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Indonesia Water Supply and Sanitation Magazine. 'PERCIK' Vol 4 June 2004


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  • 1. Information Media for Water Supply and Environmental Sanitation From Editor 1 Advisor: Your Voice 2 Director General for Urban and Main Report Rural Development, Ministry of Settlement and Regional Infrastructure Sanitation Underestimated 3 Water, Sanitation and Hygiene for All Director of Human Settlement and Housing, National Development Planning Agency (WASH Campaign) 9 Republic of Indonesia Observing MDGs Sanitation 10 Director of Water and Sanitation, Interview Ministry of Health Director of Urban and Rural Eastern Region, Ir. Susmono Ministry of Settlement and Regional “Sanitation Is More Important Than Electricity” 12 Infrastructure ArticleDirector of Natural Resources and Appropriate Technology, Director General on Village and Ecological Sanitation 15 Community Empowerment, Lessons Learned From Sanitation Development 16 Ministry of Home Affairs Drinking Water Service: Director for Facilitation of Special Planning Environment Management, Sustainability and Its Effect Upon Community Ministry of Home Affairs Well-Being 18 Chief Editor: Community Empowerment and Development System 20 Oswar Mungkasa Making Environmental Institutions More Influential, An Idea 21 Board of Editor: Hartoyo, Johan Susmono, Reportage Indar Parawansa, Poedjastanto A piece of story from Ciliwung river bank Never Drink River Water 22 Editor: Maraita Listyasari, Rewang Budiyana, Manner Rheidda Pramudhy, Joko Wartono, Phytoremediation An Effort to Process Wastewater Essy Asiah, Mujiyanto with Plant Media 24 Design: “Agus Gunarto” Household Wastewater Rudi Kosasih Treatment System 26 Production: Telescope Machrudin Kabupaten Subang: Pioneer in Formulation of Drinking Water and Environmental Sanitation Policy 27 Distribution: Anggie Rifki H.M. Machri S., Chairman of Bappeda, Kabupaten Subang “This is the Community’s Demand” 28 Address: Book Info 29 Jl. Cianjur No. 4, Menteng, Jakarta Pusat Phone: (021) 31904113 CD Info 30 e-mail: Website Info 31 Field Visit 32 Waspola 34 AMPL 38 Unsolicited article or opinion items are welcome. Please send to our address or e-mail. Library 42 Dont forget to be brief and accompanied Glossary 43 by identity. Agenda 44
  • 2. F ROM EDITORDear readers, As time flows we were not aware thatthis is the moment for us to meet eachother again. In the meantime we havedone our best to make changes in order tomake Percik more enjoyable to read,attractive and it serves as an accurate re-ference for one observing, studying, ma-naging water supply and environmentalsanitation service in Indonesia. We try our best that each edition con-tains inter-related topics. In the last edi-tion, Percik brought you Millennium De-velopment Goals, in the present it is car-rying issues related to sanitation. This to-pic is important because it represents oneof the targets in MDGs that must beachieved in 2015. Moreover, sanitation isone of the nagging problems in Indo-nesia. In the decade of 1980s there was theWater and Sanitation Decade. But theoutcome is below expectation. Variousconstraints were cropping up. From thecommunity side, awareness and know- domestic waste processing system. Theledge is wanting. Let alone low income as In the decade of 1980s system has been internationally acknow-another major stumbling block. It is ag- ledged for its "sophistication" and ingravated with the outbreak of economic there was the Water and 2001 won World Technology Award incrisis of 1997. Based on monitoring, a na- Sanitation Decade. England. Besides, in a larger scale, it istion with a GNP of less than USD 1.000 But the outcome is below also advisable to look into waste watermust have a poor sanitation condition. management by phytoremediation me-To this community priorities are many expectation. Various con- thod, using plants as media for neutrali-things other than sanitation. From the straints were cropping up. zing heavy metal and radioactive contam-government side, central as well as re- From the community side, inated water. This technology is also re-gional, budget allocation for sanitation is commendable to remedy solid waste dis-small. Sanitation is no priority. Whereas awareness and posal improve awareness level of the com- knowledge is wanting. Dear Readers,munity an integrated movement is need- Compared from the earlier editionsed. This is just about the basic sanitation, the present Percik is already comple-let alone the environmental sanitation resource. Human excrement is proces- mented with an ISSN. Its contents arewhich is way beyond expectation. sed in situ until it is free from pathogenic more varied. There are new columns:Therefore, sanitation is not an indepen- organisms and then recycled into farming Teropong (telescope), Info CD, and Lightdent issue and need an involvement of all activity. Large scale application of this News. Glossary re-emerges. Wawasanthe stakeholders. technology can free soil, river, lake and (insight) brings with it more than 2 arti- It is interesting to learn form ecologi- sea from contamination from human cles. This is intended to present you withcal sanitation which has been practised in waste. more information. Photographic and car-East Asia for hundreds of years. Ecologi- As an interesting solution to basic toon illustrations are inserted in severalcal sanitation is a cycle, or a close loop sanitation question, we are offering you articles. We hope this serves for your sa-system which processes human waste as a Agus Gunartos success in developing a tisfaction. Best regards. Percik 1 June 2004
  • 3. Y OUR VOICE Bravo Percik Inter-agency integration is a prerequi- PHOTO’S GALLERY site. This is reflected in Percik. Without integrity it is impossible to have Percik appear before us. Percik which specifical- ly discusses water supply and environ- mental sanitation issues from top to bot- tom has been read by all from the high officials to the common people. If I may suggest, aside from the national policy, it might be plausible if Percik also publish WSS related commu- nity initiative from various locations that might inspire those who work in the same field. NGO activist Thank you for your suggestion. As a new media, Percik will always be open to any input and suggestion. Up to this time we have been trying our best to have the WSS related stories from all over the country, the success and the failure. Yet there is limit to what we get. We will con- tinue to try so that Percik can be better and satisfy your expectation. (Ed.) SOURCE: MUJIYANTO Additional Article To begin with, I would like to congra- Youve made a good suggestion. We time she uses a public toilet. tulate for the issuance of Percik bulletin. I will try it in the forthcoming editions as I would suggest to include the experts have read Percik from 1st through 3rd edi- Perciks distribution coverage becomes opinion in several relevant subject mat- tions. This bulletin contains a lot of use- larger. Up to now the coverage area is ters, through an interview, for instance, ful information for those who work within still limited so that many of the experts attached to the respective article. The the realm of water supply and environ- may not be aware of Perciks existence. authors opinion should not be too domi- mental sanitation. And this can generate As for the WSS Working Group agenda nant in a reportase writing. And lastly, I interest from those who are not yet inte- we have included it in each edition am convinced that all Percik Editorial rested to water supply and environmental though not in a complete form. We will staff would be respectful to a president sanitation issues. try to present the agenda in a better for- and vice president candidate who care for I would like to suggest the readers mat in the future. (Ed.) WSS issues in Indonesia. Regards. would consider adding into it a more aca- Romli demic treatise as a balance to the issues Lack of Experts Opinion A Percik reader related to water supply and sanitation. In Jakarta addition, since this bulletin is one of the Reading Percik, I am interested in activities of the WSS Working Group, it Cermin (mirror) of Edition II/Oct. 2003 In reportase writing we deliberately might be recommendable to also insert its and Reportase (Edition III/Febr. 2004) make it as a light feature story thus inclu- agenda of activities so that the readers columns. The columns illustrate Indone- sion of personal opinion is likely to hap- would be aware of how far the Group has sian community struggle with the "ro- pen. Your suggestion for inserting an tried to respond to the problems related to mantics" of the world of WSS. From Cak experts opinion is worth consideration. water supply and environmental sanita- Solekhan of Kureksari, Sidoarjo who like We all hope that the president and vice tion. "an owl dreaming for a moon" is yearning president candidates care for water sup- Fany Weda for a water supply access from the local ply and environmental sanitation issues. A Percik reader PDAM network till Ms. Yani of Jakarta (Ed.) Jakarta who has no objection to pay Rp2.000 each 2 Percik June 2004
  • 4. MA I N R E P O R T SANITATION UNDERESTIMATED T SOURCE: OSWAR MUNGKASA he awareness of the importance of sanitation to the modern soci- ety began with a sanitation revo- lution in the 19th century in London, in 1832 to be exact, when Metropolitan Water Act made it a requirement that drinking water supply must be provided through a filtering process. Soon after- wards, John Snow proved it that after termination of river Thames pumping at Broad Street the prevalence of cholera epidemic in London in 1855 was sub- siding. The prevalence of cholera epidemic of Hamburg in 1892 explicitly indicates the correlation between contaminated water with disease. While a routine bacterial examination in water supply service was introduced in London since 1885, and the use of chlorine in processing drinking water was since started, which perhaps represents the most efficient technology at that time. It could be summarized that the awareness of the importance of sanitation started only in the middle of 19th century. However, the awareness was not directly followed with a real action. As an illustra- tion, even in the United States the federal government allocated a subsidy budget for sanitation purposes only as late as 1950s. Sanitation development became a reality only after the establishment of an institution called Environmental Protec- tion Agency (EPA) and the launching of Sanitation does not seem an alien word to us. However, Water Pollution Act in early 1970s. there are perhaps only very few of us who realize how At the global level, only in 1980s the United Nations proclaimed 1981-1990 as important sanitation is to our life. The importance of Water Decade which indicates that drink- sanitation may be appropriately represented by a state- ing water and sanitation is acknowledged as an important matter which concerns ment made by Mahatma Gandhi: "Sanitation is more the nations of the whole world. Since important than independence". then, drinking water and sanitation is no more the concern of only a few nations. Percik 3 June 2004
  • 5. MA I N R E P O R T From the proclamation of the Water community health has been generally Decade up to now, the time lapsed has understood. To a greater extent infant Water Decade: been long enough. But a question re- mortality rate is caused by a poor water 1981-1990 mains in our mind why up to now sanita- and sanitation condition. The same is In 1980 the UN declared Interna- tion has not been our interest or priority said about the prevalence of diarrhoeal tional Water and Sanitation Decade in our daily life in Indonesia. Unlike case for a specific location. At a global for the purpose of improving the drinking water which relatively has level, WHO estimates that 1,8 million universal access to water and sa- gained a measurable attention, sanitation annual death tolls are caused by diarrhea. nitation in the developing nations. here in this country, still remains a sub- While approximately 5.500 children die Access is determined by each indi- ject not worth any consideration. daily from contaminated water and food. vidual nation, but in general it is Although Water Decade has long gone The rate of infant mortality in slum areas agreed that each person needs 20 behind us, yet sanitation has not received reaches 121 for every 1.000 child births in litres of water every day and is as much attention as drinking has had is 2001. taken from a source not more than also evidenced from the world level policy It is estimated that the direct and indi- 1,6 km from where he lives makers. In the MDGs initial targets set- rect economic cost from poor sanitation The achievement of Water Decade ting, sanitation was not placed as an expli- in Indonesia is estimated at 2,4 percent of is determined by an increase of cit target but rather as a corollary conse- Gross Domestic Product in 2001 (approx. service at an average of 10 percent quence to the management of slum areas. Rp65 trillion) or Rp180.000 per capita with the majority takes place in the Through an intensive campaign by sever- per annum. This amount is considered rural areas al water and sanitation activities includ- too high especially when compared with Water Decade is considered a fai- ing Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene e.g. educational budget which is only lure despite of success in incre- (WASH) it was only in the Sustainable Rp15,34 trillion per annum. asing the service but the population Development Meeting in Johannesburg in A study on the impact of sanitation to growth is bigger in excess of 20 - 2002 that sanitation became one of the the economy in the cities of Yogyakarta 30 percent. main targets together with drinking and Medan in 2000 indicates relatively water. low figures: Rp100.000 and Rp90.000 per capita per annum in Yogyakarta and costs to the economy, this of course will The Importance of sanitation Medan, respectively. adversely influence economic growth. The role of sanitation in relation to If poor sanitation charges additional This is empirically proven from several studies which conclude that good sanita- tion condition is one of the prerequisites for economic growth. FACTS ABOUT WATER AND SANITATION What is less understood is perhaps the effect of water supply and sanitation to Year 2000: 2,4 billion of world population lack access to improved sanitation, and direct income improvement through less 81 percent of them are in the rural areas. Besides, 1,1 billion lack access to expenditure for water and sanitation pur- drinking water facility, 86 percent of them are rural population poses. More than 2,2 million people of the developing nations, most of them children, An acceptable water and sanitation die every year from the diseases related to lack of water supply, poor sanitation condition also decreases expenditure for and poor hygiene condition health care and treatment of water and Approximately there are 6.000 children die from poor sanitation every day. This sanitation related diseases. figure is equal to the casualties of 20 Boeing aircraft accidents every day Besides, productivity increases be- An acceptable water supply and sanitation service reduces the prevalence of cause there are less inactive days due to cholera by 26 percent sickness. Poor sanitation reduces attendance of girl students at schools To state it simply, an improved water National economic condition is aggravated with the need to allocate additional supply and sanitation service will reduce fund for health care and medication, and the loss of productive hours caused by poverty, improve health status, productiv- poor water supply and sanitation. ity, competitiveness, and eventually the economic growth. 4 Percik June 2004
  • 6. MA I N R E P O R T Agreement on Sanitation from Our challenge in Indonesia is how to replicate the international promotional Johannesburg Summit 2002 successes to Indonesian stakeholders. T he provision of an acceptable sanitation facility is necessary to protect the health condition of human being and the environment. For this purpose, we agree to reduce by half, in year 2015, the proportion of population who are with- Currently 80 percent of world popula- tion (1,9 billion) are without access to sanitation and mostly are the rural popu- out access to basic sanitation, that will cover the following activities at all levels lation. It is acknowledged that most of to: the population growth takes place espe- i develop and implement an efficient household sanitation cially in the urban slums, therefore the ii improvement of sanitation in public institution particularly school attention to urban slums is of the same iii promote a safe hygienic practice rate as that of the villages. iv promote education to children as agent of change Other matter that must be taken into v promote an acceptable and affordable technology and practice in con- consideration is that access to sanitation formance with the local socio-cultural condition is different among different nations as it vi develop a partnership mechanism and innovative payment system is among regions within a nation. This vii integrate sanitation into water resources development strategy condition makes it necessary for the plan- ners to make implementation priorities so that an investment can be made so as Facts and Global Challenge same time poses a big challenge for the to reach an optimum result. In September 2000, The UN General government and the international institu- The sustainability of a sanitation pro- Assembly proclaimed the Millennium tions to reach the target. It is even under- gram becomes a crucial factor when the Development Goals (MDGs) which con- stood as the most ambitious of all MDGs availability of drinking water is a con- sists of targets set by global communities targets. Presently only 16 percent of the straint. The population growth makes the to reduce poverty and improve health and developing nations (cf. 37 percent for requirement for drinking water rises welfare of the whole nation. In Septem- drinking water) are considered capable of sharply, and it is estimated that by 2025 ber 2002, in the World Summit on Sus- achieving the targets. With the present 35 percent of the world population will tainable Development in Johannesburg level of investment, in Africa the MDGs live in the urban areas with drinking the UN reaffirmed the MDGs and put an targets can only be achieved by 2050, water problem. The present sanitation additional targets specifically pertaining Asia 2025, and Latin America by 2040. system needs 50-100 litres of water to to hygiene and sanitation. This repre- Without a political will and a real com- flush 1-1,5 litres of human waste every sents the global community resoluteness mitment, the targets cannot be realized. day. This system causes a small amount about the importance of sanitation. SOURCE: BAMBANG PURWANTO It is estimated that by 2015 the world population will reach 7 billion and the majority of the growth takes place in the developing nations. The growth will increase the number of population with- out access to acceptable sanitation to 3,4 billion by that year. To fulfill the MDGs target WHO estimates that an additional 150 million population have to have access to sanitation each year. Looking at our present capacity the MDGs target can only be reached in 2025. The govern- ment and donor institutions and coun- tries must work hard. Why not involve the community to share this heavy bur- den? The inclusion of sanitation in the MDGs represents a giant step but at the Percik 5 June 2004
  • 7. MA I N R E P O R T SOURCE: BAMBANG PURWANTO of human waste contaminates a large tamination. amount of water. The need for an alter- Developing nations are faced native sanitation which requires less with several problems in the appli- water becomes the present day challenge. cation of flush toilet. Beside water Finding a sustainable and environmen- insufficiency, the availability of tally friendly method in achieving MDGs wastewater treatment system is targets is one of the global challenges. also problematic. As a conse- The other challenge is to translate the quence, wastewater from a septic term sanitation into a commonly and tank is disposed of into an widely understood by all. Take as an improper place. If there were example, in Germany there is no such wastewater treatment facility, mo- term comparable to sanitation, so that the re often than not it is not function- German use abwasser which means waste ing properly. water. As a result, there are many who Water scarcity becomes a more translate the MDGs basic sanitation tar- prominent problem of the world. get as waste water treatment. In Asia and It cannot be solved only through Africa the translation of basic sanitation conservation but must also be sup- has nothing to do with sewerage drain. ported with reduction in water Sanitation is like a double edged use. Sanitation is obviously one of sword. It is part of solution but at the the causes since the present envi- same time also as a part of a problem. ronmental sanitation system The use of a large amount of water to needs at least 10 litres of water for one Capital intensive sanitation system flush human excrement contributes to flushing, while for daily eating and drink- such as the ones being developed present- water scarcity problem, while waste- ing one person needs only 5 litres at the ly is more appropriate for the developed water is one of the causes of water con- most. While the more water used for san- world but not for the developing nations. itation the bigger the investment is need- It has come the time to review the system ed to process the waste water. so far being developed. The basic ques- UNITED NATIONS DEVELOPMENT The investment requirement cannot tion is how appropriate is the sanitation PROGRAM (UNDP) PRIORITY be fulfilled from the local resources, and wastewater treatment system devel- therefore government assistance or sub- opment so far being implemented? Improve the local and national ca- sidy must be provided for. As for the Whether it is not recommendable to find pacity in the management of water urban areas, the majority of users are the a water thrifty alternative and apply the resources development, sanitation rich, thus most of the assistance or sub- recycling principle? The alternative and drinking water supply including sidy goes to the well-to-do families. The should not be limited for the poor fami- the civil society, private and public cost incurred for wastewater treatment is lies but must also be applicable to the sectors. 5-6 times higher than that for drinking homes of the well-to-do who in reality are Support the community/household water. the major users of the present sanitation through provision of grant to im- Difficulty in financing threat has been system. prove water supply and sanitation - lingering around sanitation development It is recognized that sanitation has not with specific emphasis on ecologi- in the world. Currently the expenditure received the proper attention from the cal sanitation. for wastewater treatment amounts to whole community therefore it needs a Support ecosystem based solution USD14 million a year while an additional more comprehensive public campaign. to human waste treatment in the of USD56 million is awaiting if the MDGs The latest anthropological studies indi- framework prevention of diseases targets are to be achieved. Quite a signi- cate that embarrassment becomes the and protection of the environment. ficant additional investment. The target most prominent aspect that motivates Support and strengthen the partici- investment could actually be reduced if a behavioural change. Health and hygiene pation of women in sanitation, drin- less costly appropriate technology be- logic has had less influence in compari- king water and water source mana- comes an alternative. In addition, ano- son to social logic such as reputation or gement. ther alternative such as ecological sanita- moral logic such as embarrassment in tion should also be considered. attracting the communitys attention to 6 Percik June 2004
  • 8. MA I N R E P O R T SANITATION CONDITION OF RURAL IN SOUTH EAST ASIA the importance of sanitation. This is below the national average. probably the reason why the present Indonesia is one of S.E Asian sanitation motto reads sanitation is Cambodia countries with the lowest sewerage Laos dignity. This condition may radically system coverage. The investment le- Vietnam change the present conventional vel of investment in sanitation is rel- Indonesia campaign format. South East Asia atively the lowest in Asia. Only a few Myanmar big cities such as Jakarta, Medan, Indonesian condition Philipine Solo, Yogyakarta, Cirebon, Banjar- Up until year 2002 the proportion Thailand masin, Balikpapan, Tangerang are of Indonesian population who have Malaysia with a centralized sewerage system, access to an acceptable basic sanita- yet with a limited coverage. In total tion, consisting of drop pit latrine or this covers not more than 2,16 per- septic tank, was 63,5 percent. In vil- cent of Indonesian population. lages the proportion is relatively SANITATION CONDITION OF URBAN IN SOUTH EAST ASIA The absence of formal network lower, only 52,5 percent, while in the and infrastructure has made house- Cambodia urban 77,5 percent. Although the holds and small scale service Laos total number of households with Indonesia providers provide the majority of access is seemingly high, we have to South East Asia services, including installation and look more closely into the figure. Vietnam draining off services. It is estimated There is an indication that the actual Myanmar 73 percent of urban households have Philipine number might be lower. The number on-site sanitation, mostly with Thailand tells us the available facilities without Malaysia underrated septic tank construction. saying anything about quality. It is Singapore While on the other hand, wastewater estimated that at this time many of disposal system is insufficient the basic sanitation facilities should including lack of wastewater treat- not be used anymore because they do ment installation. This condition re- not meet hygiene and environmental SANITATION CONDITION IN SOUTH EAST ASIA presents one of the main causes for requirement. As an illustration, in environmental pollution, both gro- Cambodia rural areas the septic tank is located und as well as surface water which is Laos less than 10 m from a water source. Vietnam the primary source for PDAM water. In comparison to other S.E Asian Indonesia Sanitation is not a priority for the countries such as Singapore, Asia central as well regional governments. Thailand, Philippines the condition in Myanmar Investment for sanitation by central Malaysia Indonesia is falling behind. Our sani- government either through APBN or Philipine tation condition here equals with that Thailand from loan has not made any mean- of Vietnam, Cambodia and Laos, Singapore ingful improvement. A loan funded which were just been out from war. project such as Water Supply and Looking extensively at the condi- Sanitation for Low Income tion in each province, one will find in Communities (WSSLIC)-1 and -2, PROPORTION OF HOUSEHOLD WITH many areas a sanitation condition including a project currently under IMPROVED SANITATION IN INDONESIA one will be apprehensive about, such preparation Community Water as a proportion of households with- Supply and Health (CWSH), though P out access to sanitation above 50 per- R clearly indicates sanitation in the O cent level. The majority of the areas P project title, yet in reality sanitation are in East Indonesia such as NTB, O is playing a relatively small portion. R Gorontalo, Maluku, Papua, C. Su- T Especially after the regional autono- I lawesi, C. Kalimantan, S. Kalimantan, O my, with authority now in the hands N W. Kalimantan. Some areas in West of the regions, sanitation tends to be Indonesia, such as West Sumatra and underestimated. However, an effort West Java also have their sanitation such as Sanitasi oleh Masyarakat Rural Urban Total Percik 7 June 2004
  • 9. MA I N R E P O R T include the strategy in linking household, (SANIMAS, Sanitation by the community, and city wide sanitation sys- Community) Project as well other com- AN IMPORTANT aspect in an ad- tems; coordination among institutions at munity based sanitation activities, have vocacy is the participation of the commu- the central, regional and other stakehold- at least indicated a promising indication nity and advocacy does not only cover ers; decentralization in sanitation man- of government and community attention changes on program and policy (policy agement; rural vs. urban sanitation. to sanitation. dimension), but also (i) capacity buil- The investment budget currently ding, organizational skill and empower- available is considered insufficient to Important Issue and Plan for ment of civil society and its involvement cover the whole demand. The investment the Future in decision making (civil society dimen- does not only cover the costs for new con- Although at the national level the sion), (ii) improve the legitimate civil struction but also for operation and access to basic sanitation is relatively society and improve the accountability of maintenance purposes. Besides, addi- high, there is an indication that the data public institutions (democracy dimen- tional fund is also needed for handling do not represent the actual situation. The sion); (iii) improve the poor communitys environmental pollution caused by faulty coverage data do not mention anything awareness of its right and obligation urban sanitation system. Lack of incen- about the quality of the available basic (individual interests dimension). tive for the local government is one of the sanitation. The high rate of ground water reasons. There are a number of questions pollution is hypothetically caused by the suggested, among others, (i) how to low quality basic sanitation facility. It is It has been acknowledged that sanita- mobilize fund for city scale sanitation sys- deemed necessary to develop a more tion does not only relate to technological tem; (ii) what is the government pre- detailed data base to indicate the quality and environmental aspects but equally paredness for an alternative financing of the available facility. important is its relation to changes in format; (iii) how could the community Unlike drinking water, sanitation is behaviour and cultural habit of the com- participation for sanitation system provi- not yet an issue. This relates to inequity munity. To change peoples behaviour sion be strengthened. in demand for sanitation. The communi- and cultural habit is done through educa- Sanitation has an impact to various ty does not consider sanitation as an tion. Therefore schoolchildren become aspects of human life, including poverty, important demand. When the communi- the most appropriate medium for intro- health, cleanliness, pride, even economic ty does not put sanitation as a demand duction of the changes. Sanitation should growth, such as mentioned in many then the politicians would just neglect it. be included within educational curricu- reports and studies. Unfortunately, sani- At the most, though they began to realize lum. tation has not received a proper attention it but because of budget limitation they WASPOLA project has produced a it deserves. It seems there is still a lot to just opt in favour of activities that have National Policy for Water Supply and be done before sanitation could win an been acknowledged as a community Environmental Sanitation development, attention from the government, the pri- demand. though it is still necessary to undertake a vate sector and the community. Are we The important message is, sanitation more profound study on the sanitation going to remain an idle spectator and do must reach the hands of decision makers. aspect of policy. Some of the important nothing? Everything will depend on all of In normative term sanitation is impor- issues that we need to develop deeper us. OM tant but without any demand pressure from the community sanitation can never be a political issue. Sanitation must be raised to a political issue. Requirement for a successful wastewater treatment Conducting advocacy in order to IN ONE of the reports published sents an integral part of urban water make the community understand the by United Nations Environmental supply and sanitation management; importance of sanitation can be consid- Program (UNEP) there is a specific (iv) setting of definite time frame and ered as the initial step. Advocacy can be mention about several important clear indicator; (v) appropriate choice made in many ways. It is needed to issues as the main requirements for a of technology in order to get an effec- improve the decision making quality and successful community level waste- tive and efficient water use through community participation in its process. water treatment system, namely (i) considering environmentally friendly An effective advocacy does not only come political commitment and domestic technology alternative; (vi) application in the form of a promotion on the impor- financing sources; (ii) water supply of demand responsive approach; (vii) tance of drinking water supply and sani- and sanitation development manage- participation of all stakeholders, and ment is not limited to provision of faci- application of the principle of trans- tation but also include other dimensions lity but to also include hygiene beha- parency in management and decision such as policy, civil society, democracy, viour; (iii) environmental aspect repre- making. and individual interests. 8 Percik June 2004
  • 10. MA I N R E P O R T Water, Sanitation and Hygiene for All (WASH Campaign) When all components within a community are still at a low level of The main attention in the provision of awareness on matters related to sanitation, it is necessary to basic services must be made as the main develop a strategic, effective and easily understood enlightenment agenda which is known as poverty reduc- measure. One of the global campaign format and worth consi- tion and sustainable development pro- dering for replication is the WASH Campaign gram. What is WASH Campaign? This condition makes several interest- What can we do? WASH campaign represents an effort ed parties realize that water supply and Some of the steps we could take are: based on the initiative of several organi- sanitation development is not simply a Establishment of inter-sector and in- zations and individuals to make drinking physical construction work. A lot of other ter-agency partnership water supply, sanitation, and hygiene as a activities need be done all of which are We realize that drinking water supply part of common awareness. WASH aimed at an effort to improvement of and sanitation management must be Campaign was launched at an interna- knowledge and awareness of the impor- undertaken through inter-sector ar- tional conference Freshwater in Decem- tance of sanitation. One of the activities rangement therefore the involvement ber 2001 by Water Supply and Colla- is a structured and sustainable campaign of all stakeholders from the govern- borative Council (WSSCC). The main aimed at all stakeholders both at decision ment, private sector, university, NGO, purpose is to improve awareness of the maker and community levels. and professional association becomes a importance of sanitation, drinking water, prerequisite. and hygiene, and obtain a political and What is the main theme of the Promotion of institutional reform social commitment from world leaders. campaign? In this case reform is understood as a There are four main themes to go with means to improve public accountabili- Why campaign is so important? the campaign: ty, improve regulation, establishment There have been a number of mea- Drinking Water, Sanitation and Hy- of effective monitoring effort in order sures taken such as the declaration of giene can save human life. to arrive at a quality service. Water Decade but the number of popula- Millions of people die each year from Sharing of information and experience tion who are without access to drinking dirty environment, and contaminated Establishment of network for sharing water supply and sanitation remains in water and food. Improved sanitation of information and experience among the staggering height. There are current- and hygiene condition can save many stakeholders will improve the quality of ly 1,1 billion people who are without lives and reduce the prevalence of dis- water supply and sanitation develop- access to water and 2,4 billion are without eases. ment implementation. access to improved sanitation. These fig- Drinking Water, Sanitation and Hygi- Community mobilization and applica- ures will keep growing in line with world ene for the Community: Priority is gi- tion of community based approach population growth. ven to Women and Children. Using community group network and Many decision makers do not realize Women and children are more suscep- direct involvement of the community in that sanitation is not a dirty job. They do tible to the effect of water scarcity, lack the campaign process will help in not realize that provision of access to a of sanitation and poor hygiene condi- behavioural change process and impro- relatively cheap sanitation facility can tion. vement of the community awareness reduce half of the number of death tolls Policy reform is important for the Collaboration with mass media caused by water and sanitation related improvement of water supply and sani- Mass media plays a significant role in in- diseases. Even that drinking water, sani- tation service for the poor community. fluencing public opinion, and makes a tation and hygiene is an entrance that The government, private sector and topic frequently presented to eventually leads to poverty reduction measures has international institutions must give pri- become a public agenda. Regular connec- not been a part of knowledge of the deci- ority and their resources for institu- tion with mass media, press conference, sion makers. One of the reasons is that tional reform in order to make the prin- dissemination of information, public serv- those who are in demand are the ones ciple of good governance a reality. ice advertisement, training for reporters in with the weakest political status so that Drinking Water Supply, Sanitation and water supply and sanitation will become the leaders could not gain any incentive Hygiene represent the entrance to an effective means. from handling their problem. poverty reduction. (Summarized from WASH Campaign) Percik 9 June 2004
  • 11. MA I N R E P O R T Observing MDGs Sanitation M SOURCE: AMPL DOCUMENTATION illennium Development Goals (MDGs) have been agreed by world leaders for the purpose of future development (for details please refer to Percik ed. 3). From 8 goals, 18 targets and more than 40 indica- tors, drinking water and sanitation is directly related to Goal 7 sustainable environmental management and Target 10 reduction by half in 2015 the propor- tion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water and basic sanitati- on service. Although MDGs represent an agree- ment approved by 189 countries of the world, and its approval is indicated by placement of signatures directly by 147 heads of state/government, but the goal achieving is not merely the responsibility of the central government but also to include local governments, legislative ment of water supply and sanitation tar- took 1990 as the base year. Besides, bodies, civil society, mass media, and all get will greatly influence well-being of the MGDs target for sanitation is stated in other stakeholders. population. terms of proportion and is not directly The goals of MDGs are inter-related. referred to in an absolute number of peo- As an illustration, goal 1 eradicate Sanitation Target Setting ple. extreme poverty and hunger is closely The proclamation of MDGs was made Using the above assumption, the pro- related to improvement in water safe in 2000, but one should recall that the portion of Indonesian population who drinking and basic sanitation . Achieve- calculation to arrive at the target setting had had access to basic sanitation in 1990 was 30 percent. This means that in 1990 70 percent of the population are without INDONESIAN TARGET OF SANITATION IN MDGs sanitation, therefore we come the figure 35 percents which represents the propor- tion of population who must have service by 2015. This further means that in 2015 the proportion of population who would have improved sanitation service is 65 percent. This target is presented in Indo- nesia Progress Report on the Millennium Development Goals which was published in February 2004 and represents the offi- cial document from the Indonesian go- vernment. In the meantime the National Action Plan (NAP) on Wastewater Development published in 2003 by Ministry of Settle- year ment and Regional Infrastructure Deve- lopment, there are 2 scenarios. Scenario Indonesian version NAP version MDGs version 1 uses the proportion of world population who are without access to service in year 10 Percik June 2004
  • 12. MA I N R E P O R T 2000 as the base for calculation which PROPORTION OF HOUSEHOLD WITH REASONABLE SANITATION arrives at a figure 85,75 percent of popu- ACCESS BY PROVINSI (2002) lation to have access by 2015. Scenario 2 West Nusa Tenggara uses the proportion of population with Gorontalo Maluku access to service in 2000 and the projec- W. Sumatera Papua tion of Indonesian population in 2015. C. Sulawesi Kalimantan This arrives at a figure 70,71 percent of W. Java W. Kalimantan S. Kalimantan Indonesians who must have access to the Bangka Belitung S.E. Sulawesi service in 2015. Jambi Provinsi Banten The basic difference from the two cal- C. Java S. Sulawesi culations lies in (i) the difference in base S. Sumatera Indonesia Bengkulu year, NAP uses 2000 as base, (ii) NAP E. Java East Nusa Tenggara bases its calculation on the proportion of N. Maluku N. Sumatera population who must have access using E. Kalimantan Bali population projection in 2015. N. Sulawesi Riau Lampung Target setting is crucial for MDGs Yogyakarta Jakarta achievement. It is up to the stakeholders to agree on this discrepancy because it PROPORTION will affect the strategy and MDGs achieve- ment planning. If we look back to the 1990s when the access to basic sanitation was only at 30 Diversity of condition in Indonesia the realm of the central government. It is percent, and compare it with the condi- When setting the MDGs target above, therefore necessary to immediately take tion in 2000 in which the figure has risen we were speaking at the national level proper action for socialization in the to 63,5 percent, we could be optimistic which represents the average regional regions, of course after the central go- that the MDGs sanitation target can be condition of Indonesia. Each region has vernment has made itself ready with a reached. However, the target achieve- its own specific condition, sometimes wi- definite socialization strategy. ment might be meaningless when we try dely different from the others. For exam- to delve deeper into the facts behind the ple, NTB reached 41,2 percent when Ja- The role of WSS Working Group figures. karta was at 93,2 percent. It should be realized that MDGs As an illustration, one of the result of It is interesting to note how we will Indonesia document which was published survey on shallow wells in Jakarta it was reach the national target. Are we going to recently must be supplemented with found out that 84 percent of the water focus on the national target without look- MDGs special document on drinking samples are contaminated with human ing into the targets of each of the individ- water and sanitation which will serve as a waste as indicated from the presence of ual regions? Or, each region is given guideline for the stakeholders in MDGs faecal coliform bacteria. This fact con- opportunity to set her own target based drinking water and sanitation target for firms the suspicion the basic sanitation on the regional capacity with respect to Indonesia. facilities especially those in the urban do the national target. There are other choic- The Water Supply and Sanitation not function properly. The figure 63,5 es to ponder with regard the target percent only indicates the available facili- achievement. (WSS) Working Group is expected to play ty, but the quality aspect has been over- In connection to MDGs target, it an active role in facilitating for the publi- looked. As a result, the contamination should also be borne in mind the Law cation of such a document, which does aspect is also overlooked. Thus when we 22/1999 on Regional Government has not only contain MDGs target setting, but think we have reached the MDGs sanita- clearly stipulated the relinquishment of also the overall action plan and strategy tion target the contamination might likely sanitation service management to the for achieving the target including moni- be a bigger problem. The contamination respective regions, therefore the target toring and reporting aspects. A close coo- issue must be dealt with properly if the achievement will obviously depend on peration with MDGs Indonesia Working MDGs sanitation target achievement is to regional preparedness. Up to this time Group is unavoidable. be meaningful. the echo on MDGs is still confined within (OM from various sources) Percik 11 June 2004
  • 13. I NTERVIEW Ir. Susmono "Sanitation Is More Important Than Electricity" The mesh entangling sanitation development in Indonesia is way from loosening. Presently we are speaking a lot about Various efforts have been taken by the government to deal with this problem, but the community based sanitation system. And result has not been what is expected. As time proceeds and population increase new with this spirit we will re-develop envi- constraints continue to crop up one after the other. This can only be solved if all the ronmental sanitation in Indonesia which stakeholders including the community work hand in hand to find the best solution has been lagging far behind our neigh- because sanitation is not an issue that stands by itself. This sector must be regarded bouring countries such as Malaysia which as government priority since the success in handling sanitation can guarantee the started much later than we, in 1980s. health of the community. Ir. Susmono is one of those who have a keen interest and Environmental issues are becoming more care in dealing with this sector. He happens to be an official of the Ministry of and more complex which makes it more Settlement and Regional Infrastructures and a member of WSS Working Group. difficult to deal with. I think we have to In order to shed a light on the sanitation condition in Indonesia and all its details exert more effort than we did in the Percik interviewed him some time ago. Here are the highlights: 1980s. But the present situation doesnt warrant for it.C ould you highlight the sanita- tion condition in Indonesia? We will look back to the colonial time. were proclaimed we were shocked again. But the condition was not as favourable as it was during the decades 1970 - 80s. What is the main constraint? From my own experience and from observing statistical figures the indicatorsThe Dutch government had given atten- During that time the economy was in an for community health include infant mor-tion to sanitation. Whatever the system excellent condition. There was a lot of tality rate, life expectancy, water bornewas, centralized or localized. We can see money. diseases and their prevention are impro-the inheritance in big towns. We can find CARICATURE BY RUDI KOSASIHsewerage system in Jakarta, Yogyakarta,Bandung. But this was developed duringthe colonial time. Naturally, there was adiscrimination. In the Dutch quartersthis was carefully maintained and pro-tected while in that of the local communi-ty this was not so. After independence,apparently this has missed the attention.We did more on road building, drinkingwater supply, and so on. During the Wa-ter Decade in 1981-90 we were startled,awakened, so that within the time lapseand 5 years after there was a significantsanitation development in line with theincrease in GNP. When the economic cri-sis knocked us over we seemingly fellasleep again and concentrate ourselveswith the economic, political and socialcrisis, although some sanitation develop-ment works were still continuing such asDenpasar sewerage, Surakarta sewerage.But this is not a priority. When MDGs 12 Percik June 2004
  • 14. I NTERVIEW SOURCE: MUJIYANTOving although we do not handle sanitationin a proper manner. This means that eachindividual is handling these in his ownway. I feel, as once I used to work togeth-er with the program at village level to edu-cate women on various aspect of familywelfare (PKK), the role of housewives isquite significant in improving the figures.Why? Because, their knowledge is steadi-ly improving. Many printed materials ca-me to their hands and they read them. Itis this knowledge that indirectly helpsthem to have a toilet built. It is not thenational movement that motivates them.This means that if it is complementedwith the national movement which we ha-ve started in 1990s, the result probablywill be better. Otherwise it will be de-creasing or at the most it will remain as itis today. eration: environment, heath infrastruc- water management to the provinces To boost the development what ture, individual genetic characteristic,constraint is to be faced? and cultural habit. What is the linkage between Na- Improvement of income. It is quite tional Action Plan with MDGs?obvious that people with very low income What steps does Ministry of As benchmark we refer to MDGs. We trythey do nt care about sanitation. As their Settlement & Regional Infrastruc- to translate the MDGs target into our goal.income improves and they become better ture take to improve sanitation con-knowledgeable and start thinking, but in dition in Indonesia? Is MDGs sanitation target realistic?the beginning it is self protection. What is We are preparing National Action In the document there is a mention ofimportant ones own good, home and Plan, though it has discussed only twice adequate sanitation. This term can be bro-immediate surrounding. Outside that it is and this year it is undergoing revision. ught up or down. But in Surabaya Mrs. Ernanone of his business. However, we have been collecting data or Witoelar herself said something else. She While those who live from hand to consolidating during 1990 up to 2000. changed it into basic sanitation. With basicmouth, their whole effort is to find food. The National Action Plan has completed sanitation, we think we can do it. But withFor that purpose road and market are pri- up to final draft. This year it will be bro- adequate sanitation, it will be difficult.orities. Drinking water to follow next. As ught to discussion with colleagues at thefor defecating, it can be done anywhere. regions, Bappenas, and others in order to What is the difference? From the data I come up with, a na- reach an agreement from all by the end of Basic sanitation intends to protect hu-tion with a good sanitation after it reach- the year. If we could arrive at an agree- man being, while in adequate sanitationes USD2.000 GNP. Below USD1.000 sa- ment and together with the Law on Water there is additionally environmental factornitation is not a subject to be discussed, it Resources and Government Regulation to be considered. Speaking of environ-is considered as something not worth on Drinking Water and Sanitation which ment implies a high budget requirement.talking about and in the government it is is said are to be combined, all of it will The net calculation is the adequate. Whatgiven a very low budget allocation. So if become a national priority and each result we get by the end of the year, weyou want to deal with sanitation, first do province will prepare its local regulation dont know yet. As for basic sanitation wesomething about income and education. based on the central guideline. We are can go with large scale promotion and weIn addition we need health service, such currently waiting for Government Regu- could expect 80 percent of urban popula-as local government clinic (puskesmas). lation which is now in process. In the tion will have access to toilet of someIn short, speaking of sanitation there are meantime, we are also conducting social- kind. But dont ask what will happen to4 influencing factors to take into consid- ization of National Action Plan on waste- the rivers. Percik 13 June 2004
  • 15. I NTERVIEW What do you think about NGO environment. As we all know there are for a legislation. It happens quite often.facilitated community based sanita- people who are capable, but not willing.tion management? What is the influencing factor? I have done it 20 years ago during the Which one has a higher priority, Because sanitation is not a priority.Water and Sanitation Decade. But my the community based or the institu- Therefore it has never been considered astarget groups then were the "arisan" gro- tionally based? having any significance. If somethingup, dasawisma. They were doing quite Must be developed in a symbiotic new happened such as an outbreak ofwell, but later there was a reorganization relationship, they are not just moving muntaber (diarrhoea and vomiting) weand shifting of responsibility, I have no side by side. Otherwise, they wont do. will then remember something. Butinformation what has happened with The government cannot walk alone. Both afterwards it is forgotten again. It hap-them. What is called now NGO is actual- must be interconnected into one system. pens time and again. Perhaps other sec-ly not a new thing to us. What the NGOs How to sew it, we will see later. In tors are more important. For me, sanita-are doing are actually the same old thing. National Action Plan we havent come to tion is more important than electricity.What I noticed in the field are fresh wrap- such a detail. It is different from solid In a town number one is road, numberpings of an old thing. It is apparent that wastes where we have completed to the two water supply, third sanitation, thenwhen the community is better enlight- details. With wastewater we are in short come the others, electricity, telephone.ened they are willing to share and they of data, therefore we have to use assump- On the contrary, now there are those whocare. Once again, the emphasis is on en- tion and it is time consuming. That is have a hand phone but having no toilet.lightenment. Therefore I am quite plea- why we have done only up to the mainsed to see that they clad it in a new wrap- points. Hopefully by the end of the year How can the knowledge of theping. we can finish with the details. community be improved? We will start with inserting it into What other approaches are the- The management of community school curriculum, then into the printedre beside community based mana- based sanitation development materials for women to read. We do pro-gement? seems partial. How can we make it motion activity, campaigning. But do we If we are speaking of sanitation, this more holistic? have someone who is capable and willingcan be divided into two categories. One Admittedly not yet. Take for instance, to motivate a campaign movement? Ifbelongs to communitys responsibility there is a pilot project in a certain town. not, it will be difficult because it is fromand the other that of the government. We But after the project is over, both the there that we expect a behavioural changecannot rely entirely on the community. community and the local government to take place.That is where the institutionally based remain silent. This of course needs acomes in. push to make them expand it. If they Which target community should dont move, well, perhaps there is a need be prioritized, urban or rural? Whether both of SOURCE: OSWAR MUNGKASA I think it does not makethem are contained any difference. Recordedin the National access to sanitation in theAction Plan? towns is approximately 89 Both of them are. percent. But the number ofBut what is presently population who has an accept-being handled is the able disposal facility is onlycommunity based. And about 70 percent. In the vil-motivating the commu- lages the recorded number ofnity will need more access is 63 percent. Here thethan just dissemina- coverage of disposal facility istion, socialization, something around 35 percent.advocacy, and so on, Villagers prefer to defecate inbut also to include leg- rivers, gardens or fields be-islation. This will be cause they have enough space.deduced from law on For townspeople this is notnatural resources and possible. (MJ) 14 Percik June 2004
  • 16. A RTICLE Ecological Sanitation T he conventional sanitation tech- treatment system directed towards reuse practiced since thousands of years ago. It nology is based on the flow from of water and nutriment and reduction of is important to note that this system is flush toilet, drainage conveyance, clean water consumption. not meant as a simple alternative just for treatment installation, and disposal. To The environmental sanitation pre- the sake of the poor. ECOSAN principle some environmentalists this technology sently being practiced is actually based on is applicable in a wide variety of social tends to cause environmental pollution. the concept of keeping the environment economic conditions and in every nation. There is an indication that the available clean, safe and free from contamination. In many countries the application of system (flush toilet and wastewater treat- This includes wastewater treatment and farm manure from human excrement is a ment) is not a solution but rather it is a prevention of disease. In reality, howev- rare practice. The more human excre- part of the environmental problem. er, it turns out to cause environmental ment disposed of into rivers the more is In conventional approach sanitation pollution. ECOSAN, on the other hand, is the degree of environmental pollution. It means adding nutriments into the envi- based on the recycling principle. This is therefore recommendable to using the ronment and disrupting the nutriment means maintaining the ecological cycle in closed loop system in order to prevent cycle. The basic concept which says that a closed sanitation loop. Besides it saves bacterial or virus contamination and pro- human excrement is a non useful waste is energy consumption through the applica- duction of farm manure. misleading. Such an approach has caused tion of natural processes. If ECOSAN could be adopted in a large a new pollution problem. In nature noth- Ecological sanitation is a cycle, or a scale, soil water, rivers, lakes, and seas are ing is called waste, each product of life is closed loop system that processes human protected from human waste contamina- used as raw material for the others. excrement as a resource. In this system tion. Less water is used. The farmers use Recycling of human excrement and urine human excrement is processed in situ less inorganic fertilizers. Prolonged use of through sanitation process and return it until it is free from pathogenic organisms. inorganic fertilizers has been the contributor to the soil to recover the natural cycle of Then the sanitized waste is recycled by of environmental degradation. materials is disrupted by the existing san- applying for agricultural purposes. The ECOSAN concept is supporting the itation practice. main features of ecological sanitation are MDGs target achievement. The applica- Starting from this concept, it is (i) prevention and pollution and preva- tion of ECOSAN can significantly reduce deemed necessary to find an alternative lence of diseases caused by contamina- water consumption so that more could solution that takes into consideration the tion from human waste; (ii) processing of have access to water. However, we must ecological aspect. One of the alternatives human waste as a resource rather than as realize that many challenges are awaiting is called ecological sanitation, abbreviat- useless waste; (iii) recovery and recycling before ECOSAN could be brought into the ed ECOSAN. This terminology means an of nutriments. mainstream of sanitation management, economically and ecologically sustainable ECOSAN is based on traditional sci- among others (i) rejection to new idea sanitation system. ence in the form recycling and compost- because one is used to an old practice; (ii) ECOSAN does not refer to any specif- ing of waste materials, but it is combined ECOSAN is a decentralized system so that ic technology but rather it refers to all with modern science and the use of flush the cost is borne by the user; as an exam- technologies and international regula- toilet. ple, the user must set aside some time to tions in dealing with water scarcity and The principle of ECOSAN is not new, handle his own waste; (iii) financially the sanitation issues in a better way. ECO- it has been practiced in East Asia for hun- application of ECOSAN is a burden espe- SAN includes a closed loop wastewater dreds of years even in China it has been cially in locations where a conventional system has been used because one has to THE DISADVANTAGES OF THE CONVENTIONAL SANITATION SYSTEM consider the amount investment that has Uncontrolled disposal of more than 90 percent of world wastewater· been put into the existing system. A large amount of clean water is needed to flush off the waste· The application of ecological sanitation Needs a large amount of investment, O&M costs, and energy concept in Indonesia is not impossible. But, of course, we need a thorough study THE ADVANTAGES OF ECOLOGICAL SANITATION before we could determine the advantages Quality improvement of community health through minimizing the mixing of derived from its application. This is a mat- human excrement with water· Natural resources conservation through less water consumption, minimizing ter of choice. Whether this system could water pollution· become one of the choices in our communi- Maintain soil fertility and increase agricultural productivity· ty? This is indeed a tickling question. Wastewater is not disposed of but rather it is reused (OM from various sources) Percik 15 June 2004
  • 17. A RTICLE Lessons Learned From Sanitation Development U nlike in Indonesia, where sanita- areas as a traditional place for defecating; choice. The facilities offered to the com- tion development is not properly (iv) a better knowledge in hygienic life; munity are produced in far away places documented, in other countries (v) social status; (vi) improvement in wel- using a material that is difficult to find at the document pertaining to sanitation is fare. the locality. In Indonesia and in Vietnam well kept so that we could pick some les- Any of the above factors is not work- the design and technology that are con- sons out of it. ing alone but they tend to work together trary to the local practice add to the Lessons from foreign countries can, in stimulating the demand for a toilet. inhibiting list. The community uses for example be obtained from various so- Identifying all the factors is one of the human waste to feed animal and fish- urces among others Learning What keys to motivating the community in pond, thus a design which makes extrac- Works for Sanitation. Revisiting Sanita- using toilet. tion of excrement difficult will certainly tion Successes in Cambodia, WSP-EAP, be rejected; (ii) lack of communication 2002; Sanitation and Hygiene Promotion with the community about the advan- in Lao PDR, WSP-EAP, 2000. However, tages and disadvantages of having a toi- Construction of a toilet documents about experience in Indonesia let; (iii) water scarcity or water source is can also be found in Myth vs. Reality in does not necessarily too far away from the toilet; (iv) previous Sanitation and Hygiene Promotion, WSP- change hygiene behaviour. negative experience in relation to a toilet. EAP, 2000 and Achieving Sustained Some practical As an example, dirty water flaring out Sanitation for the Poor, WSP-EAP, 2001. considerations are still from a toilet. Lack of technical assistance The following are several facts and shedding a dominant hue being one of the reasons; lessons learned from Indonesia as well into the daily habit. Cambodia and Laos as summarized from Change in behaviour the above documents: Though toilet is From a population survey in Cam- already there. bodia, it was revealed that although most Stimulating Factors of the people own a toilet but this does From the experience in Cambodia, not necessarily change their behaviour. Vietnam and Indonesia, there are several Unlike stimulating factor, the inhibi- This is indicated from the fact that the factors known as stimulating the demand ting factors of Cambodia, Vietnam and community is still defecating anywhere for toilet, namely (i) an experience in see- Indonesia indicate a national variation. ing and using a toilet in some other place, In the three nations the dominant inhibit- such as in town or at a neighbours; (ii) ing factor is low financial capacity of the Why does the community availability of and ease in obtaining con- community. The poor tend to choose to need a toilet? struction materials, availability of experi- pay in kind (labour or material). Other enced construction workers; (iii) decreas- inhibiting factors are, (i) lack of, even it A SURVEY to households in the vil- ing of woodlands, gardens, rice fields tends to be predetermined, informed lages of the Philippines reveals the main reasons why a toilet is neces- sary. In order of importance they are STIMULATING FACTORS CAMBODIA VIETNAM INDONESIA as the following: (i) reducing the Increased awareness swarming of flies; (ii) cleaner envi- Availability of material & skilled worker ronment; (iii) privacy; (iv) prevent Social status embarrassment when there is a Lessening in open space areas guest; (v) reducing prevalence of di- Welfare status sease. The list indicates that Government promotion Availability of land space hygiene reasons are less important Availability of technology choices than considerations for pride, com- Availability of micro credit fort, and social status. (WHO) 16 Percik June 2004
  • 18. A RTICLE they feel comfortable. When in the rice INHIBITING FACTORS CAMBODIA VIETNAM INDONESIA field they defecate among the paddy, in Capacity of the community spite of each of them has built a toilet at Choice of design and technology home. When comes the season when wa- Negative experience ter is difficult to get they go to defecate Scarcity of water near the water source. Practicality is mo- Lack of socialization re dominant than community health rela- Lack of land space ted consideration. Acceleration in behavioural change Lessons learned SANITATION PRACTICE depends on (i) availability in choice of de- Based on the above facts some impli- IN AFRICA sign and the appropriate cost in accordan- cations can be suggested as the following: ce with life style, capacity of the commu- Demand will increase if the communi- Toilet is built outside the house, so at nity, and availability of water; (ii) avail- ty has for itself seen and experienced the night one would defecate in a barrel to ability of materials and skilled workers. advantages. A negative experience will be emptied the next morning· grossly reduce the demand. Provision of a Another way is by "flying toilet". The Advantages suitable information and intensive sociali- faeces is put into a plastic bag and then dump it somewhere (garbage bin, river, From the result of surveys it was con- zation will stimulate the growth of interest garden). cluded that the communities in the three in the community. Direct personal ap- countries gain advantages from the avail- proach can be very effective, so that em- ability of toilet in several different ways. ployment of local native as motivator or The most important being cleanliness facilitator should be recommended. pen to be there). around their homes and freedom from The construction of a toilet does not The communities consider that the stench odours. Then follows comfort, necessarily change hygiene behaviour. advantages gained from having a toilet is such as saving time, easy access. Next co- Practicality is more dominant in influen- more from the aspects of environmental me safety, prevention of disease and cing their daily habit. In spite a toilet is cleanliness, safety and comfort. The as- hygiene behaviour, privacy and pride, ready for use at home they still go any- pects of prevention of disease, reducing economic gain (compost, cost saving) and where they feel comfortable to defecate flies and hygiene are less important. A others. (such as in the rice field when they hap- sanitation promotion strategy must be based on introducing the community with THE ADVANTAGES OF HAVING A TOILETBASED the advantages gained from having a toi- ON THE PERCEPTION OF THE COMMUNITIES OF CAMBODIA, let. It is recommendable to avoid using VIETNAM AND INDONESIA tailor made promotion format, but rather make adjustments in accordance with the local condition. The community should be offered with as many choices as possible, design, cost and payment system. This will help to generate more interests especially from the poor class. A specific strategy must be applied to attract the poor such as through a non costly design, payment in installments over an extended period, common use of a toilet, or a micro credit scheme for toilet construction. The demand for a toilet is highly influ- enced by the community habit. Changing habit takes a long period of time. Sani- A Environmental cleanliness E Safety B Comfort F Privacy tation program implementation should be C Prevention of disease G Others set for a longer period of time than that D Economic Gain for other programs. (OM) Percik 17 June 2004
  • 19. A RTICLE Drinking Water Service: Sustainability and Its Effect Upon Community Well-Being I t is noticeable that sustainability able, even for a small repair they do not By and effective use of a water supply Alma Arief 1) have enough fund. facility has won a major attention and Hery Widjanarko 2) In a study conducted in 50 villages, it from the promoting institutions for the was also revealed that sustainability is water supply development for the poor, sustainable water supply service, positive correlated with socio-cultural variable, especially those in the villages. In several and negative aspects influencing water but this is only true as it relates to the activities, WSP-EAP (an institution under supply service, effective use of water sup- poor class of the community. As the stu- the World Bank which handles water and ply service, community participation dy finds out, for the poor the higher the sanitation) frequently emphasizes the level, policy support, technology appro- level of water sufficiency the higher is the importance of sustainability and effective priateness, and others. sustainability of the service. This indica- use of a water supply system. Regarding sustainability of water tes that the poor play a significant role in A conceptual scheme on sustainable service, the determining variables, accor- the maintenance of the facility. This is water supply was later becoming very po- ding to the findings of this study, are in quite logic, because it is the poor who will pular and frequently brought forward to a general institutional and financial. All suffer most when there is a water short- training and a workshop. The scheme is water supply services which are function- age, they wont be able to individually ful- visualized as a water supply sustainability ing well are located in a community who fill their own need. pentagon. There are five variables, each cares to maintain the facility through one of them is systemically inter-related establishment of a management team Effect upon community well-being with the others; those are institutional, responsible for managing the operation In general, the villages with a facility financial, environmental, technological and maintenance of the facility, including used to be a place where water is always and socio-cultural aspects. collection of monthly contribution. In in short quantity, and water taking for Even with a simple general reasoning terms of statistical measurement, the daily consumption is a laborious job the sustainability conceptual scheme with strength of relation between institutional which consumes a lot of time and ener- its five variables is easily understood and activity and willingness to contribute re- gy. accepted. However, will the conceptual gularly with sustainability-measured with From this study in Flores it was scheme be applicable to the actual condi- spearman rho correlation-are 0,752 and revealed that 202 user groups from 52 tion of community in which the water 0,514 respectively. There is also a strong sample communities feel strongly the supply service is to be developed? In tie between management institution with benefit of a water supply facility. Of all other words, whether the five variables do monthly contribution. The spearman rho the benefits the most frequently men- indeed determine the sustainability of a correlation coefficient between both vari- tioned is "nearer to take water from." water supply service facility universally, ables is 0.63. Since the distance is shorter, there is regardless of time and place, or will it be Fund availability is prerequisite for consequently a change in their water applicable only at a certain condition? Is sustainability of the facility, especially for related daily habit and a development of there any study to test the sophistication the procurement of supplies for mainte- derivative benefits, directly as well as of this model? nance and repairs, and for system expan- indirectly, which was unimaginable sion including home connection. In Flo- before. Sustainability Variables of Water res Timur, the capacity of users for The benefits may be felt both by the Supply Facility monthly contribution is quite limited. In rich as well as the poor, men or women. There is a considerable number of Rawabeling village, for instance, they can Consistently women-rich and poor-feel a studies have been done on water supply. only pay Rp200 per capita per month. more benefit than do their men (rich and One of them is Flores Revisited: Assess- This means a family of seven will only pay poor). This is probably because women ment of Selected Site in Flores, on the ini- Rp1.400 per month. Because of such a have more direct concern in the fulfill- tiative of WASPOLA and conducted by small contribution, there is only very li- ment of the need of their families for the Pradipta Paramitha Foundation. The mited capacity for expansion and impro- water. For a clearer picture please see the main information produced consists of ving level of service. They will not be following table: 18 Percik June 2004
  • 20. A RTICLE Community Group Nearer Cooking Save Cleaner Save Bath Can Build Total Drinking Energy Time More Often Toilet Community Rich Man 23 26 21 21 26 26 35 49 Poor Man 27 28 26 28 29 31 20 52 Rich Woman 31 20 21 31 25 23 25 49 Poor Woman 35 22 22 32 23 29 34 52 Total 116 96 90 112 103 109 114 202 The above table indicates only the socio-cultural aspect only brings with it one MPA in a rigid manner without any in-benefit of water supply, felt by all commu- sub-variable into the study, i.e. sufficiency of depth interview. In Lewolaga, in order tonity groups in study sites. The casuistic water for the poor group in its relation with have an access to a water source it must befield findings are not included here, such sustainability (actually there is also gender preceded with a traditional marriage bet-as for instance a certain location the bene- equity with sustainability, but the correlation ween the community governing a waterfit includes drinking water for cattle, mop- is unclear). In Flores Timur, in many locati- source with the community who wishes toping tile floor, brick baking, cement mi- ons the obstacle to sustainability are the envi- access its service. There is also a possibil-xing for concrete house, watering veg- ronmental condition, social-culture, and ity a conflict between the community inetable garden, can build and flush toilet, technology, but the nature is case by case. whose land the pipeline will pass and theincrease family income, eradication of di- The same situation is with Kab. Sumba Ti- community using the service. Frequentlyarrhoea, and so on. mur (in another study case) where environ- the pipeline was cut off on purpose. Beside a positive benefit there are also mental, technology choice and socio-cultural Also in the village of Balaweling II, 5 vil-negative impacts from the availability of variables represent the main obstacles to sus- lages which use water supply service have towater. This was unthinkable before, whe- tainability, in addition to the above men- pay in cash an amount of Rp1.250.000 perreas the impact may sometimes become tioned variables (institutional and financial). year to the community governing the source.very serious. The negative impact inclu- In Flores Timur, for village Lewolaga for Tension would readily arise with waterdes e.g. the spread of malaria (which was example, environmental aspect is the deter- source owner will cut the pipeline as a threatnever been there before) from the deve- mining factor to sustainability. One the servi- if the payment is not made on time.lopment of ponds of stagnant water. The- ce had to stop operation for a considerably While in Sumba Timur, all the systemsre is additionally conflict with neighbour- long time because the conveyance pipe which designed to sustain could be in vain becauseing village, or other user group whose goes through a woodland was severely dama- socio-culturally the community still observeswater tap does not work, and so on. ged by a fallen tree, and in another case the un- caste distinction and is strictly closed. There In spite of the weakness, in general the suspended pipe was cut off and washed down will be no sustainable water supply servicecommunities feel that the positive benefit in a flash flood. In the village of Wonda, Kab. for the poor without honouring the localoutweighs the negative impact. There- Ende, one the pipe was crushed in a landslide. socio-cultural system. All the authority con-fore, all feel that water supply service ben- In Kab. Sumba Timur, the technology cerning the poor, especially the group calledefits the improvement of their well-being. choice must be made in such a way so to Ata (body as well as soul are in service to the enable to serve scattered user settlements Umbu) rests solely with the masters, andConclusion (to the extents of kilometers apart). Besi- must go through the masters. There is no Beside the wealth of information and be- des, grazing animals (cattle, buffalo, horse) such thing as gender sensitive equity, there isnefit of research from the academic aspect as might trample and break a pipeline, the- no voice for the poor. Beside, the poor willwell from practical purposes, Flores Revi- refore the pipe must be properly buried. never be able to pay, because practically theysited: Assessment of Selected Site in Flores, An overly sophisticated technology which have nothing. All what is in ones handhas not completely explained the factors is introduced in Sumba Timur is now broken belongs to his masters.influencing the sustainability of water supply without chance for repair. There are 10 The MPA methodology is indeed capa-service. This is because the methodology de- windmills (to take water, electric generator, ble of providing a big amount of informa-sign-applying participatory assessment and ice making), and over 15 solar panels to tion, but there are aspects in which it indi-methods (Methodology for Participatory generate electricity for water pumping all cates a weakness. It seems that it needsAssessment)-does not put the conceptual were broken not long after they were running an improvement, if one intends to have anscheme of water supply sustainability into for the first time; all was caused by incapable in-depth study result.operational within the research tool. human resource. 1) Researcher at the Science and Technology This Flores study does not reveal the ef- Socio-cultural issues in Flores as it is Research Centre, Directorate of Research andfect of environment and technology choice on in Sumba Timur are so complex and this Public Service, University of Indonesia, and a WASPOLA Consultantthe sustainability of the facility. Besides, the cannot be monitored by simply using 2) Activist for the Pradipta Paramitha Foundation Percik 19 June 2004
  • 21. A RTICLE Community Empowerment and Development System By demand and its implementation might be In this condition, learning process Salusra Widya entirely different. Some activities might becomes an important issue within the prove excellent in one area but a failure in community and deserves a serious atten- another. That is why, it is necessary to tion from all concerned. Many activities E mpowerment now is becoming look for a different approach, one that is can start from community empowerment one of the most popular terms more oriented to the demand of the user and when the community has been suffi- when one speaks of development community, and is known as demand ciently strengthened it will be able to join and community interaction. Almost all responsive approach. in determining the type and format of development activity inserts or even ma- Secondly, the choice on what to begin development activities that should take kes empowerment as a compulsory word. with, is identical with the question what place in the region. A properly placed This is to indicate that the activity the comes first, egg or chicken. In a conditi- community participation as a system word implies concurs with the present on where community well-being and ca- component will guarantee a development development philosophy and objective pacity are limited and the facility is insuf- process to work properly. That is why all i.e. involvement of the community begin- ficient, to begin community empower- the components must be identified and ning from planning, implementation and ment is the best choice. The multiplier each of the position in the process is well sustainability of service. The role of the effect of an enlightened and strengthened understood. government or the development agency community far exceeds the effects pro- A well functioning component of the has changed from executor to facilitator duced by initiating other sectors. community may change the role and pro- in exploring and stimulating community Third, there are many activities which portion of other components so that a de- participation. Today a user community is are not progressing nor they are sustain- velopment system could function in a ba- the owner and at the same time also the able, because of the limited capacity of lanced and proportional manner. Con- executor of a development activity. the community, knowledge, economic sequently, we have to start to pay a seri- Theoretically in general a develop- status, etc. As a result, the beneficiary ous attention to position of a component ment activity will be successful if it is sup- community is always dependent on sub- of a proportional development system, in ported with extensive community partici- sidy. If the subsidy is taken away, the order to prevent any component lagging pation. A community with capability can community will be declining. behind, one in competition with another, be illustrated as one with sufficient know- Beside the three issues above, there is or even being weakened. In formation of ledge on what is needed and what action another major factor influencing commu- a service management team, for instance, must be taken in order to fulfill the de- nity development. It includes a number this new institution should not compete mand in a sustainable manner. of components like the community itself, with the existing formal or informal insti- The emergence of empowerment is- community institution, government insti- tution. Therefore, we are already in the sue is influenced by several factors. tution, market institution, etc. Each com- right track when we decided to apply Firstly, many people considered commu- ponent must play a proportional part so community empowerment as an ap- nity as a "static" institution which pas- that the overall development process proach in our development system. This sively receives anything given by the works properly. From experience it is approach is excellent. development implementer. As a result, obvious that the components of the com- Nearly all development stakeholders what was given did not always conform to munity are not placed in the right posi- have realized this issue. But in practice the demand and capacity. The popular tion so that their involvement in the the role and position of each of the com- term for this kind of development is "sup- whole system does not indicate a good ponents does not show proportionally. ply driven." The development planner performance. Meanwhile, in certain con- However, a priority for community empo- and implementer supply the community dition some component may be too werment may become an excellent start with a development activity according to strong so as too dominating. Consequen- for an overall improvement of develop- their own criteria and standard, with tly, many development undertakings do ment in the communities. standard implementation procedure for not produce the result as expected Staff of the Directorate of Human each location all over the country. Whe- because the component of the whole sys- Settlement and Housing, Bappenas and reas the condition varies extensively from tem, namely the community, is not up to Member of WSS Working Group one site to another and consequently the what it should be. 20 Percik June 2004
  • 22. A RTICLE Making environmental institutions more influential, An Idea E nvironmental condition in Indo- reau. With this condition it is of course nesia is worsening from time to S. Budi Susilo difficult for the regions to undertake and time. Excessive natural resources sufficiently play the role as environmen- exploitation without comparable mana- Ensure environmental sustainability tal guardian and protector to eventually gement effort has caused a regular disas- Develop a global partnership for deve- answer the challenge posed in the MDGs. ter as well as unexpected natural calami- lopment Based on the theory of organization, a ty. Forest fires in Kalimantan and Suma- Such a difficult task and it is not easy subordinate staff is doing his job to assist tra, heavy metal poisoning in Central Ka- to achieve the above goals. The role of the a superior. Because his function is simply limantan, drought in Cilacap, and landsli- community and the regional government, assistant to a superior then the environ- des in many parts of the country could be especially kabupaten/kota is extremely mental institution is not more than a se- cited as the most recent actual examples. important. This is where the regional go- condary objective and the staff has a li- This condition is complicated with we try vernment sensitiveness in identifying the mited authority and deficient of opportu- to link it with high population growth, issues and together with the community nity to take a quick decision. which means an increasing social eco- and other stakeholders find the solution. Similarly, a chief of Environmental nomic burden. ILLUSTRATION BY RUDI KOSASIH Environmental sustainability is thre- atened if the population growth is not counter-balanced with the correct measu- res towards improvement of community well being. Needless to say that it is dee- med necessary to call those responsible for environmental protection and the re- lated stakeholders to establish a regular communication, coordination and mutu- al confidence regarding environmental management, the more so in a situation where the enforcement of environmental law is still quite weak. Regional Autonomy and National Target The implementation of regional auto- nomy which is now entering the fourth Unfortunately, the status of regional Bureau or Head of Environmental year does not go beyond the realm of level institutions is not uniform. In some Division cannot make any immediate political aspect. The economic aspect is sectors, such as health for instance, near- decision should there were any breach in lagging far behind. The regional commu- ly all of the regions have this organized as regulation or technical deviation without nity well being hasnt made any improve- a line agency, at a dinas level; but this previous consent from his superior. ment. Whereas the United Nations com- does not happen with environment. Therefore, the environmental institution pels its member nations to achieve the Some use the Bapedalda nomenclature, should be made a line organization such following goals in 2015: other use Dinas Lingkungan Hidup, and as dinas, badan or any similar terminolo- Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger Bagian Lingkungan Hidup. Based on the gy. With such a format it is expected the Achieve universal primary education Data from Directorate of Environment performance will improve in handling Promote gender equality and empower and Spatial Planning, Directorate for regional environmental issues to eventu- women Regional Development in 2001, from 19 ally produce an excellent implication Reduce child mortality provinces and 119 kabupatens/ kota there towards the achievement of MDGs. Improve maternal health are environmental institutions which are A staff of the Directorate of Regional Combat HIV/Aids, malaria and other manned by a staff level, under the Development; member of WSS diseases Development Bureau or Economic Bu- Working Group Percik 21 June 2004
  • 23. R EPORTAGE A piece of story from Ciliwung river bank Never Drink River Water SOURCE: MUJIYANTO The time showed 2.30 PM. Bonah was just finished with her dish washing when Percik came to visit her "home" under a concrete bridge somewhere in Central Jakarta. "Sorry sir, its sort of messy around here," she said smiling.H er son who is now at second gra- de of primary school was sleep- ing at a sort of cradle made ofcloth tied to a loft. The youngest daugh-ter about 3 years old was plying alone.Her husband Aceng who spent a goodpart of the morning "scooping" plasticbottle and mineral water containers fromthe Ciliwung, was now sleeping soundly. The "house" was filled with all sort ofused materials. The floor is made in three routine when Ciliwung is in a normal con-stages. The lowest touches the water with Although they live dition. But during high water Bonah doesa hole in the middle for defecating. The under the bridge not touch the Ciliwung. Her home issecond stage is for washing and relaxing. flooded. Bonah has to use a public MCKThe uppermost is the bedroom and for they never drink water from a few meters away from the bridge. Thiskeeping their clothing and other be- the river. As a substitute is where she and her family take a bath,longings. All is made from wooden waste wash and defecate. For this purpose she Bonah buys watermaterials. The bridge serves as the roof. has to spend Rp500 per head, a relativelyThere are no walls, and anyone entering from a water seller big spending because there are 8 mem-the house must bow his head. at Rp1.000 per bers in the family. Additionally she has to Almost all day long, Bonah who ad- buy boiled water for drinking because shemits as a Betawi origin depends her life container has no place to cook by herself.on the Ciliwung. How indeed, most of her About 5 km from where Bonah lives,income comes from collecting waste ma- day. "This water is for drinking and cook- Mbah (literally grandma) Kasiyem is sit-terials in the river. "During flood season ing" says Bonah who admits that she live ting alone, musing. The elderly singlelike this we can collect around Rp150.000 under a bridge since childhood. woman is taking a rest after scooping ina week," says the woman who says that Water requirement for bathing and the Ciliwung. "Leave me alone and do meshe was born in 1951. Otherwise, when washing is taken directly from the river. no harm, yes" says Mbah Yem, thats howwater is low our income drops to Rp70 - But they let the water to settle in a pail her friend use to call her, in front of her90.000 a week. To support their lives, and use it after it becomes clearer. "Let it 1,5 m by 1,5 m hut. The hut is made ofthe children would go out begging for sleep overnight," that is how she puts it. used plastic sheet. Inside there is a makealms at a street corner by a traffic light Up to this time Bonah says that her fami- do bed for sleeping. In front of the hut isnot far away. ly is quite healthy. Even she says that a pile of used plastic mineral water con- Although they live under the bridge bathing in the river is more comfortable tainers swarmed with green flies. "Yes,they never drink water from the river. than with well or PAM water. "River wa- this is how I lead my daily life", mbah"Loathsome", she says. As a substitute ter is more refreshing, this water is from Yem starts telling her life story. For theBonah buys water from a water seller at the mountain, isnt it?" she adds later. elderly woman who admits that was fromRp1.000 per container. Two containers a That is Bonah and her familys daily Solo, Central Java, living in a riverbank is 22 Percik June 2004
  • 24. R EPORTAGE SOURCE: MUJIYANTO a choice. "I have children and grandchil- dren at home, but I cannot stand living with them. It is better down here," says she. Just like Bonah, mbah Yem also never drinks water from the Ciliwung. Why? "Hiii…" that was her expression while shrugging her shoulders. For her water requirement is obtained from someone who lives not far from the riverbank. "Thats him who owns the restaurant," while pointing her finger to a foreign food restaurant across the street. For bathing and washing mbah Yem depends herself on a water spout. It is said that the spout comes from a leaked PAM pipe passing through the area. The water looks clear and clean. Below the spout there is a small enclosure for defecating. This is all confirmed by Jaja Miharja migrants are planting bananas, or raise is below any normal standard. They one of the dominant figures living in the chicken. admit this. But they argue that this is riverbank. However, the water from the Unlike Bonahs family the children of their fate. "Of course we want a better spout is not too clean because it is already this area are not required to do alms beg- life. Even I wish to build a more perma- mixed with water from the drain. ging. The children live normally as any nent cottage here. But if it is eventually to "Sometimes there is a worm in it," he tells other children though their living stan- be pulled down, then what is the use? says us further. But when compared with river dard is different. "My children even be- Jaja. water, this spout is much better. long to the highest rank at school," says Being in shortage does not make them Although using a relatively inferior Jaja proudly. surrender. A gleam of hope is still shining water quality, Jaja says that it is very sel- in their eyes. Men of the edges are not dom for some 20 families living in this necessarily be pushed around. The men location suffer from itch or other skin dis- They have should endeavour to gain attention from ease. There has never been any massive some knowledge about the government, especially in relation to diarrhoeal disease. "If anyone gets sick he water good their daily need. will be taken to the nearby puskesmas," It would be recommendable to take a says the man who came from Haurgeulis, for drinking purpose. look at what Peter Gleick says in a Indramayu. UNESCO conference in 1998 entitled Before there was the spout, according What happens with Bonah, Mbak Water: the Looming Crisis. He defines to him further, the inhabitants of the plas- Yem, Jaja and their families does not water requirement for human being as tic huts were bathing in the Ciliwung. entirely reflect the condition of all of the "access to drinking water and water for "Well, we just submit to Gods will. But population inhabiting the banks of the sanitation needs". At that time Peterson thanks to Him we are always in healthy Ciliwung that splits the city of Jakarta also recommends UNESCO to take 50 condition," he tells us then saying that he beginning from Depok. This fact indi- l/day of water as the basic human needs has been living in this area for almost 20 cates that not all the time the riverbank consisting of drinking 5 l, sanitation 20 l, years now. Not all of the inhabitants, Jaja inhabitants are in contact with river bathing 15 l, and food preparation 10 l. continues, rely their lives on livelihood water. They have some knowledge about If that is the basic measurement, how from the Ciliwung. Some are working as water good for drinking purpose. far is these riverbank inhabitants from the labourers somewhere. "I am also emplo- Although economically in a very limited standard. Then whose responsibility is yed as a helper in an office," says the fa- condition they try to look for drinking the provision of access to drinking water ther of four children. As a side job, the ri- water. Even if they have to spend money. and sanitation. Of course, to all of us. verbank inhabitants, who are mostly From hygiene point of view, their life (mujianto) Percik 23 June 2004
  • 25. M ANNER Phytoremediation An effort to process wastewater with plant media W astewater treatment SOURCE: BAMBANG PURWANTO using plant media which is known as phytoreme- diation has long known in human history, and is even used to treat toxic and radioactive material. Phyto is derived from Greek phyton meaning plant. Remediation co- mes from Latin remediare (to remedy) to heal/recover or clean something. Thus phytoremediation is a system where a plant together with microorganism with- in a media (soil, corral, and water) are used to transform a contaminant (pollu- tant) into a less poisonous and even an economically useful material. The transform takes place in a natural process in six stages: 1. Phytoaccumulation or phytoextrac- tion, in which the plant attracts the con- taminating substance from the media to be accumulated in the root zone area. This process is also called hyperaccumu- lation. 2. Rhizofiltration (rhizo = root), adoption or deposition of the contaminating sub- stance to the root. This process has been Remediation comes from Latin remediare (to remedy) tried with sunflower plant at Chernobyl, Ukraina. to heal/recover or clean something. 3. Phytostabiliation, sticking of some Thus phytoremediation is a system where a plant contaminant onto the root if the root is together with microorganism within a media unable to absorb it. The materials sticks firmly on the root and cannot be washed (soil, corral, and water) are used to transform by a running water. a contaminant (pollutant) into a less poisonous and 4. Rhizodegradation which is also called even an economically useful material. enhanced rhizosphere biodegradation or plant- assisted bioremediation degrada- tion, a decomposition process of contam- inant by microorganism such as yeast, fungi and bacteria. position that may be useful to the plant speed up the degradation process. 5. Phytodegradation (Phytotransforma- itself. This process may take place within 6. Phytovolatization, a process consis- tion), a process within a plant tissue to the leaf, stem and root, or outside the ting of pulling and transpiring of contam- breakdown the complex chain of conta- plant around the root with the help of an inant substance by a plant, break it down minant molecules into non dangerous enzyme produced by the plant itself. into non dangerous substance and finally substance with a simpler molecular com- Some plant may produce an enzyme to release it together with water vapour into 24 Percik June 2004
  • 26. M ANNER the atmosphere. Some plant species are SOURCE: BAMBANG PURWANTO with a settling pond in order to avoid clog- capable of releasing from 200 up to 1.000 ging of big particles in the corral media. litres of water vapour per individual plant 2. The pond is made of waterproof per day. concrete walls one metre deep. 3. An inlet and an outlet pipes. Plant species used for phytoreme- 4. The pond is filled with corral media diation (pebbles or gravels) with diam. 8-10 mm The species that are frequently used to a depth of 80 cm (from the bottom). for phytoremediation technique are 5. It is then planted with a mixture of among others: Red/yellow Anthurium, aquatic and other plants at a sufficiently yellow/violet Allamanda, fragrant grass, dense spacing. The plants are kept in place water bamboo, red/yellow/white Canna, by digging the media up to 40 cm deep. Dahlia sp., red/green Dracenia, yel- 6. Wastewater is let to flow into the pond low/red Heleconia, dotted/black Caladi- and is kept at 70 cm deep (from the bottom) um, red/white Kenyeri, yellow/red lotus, by adjusting the outlet. This makes water le- red onje, red/white pacing, grass plants, vel stay at 10 cm below the top of the corral. papyrus, banana plant, ponaderia, 7. The pond is designed in accordance red/white sempol, spider lily. with the BOD of the daily inflow divided by the general loading rate. For North Field application America = 32,10 kg BOD/ha/day. In the The technique has met with sufficient tropical climate it is approximately 90 kg successes in field application, such as: BOD/ha/day. 1. Eradication of heavy metal from soil and ground water in Opotiki, Bay of Summary and Recommendation Plenty, New Zealand. Cleaning soil from 1. Phytoremediation is a considerably cadmium (Cd) contamination as a side effective and efficient means for handling effect of prolonged use of pesticide. heavy metal and poisonous substance pol- 2. Cleaning soil and groundwater from the lution so that it could be used to reclaim a effect of explosives (TNT, RDX and mili- waste disposal area by growing plants on tary ammunition) in Tennesse, USA using top layer of the disposal area or applying wetland method, consisting of a pond cor- wetland method for a leachate pond. ral as media for aquatic plants to grow. 2. The wetland method is recom- Contaminated water is them let to flow Domestic wastewaster mendable for a settlement area with max. into the pond. The plant species consist 2.000 population and office or school treatment using phytore- of sagopond (Potomegeton pectinatus), building because the method needs a rel- water stargas (Hetrathera), elodea mediation technique is atively big area, i.e. 1,25-2,5 m2 per capi- (Elodea Canadensis). applied in a number of ta compared to optional pond which only Domestic wastewaster treatment needs 0,2-0,5 m2 per capita, or one fifth locations in Bali and is using phytoremediation technique is of the wetland requirement. applied in a number of locations in Bali called wastewater garden 3. The amount of investment varies and is called wastewater garden (WWG) (WWG) or better known as relative to availability of land, in a small or better known as Taman Bali (Bali Park) scale the method is quite economical as Taman Bali (Bali Park) and and can be found at the Kuta Kecamatan long as land is available. Office, Sunrice School, and Governors can be found at the Kuta 4. The O&M cost is very low, what it Office. Kecamatan Office, Sunrice needs is only leaf pruning and cleaning. 5. At a domestic scale this can be built School, and Governors Wetland Planning Concept in lieu of a resorption pit. Some of the rules to be borne in mind Office. Bambang Purwanto are as the following: D. G. TPTP, Ministry of Settlement and 1. Wetland Unit must be preceded Regional Infrastructure Percik 25 June 2004
  • 27. M ANNER "Agus Gunarto" Household Wastewater Treatment System I n early 1980s the village of Tlogo Mas Award in England. Unfortunately he hasnt tank and 2 m height, pond 1 as initial settling in Malang, East Java, was very clum- yet received the prize money amounting to (optional), ponds 2,3,4 as advanced settling, sy without anything attractive at all. USD50.000. ponds 5,6 as maturation ponds, from where At that time none of its households have a the water is disposed of into the Brantas. toilet. The population defecated directly in The purpose The whole process uses gravitational flow. the Brantas or wrap it in a plastic bag and The construction of household waste- All the waste materials produced in a threw it into the river; sometimes the water disposal system is intended to: household, from the kitchen, bathroom, and "package" got stuck in a bamboo grove and Improve the communitys care about toilet are made to flow gravitationally into sending a stench odour into the sur- environmental conservation and con- one AT Treatment Tank to decompose natu- roundings. Most of its population (70 per- trol against pollution generated from rally. The construction materials are easy to cent) were employed as construction rock improper household wastewater dis- obtain, at a relatively cheap price and the con- breakers or other informal sector. posal struction is done by the community itself. AG The situation engulfing the 70 house- Help in changing community habit to Treatment tank does not require a large holds inhabiting the village moved Agus treat wastewater in a proper manner space. What is most important is that the Gunarto (AG) to find a way out. An idea Improve local economic capacity community is involved beginning from plan- came out starting from improvement of Make the community used to a clean, ning, construction work, and O&M activity. household wastewater disposal by way of beautiful, hygienic and comfortable en- In terms of finance, the investment is ge- common activity. In the midst of nega- vironment (environmentally oriented) nuinely funded by the community of tive whispers AG continued to make his Help in decreasing the pollution rate of RT03/RW07 Tlogo Mas Malang where each dream to make a community household the Brantas river through disposal of family contributes Rp 150.000 payable in ins- wastewater disposal system a reality. only a completed treated wastewater. tallments for 2 years (about Rp6.500/fami- Finally the dream comes true. ly/month). O&M contribution amounts to The success has turned the face of the vil- Rp750 per month to be used for: 60% for ope- lage cleaner and finer. Each household has rators salary, 30% for O7M management Ventilation built a bathroom and toilet. None of the po- contingency fund, 10% salary for collector. pulation is now labouring in collecting rocks. Closet of tank Life is becoming better off. Boarding house Challenge, Opportunity and Threat becomes a new business opportunity. Visi- The challenge being faced today is the Pipe from tors are continuously coming from foreign household Wall of increasing demand for an independent, tank countries such as S. Africa, England, Japan, Filter of non costly and relatively simple technolo- waste United States, Canada, China, Austria, gy community level wastewater treatment Australia, Brazil, S. Korea, Belgium, Nether- Found partition installation. The barrier for such an ins- to destruction lands, India, Finland, Spain, Kenya, Sweden, Pipe to reservoir tallation lies with the difficulty in mobi- and Russia. lizing community fund and with the topo- AGs ingenuity for 10 years has made graphical condition where gravitational him selected as National Pioneer Youth in flow does not allow such a construction. 1996. The following year he received Kalpa- Technical Construction However, this facility has a big opportu- taru Award for Environmental Service. He The construction of AG Household nity for application because it is relatively also received Asian Innovation Award Wastewater Treatment tank can be non costly, applying simple technology, (1998) and was named Heroes of Today by a explained as follows: using easily obtainable materials and the magazine published in Hongkong. The AG household wastewater treat- implementation can be done through In 1999 Agus Gunarto was invited by the ment system is made up of the following communal activity. Its O&M manage- World Bank to visit Washington DC to share construction: 4 in. PVC central con- ment is relatively simple and does not his success story with representatives from veyance pipe as feeder into the AG take a lot of money. Additionally, it can many countries. In the same year he visited Treatment Tank, 3 in. PVC connecting improve income of the community. the Netherlands and Switzerland. In 2001 home to the central conveyance, 2 in. PVC Bambang Purwanto he excelled 200 participants from all over pipe from bath room, toilet and kitchen Directorate General for TPTP, Ministry of the world and received World Technology into home connector. A 1,2 m diam. septic Settlement & Regional Infrastructure 26 Percik June 2004
  • 28. T ELESCOPE Kabupaten Subang: Pioneer in Formulation of Drinking Water and Environmental Sanitation PolicyP erhaps Kabupaten Subang is cur- cultural and gender sensitiveness in pro- available, lack of awareness, no open rently the only regional govern- gram planning were almost entirely alien- space, lack of fund, technical difficulty ment with a water and environ- ated. As a result, many of the pro- because of marshy condition.mental sanitation policy in Indonesia. Its grams/activities such as public toilet Specifically with environmental sani-title is "Regional Policy for Community (MCK), pipe conveyance system, house- tation, the progress is far from pleasing.Based Water Supply and Environmental hold toilet were left unattended. The total population with a householdSanitation Development." This policy During the period 1998-2002 there toilet was still 41,56 percent and thosewas born from the collaboration of a was no significant changes, though sub- who have a drainage was only 37,09 per-number of kabupaten level agencies and sidy to regional government was conside- cent. The inhibiting factors are similaroffices comprising: Badan Pengawasan rably reduced. If any, it was only as a with water supply, beside a traditionalLingkungan Hidup (BLH, Environmental stimulus. This condition was able to habit of the population to defecate in theControl Body), Badan Pembedayaan stimulate the community to become more river, garden, rice field, etc.Masyarakat (Bapemdes, Community Em- active and self reliant in WSS develop- In general, the inhibiting factors topowerment Body) Local Government ment. The demand for drinking water water supply and sanitation developmentWater Company (PDAM), Local Govern- supply keeps growing especially in the consist of human, economical, and natu-ment Development Planning Agency northern plain and coastal areas where ral aspects. The key factor is of course(Bappeda), Public Works, Health Agency. ground water is distasteful due to salt human being. Therefore, a change must According to Mr. H.M Machri S, the water intrusion. start from man and his family. In thisChairman of Kabupaten Bappeda, the Drinking water supply is provided for case the role of women becomes veryformulation of the policy was based on through health sector projects in the important.demand for improvement of community forms of pit well, shallow well pumpingwell being through provision of access to system, deep well pumping system, arte- Vision and missionan acceptable WSS facility in an The vision of the policy isequitable, and sustainable manner Water Supply Coverage Based "Establishment of Healthyand in support the "Healthy Subang on Service Provider Subang 2008 trough the provi-2008" program. "This policy is one No. Drinking Water Provider Coverage Remarks sion of access to an acceptableof the regional government efforts WSS facility in an equitable, and 1. Self Reliant/Household 58.90% including urban areasfor stimulating and developing vari- sustainable manner". Its mis- including urban areasous sectors into an optimum 2. PDAM 12.24% sion is to improve the access togrowth", he says. 3. BPABP 4% 10 villages water by the poor families, Based on this policy, the role of Total 74.33% represents 953.750 persons improve community awarenessthe government is more as a facilita- to hygiene behaviour, to urgetor and motivator. The community, community self reliance, con-including the private sector is becoming servation of water source areas and pro-more significant. Through this pattern it sian well, reservoir, and piped water. tect them against pollution, develop alter-is hoped that most of the difficulties such Wells are also excavated by the communi- native funding sources, improve manage-as insufficient government fund can be ty members from their own sources. rial skill of the management team, go-solved. Some of them are managed by the Badan vernment employees, and WSS related Pengelolaan Air Bersih Perdesaan facilitators.Flashback (BPABP, Village Water Supply Manage- Before 1998 WSS development was ment Body). Strategy and Implementationvery much dependent upon the govern- The condition of water supply de- To achieve the vision and mission ament. The community played only a neg- velopment at the end of 2003 can be illus- general and specific strategies are formu-ligible part. Many of the central govern- trated as the following: lated. The strategies are summarized intoment and donor funded projects were The remaining 25,67 percent or 36 priority programs. For evaluationimplemented in a top down approach 375.000 people were without access purpose, there are also macro indicatorswithout sufficient inter-agency coordina- because of one or several of the following related to water supply and environmen-tion. Community empowerment, socio- reasons: abundance of surface water tal sanitation development. (mj) Percik 27 June 2004
  • 29. T ELESCOPE H.M. Machri S., Chairman of Bappeda, Kabupaten Subang "This is the Communitys Demand"C ould you elaborate the back- ground of the policy? We, the regional government together ern part, they are quite obvious up there. That is why in our policy we divide the region into zones: north, south and the plains. Eachwith the involved agencies saw it that in the with its own characteristic and consequentlyprevious years the coverage of drinking the respective policy is also different. In thewater service Kab. Subang has been not northern part, for instance, our interventionmore than 12,24 percent, covering only the is bigger than in the others. The south canmajor towns. The self reliant service is big- almost go on its own because the naturalger, i.e. 58,9 percent. If the government has potential is also serve the whole population, just likePDAM is doing, it would take a long time. How will the implementation be What does the linkage betweenBesides, we have the potential for the com- done? this regional policy and the nationalmunity to manage. That is how we put up a First of all the budget, we have it pre- water supply and sanitation develop-vision and mission for a community based pared. The second is the selection of priori- ment policy?drinking water and sanitation development ty villages where the policy will be applied, What comes from the central govern-before we venture into a larger program. and at the same time as pilot villages. ment is top down, while our policy here is Gradually from these priority villages we indeed what comes from the grass root. When was the formulation move into the surrounding neighbours. We What we are doing is just providing stimulusstarted? will select based on the level of willingness of to what should be done by the community. We started it in 2002. But this consists the population to work communally. The In terms of physical development both areof several activities which were conducted higher the level the more the program is the same especially when synergy in fieldsimultaneously. Actually, long before that regarded as a demand. If there were a vil- implementation has been developing.we have done something. The community lage though with potential but remains silenthas made some activities in water supply we will keep the implementation until later. Is this policy final or is it still openand sanitation management. Only after- If we put too much pressure, then it will for improvement?wards, realizing that what is being done is a become a government project. Once there This is just conceptual. We will put it in-demand of the community at large, we have were some movement, then we will render to practice and in the field there will be someto wrap up what has been happening in the our help. adjustment with the national level into a policy which will thenbecome the umbrella to similar activities at a Has the policy been field tested? What is your prediction regardinglarger scope. Naturally. We have done it in several vil- implementation in the field? lages in a number of kecamatans. The result I am quite confident and optimistic The formulation process, what is sufficiently pleasing. That is why this com- that this will be implemented effectivelydoes it look like? munity based approach is being widely used; in the field because this is what the com- First we were exploring the communi- and the government is in short of fund. The munity really needs. I believe the resultty. We, the involved agencies and the advantage is, the community does not rely will be were discussing on the expe- on the government for its maintenance. Therience in water supply and environmental community is capable of doing it on its own. Based on the existing condition,sanitation management. The ideas were The peoples motto is we are progressing not whether the 2008 target could besummarized into the formula. It can be because of we have been assisted, but we achieved?seen from there the policy is actually not have been assisted because we are progress- We can hope this will be achieved.from us. All is extracted from the com- ing. That is where the previous community Through the Kabupaten level inter-agencymunity. To arrange it into a policy was participation was based. coordination, common understandingalso done through seminars and work- among stakeholders at the kecamatan andshops which were attended by represen- This means that the community village levels for the improvement of com-tatives from the central and provincial based management has been existing munity well being, I think this will work outlevel governments. Our job was putting in Kab. Subang? fine. Even this concept is applicable forthe ideas together into one formula. There are many. Especially in the south- other program/policy. (MJ) 28 Percik June 2004
  • 30. B OOK INFO Progress Report on the MDGs T his book contains MDGs imple- ply and basic sanitation facility, this book mentation progress in Indonesia only discusses in two sections, water and since the signing of the Millen- sanitation. Indonesia is still facing a nium Declaration in September 2000. problem with the low coverage of piped This initial report discusses the condition water supply system, without saying any- in Indonesia during the period of 1990 till thing about water quality of PDAM water. 2003, and a prediction up to 2015. The quality of water supply does not meet This book is very useful for policy the standard set by the Ministry of makers, government institutions, mem- Health. It is also sad to say that the go- bers of parliament, NGOs, community vernment has not made water as a priori- organizations, the community, and inter- ty policy in spite the world sustainable Indonesia, Progress Report national organizations. The information development conference it is mentioned on the Millennium contained can be used in accordance with that water is a right for all human being. Development Goals the demand and goals of various stake- Regarding sanitation, the data indi- Publisher: Government of Indonesia holders at the respective levels. The con- cate that community access to basic sani- Published: February 2004 tents of the report indicate the national tation facility is around 64 percent (78 Pages : 155 pages goals and targets that have been achieved percent in towns and 52 percent in vil- and not the planning framework as it lages), but this does not reflect ownership relates to national targets. by the community. Similarly to water, the The report to UN is based on data pro- autonomy. Besides, many of the data central government, the local govern- duced from a social economic survey (Su- reflect the general condition at the ment, including the legislative do not pay senas) conducted by the Biro Pusat provincial level. It would be more mean- any attention to this sector. This is evi- Statistik (BPS, Central Bureau of Sta- ingful if the records are made at the kabu- denced from the low budget allocation. tistic). However, for several indicators, paten/kota level. This condition is aggravated with lack of there are only institutional data available. With regard Target 10, i.e. reduction community awareness, especially in It is not surprising these data are not to half, in 2015, the proportion of popula- towns, about the importance of sanitation complete, especially after the regional tion without access to drinking water sup- is to our health. (mj) Integration of Household and Communal Wastewater T his book intends to provide an dology in selecting a community that needs explanation about household and a wastewater drainage; (iii) conventional communal wastewater drainage. design of wastewater drainage system; (iv) According to the author, this subject is new method for minimizing the costs for interesting to discuss because it represents wastewater drainage construction; (v) the most important of the wastewater problems in conventional wastewater drainage network and the easiest to make drainage and their solution; (vi) O&M issue improvement. Besides it is the most part Sustainable Sewerage, and to overcome it; (vii) setting of optimum that draws users interest. What makes this Guidelines for Community tariff; and (viii) combining financial, O&M book different is that the discussion on Schemes domestic wastewater is not separated from and lack of community interest through a Author: R. A. Reed that of a communal system. real example. Publisher: Intermediate Technology The author divides the book into 8 This book becomes more interesting Publications, in association with the Water, chapters, namely (i) why wastewater because it is easy to understand and provi- Engineering and Development Centre, 1995 drainage is worthy of consideration by the des a way out to the difficulty in sanitation Pages: xiv + 97 pages community and the constraints; (ii) metho- being faced by the community. (OM) Percik 29 June 2004
  • 31. C D INFO Reducing Energy Cost in Municipal Water Supply Operations T his CD-ROM discusses the benefit nity to cover the operational costs and of energy monitoring and target overcome incidental loss; participation setting (M&T) in preventing leak- of the private sector which might be age and cost for water supply in the urban necessary to expand the water supply towns of the developing nations. The service network; the steps to improve World Bank produced CD-ROM discuss- the service efficiency especially in the es a study conducted by two partner insti- light of improvement of the access of tutions in two provinces in Brazil for re- the poor to water supplies; experience ducing electric power consumption. indicates how to improve the effective- The two partners enjoy an impressive ness of low cost information technology success. One of them was able to save 50 to reducing energy consumption for percent of the cost and put it up for water supply service. investment in the following 3-4 years. Rationally, water use considers ener- It also explains several important gy consumption as an overhead of water notes about reduction of energy con- treatment and pumping operation. The sumption in urban areas, including the cost for electricity usually varies between able cost rather than fixed cost. application of M&T plan, and a list of low 10-30 percent of the operational cost, Anyway, the content of this CD-ROM cost or no cost actions to save energy. most of which goes to treatment process. is very important for stakeholders related The need for saving energy is based While energy lost in the treatment to drinking water treatment. It is obtain- on the considerations that water use is process is around 30-50 percent. But able at the WSS Working Group Se- dependent on the capacity of the commu- many would include electricity as a vari- cretariat and the supply is limited. Water Supply and Sanitation for Small Towns and Multi-village Schemes, Proceedings of International Conference S mall Towns are important for policy makers, water and sanitation experts for two reasons: 1) they can calculate the the conference and is divided into 3 sec- tions: 1) Summary of the Conference; 2) Presentation; 3) Posters. The Summary growth of population without access to is presented in two languages, English water and basic sanitation; 2) we know a and French. In it contains the recom- little about how to determine water sup- mendation of the conference and the ply and sanitation demand. reports of the working groups, review In reality, most of the Millennium from the participants, and the related Development Goals in relation to water networks. In the Presentation we can see supply and sanitation are applicable in what the speakers brought forward both small towns. The experts and national at the conference and during the working policy makers would need a substantial group. The Presentation can also be ac- amount of field information about man- cessed through organizers website. In it agement pattern and other effective sup- we can find posters from Indonesia about port and a better knowledge about as key the conference of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia community based sanitation, the experi- to successful water supply and sanitation in 11-15 June, 2002 which was attended ence from Aquanet/Mitra Tirta Program. service. by more than 200 practitioners and dis- This CD is collection of the WSS Working A good knowledge about small towns cussed 30 cases, becomes a place of in- Group Secretariat. Any one interested must be explored from various experi- vention for this purpose. please contact the Editor. (MJ) ence and field activities. For this reason The CD contains the proceedings of 30 Percik June 2004
  • 32. WE B S I T E I N F O Sanitation Connection WHO Publications on Sanitation and Health W HO is a trustworthy source for sa- nitation and health related infor- mation. For more than 54 years it has been producing bibliographical publica- tions. Some of the bibliographical publi- cations are (i) human waste disposal dry toilet and water carried method; (ii) munity leaders in making water, sanita- reprocessing method and disposal of tion, and hygiene in a common attention; S anitation connection is a website based network related to environ- mental sanitation. From technological, waste materials (domestic and commer- cial); (iii) do-it-yourself guidelines on how to design, construct, rehabilitate, influence behavioural change through various information and communication channels, hygiene promotion in schools, institutional as well as financial aspects and maintain a drainage system within a training and improvement of communi- this website can be regarded as the most cation capacity and network improve- complete source of information in the ment, and research activities. world. The information available is sup- ported with various international institu- tions in managing and providing the suit- List of Related Websites able data for a specific need. Some of the important subjects that WaterAid are available include cost and cost recove- ry, sanitation promotion, sanitation in WaterAid is a non government orga- school, waste material management, low nization specially operating in drinking cost wastewater management and draina- water supply, sanitation and hygiene edu- cation to poor communities of the world. ge. It is interesting to note that this web- low income sector of an urban area; (iv) The Freshwater Action Network site also provides a complete data and financial arrangement in the manage- information requirement from Help Desk ment improvement of drinking water and The Freshwater Action Network is a as well as Online Databases facilities. In sanitation service, large or small scale, global network of non government institu- online databases there are Inter WATER urban as well as rural; (v) successful tions specializing in environment and devel- which provides list of organizations deal- approach for involvement of the commu- opment as well as community based organi- zations working together to strengthen the ing with drinking water and sanitation in nity in promoting hygiene behaviour; (vi) participation of civilian community in for- the developing nations; IRCDOC provi- training manual for performance mulating international scale water policy. des bibliography database on drinking improvement in drinking water and sani- water and sanitation in the developing tation project through a better O&M NETWAS. Network for Water and nations; maestro II provides information management system; (vii) articles and Sanitation about environmentally friendly tech- cases studies on sanitation. nology. NETWAS is an information and human resources development network operating in This website was launched in Novem- WASH Campaign Africa especially in drinking water, sanita- ber 2000 and represents an easily tion and environment. Its scope of activities accessible gate way. This website is main- includes training, research, information net- tained by World Health Organization (WHO) in collaboration with United Na- tions Environmental Program (UNEP), W ater, Sanitation and Hygiene for All (WASH) Campaign was intro- duced by Water Supply and Sanitation work, advocacy, consultant service. Ecological Sanitation the Water and Sanitation Program Collaborative Council (WSSCC) in Inter- One of the websites specializing in (WSP), the Water Supply and Sanitation national Conference in Bonn, Germany in ecological sanitation. This website is Collaborative Council (WSCC) and the 2001. WASH intends to improve the maintained by International Water International Water Association (IWA). commitment of the politicians and com- Association. Percik 31 June 2004
  • 33. F IELD VISIT WSLIC-2 Changes the Life of Kedungbanjar Community SOURCE: AMPL DOCUMENTATION unknown and waste materials cash) and Rp32 million in kind. From the are thrown anywhere. It is budget Rp144 million is allocated for the unsurprising that during 2002 development of piped water supply sys- there were 18 cases of diarhoea tem to cover 100% of the village popula- with infants, 84 cases above the tion, Rp35 million for environmental sa- age of five and 4 cases of lep- nitation system development, and Rp16,5 rosy. million is set aside for hygiene behaviour This fact has made Kedung- education in the community and in banjar village qualified for an schools. As operational budget of the assistance from WSLIC-2 pro- Community Working Team an amount of gram. Especially with the Rp5 million is provided for. existing potentials, i.e. availa- Up to this time several constructions bility of water source, willing- WATER SUPPLY CONDITION ness to partici- Hamlet Number of Water Source Remarks pate and provi- households Pit well Reservoir sion of contribu- Kedungbanjar 150 20 (13.3%) V On dry tion both in cash Kedungpari 74 14 (18.9%) V season and in kind, avail- Mloso 87 42 (48.2%) V all of ability of electrici- well are Rambit 153 81 (52.9%) V dry ty, relatively good Total 464 157 (33.8%) access road, avai- lability of skill worker, and relatively high are already in place, one (i) unit of pump I t was unimaginable before that the spirit in community work (gotong ro- house, one (1) water tower, one (1) deep community of Kedungbanjar, Kec. yong). well, 3.377 km of piping network, one (1) Sugio, Kab. Lamongan, East Java Accompanied by Community Facili- production unit, and fourteen (14) public would ever had access to a water supply tator Team (CFT) the community worked taps. The piping network is to provide service. None of its community is left out. out a community plan with a budget service to all of the population. The Life has changed remarkably. amounting at Rp20o million (approxi- WSLIC-2 project has been officially hand- Before that, the village with 2.064 mately). This amount comes from Rp144 ed over to the community. Other side population (503 households) consisting million represents village grant fund, effect of the activity is skill improvement of 4 hamlets, Kedungbanjar (150 house- regional government of Lamongan Rp16 in financial management, know how in holds), Kedungpari (78 households), million, the community Rp8 million (in technical operation and maintenance, Mloso (93 households) and and the technical aspect in Rambit (170 households) was in a health related extension activity. poor condition both in terms of ENVIRONMENTAL SANITATION CONDITION A health related program water supply and environmental Hamlet Number of household’s WC Remarks consisting of water sampling and sanitation. As is evident from the Absolut Percent examination, soil sampling and table water supply facility barely Kedungbanjar 82 54.7 The other examination, fecal examination sufficient, even worse during the Kedungpari 25 33.8 people of primary schoolchildren, dry season. Consequently there Mloso 25 28.7 mired on worm treatment for primary was only few who have built hou- the schoolchildren, renovation of 3 Rambit 38 52.9 sehold toilet. garden bathrooms and toilet and con- Total 170 36.6 This condition is made even struction of 6 washbasins at worse with the absence of waste- This fact has made Kedungbanjar school, and health extension water disposal system. Nearly all activity to the community. As for village qualified for an assistance of the houses do not have any toilet revolving construction drainage canal. Garbage bins are from WSLIC-2 program activity is just beginning. (MJ) 32 Percik June 2004
  • 34. F IELD VISIT Failure Due to Wrong Technology Choice S SOURCE: RHEIDDA PRAMUDHY angkatani village, Kab. Singkawang, West Kalimantan is one of the villages selected for assistance from the Asian Development Bank (ADB) through the Rural Water Supply and Sanitation (RWSS) project from 1996 - 2000. The village chose a technology base on gravitational flow for their water supply system. The facility is presently not functioning well. Water tank is not being used because the users are tapping the main conve- yance and connect it to their homes. The taps are not closed af- ter use so that a lot of water is wasted. The pressure drop caused by this action prevent water from flowing farther, therefore many of the tail end users have to use water pump to get water. The irony is, this village is the site of a bottled water industry which takes water from the same spring. Some sort of conflict more, now that the village level management team is dormant. may likely arise in the future knowing that water discharge is Beside water supply, the area needs an environmental sanitation falling during dry season and the number of population is grow- system through the construction of MCK, household and public to- ing steadily. Additionally, the kabupaten has a bright market ilets. The facilities are not functioning because of water scarcity. prospect for bottled water. The lessons learned from this experience are among others a In Sebawi, still in Singkawang, the choice of filtering techno- discrepancy between technology choice and the community pro- logy with sand media is also a failure. Filtering river water takes posal and capability leads to failure, there is a need for a formal reg- a long process, the amount is enough only for 5 households. On ulation that regulates division of water in order to prevent conflict, the other hand the cost for electricity to run the pump is consi- there is a need for a professional village level management team, derably high. This technology is not feasible for application in a and sanitation development must consider water availability as a low income community. The community cannot operate it any- determining factor. (Rheidda Pramuddhy) The people of Aikmel No Need To Wake Up At Night Any More CARTOON BY RUDIKOSASIH T he people of North Aikmel, condition, Sucipto of WSLIC-2, Kec. Aikmel, Lombok Timur, indicates that budget ceiling can be NTB can now sleep peaceful- made flexible if there is a commu- ly. They do not have to wake up at nication with the central govern- 3 in the morning to take water from ment. While the Chairman of a source 2 km from the village. The Bappeda promises to provide a WSLIC-2 project has changed the financial assistance, but only at a routine. The village headman ex- limited amount. In the meantime pressed his thankfulness for select- handing over was also made in ing the village as a project site. On Batu village, Kec. Lumbung, 12 July last, the Bupati of Lombok Lombok Barat on 13 July. This was Timur, handed over the project done by the Deputy of Bupati assets to the local community that Lombok Barat. In his speech he was represented by the community asks the community to maintains facilitator team. The Bupati hopes the ment team, the facility is completely the assets and prevent the failure such community would understand what the built, and willingness of the community as the CARE project which fails to sus- direct transfer means and later manage to pay contribution. In the village each tain.During 2003 , there were 30 vil- and maintain the facility properly. He family is required to pay Rp1.000 a lages in Lombok Barat completed phy- respects highly the community month. The total amount collected is sical construction consisting of 49 grav- approach applied by the project and Rp300.000 a month from 300 families itational flow piping system, 720 pit promises to replicate it into projects in of the village. Not all of villages in wells, and revolving fund sanitation other areas. The handing over of the Aikmel has this project because the development system. In 2004 eight vil- WSLIC-2 project assets is done on the project is restricted with Rp200 million lages are still in the development sites which has established its manage- budget ceiling. Commenting on the process. (Archianti Musama) Percik 33 June 2004
  • 35. WASPOLA Lessons Learned from SANIMAS (Sanitation by the Community) SOURCE: AMPL DOCUMENTATION S anitation development in Indone- sia, especially the community se- werage system has not reached most of the urban poor. This has been brought to the attention of the govern- ment so that beginning from the decade of 1980s the kampung improvement pro- gram (KIP) includes decentralized sanita- tion system as one of its components. However, the top down approach applied in KIP has neglected the element of com- munity participation the program does not perform satisfactorily especially in terms of sustainability. For the purpose of improvement of decentralized sanitation system develop- ment, the Australian government through AusAID in collaboration with WSP-EAP of the World Bank and Indonesia govern- ment launched SANIMAS project. This facilitating the community initiative, but Institutional Aspect project is a part of the activities con- not in management of the system. At the community level there are two ducted under the Water Supply and This program is designed as a demand (2) SANIMAS related institutions, De- Sanitation Policy Formulation and Action responsive and the communities qualified velopment Committee and Management Planning Project (WASPOLA) project. for participation will compete for a pro- Team. The Development Committee is gram support through evidence of its responsible for activities from prepara- What is SANIMAS? commitment and preparedness in run- tion till completion of construction. The SANIMAS is abbreviation of SANI- ning in accordance with their own choice. Management Team is responsible for post TASI MASYARAKAT (Community Sani- The decision making lies entirely with the construction O&M and maintenance of tation), an initiative designed to promote whole community. The role of SANIMAS, wastewater treatment installation a community based sanitation system as NGO and the government is only as a an alternative for the poor communities facilitator. Community Action Plans of the urban Community Action Plans are made up SANIMAS support consists of: from Construction Plan, Community Basic Concept Recommendation in terms of technical, Contribution Plan, and O&M Plan. The SANIMAS is designed to strengthen institutional, financial, social and envi- formulation of Community Action Plans the poor community of the urban in order ronmental from a set of choices, in is assisted by a SANIMAS consultant and to enable them select their own sanitation accordance with the need of the inter- is conducted with the application of system, formulating a set of action plans, ested stakeholder and the choice of the Community Participatory Approach organize a group, and manage the physi- community. (CPA). Training is provided for in 3 for- cal construction, including its O&M activ- Suggestion in relation to the most suit- mats (1) technical training for skilled ity. In SANIMAS sanitation is focused able process in selecting the best sys- workers, construction hands and opera- only to human waste. tem that would gain the community tors; (ii) management training for com- The strategy of SANIMAS includes support munity self reliant group; and (iii) com- determining, planning, constructing, ma- Packages of information, education and munity health related training. The topic intaining and managing a system by communication of each individual training is designed themselves, with facilitation and assis- Limited financial support for procure- based the need of the respective commu- tance from non government organization. ment of materials nity. The regional government is involved in Training. O&M plan includes contribution 34 Percik June 2004
  • 36. W ASPOLA SOURCE: SANIMAS DOCUMENTATION arrangement, operator, and maintenance schedule. Contribution Mechanism Development budget comes from the contribution of the community, the re- gional government, and the SANIMAS. Community contribution was collected directly by a Development Committee and deposited to a bank account of the Deve- lopment Committee. The contribution from the regional government and the SANIMAS were transferred directly to SANIMAS Development Committee. Dis- bursement is made based on the SANIM- AS Construction Plan as proposed by the SANIMAS Development Committee. come from the regional government, the shing floor and a wastewater treatment Implementation Process and Post community (in-kind), and grant from installation. A communal system consists Construction Plan AusAID and BORDA. The total fund is of a pipe connecting a household toilet to In the beginning the SANIMAS con- Rp1,548 billion comprises regional go- a wastewater treatment installation. cept was offered to some thickly popula- vernment contribution Rp986 million The total population covered in SANI- ted urban regions of East Java and Bali. (63,6 percent), SANIMAS Rp398 million MAS project is 2.564 of which 914 are The response was there were 8 regions (25,7 percent), the community Rp84 mil- served with MCK and 1.650 with commu- indicated interest in the project. Later, lion (5,5 percent) and BORDA Rp80 mil- nal system one of them withdrew because of disap- lion (5,2 percent). In-kind (material and proval from the legislative body. The re- labour) contribution from the community Construction and Operational Cost maining seven consists of the towns of Ke- represents 2-3 percent of the total cost. and Contribution diri, Pasuruan, Blitar, Mojokerto, Pa- Comparing the amount of costs and The total budget allocation amounts to mekasan, Denpasar and Kabupaten Si- the total coverage on the average the cost Rp1,272 billion. The construction cost of doarjo. Later SANIMAS failed to conti- per household comes to approximately a communal system is relatively higher nue implementation in Pamekasan be- Rp2 million. than that of an MCK, but its operational cause the community members could not cost is lower. Each community decides its reach an agreement among themselves. System and Service Coverage own level of contribution, for an MCK sys- Some kampungs with a population of The system selected by the communi- tem it ranges between Rp200 - 300 per 50 -100 were selected by the local govern- ties is either a public MCK or a communal month, while for a communal system ment and after an internal selection system. An MCK consists of toilets, a wa- between Rp2.200 - 3.100 per month per process, i.e. decision of the kampung/vil- lage which was taken through an agree- Short Description of SANIMAS ment among the population, and when it SITE SYSTEM COSTRUCTION COVERAGE OPERATIONAL CONTRIBUTION is done the kampung is definitely selected COST COST as a participant. RW II, Kel. Sukorejo, Kec. Sukorejo, Kota Blitar Komunal Rp. 236 million 85 KK/750 person Rp. 186.000/month Rp. 2.200/KK/month Then socialization process followed, RT 2, RW I, Kel. Balongsari, Bathroom and WC Rp. 200/used Kec. Magersari, Kota Mojokerto MCK Rp. 151 million 50 KK/250 person Rp. 785.000/month Washing Rp. 300/used and finally with the assistance from a RT 4-5, RW 2, Kel. Bakalan, facilitator the community made discus- Kec. Bugul, Kota Pasuruan Komunal Rp. 238 million 83 KK/400 person Rp. 186.000/month Rp. 2.200/KK/month RT 8-9-10-11, RW V, Kel. Balowerti, sions to formulate Community Action Kec. Kota, Kota Kediri MCK Rp. 209 million 450 person Rp. 765.000/month Rp. 5.000/KK/month ;Rp 200/used RT 21, RW V, Kel. Sidokare, Plans. Kec. Sidoarjo, Kab. Sidoarjo MCK Rp. 169 million 214 person Rp. 785.000/month Rp. 200/used Pucuk Sari Selatan Banjar Batur, Kec. Denpasar Barat, Kota Denpasar Komunal Rp. 269 million 100 KK/500 person Rp. 302.000/month Rp. 3.100/KK/month Financing Aspect TOTAL 3 MCK The funding sources for SANIMAS 3 Komunal Rp. 1,272 billion 2.564 person KK = household Percik 35 June 2004
  • 37. WA S P O L A SOURCE: SANIMAS DOCUMENTATION household. But in the town of Kediri the community during the early for an MCK the contribution is deter- stages of SANIMAS was because of mined at Rp5.000 per household. the unfavourable experience with similar activities in the past. Management It has been a general notion in A communal system and a system communities that sanitation is which is managed by a team selected always identical with something by the community. The contribution dirty and smells bad. is used as salary for the communal The communities have an im- system operator (pipe inspection, pression that SANIMAS implemen- cleaning of control boxes, and main- tation is time consuming. This per- tenance) or the operator of an MVK haps is because of the heavy facility (O&M of MCK and waste- involvement of the community in water treatment installation), and the entire process, climatic factor emptying the installation once in two that caused some construction years. Effluent test is made one in 6 delays, and the complicacy in gov- months. The said family previously expressed ernment disbursement procedure. In communal system, the toilet, the agreement but later withdrew it. The The fund that comes from various pipe connecting the toilet to the main con- issue was then expanded to become deci- sources such as grant from donor coun- veyance and the control box is the users sion making process. It would be worth- tries, the local government, and NGOs responsibility. while to consider whether a decision is a have made it important to determine the total pronouncement in acclamation or it status the facility, to whom it belongs. Lessons Learned is just be based on the majority of votes. It The mechanism related to transfer of The main issue that crops up during should also be advisable to consider a asset and community representation in the SANIMAS project implementation is compensation for the ones having objec- the transfer process has not been suffi- the availability of land for the construc- tion for the reason of inconvenience ciently dealt with. tion. This issue is brought forward in (unpleasant smell, wastewater). Although SANIMAS is considered suc- relation to the willingness of anyone to As a consequence to the disagreement cessful, but for a replication in other loca- volunteer to be in immediate neighbour the SANIMAS implementation in Pame- tions special attention must be paid with with the sanitation facility. In many cases kasan is discontinued. While in the towns regard the flexibility in project implemen- the NIMBY (not in my back yard) atti- of Kediri and Pasuruan there were also tation. As an illustration, the implement- tude is prevailing. This attitude is quite some objections but the project managed ing agency may be different in a different obvious in the town of Pamekasan. The to find alternative locations. In the town location, in some it may be Public Works, families in immediate neighbour to the of Mojokerto and Kab. Sidoarjo though in others Environmental Agency, and MCK or processing facility express their there was no dislocation but the project Bappeko. objection to the project because they feel managed to make design revision because worried about the adverse effect from the the initial design could not be applied in Future Agenda placement of the facility near their homes. the available land space. The community The on-going activities till the end of In connection with land availability based sanitation approach represents a 2003 are carried over to 2004 for comple- there is still a question about the status of new method especially for the community tion, the central government continues the land. It is recommendable that prior itself. The information transmission collaboration with BORDA for the imple- to conducting Rapid Participatory Ap- tends to be confusing because of the ter- mentation. In 2004 some improvement praisals (RPAs) the status of the land minologies which are foreign to them. will be made based on the lessons learned must be made known and confirmed. There is a need for a simple and easy to during the previous year implementation. In the case of Pamekasan, it becomes understand transmission system and It is hoped that the two consecutive year interesting to note that because of one employment of a more suitable facilitator. SANIMAS implementation will provide a family has objection, the whole participa- A better and more effective information meaningful input for the sanitation deve- tory decision making process was an- transmission strategy needs be designed. lopment in Indonesia. (OM) nulled and the project could not proceed. Repellence and skeptical attitude by 36 Percik June 2004
  • 38. WA S P O L A Workshop on Understanding the National Policy and Its Implementation Facilitation Process in the Regions T he National Policy for Community For this purpose WASPOLA orga- Understanding the National Policy and Based Water Supply and En- nized a workshop entitled Workshop on Its Implementation Facilitation Process vironmental Sanitation in the Regions. The purpose SOURCE: WASPOLA DOCUMENTATION Development has been success- of the workshop is to provide fully formulated. According the a better understanding to planning, the policy will be put facilitators about the policy into implementation beginning and prepare a detailed work from 2004 through a series of plan for the implementation facilitation process in selected facilitation process in the regions, namely Kab. Sawah- regions. lunto Sijunjung (W. Sumatra), The workshop was held in Kab. Bangka Selatan (Bangka Be- Purwakarta on 24-27 May litung), Kab. Lebak (Banten), Kab. 2004 and attended by 20 par- Kebumen (C. Java), Kab. Lombok ticipants consisting of facilita- Barat (NTB), Kab. Pangkajene tors, WSS Working Group, Kepulauan (S. Sulawesi), and Kab. WASPOLA, and WSP-EAP of Gorontalo (Gorontalo). the World Bank. (OM) MPA Orientation Workshop F or three days, 12-14 May 2004, 32 discussing the problems of the village. In this occasion, MPA orientation participants from Bappenas, Mi- Direct communication with the commu- was focused on the tools for project eval- nistry of Health (Depkes), Minis- nity has inspired the participants about uation purpose. There are other tools try of Home Affairs (Depdagri), Regional the fulfillment of community demand. namely for planning and supervision. Government of Sukabumi, WASPOLA Understanding about the tradition, ter- However, this orientation has given the and WSP-EAP World Bank consultants minology used, and local characteristics participants a new perspective to listen assisted by 4 facilitators, attended an ori- becomes a key into understanding the and apply demand responsive ap- entation workshop about Methodology of demand of the community. proaches and seriousness in conducting Participatory Assessments (MPA) at Lido, Until 2002 Kutajaya village received a MPA processes and community involve- Sukabumi. Depkes facilitated project and the facility ment. (dorman) The opening and short description constructed is now still SOURCE: WASPOLA DOCUMENTATION about the workshop was given By Mr. functioning and used by the Basah Hernowo, Director of Human community. According to Settlement and Housing, Bappenas. The the community, the involve- topics discussed in the workshop consist- ment of all components of ed of Gender Equity, Sustainability, De- the community, rich, poor, mand Responsive Approach, MPA Fra- men and women; provision mework and concluded with introduction of responsibility to make to MPA tools. A field visit was made to decision, construction of Kutajaya village, Kec. Cicurug. The result facility in accordance with of the visit was presented as a material for the demand and serious discussion. facilitation from the project, During the orientation process the has stimulated the growth of participants and the community are community commitment in placed in an equal position, together in management. Percik 37 June 2004
  • 39. A MPL Seminar on Water Supply and Sanitation Service under a Recurring Drought Condition "Water Supply and Sanitation Service Must Be Improved" SOURCE: OSWAR MUNGKASA indirectly, to fulfill their need. Based on the existing data during the last 10 years the amount of forest areas in Indonesia is decreasing by 1,6-2,4 million hectares each year. The impact is missing aqui- fers, decreasing water table, changes to climatic condition, increasing of drought areas, increasing of flood areas, increas- ing the occurrence and areas of land- slides, and so on. "All stakeholders, whether they want or not, prepared or unprepared, must agree that nature as water holder for human need which is now in a poor con- dition must be repaired as an effort to sustain human culture," says him. This seminar is divided into 2 ses- sions. In session I, Mr. Arum Atmawikar- ta, the Director of Health and Community Nutrition, Bappenas delivered his paper entitled The impact of drought upon health and human resources and Mrs.D r. Suyono Dikun, the Deputy for "All stakeholders, whether Erna Witoelar, the UN Special Am- Infrastructures Development of bassador for MDGs in Asia and the Pa- Bappenas reminds all the stake- they want or not, prepared or cific, her paper entitled The impact ofholders to pay attention to sustain the unprepared, must agree that disasters to the achievement of MDGs.quality of water supply and sanitation nature as water holder for In session II, Mr. Rahmat Karnadi,service, through the solution to microcos- Director of Central Region Urban andmic or macrocosmic problems. This sta- human need which is now in Rural Development, Depkimpraswil pre-tement was delivered in a Seminar on a poor condition must be sented his paper entitled Overcoming theWater Supply and Sanitation Service repaired as an effort to Community of the Drought SensitiveUnder a Recurring Drought Condition at Areas in Getting Water; and Mr. Heningthe J.W. Marriot Hotel, Surabaya, 6-7 sustain human culture." Darpito, Director of Hygiene Water andMay 2004. Sanitation presented his Anticipation of According to him, microcosmic and algae/cyanobacteria because of poor the Impact of Drought from Healthmacrocosmic disasters are equally da- water quality or insufficient quantity. aspect.ngerous to humanity. He cited the stud- Microcosmic damages will lead to On the day before the opening theies conducted by Hans G. Peterson from macrocosmic disasters. This can be seen participants made a visit to the site of athe Safe Drinking Water Foundation who from the declining environmental condi- community managed WSS facility at theconcluded that there are at least 26 di- tion in countries that have problems with village of Kedungbanjar, Kec. Sugio,seases caused by pathogenic bacteria, 22 human resources, like Indonesia. Un- Kabupaten Lamongan, E. Java. This vil-caused by fecal viral pathogens, not fulfilled microcosmic demand will cause lage received project assistance from theincluding those caused by protozoa and men to disrupt upon nature, directly or WSLIC-2. (MJ) 38 Percik June 2004
  • 40. A MPL Water Week: Diving Into ImplementationI n the third week of February 2004, the Indonesia, China, and South Africa have had more important is an agreement to the min- members of WSS Working Group were a chance to present their paper on the imum indicators which serve as benchmark invited to attend Water Week, repre- national policy formulation for community for water supply and sanitation manage-senting an annual agenda of the World based WSS development in its relation with ment.Bank. This years specific topic was Diving regional autonomy/decentralization in There was also some mention about theinto Implementation. The Indonesian dele- Indonesia (for further reference please visit World Bank business strategy which relatesgates consist of Mr. Basah Hernowo or to water supply and sanitation namely(Director of Human Settlement & Housing, increasing the coverage for the poor commu-Bappenas), Mr. Oswar Mungkasa Jamal Saghir (Director of Energy and nity, improvement of services performance,(Bappenas), Sucipto (Ministry of Health), Water of the World Bank) in his opening improvement of access to rural drinkingDjoko Wartono (Ministry of Health), and speech made some interesting remarks, (i) water supply and sanitation, and effectiveZainal Nampira (Ministry of Health). Some the debates on whether the water supply and water resources management. It is realizedof the valuable results are presented in the sanitation is privately or publicly managed is that drinking water and sanitation sector isarticles below. actually insignificant. What is most impor- important especially as it relates to the glob- The topic Diving into Implementation is tant to note is who is capable of providing a al agreement of MDGs which are focused onintended to provide a better insight to (i) sustainable, and non-costly especially to the poverty reduction. Drinking water supplymore than just a promise but a direct action; poor, water supply and sanitation service and sanitation development will directly(ii) more than just strengthening institution regardless of private or public entity; (ii) theof capital investment but venture on a learn- processing of drinking water and sanitation influence the economy, improvement in he-ing by doing; (iii) instead of a mere rethoric treatment cost a lot of money. Questions alth, environmental sustainability, bettertry to give a pragmatic answer; and (iv) now arise as to what is meant by cost recov- education, all of which will converge toinstead of fragmentation try to cooperate. ery which relates only to explicit costs cover- reduction in number of poor population. The topic is divided into three sub-top- ing investment, and management and main- In drinking water supply and sanitationics, namely (i) funding and cost recovery; (ii) tenance costs, while the implicit costs for services, the responsibility for policy formu-the role of public and private sectors; and water provision, interest and other costs are lation and stipulation of regulation is(iii) the big challenge to hygiene and sanita- not accommodated; (iii) the change in para- imposed on the public sector. The role oftion. All of which are divided into 29 paral- digm from supply driven into demand driv- private sector is as proprietor of asset, super-lel sessions. en up to its implementation will take a long vision, and provision of service. In the latest The Indonesian delegates in session period of time and highest level of patience; three functions the government can alwaysInstitutional Change: Scaling up Drinking (iv) the discussion about international differ- play a certain role, or even establishment ofWater Services: The cases of India, ences in indicators is necessary but what is a public private partnership (PPP). (OM) WSS Development Experience from UgandaI n relation to WSS development the Development (DWD) which represents for maintaining the system. Ugandan government has been suc- the main institution and responsible body cessful in formulating several poli- for water resources management, coordi- WSES Development Frameworkcies and legal frameworks, such as (i) nation and control sector activities and The WSES development frameworksUganda Water Action Plan (1995); facilitation to local government and other was develoved based on (i) PovertyNational Water Policy (1999); Water support services; (iii) National Water and Eradication Action Plan (PEAP). ThreeStatute (1995); and their supporting re- Sewerage Corporation (NWSC), repre- main components which related withgulations Water Resource Regulation sents an independent institution respon- WSES sector were economic growth,(1999) and Sewerage Regulation (1999). sible for provision of drinking water sup- incremental of poor family income,Othe related regulations are among ply and sanitation service to 15 big cities; improvement of poor people quality ofothers The Environmental Management (iv) the regional governments and the life; (ii) water sector reform, which wasStatute (1995), National Health Policy communities are responsible in the begun in 1997.and Health Sector Strategic Plan (1999) implementation, management and main-and the National Gender Policy (1997). tenance of their respective facilities The rural WSES strategies, whichAs compared to Indonesia, Uganda seems (except thos managed by NWSC). basically are not quite different with ourmore advanced in gender regulation. strategy, are (i) demand driven approach; The institutions related to WSS mana- Constraints (ii) integrated approach, meaning that allgement are, (i) Ministry of Water, Lands, A few constraints face up by Uganda, development processes starting fromand Environment (MWLE) responsible obviously quite similar with Indonesia, planning until maintaining integrated infor policy formulation, determining stan- which are (i) lack of fund; (ii) unsufficient one package; (iii) integrated manage-dards and priorities in water resources human resources capacity in both local ment; (iv) community based manage-management; (ii) Directorate of Water and central level; (iii) poor attentiveness ment system (CBMS). OM Percik 39 June 2004
  • 41. A MPL Individual On-Site Treatment Is Suitable for Jakarta SOURCE: SPECIALO n 17 June last, National Work- shop on Domestic Wastewater Management was held at AncolJakarta. One of the working papers wasone presented by Tan Sri Dato Ahmad binJohan from Malaysia entitled Mana-gement of Domestic Waste Water, Ma-laysian Experience. He revealed that communal septictank was introduced in Malaysia duringthe decades 1970-80s after individualseptic tanks could not hold any more. Atthe same time the related master planand policies were developed. One of thepolicies is prohibition to dispose of blackwater (from toilet) and grey water (fromkitchen) into a drainage before it is tre-ated accordingly. Early 1990s was thebeginning of regional treatment facilitydevelopment and provision of a biggerrole to the private sector. The critical condition during the late1990s has urged the application of acheaper technology and a more practical cent of Malaysian population since 2000 nologies such as presented in the table.concept in domestic wastewater treat- has enjoyed domestic wastewater treat- It seems that individual septic tankment facilities. The result is that 80 per- ment services through a variety of tech- (IST) is the most favoured by the Malaysian community (28,11%) and this reflect a similar picture to a study con- WASTEWATER TREATMENT SYSTEMS USED IN MALAYSIA ducted by Price Waterhouse Coopers in US in 2000 which reveals that 25% of the NO. TYPE OF FACILITY CODE NO. OF FACILITIES NO. OF USERS TOTAL COVERAGE American communities prefer IST rather 1. Individual Septic Tank IST 822.639 5 4.133.190 than CST or other types, so it predicted 2. Communal Septic Tank CST 3.862 132 509.784 that the use of IST is increasing and more 3. Imhoff Tank IT 928 759 704.352 dominant especially in the less densely 4. Oxidation Pond OP 648 4.282 2.774.736 populated areas. In Malaysia the use of 5. Aerated Lagoon AL 75 20.490 1.536.750 communal septic tank (CST) as a decen- 6. Extended Aeration EA 581 2.204 1.280.524 tralized treatment system is more recom- 7. Hi-Kleen HK 2081 750 1.560.750 mendable than a centralized treatment 8. Sewage Aeration System SATS 4480 80 358.400 system. 9. Oxidation Ditch OD 102 4.848 494.496 10. Activated Sludge AS 151 2.685 405.435 The workshop finally recommends 11. Bio Filter BF 100 3.347 334.700 that in the context of domestic waste- 12. Bio Soil BS 65 3.568 231.920 water technology, the most potential for 13. Trickling Filter TF 40 2.372 94.880 application in Jakarta and in Indonesia 14. Active Bio AB 43 564 24.252 generally is the decentralized concept and 15. Rotating Biological Contractor RBC 32 3.224 103.168 the technology to be applied is Individual 16. Sequencing Bath Reactor SBR 15 3.055 45.825 On-Site Treatment (IST) and Commu- 17. Loyal Extended Aeration/Other LEA 95 1.110 105.450 nal/Decentralized Treatment System. (Agus Suswanto) 40 Percik June 2004
  • 42. MI N O R N E W S World Environment Day O n the commemoration of World Sibolga, and Kabupaten Muara Enim. Convention No. 169 year 1989 on Environment day, 5 July 2004 President Megawati kindly bestowed the Indigenous and Traditional Communities the government bestowed plaques at the State Palace on 7 July. in Independent Nation. Piagam Adipura upon 10 kabupatens. In the meantime, in connection with In addition, the activists also demand This occasion is a part of Bangun Praja the commemoration the NGO activists that forceful action by state apparatus Program which is designed to help the under the coordination of WALHI/FoE- and criminal act against civilian be put to regional governments (Kabupaten/Kota) Indonesia urge the government and the an end. In this connection, the activists to improve their respective environment private sector to return and recover the demand that the involvement of and the towards Good Environmental Gover- life supporting resources that have been business entity of Indonesian armed nance. The Bangun Praja Program was indiscreetly seized from the people. forces and the state police related to launched on the same commemoration These activists also demand the govern- exploitation of natural resources be ter- day of 2002 in Denpasar, Bali. The ten ment to acknowledge natural resources minated and resolved. cities are City of East Jakarta, City of management by the community, and to as Semarang, and City of West Jakarta, each soon as possible find solution to natural Specifically with the president and as metropolitan city category. While for resources conflicts. vice president candidates the activists big city category the plaque was bes- The government is urged to as soon as demand that they declare their initial 100 towed upon Denpasar City. For medium possible ratify the International Con- day plan in environmental recovery city the plague went to Pare-Pare and vention on Civil and Political Rights, action plan and other major programs Binjai. For small towns the plaque went International Convention on Economic, related to sustainable and equitable envi- to Kabupaten Bangli, Sabang town, Social and Cultural Rights, and ILO ronmental management. (MJ) AMPL website will change face S hortly, the Air Minum dan Penyehatan Lingkungan (water supply and sanita- tion, WSS) website will SANIMAS Seminar Bali, 27-29 April 2004 appear in a different face. The whole design structure will be changed. The contents will remain the same but with a simpler grouping system. While in a O n 27-29 April 2004 a seminar relat- ed to the implementation of SANI- MAS was held in Bali. The topic of the tion and discussions as well as field visit. At the end of the seminar, the participants were divided into several groups to discuss major reshaping, the website is not dis- seminar is: "Mainstreaming the commu- sanitation strategic plan within the issues: appearing. Visitors can always visit it nity based Sanitation Approach: Lessons (i) the applicable potentials in the imple- and explore the data contained therein from SANIMAS Experience". mentation of community based sanitation through the old appearance. It is esti- The seminar took place at the Sanur for a city sanitation planning; (ii) the mated this improvement can be com- Paradise Plaza Hotels & Suites and was knowledge that builds barriers to main- pleted by end of July 2004 and relaun- opened by Putu Cahyata, Chairman of streaming community based sanitation. ching will take place early August. Development Planning of Bali Province. The presentation of the field experi- The new WSS website development After the opening a press conference was ence was conducted by BORDA, a non is based on the parameter used in the held by Richard Pollard (WSP-EAP government organization that joined in evaluation of government website, i.e. Regional Director), Zabeta Moutafis handling the SANIMAS implementation speed, homepage, contents, context, (First Secretary Australian Embassy), and the representatives from the cities of usability, readability, data mobility, and Basah Hernowo (Director of Human Denpasar, Kediri, Mojokerto, and Blitar, accuracy, public service, hits, platform Settlement & Housing, Bappenas). the sites of SANIMAS project implemen- used. The seminar was filled with presenta- tation. (MJ) Percik 41 June 2004
  • 43. L IBRARY STUDY Water Supply and Sanitation in Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers (PRSP) Initiatives. A Desk Review of Emerging Experience in Sub-Saharan Africa SSA) WSP- EA, 2002. PROCEEDING WSS BIBLIOGRAPHY Proceeding of World Water Day Management of City Waste Materials National Seminar 2004. Water and Guidelines for Implementers Disasters. World Water Day National Ministry of Settlement and Regional Infrastructures Development, Committee, 2004 Directorate General for City Planning and Rural Planning, 2003 Monitoring and Evaluating Rural Water Supply and Sanitation Projects. Management of City Waste Materials Proceeding of the Monitoring and Guidelines for Regional Government Executive or Legislative Officials Evaluation Workshop, Jinja, Uganda. WSP-ESA, 1997. Ministry of Settlement and Regional Infrastructures Development, Directorate General for City Planning and Rural Planning, 2003 Ecosan - closing the loop. Proceeding of the 2nd International Basic Concept in the Formulation of Standard for Water Supply Service Symposium on Ecological Sanitation, Ministry of Settlement System and Regional Infrastructures Development, Germany, 7-11 April 2003. International Directorate General for City Planning and Rural Planning, 2004 Water Association (IWA) and Gesell- schaft fuer Technische Zusam- Guidelines for Domestic Wastewater Management in a Densely menarbeit (GTZ). Populated Settlement Area. Ministry of Environment, 2003. VCD DCV Methodology for Participatory Assessments (MPA). DATA Inventory and Evaluation of the Imple- Private Infrastructure for Poor People. A mentation of Basic Infrastructures and Working Resource Guide. The World Bank Facility Development in Urban Settlements,GUIDELINES and Public Private Infrastructure Advisory Facility (PPIAF). 1992-2002. Ministry of Settlement and Regional Infra-National Action Plan - Water Supply structures Development, Directorate Gene-Ministry of Settlement and Regional Infra- ral for City Planning and Rural Planning,structures Development, Directorate Gene- PROCEEDING 2003.ral for City Planning and Rural Planning,2003. SANIMAS National Seminar. Mainstreaming Community Based Sanitation Approaches. Lessons Learned LEAFLETNational Action Plan - Waste WaterMinistry of Settlement and Regional Infra- from the SANIMAS Experience. Bali 27-29 Urban Water Supply and Sanitation: Astructures Development, Directorate Gene- April 2004. Government of Indonesia, Community-Based Approach in Ethiopia.ral for City Planning and Rural Planning, AusAID, WSP-EAP, BORDA. Field Note. Water and Sanitation Program-2003. Africa Region (WSP-AF), 2002.National Action Plan - Solid Wastes ACTIVITY Identifying Demand Drivers for SanitationMinistry of Settlement and Regional Infra- Technologies. The Case of Ecosan in Africa.structures Development, Directorate Ge- MCK Plus. Community Based Sanitation Water and Sanitation Program-Africaneral for City Planning and Rural Planning, Program. Bina Ekonomi Sosial Terpadu Region (WSP-AF), 2001.2003. (BEST). 42 Percik June 2004
  • 44. GLOSSARY Advocacy Originally it means speaking on behalf of another. But presently the meaning has shifted into a process in managing information and strate- gic knowledge to change and/or influence a policy and implementation that influences the life of the community (especially the disadvantaged group). The change can take place in the form of: (i) attitude and political will; (ii) policy and decision making; (iii) monitoring and policy implementation; (iv) community awareness of a policy and its implementation; (v) sensitivity and participation of civil society. Drinking water Processed or unprocessed water that meets health standard and may directly be taken for drinking (Ministry of Health Decision No 907/ 2002). Clean water Water that may be used for daily activity that meets health standard and after boiling may be taken for drinking. Environmental sanitation An effort to prevent the prevalence and contamination of disease through provision of basic sanitation (toilet), domestic wastewater treatment (including wastewater piping network, drainage canal, and solid wastes. Community based drinking water supply and environmental sanitation It is a management that places the community as the decision maker and the responsible party, the management is the community of an institution selected by the community, that does not need a formal legalization, the beneficiary are mainly the local community, and the investment may come from any source (group, community, government, private sector, or donor). TYPES OF SANITATION SERVICE Toilet A construction built to contain human waste in order to prevent direct contact with human being, animal, and insect. On-site system Is a wastewater processing facility constructed within house compound consisting of a pit, septic tank and a small scale processing package. Pit or open pit It is a facility to process human waste and urine into compost. A pit uses only a small quantity of water, simple technology, and a cheap investment. One of the weaknesses is it requires a certain level of soil percolation rate and depth of water table. Also it cannot include wastewater from the washing, bathroom and kitchen. Septic tank Septic tank is a structure to contain wastewater and excrement where anaerobic decomposition process is to take place. Septic tank can also hold wastewater from the washing, bathroom and kitchen. Black Water Processing Facility (Instalasi Pengolahan Lumpur Tinja) It is a facility to process black water coming from individual septic tanks which are periodically emptied. This processing is intended to kill bacteria, virus and worm eggs originating from the septic tanks. Off-site system It consists of conventional sewerage supplemented with black water processing facility, shallow sewer and small bore sewer to drain wastewater within a limited capacity and specified service area. Conventional sewerage A waster processing system consisting of home connection, a network of collector pipes, conveyance pipe, pump station, and a process- ing installation which is concentrated in an within one or several locations of a city. This system applies self cleansing method so that the drainage must be inclined to a certain necessary gradient. Shallow sewer It represents a wastewater processing facility built with a low investment and covering a limited service area. This system is not sup- plemented with a manhole but a control box instead. It needs the participation of the community to regularly cleanse the drain by flush water, because the small pipe gradient does not permit self cleansing. Small-bore sewer A wastewater processing that permits only effluent to flow from the septic tank, and collects into as centralized wastewater installation. The black water within the septic tank must be emptied off and transported by a truck. (Types of sanitation service is summarized from National Action Plan, Ministry of Settlement and Regional Infrastructures Development, 2003) Percik 43 June 2004
  • 45. A GENDA Water Supply and Environmental Sanitation AgendaDate Month Activity1 June Review of CWSH basic concept2 June Review Meeting re: WASPOLA Work Plan 20044 June Review Work Plan re: Basic Sanitation Stimulant Assistance for Kab. Subang7 June Review Meeting: Sanitation Development Implementation in SANIMAS Pilot Project9-10 June National Workshop: National Policy for Flood Mitigation10 June Meeting: CWSH Project Design Meeting: Preparation for WASPOLA Activity 200411 June Review TOR for Water Resources Conservation Seminar15 June Meeting: Preparatory for TOT for Policy Implementation15-17 June Presentation of National WSS Policy Implementation at Kab. Kebumen Workshop on Advocacy of Concept and SPAR Completion CWSH Project of Jambi16 June Review of Proposal for WASPOLA 2 Grant Amendment16-18 June Workshop: Advocacy of Concept and SPAR Completion CWSH Project of Bengkulu23-25 June Workshop: Advocacy of Concept and SPAR Completion CWSH Project of W. Kalimantan23 June Presentation of National WSS Policy Implementation at Kab. Pangkajene Kepulauan24-25 June Presentation of National WSS Policy Implementation at Prov. Banten and Kab. Lebak Presentation of National WSS Policy Implementation at Prov. Babel and Kab. Bangka Selatan28&30 June Presentation of National WSS Policy Implementation at Prov. Sumbar and Kab. Sijunjung28-29 June Workshop: Advocacy of Concept and SPAR Completion CWSH Project of C. Kalimantan30 June Presentation of National WSS Policy Implementation at Prov. Central Java1 July Presentation of National WSS Policy Implementation at Kab. Kebumen Presentation of National WSS Policy Implementation at Prov. NTB Presentation of National WSS Policy Implementation at Kab. Gorontalo3 July Presentation of National WSS Policy Implementation at Kab. Lombok Barat6-8 July Workshop WASPOLA Work Plan 20047 July Presentation of National WSS Policy Implementation at Prov. Gorontalo8 July Presentation of National WSS Policy Implementation at Prov. S. Sulawesi9 July Meeting re CWSH Project Preparation12 July Presentation and Review of Pedum Proair Concept Review of WSS Database Trial and Public Campaign13-16 July TOT MPA/PHAST Facilitator for National Policy Implementation16 July WSLIC-2 Technical Team Meeting20 July Preparation for WASPOLA Board of Directors Meeting21-24 July Finalising SPAR CWSH Project26 July National Policy for Institutionally Based WSS Working Team Meeting Meeting re Preparation of Exhibition10 August WASPOLA Board of Directors Meeting Nusantara Water 2004 World Water Week, O n 19-20 August 2004 Perpamsi, an association of Indonesian drink- ing water producing companies, will organize Nusantara Water Stockholm 16-20 August 2004 2004 conference and exhibition at the Assembly Hall, Jakarta Convention Centre. This activity is intended to show the public what, T he 14th World Water Week is scheduled to be held in Stockholm on 16-20 August 2004. The activity will be filled with a series of sym- within 59 years, the drinking water companies have produced; to invite posia and seminars attended by experts from all over the world. The the interest of foreign investors; and to serve as an opportunity for topic is "Drainage Basin security-Regional Approaches for Food and experts within this subject to meet each other and share information. Urban Security". There are 6 seminars in the schedule. Those interested to please contact the committee secretariat at the Stockholm Water for Life Decade (2005-2015) International Water Institute, Hanwerkargataan 5, SE-112 Stockholm, T he UNO has declared 2005-2015 as Water for Life Decade and has made several agendas focused to water related issues. Sweden Telephoe: +46 (0) 8 522 139 74 Fax: +46 (0) 8 522 139 61 Email: or visit (MJ) 44 Percik June 2004