleum, (iii) waste to climatic changes? site. As the waste decomposes methane cogeneration, a combination of heat and First. Solid waste decomposition at gas is released. power (Combined Heat and Power/CHP) the final disposal site produces methane Reducing incinerating of solid was- to generate electricity and heat. gas which is 21 times stronger than CO2 te . This will reduce the production of Aside from the benefit of converting in producing green house effect. CO2. LFG into power it should also be borne in Second. An incinerator releases CO2, Recyclable waste usually need less mind that the process is also producing the same type of gas produced by the energy for the processing, thus emission an emission of NOx gas which is detri- trucks transporting the waste. could be kept to a minimum. mental to ozone layer and causing foggy smoke to the surrounding. OM 8 Percik August 2004
  • 10. M AIN REPORT Learn About Solid Waste from the Chinese SOURCE: ENDANG SETYANINGRUM T he Olympic contest in Athens was However, Beijing which produces 9.000 over, the Bamboo Curtain country tons of waste material per day (in com- will in turn host the meeting in parison to 6.000 tons in Jakarta) has an Beijing in 2008. In anticipation to the excellent service, in terms of its coverage forthcoming event the Chinese people are (90%) as well as its quality of service. busying themselves from straightening Although no separation is made at its up the problems of infrastructures till source origin, but the transfer stations making the city presentable and clean. are equipped with such a facility. In this The scene is quite obvious in Beijing, the way the waste transported to final dispos- capital city. Although this is seemingly al is only the residual. Then the organic still a long way off, the city is tidying itself waste is processed into compost, in a city up and infrastructure development works scale facility with the present capacity at are rolling steadily. It is of course under- 200-400 tons/day. standable, because they dont want to The collecting and transportation are find out that the city with 16 million peo- almost the same with our condition here, ple disappoint the athletes, officials and including the tricycle cart and compactor supporters from all over the world while truck. But the transportation quality and they stay there as their guests. efficiency is excellent because one trans- For the Olympic event the Chinese fer station is built at 8 km spacing. The government has issued a special policy final disposal site applying sanitary land- for the improvement of city environment fill method is also in a sufficiently good including its solid waste management quality. The table below presents the system. The city government has formu- reader the total, area and capacity of lated a local policy for waste material landfills in Beijing. management containing, (i) increase the level of coverage to 98% in 2007; (ii) Table 1 Landfills in Beijing recycle and composting 30% of total solid No Location Area (Ha) Capacity waste; (iii) solid waste separation at the (tons/day) source up to 50% in 2007; (iv) in 2007 landfill management meets standard 1. Bishinshu landfill 33,7 1000 environmental requirement; and (v) con- 2. Liutilun landfill 46,5 1500 tinuing development of leachate process- produce the standard effluent set for ing technology in order to meet the 3. Asuwei landfill 60 2000 Beijing. The following table indicates the required effluent standard. 4. Anding landfill 21,6 700 process and effluent quality from several landfills in Beijing vs. the effluent stan- Solid Waste Management The components of a landfill com- dards for China and Beijing. Condition prise a waterproof base, leachate collec- Technical Aspect tor network, leachate pond, oxidation Table 2: Leachate processing result Solid waste management in Beijing is ditch, a drainage ditch around the land- not too far different than it is in In- fill, gas collector (presently is to be Tipe Parameter Effluent quality parameter donesia. The composition and characte- burnt), control road, and buffer zone, Landfills Landfills Type of Leachate Proses Pengolahan kualitas efluent leachate Processing Leachate COD COD BOD BOD Amonia Amonia ristic of solid waste in both places is al- weighing scale, heavy machinery, water Beishinshu Diangkut ke sewerage Transported to sewerage - - - most similar. The handling process from tank, dirt cover, office, sport facility, a treatment plant treatment plant the initial source up to the final disposal stock of dirt for cover. Liulitun Oxidition Ditch Oxidation ditch 324 22,9 17 Asuwei Oxidation Ditch Oxidation ditch 787 126 24 is also the same, including the fact that no Though the facility is relatively suffi- Pilot Test RO Filtrasi dengan reverse osmosis 3 - 17 - 1,2 – 15 Reverse osmosis filter separation is done in the source. cient, the leachate processing does not Membrane 9 Percik August 2004
  • 11. M AIN REPORT SOURCE: ENDANG SETYANINGRUM Table 3: Effluent standards Management China and Beijing aspect The city government of Beijing is highly com- COD < 300 < 60 mitted to improving BOD < 150 < 20 the landfill quality Amonia < 25 < 25 (except for the efflu- ent, at present it is in a Final dirt cover is done using clay soil, satisfactory condi- geo textile, bentonite, and clay/top soil. tion). The land is then planted with vegetation The existence of seri- and is kept as an open space. ousness and profes- sional attitude of the Management aspect field workers is a valu- Waste management in Beijing is oper- able asset to the suc- ated by "Solid Waste Agency" (BSW-AD). cess of Beijing clean This institution gets its funding (invest- program. In Indonesia ment as well as O&M) from the city gov- 50% level. For Indonesian case a seri- generally, the workers with a cleaning ernment budget and from the community ous application of 3R principle must job feel themselves as "men from odd contribution. The amount of tariff start immediately. place". depends on the size of family. A family of The transportation process is very effi- The contribution collected from com- more than 3 members is charged at an cient, because transfer station is loca- munity is based on incentive to smaller amount of RMB3 per person a month ted within the radius of 8 km. In Indo- families; in Indonesia incentives can be (equivalent to Rp3.000). For a family of nesia it is built at a more than 25 km applied based on a lesser amount of three or less RMB2 per person per month. spacing. waste. Community participation in Beijing is A high capacity (200-400 tons/day) Enforcement of regulation against lit- highly commendable, but the role of pri- composting installation is con- tering has been quite effective; in vate sector in management is lacking. sidered advantageous (good com- Indonesia such a deed is conducted post quality and is used by the far- indifferently and bears no marked con- Lessons learned mers). In Indonesian application sequence, one is more afraid of run- Technical aspect big scale composting can be done ning against traffic light, or "three in A coverage increase to almost 100% in without the necessity for application one regulation, or failure to put on 2007 indicates the seriousness of go- of the principle of economic benefit safety belt than throwing litters out of vernment commitment. This condition system. the window. is needed for a metropolitan city like Sanitary landfill applied in the final The community is quite conscious in Jakarta. disposal is appropriate considering the clean environment. In Indonesia this Although Beijing hasnt been applied availability of support components and kind of consciousness must be built; it the 3R principle, but the separation operational reliability. For Indonesian might be necessary to include it in process conducted at the transfer sta- application it is deemed necessary to school curriculum since early age. tion has contributed a satisfactory build a strong will and hard work in The above lessons can be adopted by result. Big/metropolitan cities in improving landfill quality. the Indonesian policy makers. Why not Indonesia can adopt the practice by The application of a stricter effluent take a lesson from China, the Bamboo putting up transfer stations equipped standard for Beijing has pushed the Curtain nation whose city cleanliness is with separation facility. development of leachate processing comparable to that of European and Another interesting thing is that for the technology such as reverse osmosis Japanese cities? purpose of 2008 Olympic Games in (RO), all for the sake of safeguarding Endang Setyaningrum, Directorate of 2007 solid waste separation right at the environment particularly water Metropolitan, Ministry of Settlement and Regional the initial source is targeted to reach resources. Infrastucture, Member of WSS Working Group 10 Percik August 2004
  • 12. M AIN REPORT Governance Development Program To Increase the Local Government Concern to Environment I n the absence of Adipura award, the GOAL AND AIM OF GOVERNANCE DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM attention to cleanliness is fading out. The local governments that used to be so eager to compete among Governance each other for a clean and beautiful city Regional Effective Development government government have almost gone, especially after 1998. Program Good Towns and cities that used to keep a rela- Environmental tively high mark in cleanliness, have sud- House of Governance denly gone down in evaluation conducted Civil Society Representative Empowered Program Public in 2003. This happens in almost all big Society cities -metropolitan, big, medium and Stakeholders small- of Indonesia, as can be seen in Table 1. has become and how urgent is the Capacity Development, M. Gempur demand to redeem it, so that they could Adnan, describes the essence of Good make an action plan for environmental Environmental Governance Program is sustainability. However, the precondi- strengthening coordination system to tion for an effective and sustainable envi- enable the government to get the most ronmental management is the establish- accurate response so that solution to the ment of good governance. It is from there most urgent issues could be taken. The that a new paradigm was born, i.e. good system development includes the mecha- environmental governance. nism to guarantee that all parties This paradigm becomes the under- involved could voice out their ideas in a lying principle for a Governance Develop- democratic manner, guarantee of a fair Metropolitan City Big City Medium City Small City ment Program of the Ministry of Envi- and transparent procedure in planning ronment designed for the purpose of to and implementation, and the application This fact tells us that in many places strengthening the capacity of the local of standard and criteria to judge a fair of this country the environmental issues government to practice good governance and transparent implementation. Some tend to increase. Some happens natural- principle in environmental sector and at of the elements in the Governance ly, but many are caused by human hands the same time also improve the perfor- Development Program that are influen- in line with the increasing number of mance of government administration. tial in the achievement of Good Environ- population and a greater demand for na- This program is supported with Program mental Governance are as the following: tural resources and living space. Thats Warga Madani (Civil Society Program) 1. Motivation of the Head of the Regional why, there is a need for capacity improve- which is directed towards community Administration; ment in environmental management. empowerment. The Governance Deve- 2. Competence and commitment of chief The old centralized model is no more lopment Program started implementa- of institution; applicable, it should be replaced with a tion in 2002. It was launched in Bali on 5 3. Human resources capacity; decentralized model. Each region may June to coincide with commemoration of 4. Existence of a support policy; utilize all its potential and mobilize all the Environment Day. 5. Establishment of accountability sys- segments of its community and be aware The Deputy Minister of Environment tem; of how serious the environmental hazard for Regional Environmental Management 6. Availability of fund. 11 Percik August 2004
  • 13. M AIN REPORT During 2002-2003 the activity was lected are fed into the baseline data bank Charter) is given to towns/cities whose focused on the monitoring and evaluation and are updated on yearly basis. Capacity performance is nearing the predeter- of environmental issues of the cities and development policy and program is for- mined criteria. Last June there were 15 urban areas, covering the aspects of solid mulated based on the existing data. towns received Anugerah Adipura and 15 waste management, management of ve- In the second implementation year others won the Piagam Adipura. The getative covered open space, manage- (Jun 2003 - May 2004) the number of award was made by the President in a ce- ment of public facility, and water pollu- participating towns/cities increases to remony held at the presidential palace. tion control. This year 59 cities join the 123. Out of this number 31 are qualified The program does not end here. This program. Beside a direct field observa- for nomination as the cleanest will continue. Of course with some tion each region is given a set of question- towns/cities for winning Adipura award. adjustments in terms of monitoring and naires to fill in. Evaluation is made on This award consists of Anugerah Adipura evaluation and in its institutionalization managerial, learning capability, institu- (Adipura Award) for towns/cities whose aspects. The ultimate goal remains, tion, physical output, and innovation performance exceeds predetermined cri- establishment of good environmental aspects. The information and data col- teria, and Piagam Adipura (Adipura governance. (MJ) M. Gempur Adnan, Deputy Minister of Environment for Regional Environmental Management Capacity Development "The key, Local Government Commitment" E veryone knows what to do with the area messy. We will encourage eve- limit up to these three things first solid waste. Everyone also ryone to make litter free and clean city because the condition in the regions is knows the shortcomings con- an issue. If this issue is not brought to that messy. If we tackle all at once, nected to it, such as technical, financial, the surface the local government will nothing will happen. This program is equipment, and human resources. But remain indifferent. Currently we are in essence quite similar to the Adipura. why does the problem persist? Neither doing our best to raise this solid waste The mechanism is what makes it diffe- in those regions to where once an assis- issue up to the decision making level, rent. In the good governance program tance has been given. Then what is the regional and central. In this way we there is the capacity building compo- keyword to this problem? We have hope regional and central commitment nent, which is absent in Adipura. In come to a conclusion that all this will develop and thicken. Imagine if the Adipura once a year, good governance depends on the commitment of the president voices out, the governor three times a year. Everything is trans- regional government. Do they, the speaks louder, then we can expect that parent. Each city knows what progress regional government and its communi- something will get done. This pro- it has made each time it is monitored ty, have any commitment to solve the gram will be voluntary in nature. It and evaluated. Other cities also have problem of waste material? If they do, consists of two components, one is to the opportunity to know. The commu- money is no problem. The area will be encourage clean and green city. The free from litters if the regional govern- second is capacity building. We encour- nity knows from the mass media ment is committed. Otherwise, whate- age the regions to improve their capaci- because we always try to expose it. We ver assistance given wont do any ty in environmental management espe- cannot expect, though, that the cities good.There is always problem with cially one related to city. We organize winning the competition is indeed money. It should be allocated to the workshops, training, comparative stud- clean. All is still dirty. But if we wait, right direction. Through this program, ies, etc. in relation to city management. when will they reach a preferred level of we intend to improvement the regional The focus is laid on solid waste, cleanliness? This means an endless governments commitment. To instill improvement in public facility, and veg- wait. We hope in 5 years there will be the feeling of disgraced once one finds etative covered open space. We will 50 clean cities in Indonesia. (MJ) 12 Percik August 2004
  • 14. I NTERVIEW Budiman Arief, Secretary General, Ministry of Settlement and Regional Infrastructure "Bad Solid Waste Management, Poor Health Condition" SOURCE: MUJIYANTOS o l i d w aste is not an easy problem to solve. As evidence, no definite solution has yet been found forsolid waste problem in Indonesia. Thereare many factors involved each intermin-gling with the others. That is why, solidwaste management is a system so that itsimplementation calls for a synergic effortfrom all the stakeholders. That is the essence of discussionbetween Percik and Mr. Budiman Arief,Secretary General, Ministry of Settlementand Regional Infrastructure in his office.The following are the excerpts of the con-versation: Speaking of the present solidwaste management in Indonesia,how does it look like? In general, solid waste management,especially of the cities, is insufficient. All this makes solid waste management aspect is inter-related with the others. IfThough it was sufficiently good when left behind. The attention by the kabu- we want success, all the aspects must bethere was the Adipura program between paten/city government is also declining. properly considered. First is institution-1986-1996, because it was motivated with There is probably interrelated factor al. The second, financial. The third, tech-the reward for the cities which could influencing. The absence of reward re- nical. The fourth legal; and the fifth ismaintain cleanliness. After that the con- duces the attention. Solid waste handling community participation.dition is declining. Only recently there is is actually one of the basic service to the Many would think that solid waste isanother program, good environmental public. Solid waste is closely related to purely technical, which is utterly mislead-governance which started in 2002. But health. A city without a good solid waste ing. All the aspects must mutually sup-the echo is not as extensive as the management one may be sure that the portive. Take for instance, the institu-Adipura because the number of partici- level of health condition is poor because tional aspect. If in a city the responsiblepants is limited. garbage piles are the homes of disease institution is given a very low status, the vector. institution will have a real hard time. A Why was the condition declin- section or sub-section chief will have dif-ing? Was it because of the absence What about financial factor? ficulty to see a Mayor because he is tooof reward or some other factor? If we look into solid waste mana- low an employee. Therefore there must There was no reward indeed. gement in general, and this we have be an agreement, that for a big city theSecondly there was that crisis. Solid informed to all kabupaten/kota govern- institution responsible for solid wastewaste handling is no priority any more. ments throughout the country, that there management must be a Dinas level. In aThe government attention is shifted to are 5 dominant aspects governing the medium city a sub-dinas, and not lower.poverty and all other related problems. solid waste management. Each of the Financially there must be sufficient 13 Percik August 2004
  • 15. I NTERVIEW fund. APBD for solid waste must not be How many regional govern- What is your opinion regarding too small. It will be difficult. In reality, if ments have been granted the stimu- the community awareness of solid it is managed properly, solid waste can lant? waste? generate income, though not 100 percent Since 2001 there have been many. We I think the community has not fully recovery. At least 70 percent of the have helped the newly established cities, understood the importance of solid waste expenses can be recovered from the con- for example as initial equipment we gave management. For villagers solid waste tribution. Thus the subsidy requirement them a truck. If later it turns out effective may have no significance because they is only 30 percent. If the financial aspect we add with another one. have enough empty space, but for towns- is not put into order and the contribution people it is just the opposite. The latter is not properly collected, the effort will What plan does the government cannot manage their wastes on an indi- only be wasting money. have for the future? vidual basis, rather they have to do it col- From the legal aspect, the regulation I think we have to continue with what lectively. But the problem is, most of the must be made effective. The regional go- we have started. Improvement must be townspeople come from the village. They vernment regulation must be specific and made to final disposal ground. The re- bring the villagers habit with them. None clear. If no action is taken against some gional government wants to apply sanita- of the services is given for free. littering, what will happen next. Waste is ry landfill, but the fact is merely open produced by mans activity, therefore law dumping. This is what causes many What is the linkage between the must be upheld. protests. Open dumping should have government step in solid waste From the technical aspect one cannot been left out entirely. We might not be handling with MDGs? do as one wishes. There is calculation to able to apply a sanitary landfill technique I think one of the objectives of the be made. What system to be applied, the in full, but we are heading there. We will MDGs is improvement of sanitation servi- time for transport, what will be done at provide assistance to a regional govern- ce. Presently we are preparing a National the disposal site. Then from the commu- ment who still has difficulty in handling a Action Plan. We have to translate MDGs nity participation, this is one of the most final disposal ground. into Indonesian condition. The MDGs important thing. If the community does objectives could be considered quantita- not support, the costs will become What should be done with the tive as it is also qualitative. All the wastes extremely high. Therefore community community? may be transported entirely, but if the participation must be built and increased. All the regional governments must transport is once a week or once in two All five aspects are inter-related. take action to educate the community weeks, qualitatively it is poor. Because about solid waste management. As an solid waste must be transported once in Does it mean there is no one example, there is a family who has paid a three days at the longest, otherwise it will single dominant factor? garbage collector but he is still required to begin to decompose. Thus the level of That is right. But the first thing is the pay a duty to the Dinas Kebersihan. This service may be considered in quantitative availability of fund. Otherwise what can will lead the community into confusion. as well as in qualitative manner. we do? But still, money is no guarantee. They should be given information that from the technical point of view solid Can MDGs sanitation target par- What has the government done waste management consists of waste col- ticularly with respect to solid waste in the solid waste management? lecting from individual homes, than be achieved in 2015? Depkimpraswil (ministry of public transport to disposal ground and finally If the standard is sanitary landfill like work) is responsible for preparing guide- the processing. the developed countries, I doubt that we lines. We have produced many guidelines The payment to RT/RW is only for could make it. But we can translate it in how to handle solid waste in the right man- collecting which represents 30 percent of terms of qualitative result. What is im- ner. That is not all, though. We also prepare the whole technical process. Sometimes, portant is that we make improvement a stimulant program. We make it available however, what the RT/RW collects too from the previous condition. That is why to the really interested regional government. much that nothing is left for the Dinas it is necessary to have a common agree- If not interested, we wouldnt give it because Kebersihan. Therefore, the community ment among the related government it would mean waste of money. Look at their must be educated so that they fully under- departments regarding our National effort and see in what way we could help. stand what is what in solid waste mana- Action Plan and how the targets would be This also is a kind of reward. gement. achieved. 14 Percik August 2004
  • 16. I NTERVIEW How do you look at the linkage handling would not be big as it for road handling should be done with insti- between regional autonomy and building or drinking water installation. If tutional approach? solid waste? the regional governments have the inte- What I mean is this. An institution is Actually, it has always been the rest solid waste handling could be done in something with a clear and definite responsi- responsibility of the kabupaten/kota go- the right manner. bility. There must be an institution, but the vernments. Pursuant to Law No. 22, community must be involved in a clear sys- Government Regulation No. 25, earlier What is the central government tem. For instance RT/RW or a community there was a government regulation No. 18 budget for solid waste handling? group is responsible in accumulation. The year 1953 which stipulates that solid As I said earlier, the government only institution will take care the transport from waste management is the responsibility of provides a stimulant. This Department the transfer stations to the final disposal the kabupaten/kota government. There- provides basic infrastructures such as ground. Therefore the responsible institu- fore, the responsibility rests with the drinking water, waste water, solid waste, tion must be clearly defined with a sufficient regional government. drainage, and roads. We do not only pro- level of power. vide them with a guideline but also a stim- Does it mean that the change ulant. This is intended to build attention What is your expectation with towards regional autonomy a few from within the regions our cities in the future? years ago has no effect to the SOURCE: OSWAR MUNGKASA responsibility in solid waste mana- gement? I should say so. However we now expect the regions would improve their performance in handling their wastes. What was before not very clear, it now becomes more obvious. What about inter-regional solid waste handling that causes friction such as the cases in Bantar Gebang and Bojong? Problem surely arises in a metropolitan city. In smaller and medium sized cities they can find solution because space is still rela- tively easier to find. In a big city like Jakarta, the management becomes more complex. That is why the sanitary landfill must be built Does it mean the budget is suffi- Cleanliness and orderly condition together with the other regions. Incinerator cient? must be established. Beauty is perhaps I think is too expensive both in terms of Not enough. Still too small. And the re- something of a luxury. investment as well as operational costs. We quired infrastructure is still insufficient. Cleanliness is the base point. If you have to be careful in evaluating the technical want to put something into order, cleanli- aspect. If our per capita income has reached Is there any country with compa- ness must go first. Bupati and the Mayor USD5.000 we may then think about an rable condition that we can learn a must give a bigger attention in this case. incinerator. lesson from? If there is a reward, I think it would be I think there is a need for a compara- even better. What is your opinion about the tive study to other countries with a com- regional attention with respect to parable condition. It is not a good idea to What does the cooperation look like? solid waste? go to developed countries like Australia or Solid waste is a NIMBY (not in my back- Insufficient, I have to say. Why did we Japan. Too far. We go to places nearer to yard) phenomenon. Those who are affected design Adipura? Because we thought us, such as a study to Kuching in must have a fair compensation. And the that solid waste handling would be done Malaysia. We have done it already. approach to the community is made in the well if there is a sufficient attention. I proper manner. reckon that an investment for solid waste From what you said, solid waste (mujiyanto) 15 Percik August 2004
  • 17. A RTICLE Solid Waste as a Source of Energy: A Challenge to the World of Solid Waste Management In Indonesia S everal technologies for elimination fossil fuel can be brought to a minimum, Sandhi Eko Bramono *) of solid waste have been tried for and reducing the exploitation rate of fos- application in Indonesia. The sil fuel from the earth. most commonly used technology is sani- waste can be processed into a new pro- tary landfill which is practiced in several duct with a higher market value and is The available technology big cities. A sanitary landfill is essential- needed by the community. Why? Becau- Composting is basically an energy ly a biological reactor in which solid waste se Indonesia is beginning to experience conversion process. But some of the undergoes anaerobic decomposition. One an energy crisis. Fuel oil is getting existing energy is released and the mate- of the products from the anaerobic scarcer, oil reserve is limited, and the rial produced contains a lower caloric degradation is methane (CH4) gas which price of crude oil in the world market is value. This is because the anaerobic com- contains a relatively high caloric value. increasing. There must be a renewable posting process produces a new solid and This could become a significant source of source of energy with less negative simpler material and releases carbon energy. impact to the environment. This is where dioxide (CO2) gas which is not readily energy from solid waste can take an alter- used as an energy source. There are seve- Compost is not sufficiently utilized native place, and at the same time as a ral other processes for converting energy Compost produced from city waste means for elimination of solid waste. In from solid waste into new substance. The cannot find a good market in Indonesia. so doing it is hoped that the burning of processes are among others: Farmers, estate crop growers, and gar- SOURCE: FANY WEDAHUDITAMA deners are not interested in using com- post. This is perhaps because compost does not provide additional nutrition to plant and soil, nor does it provide a direct increase to plant produce. Besides, com- post is not intended to take the role of chemical fertilizers. Compost is more useful for improvement of soil texture and increase water holding capacity of the soil so that water intake by plant roots increases. On the other side, the government does not suffi- ciently promote the community to use com- post. In a number of compost production installations the production is below the optimum rate, to finally stop production for lack of sustaining customers. Source of energy It is deemed necessary to embark on a new concept for handling the problem of city solid waste. As an alternative, solid 16 Percik August 2004
  • 18. A RTICLE SOURCE: FANY WEDAHUDITAMA high energy content. This product can be used as a biodiesel fuel (as an alternative or additive to solar fuel) which is now widely used. While a gasifikasi process produces high caloric gases. It is also worth considering as an alternative fuel. Incineration Process This process is relatively more costly than the processes mentioned above. Waste material with lowest moisture content can only produce not more that a natural tem- perature of 200°C. In the meantime the working temperature for this reduction process is between 600-800°C to form car- cinogenic and furan compounds. Research conducted in several incinerators in the US has not produced a satisfactory result in the reduction process resulting these two com- pounds, though the process was made at a temperature well above 600-800°C. The process produces a high temperature that As an energy generating process, the amount of can be used to propel steam turbine for energy input - output must be calculated in generating electricity. a balance between mass and energy. The extent of energy needed The input energy must be kept as low as possible, As an energy generating process, the and since the output of the process is also amount of energy input - output must be calculated in a balance between mass and energy, the total energy output can be calculated. energy. The input energy must be kept as low as possible, and since the output of the process is also energy, the total energy Anaerobic Process been taken in the form of high caloric output can be calculated. If the input is This process releases methane (CH4) methane gas. In comparison, in an aero- too big, it means the process is inefficient. gas, one with high calorie content. bic process the decomposition only pro- Besides, it is still necessary to make Sanitary landfill is essentially a large duces compost. If the anaerobic process further study about the energy extent that capacity anaerobic reactor. Several tech- is cut off up to the fermentation phase, i.e. can be used, because each output of a niques have been tried to increase the before methane gas is produced, the process has an extent of use. In this case, methane gas production. Recycling of result is alcohol which also contains a energy use efficiency under a certain leachate is one of the techniques for high energy content. The use of alcohol amount of energy produced from a certain increasing methane gas production and at and its derivatives as an alternative fuel is amount of solid waste must also be the same time speed up the solid waste also worthy of consideration. taken into consideration. It should also degradation process. However, a smaller be borne in mind that each process has capacity and specially designed anaerobic Gasifikasi and Pyrolitic Processes a certain extent of benefit from the out- reactor is easier to monitor and the con- Both processes require an additional put product. In this way the benefit can trol in the methane gas production kinet- energy to raise temperature up to 600°C be made as effective and efficient as ics than it is with a sanitary landfill. The in substoichiometric oxygen or no oxygen possible. residue from the process can be used as at all. The pyrolitic process produces *) Postgraduate student compost, of which part of the energy has solid material (char) and liquid (tar) with of UNSW, Australia 17 Percik August 2004
  • 19. A RTICLE Pre-Study on Solid Waste Case Study: The City of Surabaya B eside the need for additional posal ground (Moenir, 1983:33): space, moderately acceptable Fany Wedahuditama *) 1. Open dumping method infrastructures and facilities, po- 2. Sanitary landfill pulation growth brings with it an additio- 3. Baling method nal quantity of solid waste (Tchoba- Composition and processing 4. Incineration/thermal converter noblous, 1977: 4). According to the regu- technology 5. Composting lation, solid waste must be collected to a Basically, a technology applied for 6. ATAD (Autogenous Thermophilic transfer station, and later to be transport- solid waste processing must be able to Aerobic Digestion) ed to the final disposal ground, separa- solve the problem or at least minimizing Each of the methods has its advan- tion is made between wet and dry solid the intensity of the problem (Ryding, tages as well as disadvantages. That is wastes. Finally the wastes are processed 1994:71). In determining the type of tech- why, in order to prevent a wrong choice with a number of different technologies, nology to be applied consideration must that would lead to failure in solid waste for instance sanitary landfill, composting, be based on the composition of the solid management it is necessary that each of burning in an incinerator, ATAD (autoge- waste (Cointreau, 1982:iv). the methods be thoroughly studied. Solid nous thermophilic aerobic digestion) waste transport has its role in determi- technology, and so on. AVERAGE COMPOSITION OF SOLID WASTE ning the success of the technology cho- But in reality the process does not work (WET BASIS) sen. Transport schedule must be closely in accordance with the environmental sani- Clasification Klasifikasi Rainy Musim Hujan Musim season Dry Kemarau timed with the processing capacity of the tation plan developed for the city govern- • Paper 13.54 4.37 final disposal site, overload must be pre- • Textil 1.85 2.03 ment (Chiara, 1982:6). As a result, solid • Organic 52.93 55.59 vented otherwise the process will be dis- waste creates a complex problem, not only in • Wood/grass 19.15 15.72 turbed. • Plastic 7.7 7.51 the regions but also at the national level. • Leather/rubber 0.45 0.03 0.82 0.74 • Metal (Ferrous) 0.08 0.16 Problem knots • Metal (Non Ferrous) Solid waste and the city 1.12 0.68 Based on the general description • Glass 1.61 4.46 of Surabaya • Stone ceramic 0.62 0.74 about the situation governing solid waste The responsibility for collection, • Bones 0.13 0.07 in the city of Surabaya, some knots can be • Others transport and processing of solid waste TOTAL 100 100 identified. They are as the following: within the city is imposed on the city go- Source: JICA Study, 1992 1. The city has a limited capacity, in vernment (Law No. 22 Art. 11, verse 2; terms of technical, financial, and mostly Cointreau, 1982:4) particularly the Dinas in comprehensive and integrated plan- Kebersihan. The city of Surabaya is un- The relation between the type waste ning for handling solid waste problems; able to cope with solid waste problem. and the technology to be applied, has 2. The existing system in solid waste There are many difficulties being faced, caused a difference in solid waste han- management, beginning from transport, such as land procurement for the final dling technologies between the industri- distribution, and use of transfer stations, disposal, the high costs involved in solid alized and the developing nations. In the final disposal ground, the processing waste management while the routine developing nations solid waste compact- facility and the leachate treatment, does development activities absorb most of the ness is estimated 2-3 times more than not function properly; available fund. To solve the problem the that of the industrialized nations. The 3. The type of technology is cost inten- city government tries to work together proportion of organic wastes mostly of sive; with private sector. But the cooperation plant material is estimated 3 times high- 4. Land scarcity for final disposal is limited in buying and selling, therefore er. Based on the composition the most ground, if the facility must move from its the city government still does not have common processing technologies are present location, there must a relatively the real experience in partnership with open dumping and sanitary landfill. large area in exchange. And besides, solid private sector in an overall solid waste There are several processing methods waste production level will not stay at management. available for application in the final dis- 8.000 m3 a day, considering the high 18 Percik August 2004
  • 20. A RTICLE population growth rate. A motto that says city government especially if it is to be used as a solid waste 5. There is only very limited or even does not only assume the role as facilita- disposal ground. This is because the land lack of government knowledge and expe- tor but also as enabler must be taken as can be used for other purposes that may rience in cooperation with the private sec- the background for cooperation with the increase the added value to the citys eco- tor or other cities regarding solid waste private sector. nomic activity. This scarcity must not be management. There is basically a competition allowed as a barrier. The city government among the public enterprises to become a has the right to ask for help from the Recommendation city government partner in the manage- province, in terms of funding, land space, In reference to the description in this ment of public service by reducing the or other necessities for the sake of good study, some recommendations presented cost of service. public service management. here may serve as guidelines for the city of 4. The most suitable solid waste pro- Surabaya in its effort to handling its solid cessing technology up to 10 years from waste problems: now. 1. Collaboration among the munici- The relation between the type With the mountain of solid waste pi- palities of Surabaya, Sidoarjo and Gresik waste and the tecnology to be ling in the disposal ground it must be Sooner or later, when an ever handy applied, has caused a difference eliminated immediately. At least, within service has become a pressing public in solid waste handling one year, the volume of solid waste must demand, collaboration among several city technologies between the be brought down to 30 percent of the governments may become indispensable. industrialized and present condition, including the new One city cannot stand alone independent the developing nations. arrivals at the rate approximately 8.000 from the others. It thrives because there m3 a day. are other cities surrounding it. The col- The most appropriate technology that laboration is not limited in solid waste, can eliminate solid waste in a relatively but also in other issues. 3. Utilizing the provincial govern- short time is an incinerator/thermal con- 2. Cooperation with the private sector ment land verter. And in addition, this technology in transport, processing. Land scarcity is always a problem can generate electricity as byproduct. In connection with investment SOURCE: FANY WEDAHUDITAMA required for solid waste processing, as we know, almost all are capital intensive. This is because there has never been, up to now, consideration be taken about inclusion of local content. From observa- tion one could find out that the combus- tion technology applies a similar principle with that being applied in coal burning for steam turbine. For ITB experts manufac- turing a waste material combustion machine is not impossible. Almost all components for such a manufacture are available in Indonesia. Only some com- ponents may still have to be imported. Manufacturing a machinery with a large portion of local content can bring down investment costs and provides an oppor- tunity for the city government solve the problem related to solid waste. *) Alumnus of Magister Environment Tehnique, ITB 19 Percik August 2004
  • 21. A RTICLE Solid waste management in Makassar S o l i d w aste is a part of our daily life. developed by adapting sanitary landfill In every activity, there must be Nirman Niswan, ST. *) into open dumping method. This is done some waste involved, however neat because of budget shortage for a full sani- the activity is. Unfortunately, there are done by the Dinas Kebersihan dan tary landfill. In Tamangapa the solid many who are indifferent about this. In Keindahan. waste is separated by scavengers to earn most families--especially of the towns- money by selling to used material collec- solid waste handling is done by house- The transport operation is scheduled ted and then recycled. Beside scavengers, maids. As a result, solid waste problem is in 2 shifts, morning and afternoon. The cattle feeding the wastes helps in redu- considered done once the house is swept coverage area is classified into core area, cing the size of garbage pile to be dealt clean and the garbage put into the bin. support area and expansion area. Beside with. This opinion is obviously misleading that solid waste produced from domestic and must be straightened out. commercial activities, the Dinas Keber- Problem areas Today solid waste is a big headache sihan dan Keindahan also transports the Sanitary landfill method needs a lot of for big cities in Indonesia, such as litters collected from street and gutter dirt soil for cover. This considerably adds Jakarta, Surabaya, including also Ma- cleaning within the service coverage area. a great deal of cost to the operational kassar. In some cities, solid waste mana- The budget for Dinas Kebersihan dan budget, especially if the dirt has to be gement involves several other neighbou- Keindahan operation comes from local hauled a long distance. For Tamangapa ring cities, as a result from lack of land government budget (APBD) level I and the dirt is taken from its surroundings. space for final disposal ground. APBD level II and the contribution col- Another aspect relates to the need for This paper intends to discuss solid lected from cleaning and septic tank The a tight control in the installation of biogas waste problem in the city of Makassar, total manpower for the operation consists relief from the garbage pile. Biogas will one of the major cities in Indonesia. The of 135 drivers and 225 collectors. The city continue to be released for 50 years, city encompasses an area of 175,77 sq. km of Makassar is currently using 7 final dis- probably longer, after the pile is buried. with a total population of approx. 1,5 mil- posal grounds: Karuwisi, Sappabulo, If the biogas is not adequately relieved it lion. The city continues growing in line Andi Tonro, Panampu, Kantisang, may explode that will make the whole pile with the development in Makassar as a Tanjung Bunga, and Tamangapa. scattered all over. The relief piping sys- development centre for the eastern part Improvement in final disposal ground tem of Tamangapa is installed one year on Indonesia. must be done as a consequence to the after the pile is buried. This is quite growth in volume of wastes produced. A regretful considering that the piping sys- Solid waste management by the disposal ground which is not operated tem design has been done since the very Dinas Kebersihan dan Keindahan any more is also being used as an open beginning. Solid waste management in Makassar dump. Rain water falling on the garbage pile comprises three activities, namely collec- The Tamangapa ground applies semi is also problematic unless it is properly tion, transport to the temporary dumping sanitary landfill method. This method is dealt with. In Tamangapa this is handled installation and final dumping into the final disposal. Collection is accomplished SolidKondisi Pengelolaan Sampah Di Kotamadya Makassar waste management condition in the city of Makassar in two different methods: Area of service Luas Layanan 175,77 km Individual door to door system, using Jumlah penduduk daerah layanan Total population 1.300.000 person jiwa a cart or other means of transport such Perkiraan Timbunan 3.535,20 m3 Estimated pile size a truck and is done by Dinas Ke- - Domestik 1.576,60 m3 - Domestic bersihan dan Keindahan or a private - Komersial 1772,7 m3 enterprise. - Commercial Volume yang tertangani Volume untouched 2996,67 m3 Communal system, transport from the Tingkat pelayanan Level of service 84,8 % temporary dumping installation to the Source: Dinas Kebersihan, City of Ujung Pandang 1998 Sumber : Dinas Kebersihan Kotamadya Ujung Pandang 1998 remote final disposal ground, and is 20 Percik August 2004
  • 22. A RTICLE SOURCE: EXCLUSIVE through photosynthetic method which is relatively inexpensive. The leachate pro- duced from the decomposing material may spoil groundwater unless the pile is built on a waterproof layer. It may also spoil surface water if it flows down into a river, for instance. For the sake of the surrounding com- munity attention must also be paid regarding the unpleasant smell. Based on site selection standard, a disposal ground may not be placed in the vicinity of a set- tlement area. But for the scavengers the opposite is what happens. Their waste is our waste The problems can actually be mini- mized through the application of an inte- grated management system between the city government and the community. Up to this time solid waste management is but an insignificant supplementary sec- tion both from the part of the community and from the government structure. On The problems can actually be minimized the contrary, the problem of solid waste through the application of an integrated man- should be given sufficient attention from agement system between the city government both. The limited availability of both land and budget makes it imperative that an and the community. alternative solution be found. As is already known, solid waste management comprises three steps, namely collection, transportation and big difficulty where to put its mountain of production keeps growing from day to day a processing, of which burying is one wastes. Though the problem is finally city like Jakarta or Makassar will be full of method. Collection can be done by the solved, but it is merely a temporary solu- garbage piles. At this point in time we can community. The best way in the collec- tion since the new site will be full in the only hope that solid waste management by tion is separating the wastes so that the near future. And somewhere a new piece the government is implemented properly, processing stage will be made easier. But of land must again be found. While a land considering the effect of pollution can only be this requires a high level of understanding which was used as a dumping ground can detected years afterwards. In the meantime, from both the community and the field only be brought back to a productive land the source of the pollution cannot be detec- operators. It is at this stage that a zero after several decades. Wastes can also be ted any more. waste principle can be put into applica- disposed of into an ex-mining excavation, Actually, the regulation pertaining to tion, in which waste is reduced in such a but there are only a few cities with a mi- environment of this country is well way so that nothing is left to be buried. ning activity. It can be seen how the pro- enough. What is lacking is the application The application of regulation related blems keep coming one after another if and sanction to violators. It is our com- to solid waste is insufficient so that the they are not dealt with seriously. mon responsibility to improve it. community never considers waste materi- The communitys way of thinking must al is an important issue. As an example, be improved in order to consider that their Alumnus of Environment *) in Jakarta with the fully used Bantar waste is also our waste. It means a common Technique Bandung Institute Gebang site the city government has had a responsibility. Imagine if the solid waste of Technology 21 Percik August 2004
  • 23. A RTICLE Water Supply and Environmental Sanitation Program Management and Future ChallengesR achel Carson once indicated that gram/project can be implemented well S. Budi Susilo *) man has to be made to under- in correct, transparent and sustainable stand that because of his activity manner;the environment deteriorates although he 2. The community. This means the com-considers it as a productive activity Bank funded WSS program has made a munity must be made ready, willing,(Silent Spring Magazine, 1963). The pleasing success. This is because the and capable to participate in the pro-environmental condition greatly influ- methodology applied conforms with the gram/project implementation;ences the life and welfare of human being principles of regional autonomy, i.e. water 3. Natural resources. Natural resourcesand other living creatures. Living crea- supply and environmental sanitation deve- potential, particularly water may con-tures, human being, animal and also lopment which starts from the grass root tribute to economic development andplants cannot survive without a level based on local initiative, accommoda- community welfare, therefore thesefavourable environment, especially with- ting and taking into consideration the com- resources must be properly managed.out water. Water plays an indispensable munity aspiration and local socio-culturalrole for life. At the present time readily characters. There is no pressure, uniformity, Challenge in futureavailable water sources are rain, spring, instruction and community mobilization. The performance of WSS programgroundwater, lake, reservoir, and river. All is managed through a community which is coordinated by the WSSBut the capacity of supply is not balanced empowerment process. Working Group has made as pleasantwith the increasing demand. The imba- improvement. It is not surprising thatlances happen because of a) high rate of there are more and more regions arepopulation growth, especially in urban The performance of interested to join the program. Yet, thereareas, b) the growth of industrial areas are technical hindrances. WSS program which ishas converted a massive land and water Aware of the condition, the responsi-source utilization, c) widespread illegal coordinated by the WSS bility and capacity of the central agencieslogging, forest fire, mineral mining with- Working Group has made that make up the Working Group have toin forest areas without subsequent envi- as pleasant improvement. include a) capable to formulate a generalronmental conservation and rehabilita- policy which serves as a guiding principletion, d) water pollution caused by indus- for the stakeholders to participate in thetrial wastes, salt water intrusion, and In accordance with its role and func- community based drinking water andmining wastes. tion, the central and provincial govern- sanitation development; b) capable of ments act as facilitator, while the kabu- convincing the regional government andWSS Program in the Era of paten/kota government is expected to be its agencies as well as other stakeholdersRegional Autonomy able to coordinate and integrate regional that this program is one of the efforts to WSS program is intended to improve development and strengthen its commu- improve community welfare; c) capablehealth condition of low income community nity. To this end there are several aspects of convincing the donor organizations, NGOin villages and the fringes of urban settle- to note by all concerned, from the central and other third parties to participate; and d)ments, and is implemented through a com- to regional level, so that the program capable of facilitating network developmentmunity participatory approach. It is operat- could lead to success: at the implementation level (kabupa-ed through provision of easily accessible 1. The existence of a policy, at the nation- ten/kota) through motivating the relatedquality water supply and locally acceptable al, regional and local. This means that agencies and local NGOs to commit them-basic sanitation and complemented with the central, and regional must prepare selves in WSS development.hygiene behaviour education. the law and regulation, guidelines, Experience from 2 years implementa- standard and others in order to pro- *) Staff of the Directorate of Regionaltion indicates that the AusAID and World vide direction so that WSS pro- Development; Member of WSS Working Group 22 Percik August 2004
  • 24. A RTICLE The problem with water supply and environmental sanitation in Kabupaten Kebumen Alma Arief 1) dan Budiono 2) WATER SUPPLY AND SANITATION (WSS) FACILITY IN KEBUMEN Type of technology Number of village Good condition Functioning institution I n drinking water and sanitation Gravitational piping 9 6 6 development Kabupaten Kebumen Piping 19 8 6 has a specific character of note. The PSA 11 10 10 detail WSS development program has Pit well 4 1 - been included in its Strategic Planning for Bored well 3 3 3 Rain collector 1 - - the period 2000-05 (integrated in Local Pit well and rain collector 1 - - Government Regulation No 18 Year Mixed 6 6 5 2002). The Regional Government is also responsive to the WASPOLA Working there are some intricacies concealed. development, especially in piping tech- Group when the latter intended to Kebumen is in command of an abundant nology. In the village Banyumudal, as an disseminate National Policy for water source -- though a specific technology example, each family was obliged to con- Community Based WSS Development to is needed to enable to take benefit from it-- tribute Rp100.000. The regulation is de- the local community. The government during the dry season it suffers from a tailed covering procedure for requesting was even willing to contribute some fund serious water shortage. During such a for connection to Household, amount of for the said activity. season the regional government has to payment, fine for delay in payment, The regional government allocates operate a fleet of water trucks, buys drinking amount of contribution, management fund not only from Special Fund water from PDAM and distributes it for free team and water users organization. Allocation (DAK) sources but also from to the most suffering villages. At least there In the beginning the community its regular annual budget, and that has are 80 villages are always in such a problem around Banyumudal spring did not have been done. For FY 2005 not less than 5 and in need for relief. any problem with water service but later villages will get a budget allocation of after the network was extended to include Rp100 million each for WSS deve- Environmental problem 3 hamlets downstream, the community lopment. This proposal was concluded Water shortage during the dry season around the stream have had water from a Jaring Asmara (short for Jaring happens because of forest felling in the upper shortage during the dry season. Finally Aspirasi Masyarakat, Community Aspi- watershed areas by Perhutani. It is said that they opted to take down the collector ration Net) mechanism, which is a pick the conversion of heterogenous forest stand structure at the intake point in order to up mechanism through the formation of a into single species plantation (pine tree) is the get back their water. As a result, water specific task force for this purpose. main reason for the decrease in water holding supply to the downstream hamlets Beside the proposals derived from the capacity and frequent landslides. Take for becomes uneven. From then on, the Jaring Asmara the local sector agencies instance the reservoir at Adiwarno village was standardized contribution system ceased also put up their own plans. In the same washed down in a landslide and the drop of to apply. The management also refuses to FY the Public Works agency put aside an water table in Sempor dam -- main water handle it. amount of Rp120 million for WSS source for Kab. Kebumen. development in 7 villages. Although the government agencies do Technological Up to this time most of the facilities in not specifically indicate that the drought The technology choice is generally place are well maintained. The facilities is caused by the conversion of the forest piping network, gravitational or pumping built in 1980-90s are still in operation, function, the water shortage phenome- propelled by electric power. Some villa- though some are wearing out. non did begin to happen after the ger dug pit wells, deep well, and rain From the above table it can be seen conversion took place. collectors. None of the institutions in the that WSS facilities in Kabupaten pit well and rain collector areas are Kebumen are sufficiently well kept (read: Institutional condition functioning. The rain collector techno- sustainable). However, behind the data The community took part in the WSS logy is not used any more because the size 23 Percik August 2004
  • 25. A RTICLE SOURCE: ALMA ARIEF is too small and water supply runs out as soon as it fills. Drinking water supply using bored well are also used in several villages, one of them is built in a fish auction outfit. As far as technology choice is con- cerned the community is involved since the beginning of the planning. The community also contributed in cash, labour and material. As an example, the village of Pakuran collected an amount of fund to cover the balance needed for the purchase of a genset and some pipes. At that time the government subsidized Rp34 million whilst the actual cost was Rp50 million. Since the technology was relatively new to the Pakuran community, some of them were trained in genset O&M and how to maintain piping network. The operational cost is born by a home connection. Many of the families positive correlation with the collection of the community. will by a long hose, up to a hundred metre monthly contribution. In the village of Tugu, Kecamatan long. In the village of Klesem, one man Buayan, the community hires a motor put up a 2.500 m long hose from a water Conclusion vehicle to carry water from a water source source at an approximate cost of Rp1,5 Kebumen has an abundance of water in the valley to their village in a plateau million. reserve, but many of its population are in up in the hill. Water supply from the If the community believes that water want of drinking water service. This is government comes only once a week. is a valuable commodity, which is because of the difficult natural condition During the dry season, most of the evidenced from willingness to spend a and the recently developing harmful areas in Kabupaten Kebumen suffer from considerable amount of money, they are tendency in environmental changes. water shortage because water discharge easy to bring into an organization to solve Form socio-cultural aspect, the in the source drops sharply. To overcome their common problem. This is community of Kebumen is very this problem, the regional government eventually will relate to organizational cooperative and for WSS development the provides the community in 80 villages and institutional development, including people are willing to contribute in the with drinking water for free. The the appropriate approach that is most form of cash, labour and material. This of government has to buy the water from pleasant to them. course is greatly in favour for PDAM. establishment of institutional and Financial organizational framework to benefit from Socio-cultural From a discussion with a kecamatan the existing resources in finding solution The community of Kebumen is staff at the office of Bappeda it was to their common problem. cooperative and has a high self reliant revealed that the willingness to pay In Kebumen, there are many potential characteristic. They are easily organized monthly contribution does not depend on water sources that can be explored for to solve a common problem and pose no the welfare class one family belongs. In development. But because in some areas objection to contribute in cash, labour Kecamatan Ayah, for example, there is a the natural condition is indeed difficult to and material. That is why, Kebumen is village with a relatively poor population handle, some specific technology is very conducive for a self reliant WSS in comparison with other villages, but needed. The problem is, what technology development, and this is seemingly a they are willing to pay their dues is most appropriate for application and at general condition in the province of Jawa regularly. From the above table (though the same time accessible to the village Tengah. Not only in Kebumen, similar without any further study made) it is also community. situation is also found in Banyumas and obvious that the management institution 1) A WASPOLA Consultant Semarang. WSS development, actually greatly influences the functioning of the 2) Staff of Regional Development Planning does not have to reach the household with facility. A functioning institution has a Agency of Kebumen 24 Percik August 2004
  • 26. A RTICLE Domestic Wastewater Processing System In the City of Tangerang SOURCE: BAMBANG PURWANTO Bambang Purwanto *) T he city of Tangerang was officially inaugurated in 1993 and com- manding an area of 177 sq. km including the Soekarno-Hatta Airport at Cengkareng. This city is one the fast growing urban with annual population growth at 4,9% and this year has a total population of 1,4 million. Tangerang city is one of Jakartas buffer areas. Many of Jakartas office workers live here. Manufacturing industries are growing in number and creating a wide range of employment opportunity. The fast population growth has com- pelled it to make available facility and infrastructure, such as electricity, tele- phone lines, solid waste management, drinking water, and domestic wastewater Pond in 8 locations and Sludge Pro- kasari, the only Carousel Type WPI in processing at a relatively comparable cessing Installation at Karawaci. Indonesia. This WPI was built in early quantity. Of all the facilities and infra- 1982 and was put to trial in 1985 and structures, services in drinking water and Present Condition began operation in 1992. The WPI was domestic wastewater management are A brief discussion about the aspects built from the assistance from the Dutch. lagging behind. related to domestic wastewater manage- DHV Cons. Eng. was named the engineer- From the environmental aspect the ment in Tangerang is given here: ing consultant and Hans Koning the plan- quantity of domestic waste water ning engineer. The WPI was designed to drained into the city environment 1. Technical aspect cover 3.000 home connections or equiva- amounts to 1,4 million people 100 litres At present the city of Tangerang oper- lent to 15.000 population serving the per person equals 140.000 m3 a day. It ates two types of domestic wastewater kelurahans Sukasari and Babakan. will be too much for nature to carry this processing system: Beside the Tanah Tinggi WPI the city burden of pollution unless there is a) on-site system, pumping out septic of Tangerang also built 8 units of oxida- management intervention by man. That tanks from individual homes by trucks tion ponds with a total area of 44,5 ha is why, wise efforts to help nature in and transported to WWI at Karawaci for located in Perumnas I to serve 7.932 individual, communal and city scale processing. home connections or equivalent to 31.728 domestic waste water processing is The system includes: people. highly endorsed. One of the efforts Septic tanks 205.572 units (61%) made by the government of Tangerang Public latrine 111.624 units (33%) Technological aspect city in neutralizing water pollution from Drainage/River/ Offsite system, the WPI at Tanah domestic wastewater is the construction Open area 21.360 families (6%) Tinggi is to serve the community in two of Wastewater Processing Installation b) off-site system, using piping net- kelurahans, Babakan and Sukasari. This (WPI) at Tanah Tinggi and Oxidation work at Kelurahans Babakan and Su- includes all type of wastewater, bath- 25 Percik August 2004
  • 27. A RTICLEroom, toilet and kitchen, which is pumped SOURCE: BAMBANG PURWANTOand naturally decomposed in a Carouselprocessor. Onsite system, serves the householdthat are beyond the reach of the offsitesystem, through pumping out the sludgefrom individual septic tanks to beprocessed in Karawaci installation.Financial aspect Since September 2002 a five year con-tract was signed between the city govern-ment and a private company to run themanagement of the onsite system with anobligation to pay the government anamount of Rp470 million for 5 years,payable in year one Rp40 million, yeartwo Rp50 million, year three Rp100 mil-lion, year four Rp130 million and year fiveRp150 million. The fast population growth has compelled it to make A request for pumping out a septic available facility and infrastructure, such as electricity,tank is charged an amount of Rp70.000, telephone lines, solid waste management, drinking water,while a third party truck depositing and domestic wastewater processing atsludge water into the facility is charged at a relatively comparable quantity.Rp5-10.000 per truck. The installation at Karawaci employs30 workers consisting of drivers and ma-nagement personnel, with an average nagement so that up to now community contribution for the home connections insalary of Rp600.000 per month. The fleet contribution could not be collected. The the kelurahans Babakan and Sukasari inconsists of 7 trucks. The Karawaci instal- opportunity is the fact that there are many order to cover the O&M costs so that thelation also acts as an offsite system for 60 families who have no access to domestic WPI can sustain operation at an optimumfamilies who flush their waste directly wastewater treatment, while the installa- rate.into the system. tions both at Tanah Tinggi and Karawaci It is also necessary to establish a pro- As for the offsite system at Tanah are still open for further expansion. fessional and permanent managementTinggi it is still fully subsidized by the city institution, it can be in the form ofgovernment. An amount of Rp56 million Conclusion and Recommendation Regional Technical Management Unit oris made available every year. No attempt WPI at Tanah Tinggi is sufficiently some other format (cooperation with pri-has been made to collect contribution effective in handling environmental pollu- vate sector). It is equally important tofrom the users. tion from domestic wastewater (kitchen, conduct an extensive socialization pro- toilet and bathroom). What is needed is gram to inform the community about theChallenge, Barrier and Opportunity an expansion of its service coverage. development and management of domes- The challenge is to fulfill the need for Since an investment for WPI construc- tic waste water treatment covering allwastewater treatment, either through off- tion is considerably costly it takes the city aspects from technical, environmental,site or onsite system, all the wastewater government a special effort to allocate a financial, and institutional.produced by the households in order to special budget if similar installation is toprotect the environment especially from be built in other location of the city. *) Staff of Directorate for TPTP,pollution to body of water. The handicap Similarly, its O&M cost is also high Ministry of Settlement &is the delay in conducting of extensive because it consumes a lot of electricity. A Regional Infrastructuresocialization of WPI Tanah Tinggi ma- serious effort must be taken to start with a 26 Percik August 2004
  • 28. A RTICLE Solid waste brings a blessing to the village of Temesi, Kabupaten Gianyar, Bali S olid waste brings a blessing? There million, Rotary Bali Ubud, RC Hamburg Yuyun Ismawati dan may be many who understand and RC Atlanta Rp60 million, and Noka Destalina what solid waste really means and BaliFokus-BORDA Rp50 million. Total what added value it contains. But there is construction costs is Rp600 million. only very few who care and take full be- the best solution for all. Starting from the Land is obtained for free from the region- nefit from solid waste. Solid waste and idea to replicate the solid waste separa- al government of Gianyar. final disposal ground may be familiar to tion in Jimbaran village, a new idea The planned capacity is 30% of the the ears and mind of most city dwellers. sprang out to build similar facility in total solid waste managed by Dinas In almost all cities complains are often Temesi to handle solid waste of Gianyar. Kebersihan dan Pertamanan, or approx- heard from the community living near a Through a careful planning and prepara- imately 80 m3 or 20 trucks/day (the total garbage disposal area. In some cities tion, and the application of socialization waste deposited by Gianyar city and is there are even physical frictions and tem- surroundings is approximately 260 m3 porary closure of the facility. The one at Solid waste minimizing and separation at day). The purpose of the installation is to Temesi village is no exception. the Temesi Solid Waste Separation separate the solid waste and increase the The Temesi disposal ground has been Facility, Gianyar, Bali economic value and recycle potential as in operation since 1993. Commanding an 100% solid waste enter to fasili- an alternative to incineration. area of 5 ha all the solid waste from tation 100 ton/day or 40 m2/day The Temesi initiative is probably the Kabupaten Gianyar, Ubud, Sukawati, first city solid waste processing project in Tampaksiring and the surrounding areas, Indonesia which applies a positive syner- is dumped here. Initially the site was a gic effort from several parties: 20% resid- gentle slope, but over the years the dum- 30% inorganic 50% organic fraction ual - Rotary Club Bali Ubud (RCBU) waste 5 ton/day 2 ton/day ping has made the area flat. And over the through Community Service Program, years, just like any other open dumping acts as fund raising coordinator ground, stinking smell and flies swarming 25% compost (USAID/OTI, Rotary Club International, 25% animal feed over areas within a radius of 2 km. In wet 2,5 ton/day 2,5 ton/day (10m3/day) SDC, and so on). (10m3/day) season the truck carrying solid waste are - BaliFokus-BORDA, through Solid reluctant to enter the area for fear they Waste Processing Program, assumes the might got mired in the middle of garbage Source: Temesi Facility Feasibility Study Report role as technical assistance provider, heap. This may cost the driver with bro- BaliFokus, July 2004 community empowerment, and opera- ken axle or other serious damages. tional management counterpart for the The solid waste from Ubud and its and community participatory approaches next 5 years. surroundings ends in Banjar Intaran, the Solid Waste Separation Facility was - Gianyar regional government, in this Pejeng village, Tampaksiring upon the built at the Temesi Solid Waste Disposal case Dinas Kebersihan dan Pertamanan, request from the community to fill in the Site. assumes the role as solid waste "supplier" bank of a small river which used to be The 400 sq.m separation facility and land space provider. washed by the current. The process las- which is the first of its kind in Indonesia, - The Temesi Village Solid Waste ted for 6 years. The side effect is, commu- began construction in March 2004 and Management Team, assumes the respon- nity health is threatened. Air and was officiated by the Bupati of Gianyar on sibility for management of the facility in groundwater is polluted, unpleasant 25 July 2004. The construction was faci- collaboration with BaliFokus (joint ope- smell and not healthy. litated with material contribution from ration management). Since 2001, Bali Fokus invited several USAID/OTI at an amount Rp380 million, During the preparatory and construc- interested parties to take action and find Swiss Development Cooperation Rp110 tion stage, this project made an active 27 Percik August 2004
  • 29. A RTICLE effort to invite community involvement Land Area Requirement though regular meetings and field discus- No. KebutuhanZ Lahan/Area U T I L I AT I O N A R E A Luas (m2) ( M 2 ) REQUIRED sions. Bali Fokus took the responsibility 1. 1. Receiving areaarea atau ruang penerimaan sampah Receiving 50 to facilitate in the formation of Temesi 2. 2. Belt conveyor (BC) (BC) atau ban berjalan Belt Conveyer 50 3. 3. Temporary collector for inorganic waste sampah an-organik Area penampungan sementara 150 Solid Waste Management Team (SWMT) 4. 4. Collector for residual wasteresidu sampah Area penampungan Disposal TPA Lahan area which will assume the operational mana- 5. Collector for inorganic sampah an-organik sebelum dijual ke Area penyimpanan 5. waste ready for sale 250 gement of the facility in the future. Beside bandar lapak 6. 6. Composting area Area pengomposan 400 community empowerment at the manage- 7. 7. Animal feed processing pakan ternak Area pembuatan 200 rial level this facility also provides new T o t a lluas area Total 1,100 employment to 6o workers, all hired from Temesi locals. The village Temesi consists tle raining farmers, it helps the farmers in workers. of 3 banjars, namely Banjar Peteluan, food supply and feed diversification, espe- - Production: used material for resale, Banjar Pegesangan and Banjar Temesi, cially during the dry season. compost and animal feed will guarantee and is populated with approximately 650 - It motivates the communitys cre- the sustainability of the facility. families. ativity to producing goods and handicrafts During the initial stage of operation from recycling used materials. *) Bali Fokus till 2005 SWMT will operate at half - Additional employment to 60-100 capacity, approximately 40 m3 will be processed daily. This is intended to as a learning stage for all of the operational components of the facility. For the first 5 years Bali Fokus will assume the responsi- bility as the management backup to put FINAL DISPOSAL SITE, TEMESI the overall system into the path towards sustainability. The benefits from the Temesi initia- tive are among others: RECEIVING AREA - Introduction to a feasible and wor- thy of application alternative for solid waste material processing system without INORGANIC WASTE ON using an incinerator. BELT CONVEYOR RECYCABLES SORTED - Application of an environmentally (GLASS, PLAS- TIC, PAPER, friendly and locally available technology DUSTPAN, ETC) for solid waste processing. RESIDUAL SORTED ON - Multipartite solid waste manage- BELT CONVEYOR RESIDUAL ment can be put to reality though a coor- dination and synergic effort. RECYCLE FACTORY - The problem related to Final ORGANIS Disposal Site which contains an implica- WASTE CUTTING tion to surrounding community can be solved through a win-win principle. Taking the example from Temesi, the ANIMAL ORGANIC community based Final Disposal Site FEED COMPOST monitoring and its compensation can be made well structured. WASTE WATER - Compost production made from INSTALATION SANITARY LANDFILL organic waste is supported by organic farming policy of Kabupaten Gianyar. - Animal feed produced is sold to cat- 28 Percik August 2004
  • 30. R EPORTAGE Mrs. Bambang "Solid Waste" Wahonos role play Manages Solid Waste, Makes Banjarsari Green SOURCE: MUJIYANTO community were illiterate. I voluntarily taught them to read and write. Gradually we became close to each other and inti- macy began to develop", said the teach- ers training graduate. Based on the intimacy Mrs Bambang offered them with medicinal herb seedlings for them to grow for them- selves. Then, one day the plant growing skill was organized into a contest. Evaluation was based on the healthiest growing plant. "I bought the prizes from own pocket", said the active woman. Approach to the community did stop up there. Together with several other women she organized an "arisan" . The arisan did not function as collecting money and winning it, but it was rather as a means to establish a close brotherhood. Mrs. Bambang believes in a principle,S oft wind blows gently, caressing caring hands of Mrs. Harini Bambang man will be followed if one has won the green leaves to sway lazily at a Wahono and her husband. The 73 year sympathy from the others. And sympathy dreamy interval. Colourful old grandma has been perseveringly is developed from close brotherhood.blooms seem to appear from behind the arousing the awareness of her neighbours Her activity became more intenselush green foliage. Flower pots stand in to take keen interest to the environment. when Mr. Bambang was elected as therows along the roadside that also serves One of them is what to do with the Head of RW and she herself theas front yard. This represents a glimpse domestic solid waste. Chairwoman of PKK program within theof condition in the alleys of Kampung "Ever since I moved into this neigh- RW. She made the best use of her newBanjarsari, Kelurahan West Cilandak, bourhood I have been dreaming of a position. She tried her best to apply allJakarta. This is almost entirely opposite green and lush surrounding like my home the PKK 10 Components, especially com-to the general condition of Jakarta. We town. Is it possible, I wonder?" said Mrs. ponent number 9 "environmental sus-usually think that Jakarta is always hot, Bambang one afternoon while relaxing in tainability". Step by step the members ofbarren, filthy, and messy. Therefore, it is a corner of her house which now turns community of all 8 RTs are developed.unsurprising that the portrait of into a training place in a variety of skills There is up and down in the activity.Banjarsari can be considered as the related to environmental management. There is a challenge and a constraint. Butminiature of pleasantly cool, green and Luckily, when my husband and I all those do not discourage the womanenvironmentally sensitive Jakarta city of moved into Banjarsari in 1982 Mr. who dreams of a beautiful green environ-the future. Bambang was elected as an RT chairman. ment. She held an inter RT environment The changes occurring at Banjarsari, From this time she started to develop competition. Community enthusiasman RW located within the neighbourhood intimacy with the community. "I began started growing.of Fatmawati Hospital with 1.500 people to approach the community members one The active woman organized Dahliain 218 families is inseparable from the by one. At that time 12 members of the farmers group in 1992. The farmers 29 Percik August 2004
  • 31. R EPORTAGE SOURCE: MUJIYANTO group was given a subsidy from the agri- cultural extension service. The face of Banjarsari started to change. She became a PKK committee at Kelurahan (village) and kecamatan levels. She knows no fatigue in her effort to making Bajarsari lush, green and beautiful. The active role of Mrs. Bambang draws the attention of UNESCO, a UN body responsible for education. In 1996 the UN body offered her participation in a solid waste management training. "I was very pleased," said she, smiling. From this training she obtains a UNESCO cer- tificate qualifying her as a solid waste management trainer. She then taught the community how to make solid waste valuable instead of polluting the environment. She changed one corner of her simple house at Jl. green corner, specially serving and teach- Banjarsari XIV/4A into a classroom. ing how to prepare organic food and food Batch after batch of "solid waste" cadres Jakarta produces recycle, there is also a senior citizens cor- was born here. Domestic waste is mana approximately 6 thousand ner, a sea corner, and an education cor- ged right from the very source of origin. tons of solid waste ner. They are all in the houses of the fam- Bins are placed in front of every family every day. Almost half of ilies. It is unsurprising that there are house. There are three bins with different many visitors, including foreigners. Some it is of domestic origin. colours. Red for plastic, yellow for cans for comparative study, some specially and bottles, and green for organic waste. If all the community is aware come to learn something. Waste materials from red and yellow bins and takes a good care of it, This year Banjarsari is named the best may be collected by the previously trained there is only 50% of solid RW in Jakarta. As a result, Mrs. Bambang scavengers and cleaning men -there are waste left for Jakarta city to and her cadres, 30 women and 25 environ- 20 of them. While the organic waste is to take care of, and condition mentally concerned youth, are given a task to be processed -individually if possible- into build and inspire the same development for will not be as bad compost. For those who are unable to other areas of Jakarta. He is also requested to process it, the waste will be collected for as it is now. speak in many seminars. Now she is nick- an RT or RW compost processing facility. named "Mrs. Bambang Solid Waste" The compost produced is used for plant In spite of success after success have manure by the community or sold for ing and environmental conservation com- been achieved, this does not mean cash. "There is a big demand for compost. petition. And the pioneer, Mrs. Bambang Banjarsari is free from solid waste pro- We are almost unable to satisfy it," says was awarded the Kalpataru award in the blem. Mrs. Bambang reveals that there is Mrs. Bambang. The customers are main- same year for environmental guardian only 60-70% of the community who is ly the visitors. category. fully aware. "The rest is still in the learn- The achievement has attracted many The achievement of Banjarsari has ing stage. In terms of cleanliness it has community groups from everywhere visit- made the place named a tourist destina- been 100% achieved." One difficulty is, ing Banjarsari to take a lesson from. And tion spot by the South Jakarta Agency for there are outsiders (meaning not in the meantime the awareness of Tourism. The community takes this an Banjarsari citizens) who irresponsibly Banjarsari community is also growing opportunity and welcomes it with a num- dump their waste into the area. "Some- continuously. As a result, in 2000 Banjar- ber of creativity. Today, there is a rooftop times I feel so distressed and irritated," sari won the national level prize in green- park and is open for visitors, there is a she expresses herself. 30 Percik August 2004
  • 32. R EPORTAGESolid waste and awareness She cites as an example, that Jakarta Solid waste handling, according to produces approximately 6 thousand tonsMrs. Bambang, is a systematized effort. The community can of solid waste daily. Almost half of it is ofIts problem will never be thoroughly domestic origin. If all the community issolved if its solely done by the govern- take an active role in aware and takes a good care of it, there isment. "It is the community who produces processing organic only 50% of solid waste left for Jakartawaste, why dont let the community get waste into compost, city to take care of, and condition will notinvolved in its solution?" she puts it. be as bad as it is now. The communityTherefore, community education about recycle food leftover, can take an active role in processingthe importance of solid waste manage- and reduce the use of organic waste into compost, recycle foodment right from the very source of origin plastic bag. leftover, and reduce the use of plasticis something indispensable. But, commu- bags. There are 4 underlying principles,nity education is not an easy thing. It i.e. reduce, reuse, recycle and replant.takes time, because it involves changes in "Imagine if one family can reduce theway of thinking, habit and tradition. use of up to plastic bags in a month, we"This is where we have to work hard and can considerable reduce land and seanever lose hope. If somebody dislikes our waste will move into," she says. Resistant pollution."message, let it be his own right," conti- wastes will pollute rivers and the sea. Therefore it is quite natural that Mrs.nues Mrs. Bambang. Most people, she Then the danger of intermittent floods Bambang still has a dream how to makeadds further, are indifferent what future and contamination of diseases to follow the community aware to care about solidconsequences will happen from his habit suit. "Therefore, each source of waste waste. Because without a common aware-in unscrupulous dumping their wastes. must be dealt with," she concludes deci- ness, solid waste related problem can"Man never lets himself think where the sively. never be solved. (mujiyanto) A Waste Cleaner Named Udin "Many Who Says Difficult" SOURCE: MUJIYANTO H is name is Udin. About 35 years old. His job is waste cleaning man. Every day he separated and put into the bag. The waste in the bag will not be dumped into the local garbage runs around and collects solid bin, but he does it for sale. "Not waste from Banjarsari hou- bad, as an additional income," seholds. He serves 30-40 fami- he says while taking a rest in a lies. "Each family pays me street corner. Udin says that Rp30.000 every month," he there are still many of Ban- says timidly. Udin has been jarsari citizens who do not sep- doing his present job since arate their solid waste. "If it 1994. He and his family rent a has been separated it is easier house in the vicinity. Everyday to collect, no need to separate he pulls his cart to empty it again," he added. When garbage bins from each of his asked why the people still do customers. The cart consists of a com- Non organic waste, such as plastic the way they do, he answers, "They say partment and a burly bag tied to it. material, bottle, can and paper, is it is difficult." 31 Percik August 2004
  • 33. MA N N E R Solid Waste Management Technology Miscellany SOURCE: MUJIYANTO C hoice of technology represents one of the most important deter- mining factors in a city solid waste management In principle, there are only three basic technologies applied in solid waste management, namely inci- nerator, bio-degradation (composting) and landfill burying. Each technology produces a different impact and subsequently a dif- ferent cost of handling. What technology to choose depends on the intensity of local solid waste rela- ted problem, solid waste composition, amount of waste produced daily, techni- cal risk, amount of budget available, et cetera. A technology chosen in discor- dant with several of these factors will only of some specific composition (espe- From the above processing technolo- add to the problems. cially plastic waste) is put under a high gies, open dumping method -- apparently The requirements for technology pressure machine, up to 2.000 PSI to widely used by the cities all over selection relate to among others that it is form a solid bloc that can be used as Indonesia- is no longer viable considering environmentally friendly and it must also filler in road building or a controlled the limited availability of land space. highly effective. Besides, the technology valley filling work. Besides, the method is ineffective for a must be able to solve the problem or at city scale operation. Composting is the least minimize the weight of the existing Incineration cheapest method with the least technical problem (Ryding, 1994:71). In this method the waste material risk, but it takes some time for one batch There are several technologies for is burnt in an incinerator. This to complete. On the other hand, solid final disposal processing purposes method produces residue from burn- waste keeps on piling from day to day, so (Moenir, 1983: 33): ing and emission of several gases. The that it takes a thorough consideration weigh and volume of the residue are before adopting this method. While with Open dumping method much less than the initial waste. ATAD method it needs a relatively shor- With this method, solid waste is ter period and a low technical risk, but dumped into a land depression, covered Composting the investment cost is relatively high. in an open area without compaction or Compost is the result of bio-degra- A wrong technology choice will result just left uncovered. Dumping continues dation process of organic compounds in technical risk such as damage in equip- until the depression levels off. of the solid waste and is capable of ment used due to capacity overload so improving soil characteristic. that process is delayed and solid waste Sanitary landfill method mounting up all over the place. (Ryding, With this method the waste is ATAD (Autogenous Thermophilic 1994: 287). Then because of the delay, dumped into a trench, depression or Aerobic Digestion) method the processing system turns back into slope. It is then covered with dirt soil This method employs aerobic bac- open dumping, which is quite unexpected and compacted. This method is subdi- teria which are responsive to certain because this means we have to start all vided into trench, area and depression. temperature to process organic waste over again. into solid pellets and liquid substance. In general, technical; risk is often- Baling method This technique is used in wastewater times caused by government and private In this method the waste consisting treatment. sector interest to apply the latest techno- 32 Percik August 2004
  • 34. M ANNER logy with unfavourable history (Coin- relatively low investment cost, but with relatively long time to complete a process, treau, 1982). Unexpected problems often unpleasant impact such as methane gas in ATAD method the time is shorter due arise when a certain technology is intro- emission and the vulnerability to turn the help from aerobic bacteria. And as far duced into a country or a region for the back into open dumping. While in baling as investment is concerned ATAD is by far first time because there were locally spe- method, investment cost is relatively high the most expensive facility, and addition- cific problems previously untouched as also its O&M cost. And besides, the ally ATAD technology has never been (Ryding, 1994:187). This technical risk method does not specify what to do with tried in Indonesia. must be allocated to the private sector. the liquid produced during the baling All in all, technical risk from each of Below is a table indicating the advantages process the technologies can be brought down and disadvantages of solid waste proces- Incineration can completely burn through application of well proven tech- sing technologies and their respective solid waste down, but the machinery is nologies, such as composting and ATAD, technical risk. expensive, similarly is the O&M cost. which is supplied and supported by sup- In the above table is quite obvious that Besides, the method may produce air pliers with reputation. Performance his- open dumping is the least preferred solid pollution. Composting and ATAD are the tory and problem solving represents an waste processing technology and is most most beneficial methods if applied in a important factor in selecting technology applicable for a joint operation between collaborative framework. The difference supplier. Involvement of the supplier as the government and the private sector. between the two relates with time and partner is a factor in reduction technical For sanitary landfill, the advantage is the investment cost. If composting needs a risk. (FW) TYPE OF TECHNOLOGY PROCESSING MECHANISM ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES TECHNICAL RISK Open dumping Waste is dumped into a valley or No processing cost is neces- Waste material will continue Waste material will keep on depression without any further treat- sary adding up and not decomposed piling up causing air, water ment properly. and soil pollution. Sanitary Landfill Waste is dumped into a trench, valley - Relatively inexpensive - Need a large area, not viable Without a periodic mainte- or slope, then is covered with soil layer, - Low investment cost for big cities nance it will turn back into and compacted. This method is divid- - No waste separation- - Must strictly follow standard open dumping ed into three categories: area, trench, operation procedure and depression - Dangerous methane gas emis- sion Baling method Several types of waste are collected Waste can be used as road - High investment cost Leachate produced during and put under a pressure up to 2.000 filler or controlled valley filler - If not used for filler the bales baling process may cause PSI to form blocs still will remain as solid waste soil pollution. Incineration Waste is burnt at a very high tempera- Waste is eliminated - High investment cost High risk to air pollution ture - Use machinery strictly within manual guideline (never exceed capacity) - Waste containing too much liq- uid may damage the machinery - Minimum temperature for a complete incineration often can- not be reached so that the process produces air pollution Composting Compost is the result of biochemical It is a zero waste processing It takes time to complete a Because of the long process degradation of organic substances; it method and at the same time process solid waste has to wait; this can improve soil characteristic. The also producing compost may cause polluition degradation process is caused by microorganism and the type of microflora at he same temperature with the temperature of the waste ATAD (Autogenous Thermohilic Using aerobic bacteria which are It is a zero waste processing High investment cost, needs Not known Aerobic Digestion responsive at a certain temperature to method and at the same time prior test because it has never breakdown solid waste into solid also a leachate treatment been applied in Indonesia (pellet) and liquid manure. This tech- nology is designed for waste water management 33 Percik August 2004
  • 35. M ANNER Solid Waste Capsule A Model for Long Term Solid Waste Storage T raditional solid waste handling Packaging Process may sometimes cause problems Domestic solid waste is collected and such as air, water and soil pollu- filled into airtight capsules. This packag- tion; continuous loss of important Ready to recovering Small and round ing is made from chlorine free polythene resources; decreasing life standard; Clean and no smell plastic and is recyclable or burnt in an decreasing economic value of a property incinerator without adverse effect. Then near solid waste station; and cost increase due growing volume of solid waste. A FACT OF BAL BAL the capsules are compressed at a certain No detected by bird number of efforts have been tried all over No air inside pressure to eliminate air pockets in the the world to cope with these problems. packaging and to bring biological process Recycling industries are developed. But -aerobic as well as anaerobic- to a halt. the result is still below expectation. Harmonious environment It this way a spontaneous fire from Closed of all There is presently a new breakthrough, a emission of natural gas is also elimi- technology to store solid waste and is nated. The packaging process lasts for named solid waste capsule, also known as 3-4 minutes. The packages can be solid waste bales. This kind of packaging stored in an open or covered floor, and is said to increase efficiency and safety final process. The capsules can be sup- rating. plied at any time of the year regardless of can be piled. When the proceeding With this technology solid waste can climatic condition, what it needs is only a facility is ready, the capsule can then be kept for a long time -it can be years- cheap storage station. be opened easily. MJ without disturbing the environment. Moreover, this method of handling can improve the environmental condition and is more acceptable to the surrounding Solid Waste Pickup Service, Why Not? community. With this technology waste material can be stored while an incinera- tor, compost plant or sanitary landfill is S o l i d w aste material can turn into money? You dont believe it? The scavengers have proven it. They live weighing 1,5 kg a customer is charged Rp400. The service is avail- able on Mondays through Saturdays at being prepared. When the facility is from solid waste, though what they 06.00 - 17.00 hrs. A three-wheeled ready, the capsules can be easily be sent can scrape is only very limited. The motorcycle will come to collect your to final treatment, thus optimizing the regional government also collects waste as soon as you dial the NGOs FOTO: ISTIMEWA contribution for cleaning service. office (MJ) This means that solid waste is also a source of income. Today the- re is a breakthrough made by an NGO in Tangerang. Using a motorcycle this NGO offers a door to door solid waste pickup service. For a bag of waste 34 Percik August 2004
  • 36. T ELESCOPE Bandung Municipal Cleaners, Inc. Withstand in the midst of wantsT his is one of the few Municipal company hires 617 and 235 workers for money. Last year, the deficit amounted to Cleaners that remains in opera- street and market sweeping operation, Rp3,8 billion plus. tion in Indonesia today. Some respectively. Estimate waste production Awan Gumelar, the CEO of Bandungother cities which used to have the same is reflected in the following table: Municipal Cleaners, Inc. admits this fact.entity have turned their city cleaning However, according to him, in terms of No. Source of Origin Volume (m3/day)service from a public company to an budget, the municipality has made con- 1. Settlement area 3.978agency run entity. Bandung Municipal siderable efficiency. He revealed that 2. Market place 613Cleaners Inc. is relatively old. This com- during the last 16 years the municipality 3. Road 449pany was incorporated in 1985 through a has provided only Rp34 billion or an 4. Industrial Plant 787Regional Government Regulation No. average of Rp2,1 billion a year. This fi- 5. Commercial area 3122/1985. The establishment of the compa- gure is too far below the cleaning budget 6. Public facility 361ny was facilitated by the Directorate of other cities in Indonesia, such JakartaGeneral of Cipta Karya, Ministry of Public (373 billion a year), Surabaya (Rp51 bil-Works (now Kimpraswil) under the The waste is then transported to the lion/year), Semarang (Rp27 billion/-Bandung Urban Development Project final disposal. There are two final dispo- year), and Yogyakarta (Rp8 billion/year).(BUDP). sal sites, one in Leuwigajah (17,5 ha) and Although the cleaning budget is rela- This company is responsible for envi- another one in Jelekong (9,7 ha). The tively low, the community participation isronmental sustainability particularly in method used is open dumping. sufficiently high. Last year, an amount ofmaintaining and improving city cleanli- The tariff for service is decided by the Rp13 billion of community contributionness in the broad sense of the meaning. Mayor. The amount depends on the type was collected, or 72% of the total income.Pursuant to the Mayors letter of decision, of waste. The tariff based on Mayors let- Subsidy from municipal budget was onlythe Bandung Municipal Cleaners Inc. is ter of decision No. 644/2002 is presented Rp5 billion. The income from communi-given a responsibility for policy formula- in the table below. ty contribution is the highest amongtion, management, conducting research With such a tariff Cleaners Inc. makes major cities in Indonesia.and developing management of city solid an annual income of approximately Rp17 The above financial situation is ofwaste. billion. This income comes from the course not a favourable condition for The companys service covers an area community and cleaning service from the project activity. A number of efforts areof 1629 ha with 2,2 million population in regional government. This amount is far now being done to improve company26 kecamatans (139 kelurahans). The below the required operational budget. It performance through human resourcescity produces approximately 6.500 - is unsurprising that each year this com- development and community educa-7.500 m3 of solid daily, but the compa- pany with 1.642 personnel is losing tion. (MJ)nys capacity is only up to 65% of thetotal. The management system includescommunity involvement, in this caseRT/RW. The RW officials are authorized DOMESTIC AND PUBLICto decide the tariff for domestic waste FACILITY TARIFFcleaning service from individual thrashbin to the transfer station. From there Class Power Indirect Direct Public (Watt) Collection (Rp/month) Collection (Rp/month) Fasility (Rp/month)on, it is the responsibility of the CleanersInc. I >6600 7.500/month 20.000/month 7.500/month In terms of roadside litters, market II >3600-6600 6.000/month 17.500/month 6.000/monthwaste, and commercial/public facilities is III >2200-3600 5.000/month 15.000/month 5.000/monthtreated slightly differently from the IV >1300-2200 4.000/month 10.000/month 4.000/monthdomestic waste. The Cleaners Inc. V > 900-1300 3.000/month 7.500/month 3.000/monthassumes a direct responsibility. The com- VI 450 2.000/month 5.000/month 2.000/monthpany sweeps, collects, and puts the waste Non commercial Rp12.500/day; commercial Rp15.000/day; city transport Rp500/day; bus Rp1.000/dayinto a container. For this purpose the 35 Percik August 2004
  • 37. T ELESCOPE Awan Gumelar, CEO Bandung Municipal Cleaners, Inc. "Make the People Hygiene Conscious" SOURCE: MUJIYANTOC ould you explain the back- ground of the establishment ofCleaners Inc.? What about the financial issue? We will strengthen the contribution col- lection force from all available potentials and The Municipal Cleaners Inc. was esta- an increased budget from local governmentblished based on the Regional Government budget (APBD). We also propose the cityRegulation No.2/1985, which was revised by government to plot a subsidy for cleaningRegulation No. 15/1993 (on capitalization), works from the APBD. We need an ade-and the most recently by Regulation No. quate amount of fund to provide a minimum27/2001. The public company is 19 years old level of service. We also propose the citynow. It was initially a cleaning agency of the government for a restructuring of the com-municipal government. Why changed it into panys capital which presently has turneda public company? To optimize solid waste into red. Or the city government takes overmanagement in the city of Bandung. The part or whole of companys liabilities andcleaning agency has no capacity to under- considers it as a share capital. On the othertake service improvement. And besides, be- side, we also have to make a tight budgeting.ing a company it is easier to recruit manpo- because we are not their superior.wer and make procurement for the neces- Coordination is ever feasible, isnt it? So What are the factors influencing asary facility and infrastructure. The most im- the relationship is partnership. Not supe- citys cleanliness?portant of all, being a legal entity it is easier to rior subordinate. We also establish coor- If we want to move forward the firstwin acknowledgement from funding agency. dination with agency for park manage- thing to do is make the community clean ment to determine the placement of solid conscious through solid waste management Whether it is not contradictory waste transfer stations. The main pur- at their own surrounding. 3R (reduce, reuse,between interest and service? pose is to achieve the city mayors vision. recycle) principle must consistently apply. I dont think there is a contradiction. We have to be skillful to manage our com- That is what we disseminate to the commu-Our position is similar to PT Kereta Api and pany but remains tied within the rules of nity. With this we hope a commitment willDamri. They try to make profit from the ser- the government. It is quite different from grow, otherwise solution will be a long wayvice they provide, dont they? a private company. Its activity and action off. is different from the government struc- What is its performance status ture because it has its own authority. What breakthrough could youtoday? take to improve solid waste mana- Our performance, Praise to God, in spite What is your effort to improve gement?of shortage and limitation we are still capa- performance? This year in cooperation with Min. ofble to operate and provide service to the In the future we are planning to be an Environment and private sector startedcommunity. From the very beginning we are entrepreneur. We will strengthen the po- with a composting project.in short of facility and infrastructure. We ho- sition of our assets. We will establish sisterpe improvement would come in the future. companies. We cannot do it now because we What is your plan to make are still in wants. Salary is also quite limited. Bandung clean? What is the level of service today? But, Praise to God, we can maintain a high There is presently a municipal strate- We are only able to serve up to approxi- work ethos. Besides, we are trying to gic plan No. 36 year 2004. It contains amately 65% of the total solid waste pro- improve our operation standard so that we clean, prosperous, pious, friendlyduced. This is because of the limitation. can increase coverage from the presently Bandung. Clean relates to garbage and 65% to 80%, improve human resources litters. In 2008 we have to be utterly How is the relationship between quality, and through a cooperation with clean. Solid Waste must be properlyCleaners Inc. and the line agency? third party introduce new solid waste pro- managed. Through application of 3R is We maintain coordination. With the cessing technology. In the long run we hope quite sufficient. In year 2005 there mustcamats we schedule a 3-monthly we can to apply corporate governance in this be an improvement, though still in a limi-meeting. The essence we want their help, company. ted scale. (MJ) 36 Percik August 2004
  • 38. B OOK INFO Development Report Indonesian Human 2004 public service. The question is whether it is possible given the present economic Title: condition, for Indonesia to provide a big- Indonesia Human Development ger budget for public service which reach- Report 2004 The Economics of Democracy Financing Human es the level of 3-6 percent of GNP. This Development in Indonesia report further estimates the level of cost Publisher: required, and indicates that the amount is Central Bureau of Statistic still within the capacity for Indonesia to BAPPENAS United Nation for provide. Development Program (UNDP) In general, this report also reveals the Pages: present status of human development in xii+205 pp Indonesia. Some of data recorded are Human Development Index (HDI) which is declining in 1996 to 1999 and climbing T his report is published as a colla- basic human need but also as a back- again in 2002. One of the factors borative effort between Bappenas, ground for pursuing economic growth attributing to the increase is the decrease Bureau of Statistic and UNDP/In- and to ensure democratic continuity into in infant mortality and poverty rate. donesia. If the report for 2001 the focus the future. However, the overall condition the was on "why", the present issue deals This report emphasizes that in the increase is still far from pleasing. with "how" and "how much". Within this future that income of the poor will not Beside HDI there are other indicators spirit the message to be conveyed is that increase fast enough. This implies that used in this report Gender-related Indonesia needs a larger human re- the government must set aside a relative- Development Index (GDI) and Human sources investment not only to fulfill the ly big amount of money for the necessary Poverty Index (HPI-1). (OM) Clean Development Mechanism H uman hands are slow but surely tive bodies, NGO, business world, and politi- Title: they have made a change to the cian. A knowledge about the protocol can Kyoto world climate. This is triggered Protocol broaden ones mind why there are so many by burning fossil fuel and activities that Implementation catastrophes occurring in the world. convert land utilization. Those activities Upon the This book explicitly describes every- have produced gases such as carbon Developing thing about the protocol including the dioxide, methane, nitrous oxides which NationsAuthorDaniel winding roads the controversies involved Author : serve as a glass film that lets in the short in its formulation. The author also Daniel Murdiyarso wave radiation from the sun but absorbs describes what can be done by the deve- Publisher : and reflects long radiation from the earth. loping nations -including Indonesia- that Kompas Publishing Inc. Consequently the atmospheric tempera- Pages: ratify the protocol. ture rises and thus global warming phe- xx + 200 pp There is within the Kyoto Protocol an nomenon and changes in world climate. applicable mechanism, that is Clean The major contributors to global warm- lated to put a quantitative target and time Development Mechanism (CDM). The ing are of course the industrialized nations. schedule for reduction of emission rate by ratification of Kyoto Protocol can stimu- To reduce the rate of warming, an interna- the developed nations. late the government and community to tional congress attended by 10.000 dele- The protocol becomes very important to take the necessary steps to make the gates agreed to issue a protocol -later known be understood by all, whether the communi- involved agencies well prepared to parti- as Kyoto Protocol. The protocol was formu- ty, government agents, members of legisla- cipate in CDM projects. MJ 37 Percik August 2004
  • 39. C D INFO WSS Interactive CD S ince 2003 the WSS Working Gro- news clipping, and the articles published up launched a website, www.- in since August 2003 through 2004, there ampl.or.id. It contains important is also a newsletter clipping. information and articles related to drink- This interactive CD contains all ing water and environmental sanitation including website (offline), clipping that are already published by national (news and articles), weekly newsletter, mass media, national policy, choice of national policy for community based technology, bibliography, data, agenda of WSS development, Percik magazine all activities, and the latest information edition, and WSS related publications. about WSS development. There is also With CD format, it is expected that weekly Newsletter. In the same year the information dissemination will be Working Group also publishes Percik made easier, cheaper, and more effi- magazine. The magazine which special- cient. izes in drinking water and environmental The CD is obtainable from the sanitation information has published 4 Indonesia. Secretariat of WSS Working Group Jl. editions. This magazine is distributed The Working Group documents what Cianjur No. 4, Menteng, Jakarta Pusat free of charge to all stakeholders in is in the website as a clipping. There is Tel. 021-31904113. (MJ) WASPOLA Publication and Communication W ater Supply and Sani- tation Policy For- WASPOLA is a collaborative program between the government of Indonesia, for this case the National Development This CD tries to explain broadly what has been done by WASPOLA up to this time. The contents comprise: (i) the process in for- mulation and Ac- Planning Agency (BAPPENAS) with Aus- mulation of the National Policy for tion Planning tralian Agency for International Deve- Community Based Water Supply and (WASPOLA) pha- lopment (AusAID), and World Bank/Wa- Sanitation Development; (ii) the initial pro- se I has completed ter and Sanitation Program for East Asia ces of formulation of National Policy for implementation. and the Pacific (WSP-EAP). Institutionally Based Water Supply and The five year program focused itself in It might be possible that many who are Sanitation Development; (iii) workshop policy formulation, improvement of ser- not yet aware of this program, although this activities; (iv) field trials and case studies; (v) vice and learning process as well as infor- program has been ongoing since 1998 pro- publication; (vi) project management. mation. The main focus is to facilitate the viding facilitation to the Indonesian govern- The CD is distributed free of charge. provision of drinking water and environ- ment in the formulation of National Policy Those interested please contact WASPO- mental sanitation of small and medium for Community Based Water Supply and LA secretariat Jl. Cianjur No. 4, Menteng, scale settlement areas. Sanitation Development. Jakarta Pusat Tel. 021-3142046. (MJ) Collection of Solid Waste Resources E PA has launched a CD entitled "A co- llection of Solid Waste Resources". This CD contains more than 300 publica- The publication cover a wide range of topics including recycle and reuse, mana- gement of dangerous wastes, composting, The topics contained are among others: Climatic Change and Waste, Oil and Gas, Waste Material Management tions on dangerous as well as safe waste and use of engine fuel. The CD is purpo- in Cities, Pollution Control, Mana- material. The documents contained the- sely devoted to a wide range of users, gement of Dangerous Wastes, Environ- rein can be searched and data are ar- especially young people. The cover of the mental Education, Landfilling, and ranged in alphabetical order, some of CD was designed by the winner of chil- Composting. them are presented in Spanish. drens contest aged 7-12. (MJ) 38 Percik August 2004
  • 40. WEBSITE INFO National Solid Waste Management Network P erhaps this is the only website in -in activity menu- is entitled "Waste to Indonesia which is specifically Energy Project, Public Natural Resources dedicated to solid waste mana- Exploitation Project, by Gopal Khrisna gement. This website is relatively very which describes that incinerator pro- simple. There are only a few menus: pro- duces poisonous gases. file, activity, gallery and link. Other interesting articles are among This website is a means for communi- others Environmental Education in cation by the National Solid Waste Waste Material Handling, and the Management Network of "Garbage Net- Development of Biodegradable Plastic work" consisting of 29 NGOs interested Material from Tropical Starch Sub- in solid waste management from 25 cities stances. in Indonesia. Garbage Network is part of It is also interesting to note this web- www.jala-sampah.or.id Global Anti Incinerator of Allian- site provides information about the prices ce/Global Alliance for Incinerator of used material from potable water con- Alternatives. tainer, glass bottles, iron, copper, paper It is not surprising that one its articles and plastic material. the various existing programs related to Solid Waste and solid waste. Regional Waste Management Environmental Protection System of Spokane http://www.epa.gov/epaoswer/osw/cdos http://www.solidwaste.org/ wpub.htm This website contains many things S o l i d w aste is not a simple prob- about solid wastes including waste as lem. The website of the US En- source of energy, transfer stations, dan- vironmental Protection Agency gerous waste, reducing waste, learning (EPA) describes in detail various waste about waste, and waste recycle. The ma- problems and their solutions. Beginning nagement system is what is specially from domestic waste till industrial waste applied in Spokane, one of the cities in in its varieties. There is also various International Solid Waste US. cooperation formats that can be done and Association (ISWA) http://www.iswa.org/ T his website is maintained by Inter- national Solid Waste Association (ISWA) which has 1.100 members from 70 countries. Its content is complete, from definition of waste till policy and action from each country of the world. It also contains important articles and news about wastes. In the forthcoming 17-21 October this independent organization will hold a congress in Rome, Italy. 39 Percik August 2004
  • 41. V ISIT WASPOLA Program Dissemination in the Province of Gorontalo W ASPOLA program dissemina- SOURCE: RHEIDDA PRAMUDHY tion was carried out in Goron- talo on 7 July last. This effort was intended to provide an input to the regional government in formulation future development strategies given the fact that the present drinking water service coverage is too low, i.e. below 50 percent. The event which took place in the office of the Provincial Bappeda and was opened by its Chairman. Present from among the provincial level agencies were Bappeda, Health, PDAM, Village Community Development (PMD), Social Affairs (Dinas Sosial), Office of Environ- mental Affairs (Kantor Lingkungan Hi- dup), NGOs, University, representatives from legislative body. Description about WASPOLA program was presented by Rheidda Pramudhy from WSS Working Group. The event was also filled with Aside from introduction about the group discussion in the portrait of WSS National Policy for Community Based WSS development and WASPOLA development and finally a formulation program, the event was also filled with of action plan by the participants. group discussion in the portrait of WSS development before and after the formation of the province, and finally a formulation of action plan by the High pollution rate from disposal of produced a follow-up action and an participants. mercury containing substances into agreement to form a WSS Working Team The problems and issues related to open waters by gold mining industry. at the provincial level. drinking water and sanitation in the Under exploitation of water sources The Bappeda is elected as the province that consists of 3 kabupatens from lakes and reservoirs. Chairman and the involved agencies as (Kota Gorontalo, Kab. Gorontalo, and Frequent prevalence of diarrhoeal the members. To support the activity, Kab. Boalemo) are as the following: diseases due to disregard to hygiene the Working Team has proposed a Inequity in WSS development behaviour. budget from the provincial annual WSS development does not comply Regional government is more ori- budget for FY 2004 and 2005 as with community demand ented to revenue than public service counterpart to a fund provided for by Limited PDAM service, espe- especially in drinking water. WASPOLA at the region. cially in cities The dissemination process also (Rheidda Pramudhy) 40 Percik August 2004
  • 42. V ISIT Windfall over Pringga Jurang SOURCE: OSWAR MUNGKASA drinking water through SODIS method. For household toilet, the construction was arranged in a rolling fund system. The construction budget which was decided at a ceiling of Rp200 million for each village, 20 percent came from com- munity contribution. The WSS facility is managed by Himpunan Penduduk Pemakai Air Mi- num/HIPPAM (drinking water users asso- ciation). At a public hydrant the manage- ment is undertaken by water users group. Monthly contribution is Rp1.000 per family. But the monthly contribution does not fully apply for reason they were just spending a large amount for WSLIC-2 contribution. From a field observation it was found that one of the public tap is broken. Similar damage was also found in other projects such as RWSS. This is because it is very difficult to get a replacement or it takes a "I t is like the moon falls into our also built 4 school toilets. The school large amount of money to purchase one lap," as brought up by commu- children are also able to get a hygienic than the price of the tap. (OM) nity members of Pringga Jurang village, Kec. Montong Gading, Lombok Timur, NTB, when commenting about WSLIC-2 project in their village. The community has been waiting for a water SODIS supply facility. Producing Hygienic Water with Sunshine The community has a very low income. Almost 73 percent of its population belongs to the poor class. It is not surprising that the villagers who live barely 12 km from the Lombok Timur capital city are in poor T he material needed consists only of a 1,5 litre transparent bottle (pota- ble water container may do). Half of the hygiene condition. Nearly 85% of the popu- body is painted black, lengthwise. Then lation defecates in the open, 93% dispose it is filled with water to the top and their waste anywhere they please, 95% never sealed. The bottle is put under the sun wash hands after defecating, and 64% drink with the painted part at the bottom. Let water directly without first boiling it. No it under the sun for 4-5 hours on sunny wonder, that diarrhoeal diseases visit here days or 6-7 hours if it is cloudy, or 2 con- very often. secutive days if it is rainy followed by a Thanks to WSLIC-2 the village now clear weather. Now the water is good has a functioning drinking water and sa- enough to be taken directly for drinking. nitation facility. A gravitational piping system serves 887 people. The project 41 Percik August 2004
  • 43. A BOUT WASPOLA The Implementation of National Policy for Community Based WSS Development at the Regional LevelI SOURCE: ALMA ARIEF mplementation facilitation of Natio- nal Policy for Community Based WSS Development in seven pro-vinces has been on-going since June2004. The regions were selected basedon the letter of interest and regional com-mitment as a follow-up from a nationalworkshop held in 10-12 March 2004 inYogyakarta. Up to July 2004 the activities thattook place in the regions were: facilitatormobilization, coordination in the prepa-ration of policy implementation, andpresentation of general program atprovincial level. The above activities werefacilitated by 7 facilitators assigned to theregions and in performing their tasksthey were supported by WASPOLASecretariat and WSS Working Group inJakarta. Gorontalo, Bangka Selatan and Lombok data insufficiency. That is why data Barat. preparation should be given enough time.Coordination The preparation for program imple- Stakeholder Mapping Program Presentationmentation was initiated from a coordina- To get a clear picture who among the The agenda for program presentationtion approach with regional level chiefs of different components of the community comprises: (i) the general illustrationthe involved agencies -Bappeda, are the potential parties for program about policy formulation program; (ii)Kimpraswil, Community Empowerment implementation within a specific area, the policy principles governing the com-Agency- for the purpose of introducing the facilitators identified the government munity based WSS development; (iii) theand explaining the program planning. In agencies and other parties who are inte- facilitation process for the policy imple-general, all the regions responded splen- rested in WSS sector development, espe- mentation at the regional level; (iv) dis-didly and immediately make preparation cially the NGOs. This identification pro- cussion and clarification; and (v) agree-for the facilitator facility. The facilitators duced names to be proposed for partici- ment to a short term action plan. In ge-are housed in the office of Bappeda, pation in TOT MPA and Program neral the regions respond favourably toexcept in Kab. Lombok Barat where they Implementation which was held by WSS the policy implementation plan andare housed in the office of Kimpraswil Working Group at Cisarua, Bogor, 13-16 agreeable to the idea that sustainable(Public Works). July 2004. WSS service is an important issue that Beside the above support the regional must be dealt with seriously. The shortgovernments also allocate an amount of WSS Data Collection term agenda (action plan) comprisesbudget in support of the activity. Ho- Regional level facilitators and stake- among others: preparation of workingwever, for most of the regions, the alloca- holders have collected data on the exist- team, selection of participants to a train-tion is still in the process of annual bud- ing WSS facility. The data are used in the ing for trainers (TOT) in MPA and Policyget proposal. regional level workshops for the formula- Implementation. The regions ready with the budget are tion WSS development work plan. All of Other matters that must be dealt withKabupatens Kebumen, Sijunjung, the regions are aware of the issues related by the facilitators are: 42 Percik August 2004
  • 44. A BOUT WASPOLA An expectation that this program will - There is a need for more advanced be followed with a physical project. MPA training and field application This notion develops from a tradition and a training in formulation of that each program coming from the In general, all WSS sector strategic planning. central is identical with a subsidized the participants - Enthusiasm from other regions to physical development project. join in TOT MPA and policy imple- The absence of participants represent- were enthusiastic in mentation. ing legislative body (DPRD). Whereas, attending the they play an important role in provid- training. They have Regional Work Plans ing support and follow-up WSS pro- developed a work Regional level work plans are directed gram implementation. towards policy implementation with the Uncertainty of fund allocation in seve- plan for the policy following steps: ral regions such as in Jawa Tengah, implementation for Sumatra Barat, NTB, Gorontalo, and further discussion in Kabupaten South Sulawesi. their respective 1. Information seminar about the na- tional policy for community based Training Orientation and Program places. WSS development and socialization of Implementation the policy to a wide range of stake- All of the regions invited to the train- holders. ing did send their participants, and even 2. Mapping of issues and problems rela- Banten sent one and Gorontalo two addi- ted to WSS development through WS tional participants they were initially Commitment to budget allocation. II and then followed by studies in asked to. Two participants, each from Although formally the regions declared problems and issues vis-à-vis sustain- Bangka Belitung and Bangka Selatan their preparedness to make available able WSS development and a working failed to show up because of transport dif- the necessary budget for program team meeting to discuss result of the ficulty. implementation, the latest progress in studies and decide on priority action. In general, all the participants were the field indicates that mostly they are 3. WS for formulation of regional level enthusiastic in attending the training. still fighting to convince the DPRD. policy framework for WSS sector They have developed a work plan for the This matter needs be taken into con- development which is then followed policy implementation for further discus- sideration that in future the time by formulation regional policy and sion in their respective places. Based on allowance for program confirmation is action plans. evaluation, 80 percent felt very satisfied made longer. 4. Post facilitation policy and action and satisfied, 2 participants said ineffec- Positive responses at provincial level plans implementation. tive and too highly theoretical, and the are found in: rest felt just so-so. - Jawa Tengah will invite 14 kabu- Province patens as an initial step in program 1. Information seminar about the nation- Several Important Findings socialization; al policy for community based WSS Based on the result of coordination - Sumatra Barat invited additional development and socialization of the meetings and activities undertaken up to kabupatens, namely Pasaman Barat policy to a wide range of stakeholders. July 2004, there are several findings that and Pesisir Selatan in the initial 2. Monitoring/supervision and learning deserve follow-up and attention from the presentation. The two regions are process of policy implementation in central level WSS Working Group. Those interested to join the program in selected pilot areas. are: 2005. 3. Workshop for development of facilita- There are changes in staffing and con- - South Sulawesi has scheduled the tion strategies in policy implementa- tact persons in the regions. socialization to all kabupatens. tion then followed by provincial level There are differences in interest among - Bangka Belitung and Jawa Tengah policy formulation and action plans. regional agencies because of the wrong question about the selection criteria 4. Post facilitation policy and action plans persons were instructed to attend the ini- and expect if there were opportunity implementation. tial workshop in Yogyakarta. for additional kabupatens to join in. WASPOLA secretariat 43 Percik August 2004
  • 45. A BOUT WASPOLA WASPOLA Working Group WorkshopA s an evaluation of WASPOLA 2004 Workplan implementation WASPOLA-1 WASPOLA-2 and to highlight the rationale of 1. Policy Reform 1. Policy Implementationworks still yet unfinished the WASPOLA 2. Service Improvement 2. Policy ReformWorking Group held a three day work- 3. Learning Process & Communication 3. Knowledge Management (Information)shop on 6-8 July 2004 at the Novus 4. Project Management 4. Coordination & Project ManagementHotel, Puncak, West Java. The workshopwas also intended to integrateMillennium Development Goals (MDGs)into WASPOLA Workplan. have been completed, some in progress Work Program 2004. The workshop was attended by seve- and there are items which have not taken In the meantime, in terms of MDGsral of the Working Group members and place. The participants came to a conclu- the workshop came to the following con-was opened by Basah Hernowo, Director sion that the program was too optimistic, clusion, (i) the baseline data to be usedof Human Settlement and Housing, considering the imbalanced ratio are those produced by SUSENAS of theBappenas. In his opening speech he between the number to items and the Central Bureau of Statistic; (ii) the scopestressed the need for the completion of available manpower both in the WASPO- of water supply sector consists of drink-National Policy Document for Insti- LA working group and in the secretariat. ing water and environmental sanitationtutionally Based WSS Development by Moreover, the program is implemented covering wastewater and solid waste; (iii)the end of 2004. It is now considered as during the government transition. That is MDGs sector targets is adjusted with thethe best momentum, the completion of why the participants suggested to ration- Indonesian progress report in MDGsthis document could erase the notion that alize it based on an in-depth analysis and achievement. An agreement was alsoWASPOLA is identical to community rescheduling of some of the work pro- reached regarding the MDGs program ofbased approach. gram. Finally it was agreed to revise the activities for 2004. (OM) He also underscored the matters to be SOURCE: OSWAR MUNGKASAdone, i.e. (i) an agreement on the WSSdevelopment policy structure and frame-work, (ii) preparation of WASPOLA-2general Workplan up to December 2004.(iii) coordinated schedule with WSSWorking Group activities. (iv) formula-ting the activities for coordinated datamanagement, (v) determining the topic offield trials and case studies related to thepolicy. The workshop was also used anopportunity for the presentation ofProject Design Document (PDD) by Os-war Mungkasa, Office of Housing andSettlement, Bappenas, who elaboratedthe PDD formulation process involvingall the partnership parties, Indonesiangovernment, AusAID and WSP-EAP. Italso describes the objectives and compa-rison of components between WASPOLA-1and WASPOLA-2. WASPOLA 2004 program review ses-sion was chaired by Sofyan Iskandar,WASPOLA Project Coordinator. Accor-ding to him some items of the program 44 Percik August 2004
  • 46. A BOUT WASPOLA WASPOLA Central Project Committee MeetingW SOURCE: DORMARINGAN S. ASPOLA-2 Central officials of the involved Project Committee government agencies (CPC) meeting was Bappenas, Ministry ofheld on 11 August 2004 at Home Affairs, Dept.Four Seasons Hotel, Jakarta. Finance, Ministry ofThe meeting was attended by Health, Ministry ofSuyono Dikun, Deputy for Settlement and Re-Facilities and Infrastruc- gional Infrastructures,tures, Bappenas), Robin Da- and representativesvis and Zabeta Moutafis of from the Australian go-the Australian Embassy, and vernment and thethe officials of the involved World Bank.agencies. Until December The meeting was preced- 2004 WASPOLA-2 ac-ed with signing Subsidiary tivity is focused on theAgreement document bet- completion of Natio-ween the Indonesian govern- nal Policy for Insti-ment represented by Deputy tutionally Based WSSfor Facilities and Infra- Development and thestructures, Bappenas with the Australian WASPOLA-2 progress report for the pe- Implementation of the National Policygovernment; official hand over of riod of January-June 2004 and work plan for Community Based WSS Deve-WASPOLA-1 result to Bappenas as the for July-December 2004. lopment in 7 provinces and 7 kabupa-executing agency, and presentation of The Committee consists of echelon 1 tens. (OM) Workshop for the Formulation of National Policy for Institutionally Based WSS Development A workshop for the formulation workshop was applying participatory The result will be accommodated into of national policy for institu- approach in which each participant is a the previous draft. The next workshop is tionally based WSS develop- valuable resource person. The discus- scheduled for 1 October 2004. (OM) ment was held on 1-2 September in sion was pro- SOURCE: OSWAR MUNGKASA Bogor, West Java. This workshop is a ceeding in a re- part of WASPOLA-2 program imple- laxed atmosphe- mentation. A series of similar work- re without un- shops will be held in the future. derestimating Approximately 60 participants from seriousness. At various associated parties, central go- the end of the vernment officials, representatives from workshop the regional governments, PDAM, profes- participants sional associations (PERPAMSI, agreed to a num- FORKAMI), private sector (PT. Palyja, ber of inputs and PT Wira Gufindo Sarana), universities, revisions to the and donor agency were present. The existing policy. 45 Percik August 2004
  • 47. A BOUT WSS Methodology for Participatory Assessments (MPA)/PHAST Orientation Training for Regional Level WSS Working Group A s the National Policy for Com- In general, the purpose of the orienta- is designed to improve water supply and munity Based WSS Development tion is to make the regional Working environmental sanitation condition in final document was mutually Group members understand the national Indonesia through policy reform has been agreed by the national level stakeholders, policy for community based WSS deve- completed in WASPOLA-1 in March it now comes the time to put the policy lopment, understand the MPA/PHAST 2003, and one of its main outcomes is the into operation at the regional level. In basic principles, understand the princi- National Policy for Community Based 2004 the implementation is limited in ples of facilitation; have a good know- WSS Development. It was later agreed to selected 7 provinces and 7 kabupatens, ledge on the participatory approach in continue the activities to WASPOLA namely Kab. Sawahlunto Sijunjung and policy formulation process. Besides, it is phase 2 till December 2008. WASPOLA- Province of West Sumatra, Kab. South expected that this meeting will facilitate 2 is focused on regional implementation Bangka and the Prov. of Bangka the participants in formulating the of the community based policy, and con- Belitung, Kab. Lebak and Prov. Banten, regional working group work plan. tinues with WSS policy reform in formu- Kab. Kebumen and Prov. Central Jawa, lation of national policy for institutional- Kab. West Lombok and Prov. NTB, Kab. One of the supporting ly based WSS development. Pangkep and Prov. South Sulawesi, and activities of the imple- The National Policy for the De- Kab. Gorontalo and Prov. Gorontalo. mentation is formation of velopment of Community Based Water One of the supporting activities of the regional level Working Supply and Environmental Sanitation implementation is formation of regional (WSS) consists of 11 basic policies, they level Working Groups followed up with Groups followed up with are (i) water is a social good and an eco- strengthening the capacity of their mem- strengthening the capacity nomic good; (ii) informed choice as a bers. As an initial step it is considered of their members. basis for demand responsive approach; necessary to introduce the MPA princip- (iii) environmentally friendly develop- les as one of the main tools in WSS devel- Basah Hernowo, Director of Human ment; (iv) hygiene behaviour education; opment implementation as well as in the Settlement and Housing, Bappenas in his (v) poverty sensitive development; (vi) formulation of the national policy up to presentation about WASPOLA explained role of women in decision making; (vii) the present. about the apprehensive condition of accountability in development process; The MPA/PHAST orientation train- drinking water and environmental sani- (viii) role of government as facilitator; ing was conducted on 12-16 July 2004 at tation service in Indonesia. Access to (ix) active participation of community; Hotel Pratama, Cisarua, Bogor and was drinking water supply is still below 50% (x) optimum service to the right target; organized by the Directorate General for and of sanitation is 63,5% but it is ques- and (xi) application of cost recovery prin- Rural Community Development, Dep. tionable if the basic sanitation meets the ciple. Home Affairs, in its capacity as one of the acceptable quality. It is even estimated Basah Hernowo also explained briefly Central Working Group members. that many of the sanitation facilities that about Millennium Development Goals Seventy participants attended the train- make up the 63.5% level are not function- (MDGs) for drinking water and sanitation ing consisting of members of working ing any more. One of the indicators is the for 2015, reducing the proportion of po- groups from various constituents, namely high rate of ground water pollution in big pulation without access to drinking water Village Community Development cities; for Jakarta this rate has reached and basic sanitation services. This agree- Agency/Body (PMD), Bappeda, Settle- 84%. ment was signed by 193 world leaders. ment and Regional Infrastructures Agen- WASPOLA, a grant funded project The strategy to achieve the target is cy, Health Agency, Education Agency, from the Australian government and presently being formulated by the WSS Regional Environmental Control. managed by WSP-EAP of the World Bank Working Group. OM 46 Percik August 2004
  • 48. A BOUT WSS WSS Working Group Took Part in Nusantara Water 2004 SOURCE: DORMARINGAN S.W SS Working Group interested in having their and WASPOLA took place as a site for imple- part in Nusantara menting the national policyWater Exhibition 2004 held at for community based WSSJakarta Convention Center on development which is cur-19-20 August 2004. The stand rently on-going. There aredisplayed posters, books, others who are interested toleaflets and various other pro- subscribe the Percik maga-ducts of the Working Group as zine even if they had to pay.well as of WASPOLA. The pos- There were about 40ters that were introduced were participants from the go-among others "100 million on vernment, PDAM, privateIndonesian population are sector, university, and pro-without access to drinking fessional association tookwater and sanitation", "Na- place in the exhibition. Thetional Policy for Community Nusantara Water 2004Based WSS Development", "Hygiene Percik magazine, and various leaflets free agenda included a seminar and confer-Behaviour", and posters produced by of charge to the visitors. More than 200 ence. This event was organized by PER-WSLIC and SANIMAS. The Working visitors came to visit the blue-grey stand. PAMSI (Persatuan Perusahaan AirGroup and WASPOLA also distributed Many of them were impressed with what Minum Seluruh Indonesia, Indonesianthe book on National Policy for WASPOLA and the Working Group have Association of Drinking Water Com-Community Based WSS Development, been doing. There are visitors who are panies). (MJ) ProAir Project Planning and EvaluationP roAir Project Planning and about community participatory appro- guity from several involved parties, difficul- Evaluation meeting was held at ach; (iii) implementation phasing is too ty in mobilization of non investment contri- Denpasar, Bali on 28-29 August long; (iv) counterpart fund from the go- bution from the regional government; (ii)2004. The purpose of the meeting was to vernment cannot be utilized that nega- there are not many locations where gravita-make work plan for 2005 and at the same tively influences their performance. tional system can be applied because of dis-time also as a means for evaluation of However, the government of Timor tance from water source, thus investmentimplementation in 2004. This meeting Tengah Selatan agrees with KfW that fund increases; (iv) guidelines are not avail-was attended by Central and Regional investment fund is not influenced with able; (v) collection of contribution is delayedTechnical Teams and the consultants. FY. But the government of Sumba Barat because low community capacity.Also present were the KfW Review made it compulsory for the regional go- Recommendation proposed, (i) in twoMission who presented their findings and vernment to return the fund to regional kabupatens, i.e. Alor and Ende the ProAirrecommendations. The findings were treasury office it it can be used. implementation is postponed till mid ofdiscussed between the KfW and Indo- 2005; (ii) take the necessary action tonesian government in Jakarta on 6 Sep- KfW Mission Review Findings and make the guidelines ready as soon as pos-tember 2004. Recommendation sible; (iii) it is necessary to conduct The regional governments revealed a The mission reveals a number of find- socialization program to the legislativenumber of constraints they are facing, (i) ings, (i) ProAir implementation delay bodies; (iv) it is required that the tenderthe general election; (ii) the legislative because of mistakes in estimating the time process for contracting to observe thebodies do not have sufficient knowledge needed for project preparation, some ambi- regulation of the donor agency. (OM) 47 Percik August 2004
  • 49. A BOUT WSS Appropriate Technology Seminar Waste Water Processing SOURCE: OSWAR MUNGKASAW aste Water Technology Centre in cooperation with JICA, JBIC, WSP-EAP/World Bank,and WSS Working Group organized aseminar entitled "Appropriate technologyWaste Water Processing. It is Time toMove" held in Yogyakarta on 24-25August 2004. The purpose of the seminaris to share information about the progressin waste water processing technology andinter-governmental information coordi-nation pattern. Approximately 200 par-ticipants representing the bureaucracies,practitioners, universities, consultants,donor agencies, and NGOs attended theseminar. Basah Hernowo, Director of HumanSettlement and Housing, Bappenas,described the general condition of wastewater management in Indonesia.According to him, (i) waste water mana-gement is not a priority either to govern- the private sector, development of fund- papers, namely Dr. Tjandra Setiadi (ITB)ment, legislative nor the private sector. ing mechanism, community care, integra- "Production of Biodegradable PlasticThis is evidenced from government bud- tion of drinking water development with from Waste Water", S. Uemura, Assistantget allocation during the decade 1992- sanitation/waste water management. In Professor Kiazarazu Institute of2002 was a mere Rp1,5 billion vs. Rp2 conformance with the title of the seminar, Technology, Japan "The Performance oftrillion for drinking water supply; (ii) lack all the solutions must be put into action Downflown Hanging Sponge (DHS)of awareness in the part of the communi- now. It is action that is needed, not just aty. In dealing with waste water manage- plan. Biotower in Karnak, India" and Prof. Dr.ment the community strictly applies the This seminar also invited several Azis Djajadiningrat (ITB) "Waste WaterNIMBY (not in my backyard) principle; researchers with interesting working Processing Without Chemicals." (OM)(iii) waste water management is not pro-perly coordinated; (iv) sanitation servicecoverage is still insufficient (74%) and thecoverage for waste water management A Glimpse of Waste Watersystem is extremely low (2%); (v) the cost Technology Centre Wfor waste water management is becoming aste Water Technology Centre tives include the following, (i) provi-more expensive as the surface water is a cooperation program bet- sion of facility and infrastructure forbecomes more heavily polluted; (vi) thechallenges in the future relate to the ween Dian Desa Foundation and Asian waste water management; (ii) appro-achievement of Millennium Development Peoples Exchange (APEX-Japan) with priate technology development andGoals (MDGs) and national policy support from JICA Partnership Pro- field testing; (iii) human resourcesreform. He also suggested several solu- gram (JPP). The purpose of the pro- development; (iv) networking. Thistions, such as the application of good go- gram is to improve the environmental program started in 2001 and will endvernance and the principle of polluter condition in Indonesia. The objec- in 2004.pays, development of partnership with 48 Percik August 2004
  • 50. A BOUT WSS Preparation for ProAir Project in Kabupaten Alor SOURCE: EXCLUSIVET he ProAir Project preparatory meeting took place at the office of GTZ in Mataram, NTB on August2004 last. The purpose of the meetingwas know what preparation has beenmade in two new Kabupatens, i.e. Alorand Ende, and the implementationprogress of ProAir Project in the 3 oldkabupatens, namely Timor TengahSelatan (TTS), Sumba Barat and SumbaTimur. Several important matters wererevealed in the meeting among others itwas known that ProAir is supported withinvestment assistance from KfW and noninvestment from GTZ. The amountinvestment assistance planned for kabu-patens Alor and Ende is Rp18 billion,mainly for construction purpose. Theamount has been committed. GTZ fund cannot work full time because he is go- the involved agencies consisting of Kim-for community preparation is not yet con- vernment employee. TTS is doing excel- praswil, Office of Community Developmentfirmed. It is said, GTZ has a financial dif- lently. In this kabupaten the facilitator (PMD), and Health (Dinkes).ficulty. With this difficulty the project moves around in his motorcycle. TTS is Drinking water coverage has reachedimplementation cannot start simultane- able to move at par with Kabupatens 60%. This year the regional governmentously. Kabupaten Ende will start first for Sumba Timur and Sumba Barat, each allocates Rp1,4 billion for development ofthe following reasons: with 3 locations. drinking water facility especially deep 1. The regional government is better well pump from an average ground water committed table 70 m below the surface2. There are more water sources avail- There are two activities that GTZ is able involved in, namely PROMISE Project for3. In terms of geographical condition ProAir is supported the purpose if improving rural communi- and accessibility the area is easier to ty income, and Siskes Project to improve deal with. with investment community health condition. Both pro-4. Availability of water quality testing assistance from KfW jects are currently on-going. facility. and non investment Another water supply development5. Availability of community facilitator project is the WSLIC-1. But the facilities weho has been trained by GTZ- from GTZ. are not functioning anymore because the PROMISE Project. community level management team does not function as expected. This is because As for kabupatens TTS, Sumba Barat the community does not pay contribu-and Sumba Timur project implementa- tion. Some of the community memberstion has reached the stage of tendering ProAir meeting was also held in the suggest that the management but placedfor construction work. Construction is office of Bappeda Kab. Alor on 14 August. under a government agency, in this wayexpected to start in October. There is a The meeting was chaired by the the community would be more obe-problem in Sumba Timur, the facilitator Chairman of Bappeda and attended by dient. (Rheidda Pramudy) 49 Percik August 2004
  • 51. W WS BIBLIOGRAPHY GENERAL BOOKS MAGAZINES WATER FOR URBAN AREAS Challenges and Prospective Kota-Kota Author : Juha I Uitto & Asit K. Bis was Popular Magazine about towns Published by: United Nations University Press and Cities. Edition 1, 2004 RUBBISH! The Archaeology of Garbage Air Minum (Drinking Water) Author : William Rahje & Cullen Murphy Published by Perpamsi. Published by: The University of Arizona Press Edition 101, March 2004 AREA PROFILE Synergi Desa Kota (Village Kabupatens and Cities Author : Kompas Team Town Synergy) Published by: Kompas Press Rural and Urban Community Development Magazine. WATER POLITIC Edition 1 January 2004 Foreign Control Through Loan Author : P. Raja Siregar Published by : WALHI & KAU WATER RESOURCES CONSERVATION THROUGH ARTIFICIAL MARSH TECHNOLOGY Author : Maulida Khiatuddin Published by : Gadjah Mada University Press WASTE WATER TREATMENT In Order To Control Pollution Author : Ir. S. Hindarko Published by : Esha STUDY Wastewater Treatment in Latin America. Old and New Option. Subsidy of Self Respect? GUIDELINE Participatory Guideline for City Wastewater Total Treatment. For Government Community Executive and Legislative. Sanitation in Edition 1, Fanuary 2004 Bangladesh. ability in Flood Protection, Irrigation, and Dam. Directorat for PROSIDING Water Resources and Irrigation, Asset Management For Hydraulic national Development Planning Infrastructure. Towards sustain- Agency/Bappenas. 50 Percik August 2004
  • 52. A GENDADate Month Activity2 August Preparatory Meeting Re Nusantara water 2004 and Dissemination of Information about National Policy for Community Based WSS Development3 August Drinking Water Sub-team meeting - National Policy for Institutionally Based WSS Development Solid Waste Sub-team meeting - National Policy for Institutionally Based WSS Development4 August WASPOLA Pre-Project Coordination (PPC) Meeting WSS Working Group Regular Meeting5 August WSS Working Group Regular Meeting Solid Waste Sub-team meeting - National Policy for Institutionally Based WSS Development6 August Preparatory Meeting Re PDAM Water Sampling Method9 August WWS Working Group Regular Meeting - National Policy for Institutionally Based WSS Development10 August Solid Waste Sub-team meeting - National Policy for Institutionally Based WSS Development ProAir Project Coordination Meeting10-11 August Sumatra Barat Provincial Workshop on National Policy for Community Based WSS Development11 August WASPOLA PCC Meeting Kick Off Meeting ADB, Appraisal Meeting for CSWH Project11-12 August Kabupaten Workshop on National Policy for Community Based WSS Development in Pangkep12-14 August ProAir Project advocacy with the regional government of Kab. Alor13 August WWS Working Group Regular Meeting16 August Meeting Re Formulation of National Policy for Institutionally Based WSS Development18 August Coordination Meeting Re Planning for National Policy for Flood Control19 August Water Sanitation Discussion Forum - Using Wind Power for Water Supply and Irrigation19-20 August Nusantara Water 2004 Exhibition24 August Meeting for Revised Draft of National Policy for Institutionally Based WSS Development Preparatory Meeting, Planning and Evaluation for ProAir Project in Denpasar24-25 August International Seminar - Appropriate Technology in Waste Water Processing. Provincial Workshop on National Policy for Community Based WSS Development Bangka Belitung26-27 August ProAir Project Coordination Meeting in Bali Provincial Workshop on National Policy for Community Based WSS Development in Central Jawa Provincial Workshop on National Policy for Community Based WSS Development in Gorontalo Kabupaten Workshop on National Policy for Community Based WSS Development in Lebak30 August Presentation Meeting on WASPOLA Progress Report1-2 September Workshop on National Policy for Institutionally Based WSS Development2-3 September Kabupaten Workshop on National Policy for Community Based WSS Development in South Bangka6 September Wrap-up Meeting of KfW Review Mission on ProAir WSS Working Group Meeting on Sanitation Grant Fund from the Netherlands WSS Working Group Meeting on Discussion about Hygiene Improvement in Indonesia6-7 September Kabupaten Workshop on National Policy for Community Based WSS Development in Sijunjung Kabupaten Workshop on National Policy for Community Based WSS Development in Kebumen Kabupaten Workshop on National Policy for Community Based WSS Development in Gorontalo8 September Workshop entitled: "Global Practices Forum Health in Your Hands; Critical Importance of Hygiene Improvement for Health, Water and Sanitation Program in Indonesia"15 September WSLIC-2 Central Committee Meeting Workshop on Community Led Total Sanitation WASPOLA meeting - re WASPOLA progress15-16 September Provincial Workshop on National Policy for Community Based WSS Development in Banten16 September WWS Working Group Regular Meeting17-18 September Provincial Workshop on National Policy for Community Based WSS Development in South Sulawesi21 September WWS Working Group Regular Meeting22 September Kick of Meeting - WSLIC-2 Supervision Meeting22 Sep till 8 Oct WSLIC-2 Supervision Mission4 October Commemoration of Habitat Day in Yogyakarta Percik 51 August 2004
  • 53. GLOSSARY Aeration : adding oxygen into waste water Aerator : a device used for adding oxygen into waste water Aquifer : underground water containing sand layer Backwater : a flow unparallel with the bottom of pipe, usually is caused by blocking at the downstream end of the pipe Anaerobic Bacteria : bacteria that live in an oxygen free condition Black Water : waste water from the toilet, is made up of human waste Capacity Building : improvement of the capacity of an institution, by way of training etc. Community Based: a program which involves the community Effluent : processed waste water spilling over from a Waste water Processing Facility Grey Water : waste water from bathroom, wash basin, kitchen (not containing human waste) Hygienic : clean, healthy and not detrimental to health Inlet : in flow Hard Water : water containing high concentrate of bicarbonates, cannot cleanse soap off the skin Coagulant : a chemical substance that causes particles in a suspension pulls together into bigger particles and subside Sedimentation Pond : a pond to make the mud from waste water to settle down Manhole : a hole used for regular control (Pipeline or other construction) Off-site : waste water treatment centralized at a location away from the settlement area On-site : waste water treatment within the settlement area. Permeability : capacity of soil layer to permeates water through the soil pores, stated in cm/day Purification : to re-purify waste water from the influence of polluting substance Real Demand Survey: survey about the real demand of the community Sanitary Landfill : cover solid waste with dirt soil or mud, as a means to control environmental pollution Sewerage : piping network to contain waste water and is equipped with treatment installation Percolation pit : a ground excavation having permeable walls to let water penetrates into lower ground layer Imhoff tank : a tank discovered by Imhoff, used to digest sludge water Waste water truck : a truck with a tank and pump affixed to it to pump off sludge water out of a septic tank Summarized from " Mengolah Air Limbah, Supaya Tidak Mencemari Orang Lain” (Waste Water Treatment, an Effort to Control Pollution) by S. Hindarko 52 Percik August 2004

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