Indonesia Water Supply and Sanitation Magazine. 'PERCIK' Vol 4 June 2004


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Indonesia Water Supply and Sanitation Magazine. 'PERCIK' Vol 4 June 2004

  1. 1. Information Media for Water Supply and Environmental Sanitation From Editor 1 Advisor: Your Voice 2 Director General for Urban and Main Report Rural Development, Ministry of Settlement and Regional Infrastructure Sanitation Underestimated 3 Water, Sanitation and Hygiene for All Director of Human Settlement and Housing, National Development Planning Agency (WASH Campaign) 9 Republic of Indonesia Observing MDGs Sanitation 10 Director of Water and Sanitation, Interview Ministry of Health Director of Urban and Rural Eastern Region, Ir. Susmono Ministry of Settlement and Regional “Sanitation Is More Important Than Electricity” 12 Infrastructure ArticleDirector of Natural Resources and Appropriate Technology, Director General on Village and Ecological Sanitation 15 Community Empowerment, Lessons Learned From Sanitation Development 16 Ministry of Home Affairs Drinking Water Service: Director for Facilitation of Special Planning Environment Management, Sustainability and Its Effect Upon Community Ministry of Home Affairs Well-Being 18 Chief Editor: Community Empowerment and Development System 20 Oswar Mungkasa Making Environmental Institutions More Influential, An Idea 21 Board of Editor: Hartoyo, Johan Susmono, Reportage Indar Parawansa, Poedjastanto A piece of story from Ciliwung river bank Never Drink River Water 22 Editor: Maraita Listyasari, Rewang Budiyana, Manner Rheidda Pramudhy, Joko Wartono, Phytoremediation An Effort to Process Wastewater Essy Asiah, Mujiyanto with Plant Media 24 Design: “Agus Gunarto” Household Wastewater Rudi Kosasih Treatment System 26 Production: Telescope Machrudin Kabupaten Subang: Pioneer in Formulation of Drinking Water and Environmental Sanitation Policy 27 Distribution: Anggie Rifki H.M. Machri S., Chairman of Bappeda, Kabupaten Subang “This is the Community’s Demand” 28 Address: Book Info 29 Jl. Cianjur No. 4, Menteng, Jakarta Pusat Phone: (021) 31904113 CD Info 30 e-mail: Website Info 31 Field Visit 32 Waspola 34 AMPL 38 Unsolicited article or opinion items are welcome. Please send to our address or e-mail. Library 42 Dont forget to be brief and accompanied Glossary 43 by identity. Agenda 44
  2. 2. F ROM EDITORDear readers, As time flows we were not aware thatthis is the moment for us to meet eachother again. In the meantime we havedone our best to make changes in order tomake Percik more enjoyable to read,attractive and it serves as an accurate re-ference for one observing, studying, ma-naging water supply and environmentalsanitation service in Indonesia. We try our best that each edition con-tains inter-related topics. In the last edi-tion, Percik brought you Millennium De-velopment Goals, in the present it is car-rying issues related to sanitation. This to-pic is important because it represents oneof the targets in MDGs that must beachieved in 2015. Moreover, sanitation isone of the nagging problems in Indo-nesia. In the decade of 1980s there was theWater and Sanitation Decade. But theoutcome is below expectation. Variousconstraints were cropping up. From thecommunity side, awareness and know- domestic waste processing system. Theledge is wanting. Let alone low income as In the decade of 1980s system has been internationally acknow-another major stumbling block. It is ag- ledged for its "sophistication" and ingravated with the outbreak of economic there was the Water and 2001 won World Technology Award incrisis of 1997. Based on monitoring, a na- Sanitation Decade. England. Besides, in a larger scale, it istion with a GNP of less than USD 1.000 But the outcome is below also advisable to look into waste watermust have a poor sanitation condition. management by phytoremediation me-To this community priorities are many expectation. Various con- thod, using plants as media for neutrali-things other than sanitation. From the straints were cropping up. zing heavy metal and radioactive contam-government side, central as well as re- From the community side, inated water. This technology is also re-gional, budget allocation for sanitation is commendable to remedy solid waste dis-small. Sanitation is no priority. Whereas awareness and posal improve awareness level of the com- knowledge is wanting. Dear Readers,munity an integrated movement is need- Compared from the earlier editionsed. This is just about the basic sanitation, the present Percik is already comple-let alone the environmental sanitation resource. Human excrement is proces- mented with an ISSN. Its contents arewhich is way beyond expectation. sed in situ until it is free from pathogenic more varied. There are new columns:Therefore, sanitation is not an indepen- organisms and then recycled into farming Teropong (telescope), Info CD, and Lightdent issue and need an involvement of all activity. Large scale application of this News. Glossary re-emerges. Wawasanthe stakeholders. technology can free soil, river, lake and (insight) brings with it more than 2 arti- It is interesting to learn form ecologi- sea from contamination from human cles. This is intended to present you withcal sanitation which has been practised in waste. more information. Photographic and car-East Asia for hundreds of years. Ecologi- As an interesting solution to basic toon illustrations are inserted in severalcal sanitation is a cycle, or a close loop sanitation question, we are offering you articles. We hope this serves for your sa-system which processes human waste as a Agus Gunartos success in developing a tisfaction. Best regards. Percik 1 June 2004
  3. 3. Y OUR VOICE Bravo Percik Inter-agency integration is a prerequi- PHOTO’S GALLERY site. This is reflected in Percik. Without integrity it is impossible to have Percik appear before us. Percik which specifical- ly discusses water supply and environ- mental sanitation issues from top to bot- tom has been read by all from the high officials to the common people. If I may suggest, aside from the national policy, it might be plausible if Percik also publish WSS related commu- nity initiative from various locations that might inspire those who work in the same field. NGO activist Thank you for your suggestion. As a new media, Percik will always be open to any input and suggestion. Up to this time we have been trying our best to have the WSS related stories from all over the country, the success and the failure. Yet there is limit to what we get. We will con- tinue to try so that Percik can be better and satisfy your expectation. (Ed.) SOURCE: MUJIYANTO Additional Article To begin with, I would like to congra- Youve made a good suggestion. We time she uses a public toilet. tulate for the issuance of Percik bulletin. I will try it in the forthcoming editions as I would suggest to include the experts have read Percik from 1st through 3rd edi- Perciks distribution coverage becomes opinion in several relevant subject mat- tions. This bulletin contains a lot of use- larger. Up to now the coverage area is ters, through an interview, for instance, ful information for those who work within still limited so that many of the experts attached to the respective article. The the realm of water supply and environ- may not be aware of Perciks existence. authors opinion should not be too domi- mental sanitation. And this can generate As for the WSS Working Group agenda nant in a reportase writing. And lastly, I interest from those who are not yet inte- we have included it in each edition am convinced that all Percik Editorial rested to water supply and environmental though not in a complete form. We will staff would be respectful to a president sanitation issues. try to present the agenda in a better for- and vice president candidate who care for I would like to suggest the readers mat in the future. (Ed.) WSS issues in Indonesia. Regards. would consider adding into it a more aca- Romli demic treatise as a balance to the issues Lack of Experts Opinion A Percik reader related to water supply and sanitation. In Jakarta addition, since this bulletin is one of the Reading Percik, I am interested in activities of the WSS Working Group, it Cermin (mirror) of Edition II/Oct. 2003 In reportase writing we deliberately might be recommendable to also insert its and Reportase (Edition III/Febr. 2004) make it as a light feature story thus inclu- agenda of activities so that the readers columns. The columns illustrate Indone- sion of personal opinion is likely to hap- would be aware of how far the Group has sian community struggle with the "ro- pen. Your suggestion for inserting an tried to respond to the problems related to mantics" of the world of WSS. From Cak experts opinion is worth consideration. water supply and environmental sanita- Solekhan of Kureksari, Sidoarjo who like We all hope that the president and vice tion. "an owl dreaming for a moon" is yearning president candidates care for water sup- Fany Weda for a water supply access from the local ply and environmental sanitation issues. A Percik reader PDAM network till Ms. Yani of Jakarta (Ed.) Jakarta who has no objection to pay Rp2.000 each 2 Percik June 2004
  4. 4. MA I N R E P O R T SANITATION UNDERESTIMATED T SOURCE: OSWAR MUNGKASA he awareness of the importance of sanitation to the modern soci- ety began with a sanitation revo- lution in the 19th century in London, in 1832 to be exact, when Metropolitan Water Act made it a requirement that drinking water supply must be provided through a filtering process. Soon after- wards, John Snow proved it that after termination of river Thames pumping at Broad Street the prevalence of cholera epidemic in London in 1855 was sub- siding. The prevalence of cholera epidemic of Hamburg in 1892 explicitly indicates the correlation between contaminated water with disease. While a routine bacterial examination in water supply service was introduced in London since 1885, and the use of chlorine in processing drinking water was since started, which perhaps represents the most efficient technology at that time. It could be summarized that the awareness of the importance of sanitation started only in the middle of 19th century. However, the awareness was not directly followed with a real action. As an illustra- tion, even in the United States the federal government allocated a subsidy budget for sanitation purposes only as late as 1950s. Sanitation development became a reality only after the establishment of an institution called Environmental Protec- tion Agency (EPA) and the launching of Sanitation does not seem an alien word to us. However, Water Pollution Act in early 1970s. there are perhaps only very few of us who realize how At the global level, only in 1980s the United Nations proclaimed 1981-1990 as important sanitation is to our life. The importance of Water Decade which indicates that drink- sanitation may be appropriately represented by a state- ing water and sanitation is acknowledged as an important matter which concerns ment made by Mahatma Gandhi: "Sanitation is more the nations of the whole world. Since important than independence". then, drinking water and sanitation is no more the concern of only a few nations. Percik 3 June 2004
  5. 5. MA I N R E P O R T From the proclamation of the Water community health has been generally Decade up to now, the time lapsed has understood. To a greater extent infant Water Decade: been long enough. But a question re- mortality rate is caused by a poor water 1981-1990 mains in our mind why up to now sanita- and sanitation condition. The same is In 1980 the UN declared Interna- tion has not been our interest or priority said about the prevalence of diarrhoeal tional Water and Sanitation Decade in our daily life in Indonesia. Unlike case for a specific location. At a global for the purpose of improving the drinking water which relatively has level, WHO estimates that 1,8 million universal access to water and sa- gained a measurable attention, sanitation annual death tolls are caused by diarrhea. nitation in the developing nations. here in this country, still remains a sub- While approximately 5.500 children die Access is determined by each indi- ject not worth any consideration. daily from contaminated water and food. vidual nation, but in general it is Although Water Decade has long gone The rate of infant mortality in slum areas agreed that each person needs 20 behind us, yet sanitation has not received reaches 121 for every 1.000 child births in litres of water every day and is as much attention as drinking has had is 2001. taken from a source not more than also evidenced from the world level policy It is estimated that the direct and indi- 1,6 km from where he lives makers. In the MDGs initial targets set- rect economic cost from poor sanitation The achievement of Water Decade ting, sanitation was not placed as an expli- in Indonesia is estimated at 2,4 percent of is determined by an increase of cit target but rather as a corollary conse- Gross Domestic Product in 2001 (approx. service at an average of 10 percent quence to the management of slum areas. Rp65 trillion) or Rp180.000 per capita with the majority takes place in the Through an intensive campaign by sever- per annum. This amount is considered rural areas al water and sanitation activities includ- too high especially when compared with Water Decade is considered a fai- ing Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene e.g. educational budget which is only lure despite of success in incre- (WASH) it was only in the Sustainable Rp15,34 trillion per annum. asing the service but the population Development Meeting in Johannesburg in A study on the impact of sanitation to growth is bigger in excess of 20 - 2002 that sanitation became one of the the economy in the cities of Yogyakarta 30 percent. main targets together with drinking and Medan in 2000 indicates relatively water. low figures: Rp100.000 and Rp90.000 per capita per annum in Yogyakarta and costs to the economy, this of course will The Importance of sanitation Medan, respectively. adversely influence economic growth. The role of sanitation in relation to If poor sanitation charges additional This is empirically proven from several studies which conclude that good sanita- tion condition is one of the prerequisites for economic growth. FACTS ABOUT WATER AND SANITATION What is less understood is perhaps the effect of water supply and sanitation to Year 2000: 2,4 billion of world population lack access to improved sanitation, and direct income improvement through less 81 percent of them are in the rural areas. Besides, 1,1 billion lack access to expenditure for water and sanitation pur- drinking water facility, 86 percent of them are rural population poses. More than 2,2 million people of the developing nations, most of them children, An acceptable water and sanitation die every year from the diseases related to lack of water supply, poor sanitation condition also decreases expenditure for and poor hygiene condition health care and treatment of water and Approximately there are 6.000 children die from poor sanitation every day. This sanitation related diseases. figure is equal to the casualties of 20 Boeing aircraft accidents every day Besides, productivity increases be- An acceptable water supply and sanitation service reduces the prevalence of cause there are less inactive days due to cholera by 26 percent sickness. Poor sanitation reduces attendance of girl students at schools To state it simply, an improved water National economic condition is aggravated with the need to allocate additional supply and sanitation service will reduce fund for health care and medication, and the loss of productive hours caused by poverty, improve health status, productiv- poor water supply and sanitation. ity, competitiveness, and eventually the economic growth. 4 Percik June 2004
  6. 6. MA I N R E P O R T Agreement on Sanitation from Our challenge in Indonesia is how to replicate the international promotional Johannesburg Summit 2002 successes to Indonesian stakeholders. T he provision of an acceptable sanitation facility is necessary to protect the health condition of human being and the environment. For this purpose, we agree to reduce by half, in year 2015, the proportion of population who are with- Currently 80 percent of world popula- tion (1,9 billion) are without access to sanitation and mostly are the rural popu- out access to basic sanitation, that will cover the following activities at all levels lation. It is acknowledged that most of to: the population growth takes place espe- i develop and implement an efficient household sanitation cially in the urban slums, therefore the ii improvement of sanitation in public institution particularly school attention to urban slums is of the same iii promote a safe hygienic practice rate as that of the villages. iv promote education to children as agent of change Other matter that must be taken into v promote an acceptable and affordable technology and practice in con- consideration is that access to sanitation formance with the local socio-cultural condition is different among different nations as it vi develop a partnership mechanism and innovative payment system is among regions within a nation. This vii integrate sanitation into water resources development strategy condition makes it necessary for the plan- ners to make implementation priorities so that an investment can be made so as Facts and Global Challenge same time poses a big challenge for the to reach an optimum result. In September 2000, The UN General government and the international institu- The sustainability of a sanitation pro- Assembly proclaimed the Millennium tions to reach the target. It is even under- gram becomes a crucial factor when the Development Goals (MDGs) which con- stood as the most ambitious of all MDGs availability of drinking water is a con- sists of targets set by global communities targets. Presently only 16 percent of the straint. The population growth makes the to reduce poverty and improve health and developing nations (cf. 37 percent for requirement for drinking water rises welfare of the whole nation. In Septem- drinking water) are considered capable of sharply, and it is estimated that by 2025 ber 2002, in the World Summit on Sus- achieving the targets. With the present 35 percent of the world population will tainable Development in Johannesburg level of investment, in Africa the MDGs live in the urban areas with drinking the UN reaffirmed the MDGs and put an targets can only be achieved by 2050, water problem. The present sanitation additional targets specifically pertaining Asia 2025, and Latin America by 2040. system needs 50-100 litres of water to to hygiene and sanitation. This repre- Without a political will and a real com- flush 1-1,5 litres of human waste every sents the global community resoluteness mitment, the targets cannot be realized. day. This system causes a small amount about the importance of sanitation. SOURCE: BAMBANG PURWANTO It is estimated that by 2015 the world population will reach 7 billion and the majority of the growth takes place in the developing nations. The growth will increase the number of population with- out access to acceptable sanitation to 3,4 billion by that year. To fulfill the MDGs target WHO estimates that an additional 150 million population have to have access to sanitation each year. Looking at our present capacity the MDGs target can only be reached in 2025. The govern- ment and donor institutions and coun- tries must work hard. Why not involve the community to share this heavy bur- den? The inclusion of sanitation in the MDGs represents a giant step but at the Percik 5 June 2004
  7. 7. MA I N R E P O R T SOURCE: BAMBANG PURWANTO of human waste contaminates a large tamination. amount of water. The need for an alter- Developing nations are faced native sanitation which requires less with several problems in the appli- water becomes the present day challenge. cation of flush toilet. Beside water Finding a sustainable and environmen- insufficiency, the availability of tally friendly method in achieving MDGs wastewater treatment system is targets is one of the global challenges. also problematic. As a conse- The other challenge is to translate the quence, wastewater from a septic term sanitation into a commonly and tank is disposed of into an widely understood by all. Take as an improper place. If there were example, in Germany there is no such wastewater treatment facility, mo- term comparable to sanitation, so that the re often than not it is not function- German use abwasser which means waste ing properly. water. As a result, there are many who Water scarcity becomes a more translate the MDGs basic sanitation tar- prominent problem of the world. get as waste water treatment. In Asia and It cannot be solved only through Africa the translation of basic sanitation conservation but must also be sup- has nothing to do with sewerage drain. ported with reduction in water Sanitation is like a double edged use. Sanitation is obviously one of sword. It is part of solution but at the the causes since the present envi- same time also as a part of a problem. ronmental sanitation system The use of a large amount of water to needs at least 10 litres of water for one Capital intensive sanitation system flush human excrement contributes to flushing, while for daily eating and drink- such as the ones being developed present- water scarcity problem, while waste- ing one person needs only 5 litres at the ly is more appropriate for the developed water is one of the causes of water con- most. While the more water used for san- world but not for the developing nations. itation the bigger the investment is need- It has come the time to review the system ed to process the waste water. so far being developed. The basic ques- UNITED NATIONS DEVELOPMENT The investment requirement cannot tion is how appropriate is the sanitation PROGRAM (UNDP) PRIORITY be fulfilled from the local resources, and wastewater treatment system devel- therefore government assistance or sub- opment so far being implemented? Improve the local and national ca- sidy must be provided for. As for the Whether it is not recommendable to find pacity in the management of water urban areas, the majority of users are the a water thrifty alternative and apply the resources development, sanitation rich, thus most of the assistance or sub- recycling principle? The alternative and drinking water supply including sidy goes to the well-to-do families. The should not be limited for the poor fami- the civil society, private and public cost incurred for wastewater treatment is lies but must also be applicable to the sectors. 5-6 times higher than that for drinking homes of the well-to-do who in reality are Support the community/household water. the major users of the present sanitation through provision of grant to im- Difficulty in financing threat has been system. prove water supply and sanitation - lingering around sanitation development It is recognized that sanitation has not with specific emphasis on ecologi- in the world. Currently the expenditure received the proper attention from the cal sanitation. for wastewater treatment amounts to whole community therefore it needs a Support ecosystem based solution USD14 million a year while an additional more comprehensive public campaign. to human waste treatment in the of USD56 million is awaiting if the MDGs The latest anthropological studies indi- framework prevention of diseases targets are to be achieved. Quite a signi- cate that embarrassment becomes the and protection of the environment. ficant additional investment. The target most prominent aspect that motivates Support and strengthen the partici- investment could actually be reduced if a behavioural change. Health and hygiene pation of women in sanitation, drin- less costly appropriate technology be- logic has had less influence in compari- king water and water source mana- comes an alternative. In addition, ano- son to social logic such as reputation or gement. ther alternative such as ecological sanita- moral logic such as embarrassment in tion should also be considered. attracting the communitys attention to 6 Percik June 2004
  8. 8. MA I N R E P O R T SANITATION CONDITION OF RURAL IN SOUTH EAST ASIA the importance of sanitation. This is below the national average. probably the reason why the present Indonesia is one of S.E Asian sanitation motto reads sanitation is Cambodia countries with the lowest sewerage Laos dignity. This condition may radically system coverage. The investment le- Vietnam change the present conventional vel of investment in sanitation is rel- Indonesia campaign format. South East Asia atively the lowest in Asia. Only a few Myanmar big cities such as Jakarta, Medan, Indonesian condition Philipine Solo, Yogyakarta, Cirebon, Banjar- Up until year 2002 the proportion Thailand masin, Balikpapan, Tangerang are of Indonesian population who have Malaysia with a centralized sewerage system, access to an acceptable basic sanita- yet with a limited coverage. In total tion, consisting of drop pit latrine or this covers not more than 2,16 per- septic tank, was 63,5 percent. In vil- cent of Indonesian population. lages the proportion is relatively SANITATION CONDITION OF URBAN IN SOUTH EAST ASIA The absence of formal network lower, only 52,5 percent, while in the and infrastructure has made house- Cambodia urban 77,5 percent. Although the holds and small scale service Laos total number of households with Indonesia providers provide the majority of access is seemingly high, we have to South East Asia services, including installation and look more closely into the figure. Vietnam draining off services. It is estimated There is an indication that the actual Myanmar 73 percent of urban households have Philipine number might be lower. The number on-site sanitation, mostly with Thailand tells us the available facilities without Malaysia underrated septic tank construction. saying anything about quality. It is Singapore While on the other hand, wastewater estimated that at this time many of disposal system is insufficient the basic sanitation facilities should including lack of wastewater treat- not be used anymore because they do ment installation. This condition re- not meet hygiene and environmental SANITATION CONDITION IN SOUTH EAST ASIA presents one of the main causes for requirement. As an illustration, in environmental pollution, both gro- Cambodia rural areas the septic tank is located und as well as surface water which is Laos less than 10 m from a water source. Vietnam the primary source for PDAM water. In comparison to other S.E Asian Indonesia Sanitation is not a priority for the countries such as Singapore, Asia central as well regional governments. Thailand, Philippines the condition in Myanmar Investment for sanitation by central Malaysia Indonesia is falling behind. Our sani- government either through APBN or Philipine tation condition here equals with that Thailand from loan has not made any mean- of Vietnam, Cambodia and Laos, Singapore ingful improvement. A loan funded which were just been out from war. project such as Water Supply and Looking extensively at the condi- Sanitation for Low Income tion in each province, one will find in Communities (WSSLIC)-1 and -2, PROPORTION OF HOUSEHOLD WITH many areas a sanitation condition including a project currently under IMPROVED SANITATION IN INDONESIA one will be apprehensive about, such preparation Community Water as a proportion of households with- Supply and Health (CWSH), though P out access to sanitation above 50 per- R clearly indicates sanitation in the O cent level. The majority of the areas P project title, yet in reality sanitation are in East Indonesia such as NTB, O is playing a relatively small portion. R Gorontalo, Maluku, Papua, C. Su- T Especially after the regional autono- I lawesi, C. Kalimantan, S. Kalimantan, O my, with authority now in the hands N W. Kalimantan. Some areas in West of the regions, sanitation tends to be Indonesia, such as West Sumatra and underestimated. However, an effort West Java also have their sanitation such as Sanitasi oleh Masyarakat Rural Urban Total Percik 7 June 2004
  9. 9. MA I N R E P O R T include the strategy in linking household, (SANIMAS, Sanitation by the community, and city wide sanitation sys- Community) Project as well other com- AN IMPORTANT aspect in an ad- tems; coordination among institutions at munity based sanitation activities, have vocacy is the participation of the commu- the central, regional and other stakehold- at least indicated a promising indication nity and advocacy does not only cover ers; decentralization in sanitation man- of government and community attention changes on program and policy (policy agement; rural vs. urban sanitation. to sanitation. dimension), but also (i) capacity buil- The investment budget currently ding, organizational skill and empower- available is considered insufficient to Important Issue and Plan for ment of civil society and its involvement cover the whole demand. The investment the Future in decision making (civil society dimen- does not only cover the costs for new con- Although at the national level the sion), (ii) improve the legitimate civil struction but also for operation and access to basic sanitation is relatively society and improve the accountability of maintenance purposes. Besides, addi- high, there is an indication that the data public institutions (democracy dimen- tional fund is also needed for handling do not represent the actual situation. The sion); (iii) improve the poor communitys environmental pollution caused by faulty coverage data do not mention anything awareness of its right and obligation urban sanitation system. Lack of incen- about the quality of the available basic (individual interests dimension). tive for the local government is one of the sanitation. The high rate of ground water reasons. There are a number of questions pollution is hypothetically caused by the suggested, among others, (i) how to low quality basic sanitation facility. It is It has been acknowledged that sanita- mobilize fund for city scale sanitation sys- deemed necessary to develop a more tion does not only relate to technological tem; (ii) what is the government pre- detailed data base to indicate the quality and environmental aspects but equally paredness for an alternative financing of the available facility. important is its relation to changes in format; (iii) how could the community Unlike drinking water, sanitation is behaviour and cultural habit of the com- participation for sanitation system provi- not yet an issue. This relates to inequity munity. To change peoples behaviour sion be strengthened. in demand for sanitation. The communi- and cultural habit is done through educa- Sanitation has an impact to various ty does not consider sanitation as an tion. Therefore schoolchildren become aspects of human life, including poverty, important demand. When the communi- the most appropriate medium for intro- health, cleanliness, pride, even economic ty does not put sanitation as a demand duction of the changes. Sanitation should growth, such as mentioned in many then the politicians would just neglect it. be included within educational curricu- reports and studies. Unfortunately, sani- At the most, though they began to realize lum. tation has not received a proper attention it but because of budget limitation they WASPOLA project has produced a it deserves. It seems there is still a lot to just opt in favour of activities that have National Policy for Water Supply and be done before sanitation could win an been acknowledged as a community Environmental Sanitation development, attention from the government, the pri- demand. though it is still necessary to undertake a vate sector and the community. Are we The important message is, sanitation more profound study on the sanitation going to remain an idle spectator and do must reach the hands of decision makers. aspect of policy. Some of the important nothing? Everything will depend on all of In normative term sanitation is impor- issues that we need to develop deeper us. OM tant but without any demand pressure from the community sanitation can never be a political issue. Sanitation must be raised to a political issue. Requirement for a successful wastewater treatment Conducting advocacy in order to IN ONE of the reports published sents an integral part of urban water make the community understand the by United Nations Environmental supply and sanitation management; importance of sanitation can be consid- Program (UNEP) there is a specific (iv) setting of definite time frame and ered as the initial step. Advocacy can be mention about several important clear indicator; (v) appropriate choice made in many ways. It is needed to issues as the main requirements for a of technology in order to get an effec- improve the decision making quality and successful community level waste- tive and efficient water use through community participation in its process. water treatment system, namely (i) considering environmentally friendly An effective advocacy does not only come political commitment and domestic technology alternative; (vi) application in the form of a promotion on the impor- financing sources; (ii) water supply of demand responsive approach; (vii) tance of drinking water supply and sani- and sanitation development manage- participation of all stakeholders, and ment is not limited to provision of faci- application of the principle of trans- tation but also include other dimensions lity but to also include hygiene beha- parency in management and decision such as policy, civil society, democracy, viour; (iii) environmental aspect repre- making. and individual interests. 8 Percik June 2004
  10. 10. MA I N R E P O R T Water, Sanitation and Hygiene for All (WASH Campaign) When all components within a community are still at a low level of The main attention in the provision of awareness on matters related to sanitation, it is necessary to basic services must be made as the main develop a strategic, effective and easily understood enlightenment agenda which is known as poverty reduc- measure. One of the global campaign format and worth consi- tion and sustainable development pro- dering for replication is the WASH Campaign gram. What is WASH Campaign? This condition makes several interest- What can we do? WASH campaign represents an effort ed parties realize that water supply and Some of the steps we could take are: based on the initiative of several organi- sanitation development is not simply a Establishment of inter-sector and in- zations and individuals to make drinking physical construction work. A lot of other ter-agency partnership water supply, sanitation, and hygiene as a activities need be done all of which are We realize that drinking water supply part of common awareness. WASH aimed at an effort to improvement of and sanitation management must be Campaign was launched at an interna- knowledge and awareness of the impor- undertaken through inter-sector ar- tional conference Freshwater in Decem- tance of sanitation. One of the activities rangement therefore the involvement ber 2001 by Water Supply and Colla- is a structured and sustainable campaign of all stakeholders from the govern- borative Council (WSSCC). The main aimed at all stakeholders both at decision ment, private sector, university, NGO, purpose is to improve awareness of the maker and community levels. and professional association becomes a importance of sanitation, drinking water, prerequisite. and hygiene, and obtain a political and What is the main theme of the Promotion of institutional reform social commitment from world leaders. campaign? In this case reform is understood as a There are four main themes to go with means to improve public accountabili- Why campaign is so important? the campaign: ty, improve regulation, establishment There have been a number of mea- Drinking Water, Sanitation and Hy- of effective monitoring effort in order sures taken such as the declaration of giene can save human life. to arrive at a quality service. Water Decade but the number of popula- Millions of people die each year from Sharing of information and experience tion who are without access to drinking dirty environment, and contaminated Establishment of network for sharing water supply and sanitation remains in water and food. Improved sanitation of information and experience among the staggering height. There are current- and hygiene condition can save many stakeholders will improve the quality of ly 1,1 billion people who are without lives and reduce the prevalence of dis- water supply and sanitation develop- access to water and 2,4 billion are without eases. ment implementation. access to improved sanitation. These fig- Drinking Water, Sanitation and Hygi- Community mobilization and applica- ures will keep growing in line with world ene for the Community: Priority is gi- tion of community based approach population growth. ven to Women and Children. Using community group network and Many decision makers do not realize Women and children are more suscep- direct involvement of the community in that sanitation is not a dirty job. They do tible to the effect of water scarcity, lack the campaign process will help in not realize that provision of access to a of sanitation and poor hygiene condi- behavioural change process and impro- relatively cheap sanitation facility can tion. vement of the community awareness reduce half of the number of death tolls Policy reform is important for the Collaboration with mass media caused by water and sanitation related improvement of water supply and sani- Mass media plays a significant role in in- diseases. Even that drinking water, sani- tation service for the poor community. fluencing public opinion, and makes a tation and hygiene is an entrance that The government, private sector and topic frequently presented to eventually leads to poverty reduction measures has international institutions must give pri- become a public agenda. Regular connec- not been a part of knowledge of the deci- ority and their resources for institu- tion with mass media, press conference, sion makers. One of the reasons is that tional reform in order to make the prin- dissemination of information, public serv- those who are in demand are the ones ciple of good governance a reality. ice advertisement, training for reporters in with the weakest political status so that Drinking Water Supply, Sanitation and water supply and sanitation will become the leaders could not gain any incentive Hygiene represent the entrance to an effective means. from handling their problem. poverty reduction. (Summarized from WASH Campaign) Percik 9 June 2004
  11. 11. MA I N R E P O R T Observing MDGs Sanitation M SOURCE: AMPL DOCUMENTATION illennium Development Goals (MDGs) have been agreed by world leaders for the purpose of future development (for details please refer to Percik ed. 3). From 8 goals, 18 targets and more than 40 indica- tors, drinking water and sanitation is directly related to Goal 7 sustainable environmental management and Target 10 reduction by half in 2015 the propor- tion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water and basic sanitati- on service. Although MDGs represent an agree- ment approved by 189 countries of the world, and its approval is indicated by placement of signatures directly by 147 heads of state/government, but the goal achieving is not merely the responsibility of the central government but also to include local governments, legislative ment of water supply and sanitation tar- took 1990 as the base year. Besides, bodies, civil society, mass media, and all get will greatly influence well-being of the MGDs target for sanitation is stated in other stakeholders. population. terms of proportion and is not directly The goals of MDGs are inter-related. referred to in an absolute number of peo- As an illustration, goal 1 eradicate Sanitation Target Setting ple. extreme poverty and hunger is closely The proclamation of MDGs was made Using the above assumption, the pro- related to improvement in water safe in 2000, but one should recall that the portion of Indonesian population who drinking and basic sanitation . Achieve- calculation to arrive at the target setting had had access to basic sanitation in 1990 was 30 percent. This means that in 1990 70 percent of the population are without INDONESIAN TARGET OF SANITATION IN MDGs sanitation, therefore we come the figure 35 percents which represents the propor- tion of population who must have service by 2015. This further means that in 2015 the proportion of population who would have improved sanitation service is 65 percent. This target is presented in Indo- nesia Progress Report on the Millennium Development Goals which was published in February 2004 and represents the offi- cial document from the Indonesian go- vernment. In the meantime the National Action Plan (NAP) on Wastewater Development published in 2003 by Ministry of Settle- year ment and Regional Infrastructure Deve- lopment, there are 2 scenarios. Scenario Indonesian version NAP version MDGs version 1 uses the proportion of world population who are without access to service in year 10 Percik June 2004
  12. 12. MA I N R E P O R T 2000 as the base for calculation which PROPORTION OF HOUSEHOLD WITH REASONABLE SANITATION arrives at a figure 85,75 percent of popu- ACCESS BY PROVINSI (2002) lation to have access by 2015. Scenario 2 West Nusa Tenggara uses the proportion of population with Gorontalo Maluku access to service in 2000 and the projec- W. Sumatera Papua tion of Indonesian population in 2015. C. Sulawesi Kalimantan This arrives at a figure 70,71 percent of W. Java W. Kalimantan S. Kalimantan Indonesians who must have access to the Bangka Belitung S.E. Sulawesi service in 2015. Jambi Provinsi Banten The basic difference from the two cal- C. Java S. Sulawesi culations lies in (i) the difference in base S. Sumatera Indonesia Bengkulu year, NAP uses 2000 as base, (ii) NAP E. Java East Nusa Tenggara bases its calculation on the proportion of N. Maluku N. Sumatera population who must have access using E. Kalimantan Bali population projection in 2015. N. Sulawesi Riau Lampung Target setting is crucial for MDGs Yogyakarta Jakarta achievement. It is up to the stakeholders to agree on this discrepancy because it PROPORTION will affect the strategy and MDGs achieve- ment planning. If we look back to the 1990s when the access to basic sanitation was only at 30 Diversity of condition in Indonesia the realm of the central government. It is percent, and compare it with the condi- When setting the MDGs target above, therefore necessary to immediately take tion in 2000 in which the figure has risen we were speaking at the national level proper action for socialization in the to 63,5 percent, we could be optimistic which represents the average regional regions, of course after the central go- that the MDGs sanitation target can be condition of Indonesia. Each region has vernment has made itself ready with a reached. However, the target achieve- its own specific condition, sometimes wi- definite socialization strategy. ment might be meaningless when we try dely different from the others. For exam- to delve deeper into the facts behind the ple, NTB reached 41,2 percent when Ja- The role of WSS Working Group figures. karta was at 93,2 percent. It should be realized that MDGs As an illustration, one of the result of It is interesting to note how we will Indonesia document which was published survey on shallow wells in Jakarta it was reach the national target. Are we going to recently must be supplemented with found out that 84 percent of the water focus on the national target without look- MDGs special document on drinking samples are contaminated with human ing into the targets of each of the individ- water and sanitation which will serve as a waste as indicated from the presence of ual regions? Or, each region is given guideline for the stakeholders in MDGs faecal coliform bacteria. This fact con- opportunity to set her own target based drinking water and sanitation target for firms the suspicion the basic sanitation on the regional capacity with respect to Indonesia. facilities especially those in the urban do the national target. There are other choic- The Water Supply and Sanitation not function properly. The figure 63,5 es to ponder with regard the target percent only indicates the available facili- achievement. (WSS) Working Group is expected to play ty, but the quality aspect has been over- In connection to MDGs target, it an active role in facilitating for the publi- looked. As a result, the contamination should also be borne in mind the Law cation of such a document, which does aspect is also overlooked. Thus when we 22/1999 on Regional Government has not only contain MDGs target setting, but think we have reached the MDGs sanita- clearly stipulated the relinquishment of also the overall action plan and strategy tion target the contamination might likely sanitation service management to the for achieving the target including moni- be a bigger problem. The contamination respective regions, therefore the target toring and reporting aspects. A close coo- issue must be dealt with properly if the achievement will obviously depend on peration with MDGs Indonesia Working MDGs sanitation target achievement is to regional preparedness. Up to this time Group is unavoidable. be meaningful. the echo on MDGs is still confined within (OM from various sources) Percik 11 June 2004
  13. 13. I NTERVIEW Ir. Susmono "Sanitation Is More Important Than Electricity" The mesh entangling sanitation development in Indonesia is way from loosening. Presently we are speaking a lot about Various efforts have been taken by the government to deal with this problem, but the community based sanitation system. And result has not been what is expected. As time proceeds and population increase new with this spirit we will re-develop envi- constraints continue to crop up one after the other. This can only be solved if all the ronmental sanitation in Indonesia which stakeholders including the community work hand in hand to find the best solution has been lagging far behind our neigh- because sanitation is not an issue that stands by itself. This sector must be regarded bouring countries such as Malaysia which as government priority since the success in handling sanitation can guarantee the started much later than we, in 1980s. health of the community. Ir. Susmono is one of those who have a keen interest and Environmental issues are becoming more care in dealing with this sector. He happens to be an official of the Ministry of and more complex which makes it more Settlement and Regional Infrastructures and a member of WSS Working Group. difficult to deal with. I think we have to In order to shed a light on the sanitation condition in Indonesia and all its details exert more effort than we did in the Percik interviewed him some time ago. Here are the highlights: 1980s. But the present situation doesnt warrant for it.C ould you highlight the sanita- tion condition in Indonesia? We will look back to the colonial time. were proclaimed we were shocked again. But the condition was not as favourable as it was during the decades 1970 - 80s. What is the main constraint? From my own experience and from observing statistical figures the indicatorsThe Dutch government had given atten- During that time the economy was in an for community health include infant mor-tion to sanitation. Whatever the system excellent condition. There was a lot of tality rate, life expectancy, water bornewas, centralized or localized. We can see money. diseases and their prevention are impro-the inheritance in big towns. We can find CARICATURE BY RUDI KOSASIHsewerage system in Jakarta, Yogyakarta,Bandung. But this was developed duringthe colonial time. Naturally, there was adiscrimination. In the Dutch quartersthis was carefully maintained and pro-tected while in that of the local communi-ty this was not so. After independence,apparently this has missed the attention.We did more on road building, drinkingwater supply, and so on. During the Wa-ter Decade in 1981-90 we were startled,awakened, so that within the time lapseand 5 years after there was a significantsanitation development in line with theincrease in GNP. When the economic cri-sis knocked us over we seemingly fellasleep again and concentrate ourselveswith the economic, political and socialcrisis, although some sanitation develop-ment works were still continuing such asDenpasar sewerage, Surakarta sewerage.But this is not a priority. When MDGs 12 Percik June 2004
  14. 14. I NTERVIEW SOURCE: MUJIYANTOving although we do not handle sanitationin a proper manner. This means that eachindividual is handling these in his ownway. I feel, as once I used to work togeth-er with the program at village level to edu-cate women on various aspect of familywelfare (PKK), the role of housewives isquite significant in improving the figures.Why? Because, their knowledge is steadi-ly improving. Many printed materials ca-me to their hands and they read them. Itis this knowledge that indirectly helpsthem to have a toilet built. It is not thenational movement that motivates them.This means that if it is complementedwith the national movement which we ha-ve started in 1990s, the result probablywill be better. Otherwise it will be de-creasing or at the most it will remain as itis today. eration: environment, heath infrastruc- water management to the provinces To boost the development what ture, individual genetic characteristic,constraint is to be faced? and cultural habit. What is the linkage between Na- Improvement of income. It is quite tional Action Plan with MDGs?obvious that people with very low income What steps does Ministry of As benchmark we refer to MDGs. We trythey do nt care about sanitation. As their Settlement & Regional Infrastruc- to translate the MDGs target into our goal.income improves and they become better ture take to improve sanitation con-knowledgeable and start thinking, but in dition in Indonesia? Is MDGs sanitation target realistic?the beginning it is self protection. What is We are preparing National Action In the document there is a mention ofimportant ones own good, home and Plan, though it has discussed only twice adequate sanitation. This term can be bro-immediate surrounding. Outside that it is and this year it is undergoing revision. ught up or down. But in Surabaya Mrs. Ernanone of his business. However, we have been collecting data or Witoelar herself said something else. She While those who live from hand to consolidating during 1990 up to 2000. changed it into basic sanitation. With basicmouth, their whole effort is to find food. The National Action Plan has completed sanitation, we think we can do it. But withFor that purpose road and market are pri- up to final draft. This year it will be bro- adequate sanitation, it will be difficult.orities. Drinking water to follow next. As ught to discussion with colleagues at thefor defecating, it can be done anywhere. regions, Bappenas, and others in order to What is the difference? From the data I come up with, a na- reach an agreement from all by the end of Basic sanitation intends to protect hu-tion with a good sanitation after it reach- the year. If we could arrive at an agree- man being, while in adequate sanitationes USD2.000 GNP. Below USD1.000 sa- ment and together with the Law on Water there is additionally environmental factornitation is not a subject to be discussed, it Resources and Government Regulation to be considered. Speaking of environ-is considered as something not worth on Drinking Water and Sanitation which ment implies a high budget requirement.talking about and in the government it is is said are to be combined, all of it will The net calculation is the adequate. Whatgiven a very low budget allocation. So if become a national priority and each result we get by the end of the year, weyou want to deal with sanitation, first do province will prepare its local regulation dont know yet. As for basic sanitation wesomething about income and education. based on the central guideline. We are can go with large scale promotion and weIn addition we need health service, such currently waiting for Government Regu- could expect 80 percent of urban popula-as local government clinic (puskesmas). lation which is now in process. In the tion will have access to toilet of someIn short, speaking of sanitation there are meantime, we are also conducting social- kind. But dont ask what will happen to4 influencing factors to take into consid- ization of National Action Plan on waste- the rivers. Percik 13 June 2004
  15. 15. I NTERVIEW What do you think about NGO environment. As we all know there are for a legislation. It happens quite often.facilitated community based sanita- people who are capable, but not willing.tion management? What is the influencing factor? I have done it 20 years ago during the Which one has a higher priority, Because sanitation is not a priority.Water and Sanitation Decade. But my the community based or the institu- Therefore it has never been considered astarget groups then were the "arisan" gro- tionally based? having any significance. If somethingup, dasawisma. They were doing quite Must be developed in a symbiotic new happened such as an outbreak ofwell, but later there was a reorganization relationship, they are not just moving muntaber (diarrhoea and vomiting) weand shifting of responsibility, I have no side by side. Otherwise, they wont do. will then remember something. Butinformation what has happened with The government cannot walk alone. Both afterwards it is forgotten again. It hap-them. What is called now NGO is actual- must be interconnected into one system. pens time and again. Perhaps other sec-ly not a new thing to us. What the NGOs How to sew it, we will see later. In tors are more important. For me, sanita-are doing are actually the same old thing. National Action Plan we havent come to tion is more important than electricity.What I noticed in the field are fresh wrap- such a detail. It is different from solid In a town number one is road, numberpings of an old thing. It is apparent that wastes where we have completed to the two water supply, third sanitation, thenwhen the community is better enlight- details. With wastewater we are in short come the others, electricity, telephone.ened they are willing to share and they of data, therefore we have to use assump- On the contrary, now there are those whocare. Once again, the emphasis is on en- tion and it is time consuming. That is have a hand phone but having no toilet.lightenment. Therefore I am quite plea- why we have done only up to the mainsed to see that they clad it in a new wrap- points. Hopefully by the end of the year How can the knowledge of theping. we can finish with the details. community be improved? We will start with inserting it into What other approaches are the- The management of community school curriculum, then into the printedre beside community based mana- based sanitation development materials for women to read. We do pro-gement? seems partial. How can we make it motion activity, campaigning. But do we If we are speaking of sanitation, this more holistic? have someone who is capable and willingcan be divided into two categories. One Admittedly not yet. Take for instance, to motivate a campaign movement? Ifbelongs to communitys responsibility there is a pilot project in a certain town. not, it will be difficult because it is fromand the other that of the government. We But after the project is over, both the there that we expect a behavioural changecannot rely entirely on the community. community and the local government to take place.That is where the institutionally based remain silent. This of course needs acomes in. push to make them expand it. If they Which target community should dont move, well, perhaps there is a need be prioritized, urban or rural? Whether both of SOURCE: OSWAR MUNGKASA I think it does not makethem are contained any difference. Recordedin the National access to sanitation in theAction Plan? towns is approximately 89 Both of them are. percent. But the number ofBut what is presently population who has an accept-being handled is the able disposal facility is onlycommunity based. And about 70 percent. In the vil-motivating the commu- lages the recorded number ofnity will need more access is 63 percent. Here thethan just dissemina- coverage of disposal facility istion, socialization, something around 35 percent.advocacy, and so on, Villagers prefer to defecate inbut also to include leg- rivers, gardens or fields be-islation. This will be cause they have enough space.deduced from law on For townspeople this is notnatural resources and possible. (MJ) 14 Percik June 2004
  16. 16. A RTICLE Ecological Sanitation T he conventional sanitation tech- treatment system directed towards reuse practiced since thousands of years ago. It nology is based on the flow from of water and nutriment and reduction of is important to note that this system is flush toilet, drainage conveyance, clean water consumption. not meant as a simple alternative just for treatment installation, and disposal. To The environmental sanitation pre- the sake of the poor. ECOSAN principle some environmentalists this technology sently being practiced is actually based on is applicable in a wide variety of social tends to cause environmental pollution. the concept of keeping the environment economic conditions and in every nation. There is an indication that the available clean, safe and free from contamination. In many countries the application of system (flush toilet and wastewater treat- This includes wastewater treatment and farm manure from human excrement is a ment) is not a solution but rather it is a prevention of disease. In reality, howev- rare practice. The more human excre- part of the environmental problem. er, it turns out to cause environmental ment disposed of into rivers the more is In conventional approach sanitation pollution. ECOSAN, on the other hand, is the degree of environmental pollution. It means adding nutriments into the envi- based on the recycling principle. This is therefore recommendable to using the ronment and disrupting the nutriment means maintaining the ecological cycle in closed loop system in order to prevent cycle. The basic concept which says that a closed sanitation loop. Besides it saves bacterial or virus contamination and pro- human excrement is a non useful waste is energy consumption through the applica- duction of farm manure. misleading. Such an approach has caused tion of natural processes. If ECOSAN could be adopted in a large a new pollution problem. In nature noth- Ecological sanitation is a cycle, or a scale, soil water, rivers, lakes, and seas are ing is called waste, each product of life is closed loop system that processes human protected from human waste contamina- used as raw material for the others. excrement as a resource. In this system tion. Less water is used. The farmers use Recycling of human excrement and urine human excrement is processed in situ less inorganic fertilizers. Prolonged use of through sanitation process and return it until it is free from pathogenic organisms. inorganic fertilizers has been the contributor to the soil to recover the natural cycle of Then the sanitized waste is recycled by of environmental degradation. materials is disrupted by the existing san- applying for agricultural purposes. The ECOSAN concept is supporting the itation practice. main features of ecological sanitation are MDGs target achievement. The applica- Starting from this concept, it is (i) prevention and pollution and preva- tion of ECOSAN can significantly reduce deemed necessary to find an alternative lence of diseases caused by contamina- water consumption so that more could solution that takes into consideration the tion from human waste; (ii) processing of have access to water. However, we must ecological aspect. One of the alternatives human waste as a resource rather than as realize that many challenges are awaiting is called ecological sanitation, abbreviat- useless waste; (iii) recovery and recycling before ECOSAN could be brought into the ed ECOSAN. This terminology means an of nutriments. mainstream of sanitation management, economically and ecologically sustainable ECOSAN is based on traditional sci- among others (i) rejection to new idea sanitation system. ence in the form recycling and compost- because one is used to an old practice; (ii) ECOSAN does not refer to any specif- ing of waste materials, but it is combined ECOSAN is a decentralized system so that ic technology but rather it refers to all with modern science and the use of flush the cost is borne by the user; as an exam- technologies and international regula- toilet. ple, the user must set aside some time to tions in dealing with water scarcity and The principle of ECOSAN is not new, handle his own waste; (iii) financially the sanitation issues in a better way. ECO- it has been practiced in East Asia for hun- application of ECOSAN is a burden espe- SAN includes a closed loop wastewater dreds of years even in China it has been cially in locations where a conventional system has been used because one has to THE DISADVANTAGES OF THE CONVENTIONAL SANITATION SYSTEM consider the amount investment that has Uncontrolled disposal of more than 90 percent of world wastewater· been put into the existing system. A large amount of clean water is needed to flush off the waste· The application of ecological sanitation Needs a large amount of investment, O&M costs, and energy concept in Indonesia is not impossible. But, of course, we need a thorough study THE ADVANTAGES OF ECOLOGICAL SANITATION before we could determine the advantages Quality improvement of community health through minimizing the mixing of derived from its application. This is a mat- human excrement with water· Natural resources conservation through less water consumption, minimizing ter of choice. Whether this system could water pollution· become one of the choices in our communi- Maintain soil fertility and increase agricultural productivity· ty? This is indeed a tickling question. Wastewater is not disposed of but rather it is reused (OM from various sources) Percik 15 June 2004