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Community-Based Solid Waste Management. Indonesia Water and Sanitation magazine. May 2009

Community-Based Solid Waste Management. Indonesia Water and Sanitation magazine. May 2009



Special Edition. Published by Water and Sanitation Working Group. First Edition on August 2003

Special Edition. Published by Water and Sanitation Working Group. First Edition on August 2003



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    Community-Based Solid Waste Management. Indonesia Water and Sanitation magazine. May 2009 Community-Based Solid Waste Management. Indonesia Water and Sanitation magazine. May 2009 Document Transcript

    • Table of Content Information Media for Water and Environmental Sanitation Editorial 1 Your Voice 2 Main Report Community Involvement in Solid Waste Management: A Certainty 3 Published by: Interviews Water and Environmental Sanitation CBSWM: Opportunities and Challenges 6 Working Group (Pokja AMPL) In cooperation with:IDRC, BORDA, BALIFOKUS, LPTP, BEST Regulation Responsible: Implementation of Community Involvement Pursuant to Act No. 18 Year Oswar Mungkasa 2008 15 Frank Fladerer Knowledge Editorial Chief: Oswar Mungkasa Community Development Principle and Philosophy 26 Community Empowerment in Solid Waste Management 29 Board of Editorial: Community Based Solid Waste Management: Require Incentive 33 Surur Wahyudi Waste and Global Warming 35 Yuyun Ismawati Green Business for Planet Earth 37 Hamzah Harun Al-Rasyid Solid Waste Management Experiences in Different Countries 39 Solid Waste Management and International Agreements 42 Editorial Staff: Bowo Leksono Create Sustainable Composting 44 Gressiadi Muslim Guests Design and Production: Yuyun Ismawati: Wastewater and Solid Waste Management Implementer Rudi Kosasih Helmi Satoto Receiver of Goldman Environmental Prize 46 Distribution: Best Practices Agus Syuhada Tarakan Creating a Clean City by Managing the Waste 55 Halimatussadiah Innovation Editorial Address: Takakura Composter: House Method and Layer Method 70 Jl. RP Suroso 50, Jakarta Pusat. Telp./Faks.: (021) 31904113 http://www.ampl.or.id Actors 75 e-mail: redaksipercik@yahoo.com redaksi@ampl.or.id oswar@bappenas.go.id Agenda 82Editorial receives articles from outside related with Reference on Solid Waste drinking water and environmental sanitation and never been published before. The length of the Community Based Solid Waste Management System 84articles is not limited and editorial has the rights to edit the articles. Please send to the above address with identity. Glossary „ Percik Magazine can be accessed in AMPL homepage: http://www.ampl.or.id „
    • Percik May 2009 1 „ E D I TO R I A L „ uddenly we have come to 2009,S and this time Percik comes in a different form unlike the previ-ous ones. This is a special edition withmain focus on Community Based SolidWaste Management (CBSWM). Wedesign this in order to give more focuson waste management, moreover onthose which are community based. Ithas been fully realized that nowadays,the government has put an eye on solidwaste management programs. This canbe shown in the Act No 18 Year 2008about solid waste management.Furthermore, it has been declared thatevery year, on 21st of February, is awaste day. Using the momentum,Percik comes in a special edition. Deriving from the willingness togather attentions from different par-ties, various information concerningsolid waste management issues arediscussed in this edition. Starting fromthe philosophy of community empow- Housewives and female teenagers in a village are learning to manage solid waste using Takakura basket method. Photo: Sururerment, solid waste management con-cept, best practices from local, nation- ernment but also Community Social Based Sanitation) which was an initialal and international implementations, Responsibilities (CSRs) from private project of the cooperation betweeninterviews with city majors, artists, companies such as Unilever Peduli and Public Work Department, BORDA,NGOs, private sectors and community Danamon Peduli up until community LPTP, BALIFOKUS and BEST.itself are available as literatures. Our funds. This partnership is a good thingwish to give as complete as possible However, in reality, solid waste because at least the development ofinformation on community based solid management programs seemed to be Drinking Water and Environmentwaste management has inspired us to peculiar. It appears that there are no Sanitation (AMPL) has drawn someprovide technology innovations, regu- good communications among the concerns in different of sectors.lations and acts from national to local, stakeholders. A success in one place Besides, it also means that there isreferences on books, CDs and websites. cannot merely acknowledge and an acknowledgement in showing that From the various interviews with applied in different areas. Our efforts the development of Drinking Waterthe outstanding and best practices, here hopefully will make the commu- and Environment Sanitation (AMPL)solid waste management should not be nications better for the stakeholders in is not merely physical construction buta problem in Indonesia. There are the future. also other aspects, such as communi-plenty of good examples in the city Besides the new theme, in financial cation.level such as Surabaya and Tarakan, as aspect, we have stepped ahead by not Hopefully, the innovation wewell as community based ones such as using the governments fund. This con- brought will enhance the quality of ourMrs. Bambang in Cilandak, and even dition could be initiated by the non- magazine. We will be happy to get yourin the educational institutions such as governmental cooperation between criticism and suggestions andPusdakota in Surabaya and SMUN 34 IDRC/CRDI, BORDA, LPTP, BALI- finally, enjoy. „in Jakarta. Funding contribution is FOKUS and BEST. Of course we have (OM).getting varied, not only from the gov- all heard of SANIMAS (Community
    • 2 Percik May 2009 „ „ Y O U R NV O IR A WAWA C A C E „ „ Photo: Meddy CH Raising the Awareness How to subscribe Percik? Dear Percik, Dear Percik editorial, My name is Roland, head of NGO We are from Public Health Study Swara Masyarakat Flobamora which is Program, Math and Science Faculty of based in Kupang, NTT. I am very Haluoleo University in Kendari, South- pleased with the presence of Percik East Sulawesi. We are very interested among us. I hope that this magazine in the content of Percik. Therefore, we will wake up the awareness of our com- would like to know how we can rou- munity towards environmental issues. tinely subscribe the magazine. Please I would like to subscribe for a routine kindly send the mechanism according- Percik edition for the community in ly. Thank you very much for your help our Pondok Pintar. The address : and attention. LSM Swara Masyarakat Flobamora Ramadhan Tosepu Percik Articles helped my Thesis (SMF), Jl M. Praja No. 25, Kelurahan Public Health Study Program Dear Percik, Namosain, Kecamatan Alak, Kota FMIPA Unhalu Sultra Kendari I am one of the staff of Environ- Kupang, Provinsi NTT. Kampus Baru Anduonohumental Agency from Pati Regency,Central Java, I am now studying for my Roland, Kupangmaster in UNDIP, Semarang and am Dear Mr. Roland, Dear Mr. Ramadhan,working my thesis on drinking water. I Thank you, we will send Percik Thank you for your interest in ouram very interested and excited with the routinely to your address. magazine, we will process yourcontents of this magazine since it helps request as soon as possible.me a lot on my thesis and my work at Please send Percikthe office. As you have known, my Percik Subscriptionwork is in environmental related Dear Percik,issues. When I read your article on Currently, our foundation is deve- Dear Percik,Percik August 2007 edition in your loping a community based recyclable Thank you for sending Percik tovoice column, I realized that I can sub- solid waste collection program in the Women Alliance for Sustainablescribe for the magazine. Therefore, I Bojonggede, Bogor for 70 Households- Development (AAPB). It has good con-would like to subscribe for Percik on member of the foundation. To enlarge tents which can enlarge our horizon ofevery edition. our knowledge in solid waste, we information. Furthermore, please send So please send the magazine to: would like to get a regular Percik mag- the magazine to AAPB secretariat: Mr. Rival Gautama azine (including Percik Junior). Please Perunda Sukoharjo, Jl Nusa Indah send the magazines to the following Gedung Dharma Wanita No. 16 Rt 02, Rw 06 address: Persatuan Lt. II, Desa Sukoharjo, Kecamatan Mar- Sri Wahyono Jl Pedurenan Masjid Kav. F 01gorejo, Kabupaten Pati, Jawa Tengah Kp. Bojonggede Dalam, Rt 02/12 Karet Kuningan Jakarta 12940 Thank you very much for the sub- No. 26, Kelurahan Bojonggede Thank you.scription. Kabupaten Bogor 16922 Sri Murniati Djamaludin Thank you for your attention Warm Regards, Dear Mrs. Sri Murniati Rival Gautama Sri Wahyono Thank you before. We will send the Dear Mr. Rival Gautama, Dear Mr. Sri Wahyono, magazine to the requested address. We thank you for your apprecia- We will process your subscriptiontion. We will follow up your subscrip- accordingly. Thank you.tion accordingly.
    • Percik May 2009 3 „„ M A I N RN C A R A „ WAWA E P O RT „ Community Involvement in Solid Waste Management: A Certainty ealized or not, solid waste hasR become part of our daily life. Every human activity is pro-ducing residue or waste with amountand volumes are equal with the goodsthat we are using daily. It is not aston-ishing if the waste generation multi-plies significantly in accordance withthe increase of the population, espe-cially in the city. To give an overview, based on thecalculation presented in the IndonesiaInfrastructure Book (Bappenas, 2003),in 1995, the estimation of waste gener-ation in Indonesia reached 22,5 mil-lion tons and will be doubled in 2020to a shocking 53,7 million tons. Community as the backbone of environment program. Foto: Uli Peduli.Meanwhile, in big cities in Indonesia,solid waste generation per capita isestimated around 600-830 grams per elephants. good, but only in a small scale like theirday. In general, most of the wastes are house. Houses are free from waste As an illustration on how huge the generated from the households. As an because they dispose it not in the prop-waste generation is, the data from se- example, data from Cleaning Agency of er place. They mostly dispose the wasteveral big cities in Indonesia can be Semarang City shows that in 2005 into sewer, river or even their neigh-used as reference. Jakarta produces a there were 75,71 percent or 2,650 m3 bors empty land. This NIMBY (Not Indaily 6,200 tons of waste; Bandung of solid waste came from settlement or My Back Yard) phenomenon is verygenerates waste 2,100 tons every day; household. Meanwhile solid waste strong.Surabaya produces 1,700 tons and from market reached 13,57 percent or The result is then predictable,Makassar 800 tons (Damanhuri, 500 m3 and the rest came from the wastes are lying everywhere which is2002). So it is normal that in such big commercial activities (shops, restau- very potential in causing diseases. Notcities they require new space for the rants, and hotels), public facilities, to mention the waste disposed in thefinal dumpsite quite soon enough. It is roads, industrial areas and sewerage. water channel and river which causeestimated that space for final dump- Therefore, household is the biggest flood during the rainy season. Thesesites in Indonesia in 1995 already contributor in solid waste generation. conditions create socialreached 675 Ha and will multiply into We just spoke about the volume of1,610 Ha in 2020. Another illustration waste generation and have not seen theon the waste generation, Jakarta gen- daily practice when people loiter.erates a daily waste as much as 6,000 Peoples awareness on cleanliness is
    • 4 Percik May 2009 „„ M A I N R EC A R A „ WAWA N P O RT „cost which has to be carried out by the hand, facilitators role is to facilitate Government of Surabaya. This part-community. the community to reach the objective nership has been equipped with the This phenomenon will lead to a of the program in a good and sustain- consistent implementation of Localsimple conclusion: involving commu- able way. If the community has diffi- Regulations and incentive giving. Thenity in solid waste management activi- culties in separation technique and famous Takakura Box was initiallyties is a certainty. Main waste produc- composting, then facilitator will have developed in Surabaya. Meanwhile,er is the community therefore they will to build the communitys capacity in Tarakan is outstanding from the per-have to take the responsibility towards certain ways such as giving trainings. If sistence of its city major.their own residue. community has problem in funding Corporate Social Responsibility then facilitator should help them by (CSR) from Yayasan Unilever PeduliDefinition and Concept providing solution. However, the facil- (Uli Peduli) echoed its success by Community Based Solid Waste itation should be done in such way so assisting community to become envi-Management (CBSWM) is an approach that the community will not depend on ronmental cadre. The other CSR fromto the solid waste management which is the facilitator all the time. Danamon Peduli is focusing on reduc-based on the community need and One thing to remember, communi- ing the waste generation in the tradi-demand, planned and implemented (if ty based does not always mean that all tional market. They already have thepossible), controlled and evaluated by of the activities within are done by the program in 31 cities/regencies incommunity. In an easy way, it is a com- community. It is what they deserved Indonesia.munity based activity if (i) community is and realistic to be done to solve the Educational institutions such asresponsible in decision making, and not problems faced by the community. For schools are also having their own greenmerely the elite and (ii) operational and example, if community realistically school program which shows the effortmaintenance is communitys responsi- does not have time and management to care about their environment in able based on the agreement. capacity to operate then the responsi- curriculum and extracurricular activi- In this definition, the main actor in bility should not be given to them. It is ties. SMA 34 Jakarta is one of the pio-solid waste management is communi- better to encourage them to find a pro- neers of the program, while thety, not government nor NGO. fessional institution or individuals who University of Surabaya is famous forGovernment and the other parties are can be trusted to run the program. developing Takakura Basket throughjust motivator and facilitator. its program, Pusdakota. There are The main function of motivator is Government and Communitys other universities such as ITBsto encourage the community to think Efforts Environmental Student Associationand solve any problems they faced. If Plenty of efforts are done in solving and UGMs Chemical Engineeringthe community is not ready, govern- the solid waste generation problems by which are having outstanding environ-ment and other parties will have to practicing CBSWM, but not all of them mental care program.help in preparing them. On the other are successful. Beside CSRs and educational insti- From several best practices in city tutions, there are individuals who are level, Surabaya and Tarakan can be having good efforts in 3R solid waste taken as examples. Surabaya especially management program. Amongst are can be called successful in this sector Mrs. Bambang from Cilandak, Jakarta because the local government can set and Iswanto from Sukunan, Sleman, up the community to do 3R (reduce, Yogyakarta. reuse, and recycle). The implementa- Mass media also plays an impor- tion of 3R in Surabaya has been con- tant role in CBSWM. It can be seen ducted up to village level. In Surabaya, from several efforts such as Jawa Pos a partnership has been established and Kedaulatan Rakyat (both are between four parties, community, pri- national newspapers) that are having vate sector through Corporate Social Green and Clean Program Responsibility from Telkomsel and Unilever Peduli, University through Inter-kampong visits to motivate each others. the involvement of Pusdakota by Photo: BORDA Universitas Surabaya, and Local
    • Percik May 2009 5 „ „ M A I N R EC A R A „„ WAWA N P O RTin cooperation with Uli Peduli.Meanwhile, in Jakarta, Uli Peduli iscooperating with Republika Daily andDelta Radio to have Jakarta Green andClean, Green Office and Green Schoolprograms. The involvement of local as well asinternational NGOs are very signifi-cant. International NGOs such asMercy Corps and BORDA are two ofthe most consistent ones in CBSWMprogram. Local NGOs like YayasanBina Karta Lestari Semarang,Yayasan Lestari Yogyakarta, YayasanBintari Yogyakarta, Balifokus Denpa- Women are making handicrafts from plastic waste. Photo: Bowo Leksono..sar and Best Tangerang are some of theexamples in this field. low. Therefore, NIMBY phenomenon solid waste management program On the other side, even though it is can still be found in a lot of place, such through 3R approach is effective innot sufficient enough, central govern- as throwing the waste in the empty reducing the waste generationment has made efforts. Starting by land. although the result in the communityintroducing 3R program and followed Community Based Solid Waste level is higher than the city level. Inby mainstreaming the effort on reduc- Management will not be sustainable Surabaya, according to the major (seeing the waste generation from its without a strong cooperation between interview), waste generation can besource into the national planning doc- community and local government. reduced up to 10% or around 170 tons-ument, Middle Term Development Local government should create coop- a big amount of reduction. An experi-Planning (RPJM) 2005-2009. eration framework which can give ence in RW 11 Cibangkong BandungFurthermore, Act No. 18 year 2008 on opportunity to the responsible party in even can show that all the waste gener-Solid Waste Management was the solid waste sector as well as com- ation can be processed in the compost-launched including the local regula- munity leader. ing house.tions which are mostly accommodating Building community awareness tocommunity involvement. However, Act manage their waste from its source Future AgendaNo. 18 Year 2008 is not effective requires sustainable hard work. The Community based solid waste man-enough since inherited Governments efforts are done in different ways agement is a certainty. Several actorsRules are not finished yet. depend on its local condition, starting have practiced in the fields. However, from providing examples, giving it is still not showing a significantLessons Learnt Connection incentives, or creating competitions. result. It requires cooperation among The implementation of CBSWM by The success of the program in stakeholders to create a synergy for thedifferent performer in different loca- Indonesia is very depending on the implementation of CBSWM. Most oftions has made several lessons learnt existence of a champion. If a champion the requirements for the synergy arewhich can be summarized into follow- can be found, the program can be already available, starting from experi-ing. implemented successfully. A champion ences, regulations, and involvements Community understands the mean- can be community leader, teacher or from different stakeholders. So what ising of cleanliness and the importance even housewife. In waste management, lacking now is the willingness of all toof solid waste management but only at champions are mostly housewife. share and support one another for thean individual household level. If it is The good examples in both commu- sake of the community. „concerning surroundings cleanliness, nity and city level are showing that the (OM /several sources)communitys awareness is still very implementation of community based
    • 6 Percik May 2009 „ I N T E RV I E W S „ CBSWM Opportunities and Challenges ommunity Based Solid Waste Management (CBSWM) How does the RPJMN is translated to each relat-C is clearly stated in Act No. 18 Year 2008 about Solid Waste Management. It means that this is a compul-sory program to be done by the central government and ed institutions both central and local government? Pursuant to the Act No. 25 year 2004 on National Development Planning System, RPJMN is a 5 yearly devel-implemented by the local government. What are the opment agenda which is compiled by the elected presidentopportunities and challenges in mainstreaming CBSWM? as a phase to reach the long term government target calledAnd how far does the community involvement is integrat- National Long Term Development Planning (RPJPN). Thised within the governments policies/programs? The follow- development agenda is a guideline for the ministry/institu-ings are interviews with related departments. tion and local government, including commercial sector in reaching national goal.DIRECTOR OF SETTLEMENT AND HOUSING, NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT It means that compiling the programs and activities forPLANNING AGENCY (BAPPENAS) 5 years development planning (Strategic Plan) and annualIR. BUDI HIDAYAT development planning (Work Plan), the ministry/institu- tion and local government should refer to RPJMN. In accor- Does community involvement in solid waste dance with the solid waste development, one of the exam-management have been accommodated in RPJMN ples that can be taken is the 3R system by the Public Work2010-2014? Department and Environmental Ministry. It is a manifesta- At this moment, National Development Planning Agency tion of the solid waste development program in order to(Bappenas) is compiling achieve the target as reflected in RPJMN. Meanwhile, in thethe National Mid Term local government level, 3R program has been adopted in dif-Development Planning ferent forms and names such as solid waste bank program.(RPJMN) for the 2010- Furthermore, plenty of cooperation has been established2014 period. In the draft, between government both central and local, NGOs, educa-community involvement tional institutions and private sectors through Corporatein solid waste manage- Social Responsibility.ment has been accommo-dated and become one of How far does the community involvement givethe important components contribution towards the increase of the perform-in RPJMN. Community is ance on solid waste management?involved in every step of Up until now, there is no special study/analysis whethersolid waste management, Photo: Bowo Leksono the contribution of community (involvement) give increasestarting from handling in the source of waste, transporta- on the performance of solid waste management program.tion and treatment in the final dumpsite. Basically, this con- However, based on the experience of drinking water andcept is already in the RPJMN 2005-2009. environmental sanitation development, community in- This condition cannot be excluded from the change of volvement in planning and development processes gave sig-paradigm of solid waste management from end of pipe nificant influence on the sustainability of the infrastructuretreatment approach to integrated solid waste management built.which focuses on the management from its source. One of the best practices is the solid waste managementTherefore, one of the main targets of solid waste develop- in Surabaya. The implementation of 3R program hasment in RPJMN 2010-2014 is to reduce the waste genera- reduced solid waste generation by 200 tons/day or 10% in 3tion from its source. To reach the goal, community is years. Besides, household solid waste management isinvolved in 3R program (reduce, reuse, and recycle). able to recycle organic waste by 120-140 tons/dayFurthermore, public awareness campaign on household (Cleanliness Dept. Surabaya).solid waste management will be enhanced.
    • Percik May 2009 7 „ I N T E RV I E W S „ drainage and 3R for solid waste management using the con- cept of community education and empowerment. Are there clear concept from the Public Work Department on community based solid waste man- agement? Policy on solid waste program by the Public Work Department is casted in Public Work Minister Regulation No. 21/PRT/M/2006. The implementations of the policy is in form of 3R program promotion, campaign and education, encourage the institutional development, optimization and development of solid waste, revitalization and regionaliza- tion of final dumpsite and private investment promotion. Program implementation refers to National Mid Term Development Planning (RPJMN) 2005-2009; the increase of transported waste up to 75% and the increase of final dumpsite performance with environmental sound. In reach- ing the RPJMN goal, Public Work Department applies the policy in reducing the waste generation from its source, increasing community and private sector active roles, increasing the service area and quality of management sys- tem, institutional development, rules and laws, and devel- opment of alternative source of fund. Community awareness to have a clean life is not enough by putting signs. Photo: BORDA. DEPUTY ASSISTANT ON DOMESTIC WASTE POLLUTION ENVIRONMENTAL MINISTRY TRI BANGUN LAKSONODIRECTOR OF SETTLEMENT SANITATION DEVELOPMENTDIRJEN CIPTA KARYA, PUBLIC WORK DEPARTMENT As we already know,IR. SUSMONO Act No 18 year 2008 on solid waste manage- What is the role of Public Work Department in ment has been imple-community involvement? mented effectively. Public Work Department is having annual activities How far does the com-especially in the Settlement Sanitation Development munity involvementDirectorate. The activities accommodated in thatare wastewater treat- act?ment, drainage improve- The background ofment and solid waste community involvementmanagement which are lies in article 11 about Photo: Bowo Leksonoinvolving central and Rights. This chapter is a basic consideration and is impor-local government, pri- tant for the government as a responsible in solid waste man-vate, and community. agement to always paying attention and considering com-Public Work Department munitys rights.applies community While article 12 is concerning every persons obligationinvolvement in Sanimas to reduce and manage waste has also become a strong fun-Project for wastewater, damental law on the compulsive communitysMandiri Drainage for active involvement in managing Photo: Bowo Leksono
    • 8 Percik May 2009 „ I N T E RV I E W S „waste, especially at the source. This article has become thebasic to maximize the publics active role in reducing andmanaging the waste at home, office, market and otherplaces. To encourage community involvement in reducing thewaste at the source level, government must develop incen-tive and disincentive system. Incentive is given to commu-nity, individual or group who reduce waste generation. Onthe other hand, disincentive is given to those who are notputting effort in reducing the waste at the source level. Theregulation is accommodated in article 21. Meanwhile, article 28 explicitly mentioning communityinvolvements, especially in giving consideration, suggestionand advice in composing the policy, solid waste manage-ment implementation, dispute resolution etc. However, thisarticle was criticized by those who work on solid waste man-agement sector such as NGOs, community self-help groupand others. They questioned why in this article, communi-tys involvement only at giving suggestion and advice level,as if they have no opportunity to get involved directly insolid waste management activities either on their own or inthe cooperation framework with the government. However, this regulation is based on Act No. 18 year2008. It is written that solid waste management is a publicservice; therefore government should organize this since itis their responsibility. Yet, with all governments limitation,they can provide a wide access for the community and pri-vate sector to be actively involved in solid waste manage-ment activities. Experiences showed that government can-not perform optimally without the involvement from thecommunity and private sector. Community involvementaccess and mechanism will be arranged in government re- Government should not only encourage community to separate the waste,gulations. but also providing example by putting separated waste bin in offices. Photo: Bowo Leksono What kind of regulation (government or minis-ter) will be published with regard to the communi- At this moment, government has no clear and formalty involvement? blue print regarding community involvement in solid waste The application of regulations of the Act No. 8 Year management.2008, both government and minister regulations need to bepublished regarding community involvement. It will cover What needs to be done by the government tothe mechanism of community involvement, their form of ensure that community involvement can be estab-involvement, definition of community (individual, group), lished?as well as cooperation with the government. Government will provide policies, rules, technical guide- lines, SOPs etc. However, government products will be clear Does the government already have a clear blue and transparent for public and be conducted consis-print on the concept of community involvement in tently and consequently. „ Bowo Leksonosolid waste management?
    • Percik May 2009 9 „ I N T E RV I E W S „ Through Green and Clean program Drs. Bambang Dwi Hartono, MPd which was held since 2002 since I become major. The program was initiated The key is in together- by City Government, Uli Peduli Foundation, and Jawa Pos. The echo of ness and believe Photo: Bowo Leksono this event was enormous. The role of Surabaya, second biggest city in Indonesia after Jakarta, is having a different face than with five years ago. Green parks are decorating the city and provide open spaces. Trees are planted all along the mass media isstreets. If we enter the settlement, harmonic nuance is covering the alley and small streets. Community great in en-manages their environment and waste already at the household level. As a result, it significantly reduces couragingthe waste generation in Surabaya. This condition cannot be separated from communitys willingness, pri- vate support, NGOs and city government itself. Even the political commitment of the city in handling community. the environment, cleanliness and green is poured into Local Regulation No. 1 year 2006 on Local Mid Imagine if aTerm Development Planning (RPJMD) of Surabaya 2006-2010. Inside of this regulation they put communi- ty based solid waste management program. What are the recipes and how does the Surabaya City village is pub- Government persuades the community to manage their waste? lished in a Following is the interview of Percik with the Major of Surabaya, Drs. Bambang Dwi Hartono, M.Pd. newspaper, they will be ow can the city government afraid of getting the penalty. thrilled.H integrate community basedsolid waste management program What is the distinctive penalty How big is the fund allocated for(CBSWM) as part of policy/concept for loitering? CBSWM and its proportion towardof solid waste management? We will keep their ID card. The regu- the entire fund for Solid Waste pro- The strategy and concept is by reduc- lation is being prepared. Citizens are gram?ing the waste from its source, which are afraid if their ID card is being restrained The amount of fund is relative. Wehousehold and industry. For that, we give because they will have difficulties in get- cannot handle waste problems with fundeducation to the community through ting driving license, marriage arrange- centralized on one department. Forenvironmental cadre. In 2007, there are ment, bank transaction or land transac- example, every year, we send students10,000 cadres and by end of 2008, they tion. Therefore, they will think twice from elementary to high school to joinreached 23,000. We will continue to before loitering or put them in their pock- environmental training in Tawas with theincrease the number of the cadre so that et first. budget from Educational Department. Sosomeday, Surabaya will be their own do not think partially if you want to solveenvironmental cadre. Have the city government waste problem. For 2009, the budget in received any awards concerning Cleanliness and Gardening Department How is the real image of commu- solid waste management? of Surabaya is 99 billion rupiah.nity based solid waste management Actually we have no potential toprogram in Surabaya? receive any awards. However, Surabaya Are there any special tips for You can see for yourself. Let us be fair, always gets Adipura since 2006. This other city government to developSurabaya is clean now compared to other award is the form of appreciation from CBSWM?cities. Not to mention the reduction of the central government towards the per- Togetherness and believe. Govern-dengue fever and diarrhea cases. Those formance of local, especially public ser- ment should always encourage communi-are the diseases cause by improper envi- vice. We have received several interna- ty to solve the problems with believe as aronmental management. tional awards from Green Apple in 2006, base. If only counting on government Institute for Global Environmental while the community does not care, it will Are there any significant obsta- Strategies (IGES) and United Nations be useless. But with the deve-loped com-cles? Economic and Social Commission for munity, it will be easier. „ Bowo Leksono Behavior. However, Surabaya is rela- Asia and Pacific (UNESCAP) in 2007.tively progressing. The indicator is, everymonth I get complaints from people who One of the lessons learnt fromget penalty for loitering. From 20 people, Surabaya is that the CBSWM can beonly 2 or 3 are original citizens of integrated with the city scale solidSurabaya. Surabaya citizens are already waste management. How can thisaware of this, maybe because they are condition be achieved?
    • 10 Percik May 2009 „ I N T E RV I E W S „ dr. H. Jusuf Serang Kasim "Action is more Important than Ceremonial" 160 tons daily. Are we going to create pointless to have the ceremonials while it mountains of wastes or manage them? is not sustainable. There are 500 environmental warriors who conduct solid waste management by One of the interesting activities composting with Takakura Method since is Incentive Pattern for community. we are having cooperation with Kitakyusu Is it effective in reducing the waste City Government, Japan. So we have generation? turned the mountains of wastes into Yes, of course. Incentive can make its mountains of fertilizers. beneficiary motivated. For yellow army we give them 13th salary. Every city ou dont mind if we have the inter- "Y view in the car? If not then lets go to my car," dr. H. Jusuf Serang Kasim, Major of Tarakan says to Percik after Are there any umbrella regula- tions for community based solid waste management programs? anniversary, we invite them for dinner to raise their motivation that they are the heroes of the city. a meeting in Bappekot Tarakan. It is almost Regulations become unimportant end of his period being a major, but seems when they are not implemented. How is the cooperation scheme like he still have endless work, even dealing Everybody can make regulations, but only between government and non-gov- with solid waste. One night, after coming back from few who can implement it. Yes, Tarakan ernment in CBSWM? Jakarta, Jusuf saw scrapheap in front of a has local regulation No. 13 Year 2003 on It is varied. This kind of cooperation is rich persons house. He took the waste and orderliness and cleanliness of the city. citys favorite. There is one street for 3,8 put it in his car. What this major did was a However, it is not easy to uphold the reg- km length, and we cooperate with private smooth satire for his citizens. So, how dr. H. ulations if it is not come from the heart. sector to maintain its cleanliness for 8 Jusuf Serang Kasim did community based solid waste management in Tarakan, below million a month. Above that, we have to is the result of the interview. How big does the budget alloca- get support from the community at all tion for CBSWM? times, otherwise it will not work. ow far does the City I do not remember precisely, but theH Government of Tarakan has budget for Cleanliness and Gardening What is the role of the communi-made community based solid waste Service is around 7 billion rupiahs. ty in this cooperation?management (CBSWM) as part of It is the awareness to throw the wastesolid waste management concept? How is the concept of solid waste into its place and time. It is simple. If they In the beginning of period of my work management developed by City want more, they can manage it together,in 1999, the city has plenty of waste scat- Government of Tarakan? that is for the beginning.tered in the streets, and there were only 3 When we do not have mountains ofdump trucks. Therefore, I took the liber- wastes, no more waste in the street, 3R Are there any special tips inties to borrow community fund of 1,3 bil- principle is working, then we are done. CBSWM that can be used by otherlion rupiahs. I deposit the fund and use However, maintaining community local government?the interest to rent dump truck. For 1,5 awareness on solid waste will always be The point is there should be aware-months, I only took care of waste in the our duty. ness from government and local assemblypublic areas and only spent 2 hours in (DPRD) that without community involve-office. Nowadays, waste generation in Has the CBSWM become official ment CBSWM will not work. Second,Tarakan reaches 400 m3 or around 150- program of the city government? train the community as early as possible Here is the thing, if it is possible, there like teaching elementary students for sep- are no more officials, nor ceremonials, arating waste so that one day, they will actions are more important. We do not have awareness for their environment. „ use any ceremonials for our solid waste Bowo Leksono management program in this city. It is * Starting 1st of March 2009, dr. H Jusuf S.K had finished his term as Mayor of Tarakan
    • Percik May 2009 11 „ I N T E RV I E W S „ Silvi Tirawaty Corporate Responsibility Towards Environmental Condition How do Uli Peduli and community involved? And Unilever Peduli Foundation (Uli Peduli) was founded in November 2000 to conduct how is the cooperation with city government? corporate social responsibility (CSR) pro- It can be said that Unilever is an initiator. The programs con- grams of PT Unilever Indonesia Tbk. One of ducted in every city are always involving mass media and local the implementations of CSR is the attention towards environmental condition, beside government. There are several NGOs we worked with. We real- hygiene, public health and nutrition. ize that multi stakeholders cooperation is very important. Local In the beginning of Green and Clean government provides facilities, mass media provide space for program back in 2001, Surabaya is chosen as pilot project and is sustainable up until now. campaigns and publications, while community enthusiastically Furthermore, the program is replicated in welcomes the program. So everybody is contributing. the other big cities in Indonesia. In 2006, the program was held in Jakarta, 2007 in Yogyakarta, 2008 in Makassar and 2009 is in What community contribution needed in Uli Peduli Banjarmasin and Bandung. Photo: Bowo Leksono programs? What is the expectation of PT. Unilever We expect full involvement and participation from the com- Indonesia as a producer of household goods with the implementation if its CSR programs? Below is the interview with the Environment Program munity. Initially, it started with trainings for the representatives Manager PT Unilever Indonesia Tbk, Silvi Tirawaty. of the community neighborhood (RW) which will be the agent of change in their respective areas. They, then, will give further trainings to their community. Afterwards we will have competi- hat motivates Unilever Peduli Foundation to be tion. So, what we expect from the community is of course theW involved in CBSWM? Is it related somehow withthe business? implementation of the program. Because what they are doing is actually for themselves. Yes, Unilever as producer produce packaging, so it is ourresponsibility to handle the waste. We give education to commu- How long does it take from the CBSWM preparationnity that this packaging should not be a waste since it can be to its operational?reuse. We admit that it related with Unilevers business. It has no Every city has different potential to conduct the program.direct impact to the sales, but more to the corporate image, com- The important is city stakeholders commitment. With highpanys reputation, since what we are doing is our responsibility commitment and awareness, this program can be started in 3-5to the environment. months. But this program is designed to be sustainable, so that the community will have it by themselves. Are there certain budget allocations in UnileversCSR for CBSWM? How effective does the CBSWM program in reduc- Unilevers CSR budget goes to the Unilever Peduli ing solid waste generation?Foundation. However, it cannot be partially calculated because It is very effective. Most of the community has already recy-it is combined with Unilevers business. For example, when we cled their waste, although it is not 100%, but it is increasing. Inissue a campaign on hand washing with soap, it is part of the Surabaya, the major stated that the program reduced the totalbusiness, the same with commercial on solid waste management waste by 10%. However, is the parameter community awarenessin the community. or city waste generation. Are there any special criteria in selecting the loca- What are the obstacles faced and how is the oppor-tion for CBSWM? tunity in making CBSWM as governments program Basically, every city has its own waste problem. However, but conducted together with community and privateUnilever has its limitation and cannot go to every city. We prefer sector?big cities with complicated solid waste problem rather than We like to call it as challenge. Every city has its ownsmall cities. In that case, community development will have sig- potential challenge. „ Bowo Leksononificant influence on the city waste problems.
    • 12 Percik May 2009 „ I N T E RV I E W S „ Risa Bhinekawati Concern on Solid Waste from Traditional Market of the poor conditions in the traditional While government has to make the analy- market. Traditional markets are identical sis on the necessity including total waste In Indonesia, there are plenty of with sloppiness, dirt and smell which generation per day, provide and facilitate opportunities to implement corporate social responsibility (CSR) programs. made people are reluctant to shop there the space, having local coordination, Cleanliness and health of the traditional and tend to choose the modern ones. obtaining permission and socialization. market is one of the fields. Danamon Bank is working in this sector through its program Danamon Peduli. In 2007, What is the relation between How does the community con- Danamon Peduli was having Go Green CBSWM with Danamon Bank busi- tribute then? program in tra- nesses? The community contributes in chang- ditional market in Ciputat, It is much related since more than ing their behavior into more environmen- Jakarta. From 800 of our branches are located in 1.500 tal friendly. The basic thing will be sepa- that program, traditional markets all around Indonesia. rating between organic and inorganic they found the idea to turn Therefore, the improvement on the mar- waste. traditional ket community is also a social investment markets waste for Danamon. How long does the program into compost. In the same take? Foto: Bowo Leksono year, Danamon Are there any special budget Around three to eight months. It Peduli in cooperation with local govern- allocations for CBSWM in depends on the local governments prepa- ment of Bantul and Sragen as pilot proj- ect manages the wastes from the tradi- Danamons CSR? ration. tional markets. The success in these two Budget allocation for CSR Go Green is locations has been heard in other traditional markets organic waste con- How effective does the CBSWM places. Therefore, this year, there are 31 traditional markets in Indonesia who version into organic fertilizer with high in reducing the waste generation? are running the solid waste management quality. For 2008 we put 2,5 billion or Every composting unit is able to con- program. Executive Director of 21% of the total CSR budget. While for vert 3-5 tons of organic waste into 1,2-3 Danamon peduli Risa Bhinekawati is sharing the experiences with Percik this year is allocated for 2,1 billion. tons of organic fertilizer per day. about their solid waste management for Therefore, the units operate in 31 traditional markets in Indonesia. What criteria putted into consid- cities/regencies are able to convert 60- eration in selecting CBSWM loca- 120 tons of organic waste into 24-48 tons tions? of high quality organic fertilizer every day.F or what consideration does Danamon Peduli only cooperates with „ Bowo Leksono Danamon Peduli involved in local government who has full commit- community based solid ment in succession and sustaining thewaste management in traditional program.markets? Nowadays, there are 18.450 tradition- What is the role of Danamon Name: R isal markets in Indonesia. From those Peduli and how is the coopera- Place an a Bhinekawati d Danumbers, there are 12.650.000 sellers, tion with local government? Februar te of Birth: Pon Husband y 2nd 1966 tianak, :which are significant numbers. However, Danamon Peduli is designing the Children Adhyasa Yuton : othe cleanliness, health and comfort of project, providing machinery and Educatio Rifqi Satya Adh n yasa (13 - Econ : )those markets are poor which made the compost house as well as opera- omic Fac (1992) ulty, Un iversitasincrease of economic pillar is falling. AC tional training, monitoring and - Aust ra Indones iaNielsen survey stated that the fall reaches evaluation and replicates it at - Geor lian National Un ge Wash iversity Career: ington Uapproximately 8,1% per year compared national level. Total contribution niversity (1999) - Vice (2006) Presidenwith modern markets which increases by by Danamon Peduli is around Organiz t of - Chief ation Er Human Researc31,4% per year. Waste is one of the causes 80-100 million for each area. O icsson h& - Head perating Offic of Corpo er UND Indones rate Aff P ia airs Unil ever
    • Percik May 2009 13 „ I N T E RV I E W S „ Compost House RW 11 Cibangkong: THE POOR PIONEER ar before the tragedy of waste slideF in Leuwigajah final dumpsite, Bandung on 2005 which killed147 people, the community in RW 11Cibangkong Village, Sub district ofBatununggal, Bandung, West Java since1998 already initiated solid waste man-agement in their area. It means, what this community beendoing is reducing the waste generation inLeuwigajah final dumpsite. If all the citi-zens of Bandung manage their waste in acommunity or household level, the tra-gedy would have been avoided. In the beginning, Center of SettlementResearch and Development (Puslitbang-kim) of the Public Work Departmentmade pilot project in this area because itis a densely populated slum area andflood occurs quite often because there aretwo rivers surrounding the area. They The condition of Composting House in RW 11 Kelurahan Cibangkong, Kota Bandung iswere chosen to get assistance in manag- really disheartening. Photo Bowo Leksonoing their solid waste. Until finally the CommunityRepresentative Institution is formed in is no budget to pay the workers. Cibangkong who stand up to build theRW 11, Kelurahan Cibangkong which will "Ideally, to manage waste from an RW compost house, is regretting the Localsupervise the implementation of solid requires six workers. Two of them should Government of Bandung for giving anywaste management in the respective area. distribute the compost and observe the helps. "Furthermore, there are equip-They have got visits from foreign coun- field," says Wijiman (53), compost house ments from the provincial governmenttries and provinces in Indonesia. coordinator, who has been loyal since the which are still held by the city govern-Furthermore, the operator of the com- beginning of this program with his 3 ment," he explained.posting house in RW 11 Cibangkong has workers. To understand more about the man-been invited to be trainer in several areas. To fulfill the necessity of the needs of agement of the compost house in At least, the community can be proud the compost house, Warjiman works very Cibangkong, below is the interview withbecause they were the only one who con- hard in distributing the compost to the tea H. Andarusman who is also the chief ofducts solid waste management in plantation in South Bandung and to the Cibangkong Community Forum (FWC).Bandung. However, the pride needs to be organic farmer in Sapan, East Bandung.followed by awareness on environmental In one day, Warjiman admits, the What encouraged you to workcleanliness. compost house produces 5 quintals of on solid waste management sector? compost for Rp 2.500 per 3 kilograms. As one of the community leader espe-Poor "The farmers asked for all the compost we cially in RW 1, Kalurahan Cibang- It has been more than 10 years, the can produce, but we cannot produce kong, I am with severalcondition of the composting house is more than 5 quintals per day since there isheartbreaking. The machinery to process no fund," he admitted.the waste is not used anymore. They Meanwhile, Andarusman, one ofreturned to the manual ways since there the community leaders in RW 11
    • 14 Percik May 2009 „ I N T E RV I E W S „ since they have paid the retribution community fee. This retribution fee has become members were con- another problem as well. Each month, cerned on the condition of this they pay Rp 1.000 and from 900RW. This is a slum area with high density households, only 600 pay regularly.population. Our waste was mountainous This is not enough to cover the opera-because the City Cleaning Agency was tional and maintenance of the composthardly took it. Flood occurred most of the house.time during rainy season. We are lucky toget assistance from Puslitbangkim of Does the program collide withPublic Work Department in initializing governments program?the compost house in Cibangkong. I dont think so, if it is, then we will not do it of course. Even more, we are helping How was the initial development the government especially the City Photo: Bowo Leksono Name : Andarusmanof the solid waste management? Government of Bandung because we can Place,Date of Birth: Since the beginning of this program in manage our own waste. However, we Cibangkong, 17 Agustus 19351998, we got assistance from havent got any form of support from the Wife : Hj. Rusminah (RIP) Children : 14Puslitbangkim on converting solid waste city government. Grandchildren : 20into compost. The community disagree Education : Sekolah Guru Pendidikan Teknik (SGPT)because they were afraid of the smell from Did you get any support or help Carrier : Chief of Examiner Electric Company of Bandung (until 1990)the dumpsite since they live in a densely from outside such as government,area. After several explanation and clarifi- private or another party? If yes,cation they agreed to have the project, what kind of support? and several countries came and learnedand its proven to be useful for the com- Like I said before, we havent got any compost in Cibangkong. Even Cimahimunity. Every two days, workers from the support from the city government and the Regency who learned from us has beencompost house take the garbage from the program has been running for 10 years more forward than we are now. The basictemporary dumpsite on each RT to be now. We only got initial support from requirements to have a successful pro-treated in the compost house. Puslitbangkim of Public Work gram are honesty, openness and trans- Department. We hope that the city gov- parency, especially in financial manage- Is it effective in reducing the ernment will have concern on our activity ment and its result.solid waste generation? since it helps them. We havent got any Of course, it can be seen now that support from private sectors or NGOs. Does community involvementthere is no waste accumulation in our University of Pajajaran Bandung once need to be accommodated in Localarea. All the waste are transported and gave us a hand on renovating the compost Regulation?processed in the compost house. house and Bandung Institute of I think it is necessary. Because whatHowever, it is such a pity that other RWs Technology (ITB) was doing a research on city governments doing now is only pro-are still burning their waste and create what we are doing. moting awareness, but if there is one suc-pollution. cessful area, the city government does not What do you think is the main give any support. Were there obstacles faced in factor in determining the success ofinvolving the community? this activity? What benefits are felt by the We are still trying to reduce the I will not say that our program is a community?load of the compost house by asking success. If it is, the community will feel it. The benefits are enormous. The firstthe community to separate their solid We still have problem with community thing which can be directly observed iswaste into organic and inorganic. We awareness, since some of them are still clean environment, since there are nohave even already provided the con- lacking it. We still also need fund support waste accumulations. Besides, we can cre-tainers for it and Takakura basket so and compost distribution, but we are ate work opportunities and manage wastethat the housewives can produce com- working on it. from one village if Cibangkong. However,post in their own houses. However, the benefit will be more if we cansome are quite active in supporting the If the program is going to be distribute the compost. „activity, but a lot more are still igno- implemented in other areas, what Bowo Leksonorant. They feel like it is compost requirements are needed?houses work to separate the waste A lot of parties from all over Indonesia
    • Percik May 2009 15 „ R E G U L AT I O N „ Implementation of Community Involvement Pursuant to Act No. 18 Year 2008 s the growing population and weak and failed not only to the envi- law enforcement, responsibilities, roleA the changing on peoples con- sumption pattern, solid wastegeneration has multiplied every year. ronment, but to the community around the dumpsite. It is still fresh in our mind the dis- of government (local and national) and private are vital to the proportional, effective and efficient solid waste ma-It is not only the amount of waste but aster in Leuwigajah, a final dumpsite nagement. In doing so, the govern-also types and characteristics. in Cimahi, West Java which cause hun- ment and community feel the needs ofMeanwhile, solid waste management dreds of casualties. There is another Solid Waste Act.method is still with old fashioned way- example in Integrated Solid Waste The establishment and launch ofdisposed into final dumpsite. Dumpsite (TPST) Bojong, Bogor, West solid waste act is meant to get a useful Different problems arouse and not Java and Bantar Gebang Final and powerful, healthy, clean and envi-only cleanliness and environmental Dumpsite in Bekasi which became ronmental friendly solid waste man-pollution, but also social problems headlines in newspapers. agement system.such as communitys dispute around Solid waste has become national Important matters arranged in thisthe final dumpsite. Furthermore, concern; therefore it is required to act are the shifting of paradigm in solidalmost all both big and small cities do manage it in a comprehensive and waste management; from collection,not have proper solid waste manage- integrated ways from upstream to transportation and disposal to 4 Rment. downstream to give maximum benefits principles (reduce, reuse, recycle and Most of the treatments are the on economic, health, and environment recover).same, collect-transport-dispose, a tra- safety, as well as changing communi- Before the birth of Act No. 18 Yearditional system which should be ended tys behavior. 2008 about solid waste management,by now. This system is proven to be In solid waste management sector, stakeholders in do not have strong foundation in this sector. On April 9th, 2008, the draft for the act was approved by the House of Representative of Indonesia. This act is a proof of governments effort in raising the communitys health and environment condition in Indonesia and become the guideline of national policy in solid waste manage- ment. Solid Waste Management Para- digm Section 4 stated "Solid waste man- agement is aimed to increase commu- nitys health and environment quality and to convert waste into resource". Garbage will have economical value by turning it into compost fertilizer. Photo Bowo Leksono
    • 16 Percik May 2009 „ R E G U L AT I O N „ Since the launch of the act, solid This regulation is stated in section will be followed by governments regu-waste management in Indonesia has 12 article (1) "every person in house- lation and local regulation.entered a new paradigm. All parties are hold solid waste management and sim- Solid waste stated in this act con-responsible, starting from the commu- ilar to household waste is responsible sists of households waste, similar tonity, government or other stakeholders in reducing and manage the waste in households waste, and specific waste.involved in solid waste existence. an environmental friendly ways". Every person planned to conduct solid All this time, most of the communi- Meanwhile, section 13 stated "the waste management service shouldties are still trapped in the old collec- developer of settlement, commercial, obtain permit from local authority pur-tion-transportation-disposal system. industrial and special areas, public suant to the responsibility. Major canThe new paradigm views waste as facility, social facility and another decide administrative penalty to wasteresource which has economic value to facility are responsible in providing management service that disobey thebecome energy, compost, fertilizer or waste separation facility". permit regulation.industrial material. In another words, the act has forced Central and local governments are community to recycle in their waste obligated to fund solid waste manage-Solid Waste Management Res- management. If they are not, penalty ment activities. Community might beponsibility will be given pursuant to the regula- involved in solid waste management In order to have a comprehensive tion. activities held by local and or centraland integrated solid waste manage- Another interesting part of this act governments. The involvement can bement, communitys rights and respon- is dealing with the regulation for the in the form of :sibilities as well as roles and responsi- producer is stated in section 14 and 15, z Suggestion, consideration andbilities of the authority both national i.e. responsibilities for community; advice to local and or central gov-and local in serving their civic duties, producers are responsible in managing ernment;law umbrella is required in the form of their package which is difficult to be z Formulation of solid waste man-act. naturally decomposed. Government agement policies; and Solid waste management is held will apply reward and punishment z Advice and opinion in solid wastebased on responsibility, sustainability, mechanism to companies disobeying conflict reconciliation.benefit, equality, togetherness, safety, the regulation. It applies to community Implicitly, the solid waste manage-security and economic principles. as well as individual. ment act force the local authority to In this act, government is not the manage their waste is they do not wishonly one responsible in solid waste Local and Central Government to be sued or be given penalty. Solidmanagement; community (household) Responsibilities waste management is local govern-and private (as producer of packs Before the act is launched, although ments responsibility.which turned into waste) are also there were norms, standards, proce- Section 5 mentioned "central andresponsible pursuant to the regulation. dures and manuals on solid waste local governments are responsible for management, firm regulation did not the implementation of good and envi- exist in local (city/regency) and ronmental friendly solid waste man- provincial government. All local gov- agement programs pursuant to the ernments are based on their local reg- act". ulation and created diverse solid waste Health and cleanliness of an area-in management. solid waste context-depend on the will- It was deteriorate with retribution ingness and interest of its local author- and penalty problems to increase local ity. Supervision of the implementation income and not putting effort on man- of solid waste management in this act agement responsibility in handling is arranged in a leveled way as stated in waste for civic needs. section 30, article (1) and article (2). Through this act, the basis for Lines of responsibilities for local and Environment around the house becomes improvement in solid waste manage- central government are stated in this greener and fresher. Photo BORDA ment in Indonesia is started. The act act.
    • Percik May 2009 17 „ R E G U L AT I O N „ It is everybodys expectation thatthe solid waste problems in this coun-try will be lowered with the act.Hopefully, in the future, Indonesia willbe bothered with solid waste problems,but even provide job opportunities inthis sector. Meanwhile, in section 289 H article(1) UUD 1945 provide the rights for allpeople to get a good and healthy livingenvironment. This statement hasbrought consequence that governmentI obligated to provide solid waste man-agement service. Government is the authority andresponsible in solid waste manage-ment even though in the operationaland maintenance may involve commu-nity and partnered with company in Solid waste management starting from houshold level. Photo BORDAsolid waste sector. Besides, solid wasteorganization and community group has been proven to be effectively run- ronmental safety and change commu-can also be involved in solid waste ning the program better and more suc- nity behavior.management activities. cessful especially when they are Local government should be carefulCommunity Involvement in Solid involved since the beginning. This since community may use their rightsWaste Management activity can be done to increase the in getting better solid waste facility. In Act No. 18 Year 2008 about solid solid waste management in settlement Furthermore, community can proposewaste management, it is stated that area through local community devel- a law sue if they feel that they are los-community can and should participate opment, which can be replicated in ing their rights. The implementation ofin solid waste and similar to solid other areas. this act has brought consequence towaste management, in waste reduction Community Based Solid Waste the local government to re-arrange(limitation, reuse and recycle) and Management (CBSWM) is solid waste from policy, method, technique orsolid waste management (separation, management system which is planned, even regulation aspects.collection, transportation, treatment arranged, operated, maintained and Hopefully, with the involvement ofand final process). owned by community. The objective is all, solid waste problems can be solved. Before, community involvement in to have self-help community in keep- The important thing is there is aware-solid waste management has been ing the cleanliness of the environment ness from all parties that they are partarranged in Public Work Minister through environmental friendly solid of this environment where they liveRegulation No. 21/PRT/M/2006 waste management. CBSWM princi- and they will have environment love inabout policy and strategy on solid ples are: community participation, their heart. „waste management system develop- self-help, efficiency, environmental Ujang Solihin Sidik Chief of Waste Managementment. protection and integration. Environmental Ministry Community based solid waste man- Act No. 18 Year 2008 about solidagement is one of the strategy from the waste management regulates solid Resumed bypolicy (2) in minister Regulation No. waste management comprehensively Bowo Leksono and Ratna Kurnia Dewi21/PRT/M/2006 on active role of and integrally from upstream to down-community and private/company as stream to get economical, health bene-partner in management. Community fits for the community as well as envi-
    • 18 Percik May 2009 „ R E G U L AT I O N „ Local Regulation on Solid Waste Management olid waste management hasS show progress at least from the existence of regulation. At thismoment, we have Act No. 18 Year2008 on Solid Waste Management,which will be followed by governmentsregulation. Preceding the regulation,Public Work Department has issuedPublic Work Minister Regulation No.21/PRT/M/2006 on Policy andStrategy on the Development of SolidWaste Management System. On eachregion, they have also local regulationson solid waste management. This article will try to explainbriefly in the arrangement of solid The exisiting infrastructure like a pair of trash bin for wet and dry garbage in front of local govern-waste management in city/regency ment offices turned out to be ineffective. Photo Bowo Leksonothrough local regulation. What aspectsare stated in those regulations and Therefore, the developer of local ice.does community involvement also regulation must comprehend the In developing local regulation, itincluded there. needs of the community. Besides, by will involve several government organ- paying attention on the suggestion izations such as chief of the regionLocal Regulation as a Basis for from community members can create including the departments and localLaw Enforcement sense of ownership and moral respon- house of representative. They will have Good governance is a basic for sibility to obey the rules. to be organized to unite them fornationals objective. Based on section 3 The development of local regula- developing the local regulation.article (1) Act No. 23 Year 2004 on tion begins with problems formula- Section 143 Act No. 32 Year 2004Local Government, it is stated tion, for that it has to answer the ques- on Local Governance, it is mentioned :"Republic of Indonesia is divided into tion "what social problem needs to be (1) Local regulation may containprovincials and province is divided solved?" Social problems normally guideline on penalty for law enforce-into regency and city which has their divided into two types, first is the ment, entirely or partly to the violatorown regulation". Meanwhile, in article social problem caused by community pursuant to the act.(2) mentioned "Local government social bad behavior. For example like (2) Local regulation may containmentioned in article (1) arrange their loitering, which cause dirty environ- criminal punishment longest by 6 (six)own governance, local government has ment, therefore cleanliness regulation months or penalty of maximum Rp the rights to develop regulation pur- is necessary. Second, social problems 50.000.000 (fifty million rupiah). suant to the needs, situations caused by law regulation that is not (3) Local regulation may contain and conditions of their suitable with its communitys condi- punishment or penalty other than area". tion. For example is the local regula- mentioned in article (2) pursuant to tion on health care which happen to be the act. burden for poor community. Section 243 Act No. 32 Year 2004 Therefore, they cannot get on local governance is the law basic in proper medical serv- arranging the reparatory administra-
    • Percik May 2009 „ R E G U L AT I O N „ 19 and Bandung City. They named the ment; (xiii) administrative penalty; regulation as cleanliness/waste service (xiv) retribution procedure; (xv) crimi- retribution, while Sleman Regency, nal penalty. Further information can Bontang City and Tangerang Regency be seen in the following table. named it cleanliness/solid waste man- From all aspects mentioned above, agement. There is one regulation in 7 local regulations, there are only which meant to collect as much retri- general procedures. Followings are bution as possible that is in Solok City procedures on getting permission and No. 6 Year 1999. The entire regulation types of solid waste service, retribu- is only arranging retribution for col- tion, and criminal punishment. It looks lecting, transporting, treatment or dis- like local government has viewed waste posal of households, trading, hospital, as business opportunity. Besides, local hotel and factory solid waste. regulation has become tool for lawMentoring activity for solid waste management in RT level. Photo: BORDA Second, aspects discussed within enforcement with the criminal punish- each local regulation are different. The ment.tive punishment. Administrative pun- aspects can be summarized into (i) In the examples of local regulationsishment can be directly given by the general instruction (definition); (ii) above, community involvement isgovernment. Therefore, local regula- objective and target; (iii) using the ci- reflected in right and responsibility,tion should be comprehensive includ- tizens right to get a good and environ- prohibition on waste disposal, anding law basis, types of penalty, proce- mental friendly of solid waste manage- specifically on types and procedures ifdures and the authority. This is differ- ment service from local government; community involvement. However,ent with criminal punishmentr . (iv) procedure on responsibility to this aspect is only mentioned in 4 out manage household and similar to of 7 local regulations.Local Regulation on Solid Waste household waste; (v) procedure on get-Management ting permit for solid waste manage- Effectiveness of Local Regulation Although the solid waste manage- ment service; (vi) types of solid waste Section 289 H article (1) 1945ment Act has just been launched and management service; (vii) solid waste Constitution gives rights for every per-the government regulation is still in treatment; (viii) solid waste manage- son to get good and healthy environ-the development, each government has ment funding; (ix) compensation by ment. This has brought consequencethe local regulation on solid waste local government; (x) types and proce- that government should provide publicmanagement already. dures of community involvement; (xi) service in solid waste management. To get the overview on solid waste prohibition on waste disposal; (xii) Government is the authority andmanagement within local regulation supervision on solid waste manage- responsible for the solid waste ma-framework, we have compared 7 localregulations from South-East MalukuRegency, Depok City, Surabaya City,Tangerang Regency, Bontang City,Sleman Regency, and Bandung City. We found some interesting aspects.First, the names of local regulationsare varied. Some of them are speciallyregulating solid waste management,but some other connects it with waste/cleanliness retribution such as in South-East Maluku Regency, Depok City, Surabaya City Community initiative in solid waste management is more effective in reducing waste generation Photo Bowo Leksono
    • 20 Percik May 2009 „ R E G U L AT I O N „ ASPECTS ON LOCAL REGULATION REGARDING SOLID WASTE: OBSERVATION ON 7 LOCAL REGULATIONS No Components City/Regency South-East Depok Surabaya Tangerang Bontang Sleman Bandung Maluku 1 General instruction (definition); V V V V V V V 2 Objective and target; V V V 3 Using the citizen’s right to get a good V V V V and environmental friendly of solid waste management service from local government; 4 Procedure on responsibility to V V V V V manage household and similar to household waste; 5 Procedure on getting permit for solid V V V V V waste management service; 6 Types of solid waste management V V V V service; 7 Solid waste treatment; V V V V 8 Solid waste management funding; V V V 9 Compensation by local government; V V V 10 Types and procedures of community V V V involvement; 11 Prohibition on waste disposal; V V V 12 Supervision on solid waste V V V management; 13 Administrative penalty; V V V V 14 Retribution procedure; V V V V 15 Criminal penalty V V V V Vnagement although in its implementa- standard on solid waste managementtion may involve community or having and its punishment. Every local gov-partnership with solid waste service ernment is using their local regulation;provider. therefore the handling is different on However, the cleanliness condition each region. Besides, local governmentof cities in Indonesia is below average. is still trapped in retribution andOne of the reasons is the lack of health penalty issues to increase the localand hygiene education since early age income rather than feeling responsibleand lack of law enforcement from the for the solid waste management.local regulation. Furthermore, com- The increase of effectiveness frommunity has not aware of the existence the local regulation in the future willof regulation and the law penalty. depend on the availability of the gov- In Indonesia, before the act is ernment regulation as the descendent launched, there is no definite of the solid waste act. At this moment, the government regulation is in finish- ing phase. This regulation will be the umbrella for local regulation on solid waste management. Soon after it is Games of separating garbage for children as a means of educating clean and hygienic living since theyre still young. Photo: BaliFokus
    • Percik May 2009 „ R E G U L AT I O N „ 21legalized, existing local regulationshould be reviewed and revised if nec-essary. Therefore, law enforcementcan be applied and local regulation willbe effective in increasing the perform-ance of local solid waste management,including the motivating the increaseof community involvement.Local government should be careful indealing with solid waste managementsince community can use their rightsin getting better solid waste manage-ment service, and they can proposelaw sue. The implementation of thisact has brought consequence for localto re -arrange the waste managementfrom policy, method, technique andeven regulation aspects. „ (Dewi danOM) Community initiative in solid waste management is more effective in reducing waste generation . Photo: Pusdakota. National Policy and Strategy on the Development of Solid Waste Management System hen government troubled management act was launched. Year 2005 on the development of W about institution, fund and solid waste regulation, several NGOs Basically, the community involvement has been accommodat- drinking water supply system and can be use as guideline for central and community group has managed ed in one of the strategy of 2nd poli- and local government in improving to run solid waste management in cy in Ministry Regulation No. solid waste management system household and neighborhood level. 21/PRT/M/2006 about National sustainably and environmental They have community development Policy and Strategy on the develop- friendly. programs in slum areas. Commu- ment of Solid Waste Management Community involvement in solid nities are encouraged to separate System, which is the increase of waste management activity is officially between organic and inorganic active role of community and private called community based solid waste waste. Afterwards, 3R activities are sector as partners in management. management (CBSWM). It is translat- performed such as composting, Community has been proven to ed into a solid waste management sys- recycling the waste into handicrafts be effectively running the program tem which is planned, arranged, oper- and planting trees. Unfortunately, better and more successful especial- ated, maintained and owned by com- this kind of community involvement ly when they are involved since the munity. is not facilitated by the government. beginning. This activity can be done The objective is to have self-help The community was working by to increase the solid waste manage- community in keeping the cleanliness themselves. ment in settlement area through of the environment through environ- For that purpose, it is interesting local community development, mental friendly solid waste manage- to see how far the community which can be replicated in other ment. CBSWM principles are: com- involvement has been accommodat- areas. munity participation, self-help, effi- ed in the national policy and strate- Ministry Regulation No. ciency, environmental protection and gy. However, the national policy and 21/PRT/M/2006 is a mandate from integration. „ strategy exist before the solid waste the government regulation No.16
    • 22 Percik May 2009 „ R E G U L AT I O N „ Act No 18 Year 2008 on Solid Waste Management Perspective Study on Community Based Solid Waste Management By : Popo Rianto, S.H. DIRECTOR OF CBTECH-LPTP SOLO his article is summarized fromT the discussion BORDA, BEST, LPTP and betweenBalifokus in the study frame of govern-ment acts and regulations and its rele-vance on the development of commu-nity based solid waste managementprogram. This discussion is held inYogyakarta on the 10th of December2008 and presented in study forum ofPokja AMPL in Jakarta in 27th ofFebruary 2009. As we have already known, thatstarting on 8th of May 2008, Act No.18 Year 2008 on solid waste manage-ment has been implemented. The birthof the act gave new motivation in themiddle of solid waste problems incities in Indonesia. A teenager is sewing handicrafts made of plastic waste . On several occasions, it was Photo: Bowo Leksonoexplained by the government that bythe launch of this act, it means that be effective which are: 3 Ministry 1. Section 13, settlement developerthere is shifting of paradigm on solid Regulations and 11 government/local should provide waste separation facili-waste management from end of pipe to regulations. Are the regulations there ty. In the explanation, it is mentionedtreatment as source. Community has already? Or if it is there, is it in accor- that settlement includes cluster, con-also the opportunity to participate in dance with the intended regulations? dominium and apartment.solid waste management activities. Based on information, at this moment, 2. Section 5 also stated that central The question, now, is whether the Environmental Ministry is preparing and local government is responsible toact can accommodate the role and par- the Government Regulation Draft on provide solid waste management. Thisticipation of the community since all waste reduction, waste management section can be translated into: if com-this time was the biggest contributor of and hazardous waste management. munity wants to manage their ownwaste and always accused for not (yet) waste, government should providehaving the awareness? Pleasing Sections both structure and infrastructure. From the perspective of community 3. Section 27 also mention aboutThe Needs for the Derivative involvement, at least several sections partnership by forming a solid wasteRegulation within the act are satisfying since it service provider, it means that Based on the study done by the mentions community involvementsolid waste task force (GTPS), the act although not very clear. Some of themstill requires derivative regulations to are:
    • Percik May 2009 23 „ R E G U L AT I O N „there is a possibility for private to enterin solid waste management sector. 4. Section 37 on the right to claimof the waste organization, where com-munity can involved in the supervi-sion. 5. Section 45 mentions the con-struction of solid waste managementfacility.Weaknesses However, from the perspective ofcommunity involvement, the act stillcontains several weaknesses because it isnot clearly stating the accommodationor giving opportunity for the communityinvolvement in solid waste activities.This can be seen in several sectionswhich need to be clarified: Handicrafts produced by housewives with the materials from plastic wrappings. Photo Bowo Leksono 1. Section 17 stated "those who arewilling to have solid waste serviceshould obtain permission from the ment procedures pursuant to the local ment, and has not give clear role to thechief of the local government. regulation". community. 2. Community involvement is only In general, this act is still govern- Communitys Opportunityaccommodated by section 28 and it is ment minded. Waste is governments From the study can be concludedstill limited. problem and community will just have that communitys role is still at the 3. Section 31 "the cooperation with to pay the retribution fee. Back again, it same level with private when actuallylocal government should obey the local seems that government will take the the substance is different especially inregulation and follow the local govern- biggest portion in solid waste manage- the amount of capital. Community nor- mally only has willingness. However, in the act (section 17) mentioned that if community is willing to be the player in solid waste manage- ment and fulfill the requirements, especially permission, they can be solid waste management provider just like private. The next question is how the chance of community self-help groups in region are or in their own areas which are mostly community based and has sustainably running without any subsidy from the government? It remains a big question! „ Summarized by Surur Wahyudi Female teenagers are gathering to discuss solid waste management in their neighbourhood. Photo: exclusive
    • 24 Percik May 2009 „ R E G U L AT I O N „ Follow Up on Solid Waste Act aste cannot be taken forW granted. Evidence shows that waste has been a prob-lem in all areas. Therefore, the solutioncannot be done by each city since itbecomes global issues which requireserious attention. Good cooperationbetween stakeholders is needed. If waste cannot be handled proper-ly, it can turn into disaster. The exam-ple of it can be seen in LeuwigajahFinal Dumpsite, Banding on 2005.Hundreds of people were buried by thewaste slide. Actually, it is not thewaste, but the person itself. However,the disaster has enlightened a lot ofparties and gave birth to the solidwaste act. Solid waste act is a law umbrellawhich has been waited by the wastestakeholders. This act was born from Discussions on "Regulation on Community based Solid Waste management” On Friday, 27th of Februarythe perfection of the previous experi- 2009, in BAPPENAS Jakarta. Photo Bowo Leksonoences. The act give mandate to the com- The Content of Government Communitys Rolemunity role since government cannot Regulation One of the contents from the 11 gov-solve the problems themselves. The work is not finished by the ernment regulation drafts is the typeCommunity involvement should be present of the act. To implement the and procedure of community role. Thebalanced with incentive and disincen- regulation, the technical implementa- content of this is located in four sec-tive. The key is the movement of all tion guideline underneath it is tions of the Act. Those are section 11 onstakeholders. required. rights, section 12 on obligation, section This act also has its main message Central government is still pursu- 21 on incentive and disincentive, andregarding the community based solid ing the regulation so that the local gov- section 28 on communitys role.waste management paradigm which is ernment is ready and can finish the A lot of community, individually orprincipled on 3R approach. It is also a solid waste problems immediately. The in a cluster scale has done solid wastetransformation of policy and strategy. Act No 18 Year 2008 give mandate on management. They, with communalThe message of the act is to manage 11 government regulation as basic con- awareness are initiatively treating theand recycle the wastes. tents. Central government divided the waste to fulfill the obligation as men- mandate into three groups; govern- tioned in section 12; every person in ment regulation draft on waste reduc- managing household and similar to tion, waste treatment, and specific household waste management is obli- waste treatment. gated to reduce and treat the waste in an environmental friendly ways. After the obligation is completed, the demand for the rights for
    • Percik May 2009 „ R E G U L AT I O N „ 25 Discussion on the Regulations of Solid Waste Management o get inputs from all parties for the government keeps on pursuing the regula- that solid waste act is not putting the pre- T development of government regula- tions on solid waste management, a dis- tion to make the local ready and finish their waste problems. "The important amble as a basis so that the sections with- in are not contradicting with the ratifica- cussion entitled "Solid Waste Regulation principle is that waste is public service and tion or another national regulation. Regarding Community Based Solid Waste governments responsibility. Every person Indonesia can easily ratify but weak in its Management" was held on Friday, February is obligated to treat their waste because implementation," he explained. 27th, 2009 in Bappenas Jakarta. waste is an individual product, so morally Meanwhile, Popo Riyanto is highlight- This discussion was initiated by AMPL we are all responsible," he added. ing the actor of solid waste management Taskforce in collaboration with BORDA and According to Endang Setyaningrum, far which implements the program in several presenting: Chief of Solid Waste before the solid waste act, government areas. According to him, the solid waste Management, Environmental Ministry, has campaigned 3R because waste are act has given opportunities for the inde- Ujang Solihin Sidik; Chief of sub direc- everywhere, although the approach was pendent to get incentive from their local torate Management, Directorate PPLP not good enough. "Afterwards, we governments. Public Work Department, Endang changed the approach into community "Lot of community groups are having Setyaningrum; Hassanudin University based and from there what community did problems, especially infrastructure to Lecturer, Makassar, Laode M. Syarif; and will return to them by still using 3R strat- manage the waste. And this is local gov- CBTECH-LPTP Surakarta Director, Popo egy," she said. ernments responsibility," he added. „ BW Riyanto. Laode M. Syarif is highlighting on the Ujang Solihin Sidik stated that central ratification in terms of waste. He thinks decision making, protection rights and and government is required to be inde- rights to get assistance. pendent. The success on waste management From past experiences, all sectors in local area happened because all of including solid waste, was built with the stakeholders are working together. top-down principle. Everything was Communitys motivation was fully sup- done on project based. Government ported by the local government by pro- with its fund built structure and infra- viding structure and infrastructure and structure without involving communi- regulation support. Besides, there were ty. As a result, they are soon neglected. also support from private, NGO, mass Before the birth of the act, a lot of media, and educational institution. region has conduct assistance on solid If there is incentive, there should be waste management. This is ease the disincentive for those who do not government in applying the regula- reduce their waste. This is all regulated tions and having best practices as in the solid waste act, which is project- examples for another region which has ed into the regulations below, includ- not implement proper solid waste Communitys initiative on making separate garbage bin based on the waste types . ing local regulation since it is local gov- management Photo BORDA ernments responsibility in regulating As in the development of the act, the solid waste management in their government regulation as a basic forincentive as mentioned in section 11 respective areas. implementation technical requirescan be addressed to the government. inputs from all stakeholders. What isThey are rights on getting solid waste Community Based Approach needed by the community and what service, rights on The essence of the Act No 18 Year should government do. 2008 on solid waste management is It seems that the success of the community based solid waste manage- solid waste management will only be a ment (CBSWM). Community based hope when local government does not means independency. Therefore, in implement regulation pursuant to managing the waste, community their responsibility. „ Bowo Leksono
    • 26 Percik May 2009 „ KNOWLEDGE WAWA N C A R A „ „Principle and Philosophy of Community Development ommunity development term veled, which are: false participation,C came out because the increase of view, awareness and assur-ance from the development planner, By: Ahmad Mahmudi* ing the awareness of the community themselves. While locality develop- information sharing, consultancy, decision making, acting together, backing up, taking risk and responsi-researcher, academician, politician, ment is the way to strengthen the com- bility together, authority distribution.bureaucrat, development practitioner, munity and educate them through However, the important thing is capac-and community that community is experiences so that they are able to ity building.autonomic. The existence is no sponta- implement the program by themselves The effort to raise the communitysneous but rather historical; communi- in order to increase their life quality. capacity should be done in collectivety is not static, but complex and learning process which is meant todynamic. History of the community is Basic Materials increase their capacity, to use all theirhistory of the independency; commu- Based on the above definition, com- community modality which can benity is the one who is having and close munity development contains: 1) rais- mobilized to raise their livelihood.with the resources; community is the ing the full initiative and participation As an example, the habit and will-one who knows and understands the of the community, 2) improving com- ingness to identify, push and mobilizeproblems faced; they are the one who munitys capacity, 3) Motivating self- the potential of human resource, eco-understand their own strengths and independency, 4) pushing private sec- nomic opportunity, social relation andweaknesses and realized the kind of natural resources within the communi-changes they are willing to have. ty to increase the situation and theCommunity has the right to define condition of social life and its environ-their life and the strong intervention ment.from outside will weaken them. There is no Types of capital or community definite definition assets are: 1. Economic capital, 2.Definition on community Social capital, 3. Environmental capi- There is no definite definition on development. tal, 4. Human capital. Example of com-community development. The term is munity assets:introduced by Jack Rotham in 1970. In Capital Group Capital Aspectssocial science, it is also called localitydevelopment. In Indonesia, the most Human Capital Skills Educationpopular terms is community develop- Leadershipment and has been famous since early tor, 5) pushing self-management, 6) Voluntary1980s. improving the condition and 7) Social capital Community mental situ- There are different terms, but the improving the life quality. Therefore, ationdefinitions are the same. Community the community development activities Community organiza-development is usually biased with should be centralized on community tion Community participationcommunity empowerment or commu- and not to the problem and further- Economic productivity Economic Capitalnity organizing which was popular in more, there are learning processes and Local market system1990s. not dictating processes. Access to resources In principles, community develop- Amount of distributing moneyment is a process designed to create Increasing Communitys Capa-economic and social development for city Environmental Environmental healththe entire community with active par- In practicing community develop- Capital Natural resourcesticipation and as much as possible rais- ment, types of participation are le- Landscape
    • Percik May 2009 27 „ WAWA NE D G E KNOWL CARA „Community Development Prin- nity for the community to learn. willingness from each. All partici-ciples 8. Cooperation and natural resource pations should be respected. Several important principles in access, focusing on cooperation 10. Values and wisdom, communitycommunity development which network. The cooperation will be development process shouldrequire attention are: benefiting because there are com- express and reflect the local values 1. Holistic, including the human life pleting and learning process, and wisdom. aspects: social, economy, politic, which opens the access to natural 11. Communication, heterogenic co- culture, environment a spiritual. resource. mmunity will require proper and Focusing on one aspect still 9. Participation, every person is effective social communication require the relevance with another encouraged to be actively invol- system. aspect. ved. Every person participates dif- 12. Institutionalization, community 2. Human Rights Assurance, fully ferently and should be based on development is not merely imple- assure the proper rights of every human being to have a COOPERATION SCHEME BETWEEN COMMUNITY, GOVERNMENT AND NON-GOVERNMENT good living. 3. Sustainability, do not degrade natural resource. It is not only for short term but has to put attention on the sustainability of life. 4. Capacity Building, focusing on the learning processes to increase self competence in order to define the future of human life, by providing sources, opportunities, knowl- edge and skill, including removing the obstacles which blocked communitys devel- opment. 5. Independency, using the assets owned by the commu- nity rather than counting on outside support. The outside support should only be back up. 6. Organic, complex and dynam- ic process, similar to human characteristic which is very organic. The development depends on the condition and situation on the community. 7. Process oriented, it is not result oriented, but the process that matters. The process is involving all stake- holders, techniques, strate- gies, which provide opportu-
    • 28 Percik May 2009 „ „ WAWA NE D G E KNOWL CARA „ menting temporary technical an activity for future reference activities, but also making the especially regarding the activity entire process into part of com- design, planning and execution. munitys history for longer  Reflection, the effort to see the period of time. possibility to re-apply the method for different communities.Community DevelopmentProcess Community Development In general, community devel- Practice Modelsopment is usually done in stages The various community develop-and systematical as follows: ment activities in the field, it can be  Assessment, problem and replicable models such as: Community potential identification owned by Based Sanitation, Community Based the community to get the proper Disaster Risk Reduction, Community solution. Based Natural Resource Management,  Community planning, a design- Collective work is a real evidence of communi- Community Based Settlement, ty participation. Photo: Pusdakota. ing phase of activity which will Community Based Health Develop- be done or realizing the solution activity. It is hoped that with the ment, Community Based Education, towards the problems faced. implementation of the activity, etc. „  Activity implementation, realiza- the problems faced by the com- *Chief of LPTP-Solo Foundation and Chief tion of the activity planning which munity can be solved. of Insist Yogyakarta, expert on alternative consider all physical and non-  Evaluation, an activity to assess education physical aspect until the end of the on the level of success or failure of This article is re-written by Surur Community is having dialogue to increase the participation in development Photo: Bowo Leksono
    • Percik May 2009 29 „ KNOWLEDGE „ Community Empowerment in Solid Waste Management n a lot city in developing coun- ventional perspective which stated that result. This condition has open peo-I tries, solid waste management system both by government andprivate cannot overcome the waste only government and private can over- come the waste problems is not right. Local government sometimes lacks of ples perspective that community is having significant role in reducing the waste generation.generation problems. Only 30%-50% fund and human resource which comeof the waste generation can be trans- to the inability to manage the existing What is Community Based Solidported, while the rest are burned system. Waste Management (CBSWM)?buried, and thrown to the river. This At the same time, new evidence In general, CBSWM is translatedcondition is actually the effect of local showed that waste recycling opens new into activities done by the communitygovernments inability in doing their work opportunities for some people, to clean their environment and/or toresponsibilities. Solid waste manage- especially the poor ones. It is estimated get income from the solid waste man-ment is taking lots of budget. In the that there are 20%-30% of solid waste agement, starting from collection,other side, the retribution from the in cities in Asia has been recycled by transportation disposal and treatment.waste management is not sufficient to informal sector. Furthermore, thecover the expenses. efforts done by the housewives in their Participation as Keyword Solid waste management has own place or communal scale gave sig- Community based is simply can bebecome global issues. Lots of efforts nificant contribution towards waste illustrated into one word, participa-are executed to solve the problems. reduction. tion. Participation during the lastEventually, it comes to the conclusion Reducing waste generation can bet- decades has been a keyword in devel-that waste is not only technical issues, ter be done at the source. It means, opment studies. In 1970s, severalbut related with cultural dimension solid waste management activities international organizations put partic-and socio-political condition. The con- should involve community for better ipation as an alternative to the top- down approach from its policy and program. The main objective is to increase community involvement. This awareness is pushed by the reality that there are lack of community involve- ment in development sectors. Participatory approach was initially introduced by Brazilian education practitioner, Paulo Freire from his experience with concientization in Latin America. There are several reasons for giving more focus on participatory approach: (i) effective problem formulation, (ii) formulation on alternative solution which can be accepted socially, (iii) having sense of ownership Mothers in the community hold big roles in handling garbage problem . Photo: KPS collection Yogyakarta
    • 30 Percik May 2009 „ KOWLEDGE „towards the planning and resolving fixed with technical, education and Participation in Solid Wasteactivities so it is easily applied administrative. While structural Management(Mitchell, 1997). approach, problems come from social At the individual level, minimum Participatory approach is meant to conflict. participation is in the form of simplemake the community as a center of Participation has often been related waste collection in the waste bin, sepa-development. The target is to over- with several naïve assumptions which rating organic and inorganic, puttingcome the alienation from institution should be corrected in order to gain the waste in a proper time and placeand social structure to achieve social positive result from participative and carries it to the temporary wasteequality. Most people even acknowl- approach. Participation focuses on the collection and cleaning the yard. At theedge participation as basic needs and collective action which is based on the community level, participation meansrights of human. Community involve- theory which stated that community is as a more organized activities, such asment is voluntary in improving the homogeny. Only small attention is meeting, drainage cleaning and park,environment and their welfare. addressed to the difference within the and awareness campaign. Further-Participation can be a life strategy community. The other myth is related more, participation means starting thewhich can help them in facing the with individual action. waste project or involved in it alongthough world and increase their wel- It is assumed that people will par- with other parties outside the commu-fare. ticipate when they get rational eco- nity. Participation can also means Participatory approach is built nomic man or for social being. involved in waste collection manage-based on two main ideologies: (i) par- According to Cleaver (1999), it is more ment, negotiation with local govern-ticipation as a tool to implement devel- realistic to see inside the community ment, including community mobiliza-opment policies, and (ii) participation which has big difference like solidarity tion to push the government to provideas final objective. In participation as and conflict, and dynamic diversity. proper service to the community.tool, involving the beneficiaries hope- Furthermore, community administra- Participatory development is most-fully will increase the efficiency and tive boundary is not always the same ly based on the romantic interpretationeffectiveness of the development with social boundary. of community concept. In sociology,implementation. Furthermore, involv- Approach (i) is based on utility anthropology and economy, communi-ing the community will assure the sus- maximization principle, participation ty is considered as natural, static, ho-tainability of the service. is encouraged by self needs and ration- mogeny and harmonic unit. Commu- This condition does not only hap- al consideration that the benefit is big- nity is assumed to be sharing solidari-pen in the governmental institutions, ger than the cost. Approach (ii), partic- ty, collective interest, values andbut also NGOs. With this approach, ipation is motivated by social responsi- needs.activity is designed to or with commu- bility and answered to the community The main challenge of solid wastenity by the outside organization, in the needs. Individual percepts as part of management activities is giving atten-form of consultancy. Meanwhile, par- the social structure and its behavior tion to the difference condition andticipative development as final objec- follow social norms. Community will perception of community towardstive is focusing on community empow- do collective actions of they are moved waste.erment. This approach is used as strat- by solidarism and altruism. The focus Generally, there are three groupsegy to achieve social mobilization or is only given to the different motive for which are involved in community ini-collective action in order to gain social participating. tiative, they are:integrity, equality and democracy. Participatory approach can also be (i) households who produce waste;Different with approach (i), approach manipulating tool in the hand of deci- (ii) waste collector;(ii) is focusing on the result of the sion maker which can give difficulties (iii) organizations like NGOs anddevelopment done by the community. to the community. Government can community organization, which has In the framework of both approach- use the participation as a legitimating different roles such as facilitator ores, the cause of failure can be found on tool in front of community. Despite its contractor.two different things. Tool approach strengths and weaknesses, there are nosees it as operational obstacles, while other alternatives besides involving theobjective approach sees it as structural community in the development activi-approach. Operational failure can be ties.
    • Percik May 2009 31 „ KNOWLEDGE „ ly women and the youth, which are the waste management for the community. groups with high level of unemploy- However, it has to be realized that out- ment. side intervention should only be a trig- CBSWM should better consider ger and temporary so that the sense of short term benefit because community belonging from the community is struggling with house, job vacancy become another important require- and secure tenure. ment. Realizing that community is varied, Challenge therefore, one answer cannot be a solu- Community groups especially those tion for the waste problems. Ignoring with low income have the boundary to the difference will cause the communi- the access of fund. Fund is mostly ty development wont work. depending on outside sources to pro- Participation is not a panacea (cure for vide basic equipments to initiate solid all disease) to gain sustainable waste waste services. Bank and another nor- management. mal credit facility denied the loan since Maintaining and encouraging the there are no assets. participation require continuous work through awareness and capacity build- Success Requirements ing. Furthermore, partnership bet- From several literatures, CBSWM ween different actors is needed to failure is caused by low household par- assure the successful CBSWM. ticipation. Is solid waste management CBSWM is not going to be sustain- is a need, it will effect to the participa- able without strong relationship tion level and willingness to pay. It has between community organization and been agreed that need is the main local government. local government requirement for successful CBSWM. should provide framework which Therefore, raising the community agreed by both. In Indonesia, based on awareness is the initial phase to CBSWM studies in Surabaya, encourage communitys needs. Yogyakarta, Makassar and Padang byTwo mothers are making bags out of plastic waste Besides, from the study conducted Dian Desa Foundation and Mary Judd, materials. Photo Bowo Leksono by Mockler (1998) on 15 recycling it can be concluded that sustainability activities by community in Jakarta, it is and replication will work if supported found that only four of them are still by local government and their regula-Benefits operating. This failure is caused by tion. Solid waste management services insufficient amount of organic waste Support from the local governmentconducted by community create job which can be turned into compost, so is obvious in the form of waste trans-opportunities and income-generating the income is not sufficient as well. portation from the community to theactivities, which also contribute on Financial incentive from the recycling final dumpsite. Agreement in responsi-improving environment condition. activities has turned out to be not bility, boundary, and commitment isBetter efficiency in solid waste man- interesting anymore for the communi- needed.agement service give significant dona- ty. Naturally, waste treatment is con-tion to the environment cleanliness Support from the outside can be sidered to be dirty and uncomfortable.and thus improving communitys liv- one of the successful factors for Community needs to be educateding quality. CBSWM. Informal and formal training about integrated solid waste manage- Experiences showed that through by external institution influence the ment system and its impact.job opportunities offered, it gives willingness of the community to pay. Household pays the service feechances to improve environment con- This training covered a holistic under-dition and poverty reduction, especial- standing about the benefit of solid
    • 32 Percik May 2009 „ KNOWLEDGE „to the waste collector every day. This ismore suitable for area with low dailyincome community. Continuous community involve-ment is needed by considering sustain-able waste management system (Vonde Klundert and Anschutz, 2001)which are:(i) the management systemshould adjust to the local condition;(ii) partnership between stakeholderslike community, government, NGO is acertainty; (iii_ involving 5 dimensionsof sustainability which are social,politic, environment, economy andphysical (Von de Klundert andAnschutz, 2001). Anschutz (1996) stated that givingappropriate incentive is important. Asan illustration, in Kathmandu, Nepal,community was educated in class onthe importance of solid waste manage-ment. However, the behavior started AMPL network conducting discussion on government regulation draft on solid waste management. Photo Bowo Leksonoto change when the waste bin is pro-vided and there is competition onclean community. cost. This principle is basically com- Replication Challenge In Philippines, households are paring the retribution with the amount Pilot project scale activities are differ-encouraged to recycle. In Rio, waste of waste generation. The more waste ent with the replication scale. Severalare exchanged with bus ticket or food generation, the more cost they should important factors needed are:parcel. In Mexico, the economic bene- carry. (i) every new intervention shouldfit is having more impact rather than Third, community involvement, com- begin differently depending on the geo-behavioral change. munity is allowed and encouraged to graphical factor, community composition According to Mikkelsen (1995) edu- participate in the entire process, giving and income. Although previous experi-cational, financial and technical solu- suggestion for the service provider and ence can be use as reference;tion is used to remove the operational request for help if needed. (ii) changing of location may causeproblems, although it is not appropri- Fourth, supervision, community have resistance even in the same administra-ate to encourage the participation. the opportunity to supervise the activi- tive area. For example the new location ties including information on violation does not get approval from the villageBasic Principles of CBSWM like loitering. authority;Design Fifth, sanction, whoever broke the (iii) different location requires differ- Although it has not been an agree- agreement and or not paying the retri- ent approach, for example like education-ment, several basic principles for bution fee, or not participating should al institution and private settlement areCBSWM design can be summarized be given penalty based on the agree- having different rules.into: ment. Besides, facing the financial depend-First, clear territorial boundary. Sixth, Rights to form organization, ency can be solved with encouragingTerritorial boundary became impor- community is allowed to form organi- financial solution by small scale industrytant to determine the scope of the serv- zation as long as it does not violating scheme for domestic solid waste.ice and the retribution collection. the regulation. „ (OM from different sources).Second, balance between benefit and
    • Percik May 2009 33 „ KNOWLEDGE „ Community Based Solid Waste Management: Call for Incentive By: Surur WahyudiDefinition ommunity Based Solid WasteC Management (CBSWM) is a solid waste management activi-ty which is based on community needs,willingness, interest, and initiative.CBSWM should be differentiated withsolid waste service by private, especial-ly in the capital aspect. CBSWM in Indonesia has been con-ducted in several cities. For example,Mrs. Bambang Harini in Banjarsari,Jakarta, Mr. Iswanto in Sukunan,Yogyakarta, Mr. Warjiman inCibangkong, Bandung are the famous Warjiman, standing in front of garbage mound in composting house in Kelurahan Cibangkong, Kotanames in CBSWM. This activity is pop- Bandung. The struggle of Cibangkong community was overlooked by the local government of Bandung. Photo Bowo Leksonoular since 2007 and is located inmetropolis city, big city or even small quite significant. As an example, One of the weaknesses of pioneercity. Surabaya has reduced their waste gen- approach, like what mostly happens The activities they are doing is eration by 10%. It happens since the now, is to find the community leader inpurely communitys willingness and is housewives have started to turn their urban community like Mrs. Bambangvoluntary, and without any capital. organic waste into compost with in Jakarta or Mr. Iswanto inTherefore, the championship factor or Takakura Method. If it is true, then the Yogyakarta. As an example, in cadrea person is dominant. Although some cost for solid waste can be lowered by training on solid waste managementof them were starting it from programs encouraging CBSWM on every area. which can be participated by 40-60funded by government, private and However, the reality speaks differ- people, not one of them become theNGO. ently. Base on the observation, pioneer in their area. They generally started from their CBSWM activities in a lot of city is This approach is getting more diffi-own household, then moving to their done sporadically. Each party is run- cult since waste management requireneighbor, and there were also started ning by themselves and almost no sup- worker and worker require cost. Morewith community agreement at the RT port from the authority of city/regency waste to treat will require more cost.or RW level. They start with compost- so the waste reduction is not optimum. Therefore, scaling-up program faced aing then recycling by selling the recy- lot of obstacle.clables, or making new product from it Pioneer vs. System Systemic approach meant the pro-like recycled papers, plastic bag, etc. In order to increase the benefit and gram does not rely on pioneer but tofrom the development, CBSWM mod- impact of CBSWM towards waste the waste management itself. Theels are varied pursuant to different problems in Indonesia, pioneer background is that every com-background and condition. approach should be changed or munity as waste pro- The impact of CBSWM activity is equipped with systemic approach. ducer can be
    • Percik May 2009 34 „ KNOWLEDGE „ getting incentive. All this time, in waste world, com- munity only becomes the object of ret- ribution. This perspective has been running for years and has cause the mentality "community pays, govern- ment manage". As a result, the com- munity has become apathetic towards waste and does not care about the fund whether it is enough or not. Community has never been obligat- ed with waste responsibility. Therefore, this kind of perspective needs to be changed; community should become subject in solid waste management. Communitys responsi- bility needs to be raised. The paradigm of subsidy should be changed into incentive. Subsidy isIswanto, handshaking with President Yudhoyono, receiving award of recycling creation competition at assuming that community is incapable the national level in 2004. Photo: repro Bowo Leksono and requires help, while incentive is more like the form of appreciation forpioneer in solid waste management. posed into final dumpsite by 50-60%. the community.Economic principle should also be Imagine if all villages has done the To develop CBSWM, it is more suit-included and cannot only depending same, then local government only need able to give incentive to the communi-on voluntary service since the workers to treat 50% of the waste and the cost ty who has mange their own waste.need to be paid. can be reduced. Beside, the life of final This kind of model has been imple- More tools mean more cost, but on dumpsite can be longer and environ- mented in Philippines, where one vil-the other hand, avoiding tools will mental pollution can be reduced. Even lage who can manage their own wastelower the efficiency level. Community more, community will be delighted will get the development fund from thehas the willingness to pay less because since they are doing noble work and community. When can we do it? „it is better for them, while they alsowant to know the usage of the money.Therefore, solid waste can be managedcollectively in one certain area andmanaged by community themselvesbased on cost recovery principles.The need for Incentive It is odd when the CBSWM commu-nities who give role in independentsolid waste management and partici-pating in waste reduction do not getmaximum support from the govern-ment. Based on the survey conductedby CBSWM groups, it shows that theycan reduce the amount of waste dis- Suhari, pioneering independent solid waste management in kampong Mulungan, Sleman Photo: BORDA
    • Percik May 2009 35 „ WAWA NE D G E KNOWL CARA „ Waste and Global Warming By: Yuyun Ismawati Waste Generation and Green waste slide, water and air pollution and House Gases source of diseases. reen house gases which keep Indonesia is one of the biggest To handle solid waste, according toG on released to the atmosphere threaten the earth balance andcause climate change globally. waste producers. With high population of 224 million (2006), waste produc- tion rate in big cities is around 0,6- Inter-governmental Panel for Climate Change (IPCC) Guidelines, there are 2 general activities that can be done toInternational Panel on Climate Change 0,85 kg per capita per day, and poten- reduce the emission of green house(IPCC), which getting the Noble last tial of generating 580 giga tons of gases in waste sector: methane avoid-year together with vice president AlGore, stated that most of the earth areawill become warmer. Dry, flood andanother extreme weather will occurmore often and threaten the food sup-ply. Sea level is increasing and will stillincrease and force hundreds of thou-sands of people along the coast line tomigrate. One of the green house gases pro-duced by human activities and keepson increasing, CO2, is increasing. In1750, during the industrial revolutionin Europe, in atmosphere there areonly 280 parts per million (ppm) ofCO2. Nowadays, green house gasescontains 390 ppm CO2e (parts per mil-lion of carbon dioxide equivalent-allgreen house gases are stated in a met-rical unit to show the relevance withthe potential global warming), and thisnumber is still increasing 1.5-2 ppmevery year. Untreated garbage in the final dumpsite is the cause of global warming. Reputable scientists believe that Photo: Iexclusivethe earth average temperature cannotincrease more than 2oC from the initial methane per year. ance activity and methane capture andlimit during pre-industrial. European City solid waste management is not utilization activity. Example ofUnion shows that actual efforts in low- optimal, service area on each city and methane avoidance activities are sepa-ering the amount of green house gases disposed in final dumpsite only 30- ration, composting and recycle.is very important to minimize the risk 60% by open dumping. The rests are Examples of methane capture and uti-stated by UN Framework Convention still thrown to the river and burned. lization activities are covering the finalon Climate Change (UNFCC). Waste in final dumpsite is not treated dumpsite into sanitary landfill and itsScientists stated that there are 50% and created problems; one of them is leach pond, then the gas is burned orpossibilities to keep the earth increas- the generation of CH4, which is one of utilizes to generate energy.ing temperature around 2oC if the total the green house gases. Accumulated These activities areconcentration of green house gases can waste in the final dumpsite in big cities actually can bebe lower than 450 ppm. in Indonesia caused disaster: fire,
    • 36 Percik May 2009 „ WAWA NE D G E KNOWL CARA „done in final dumpsite or cluster scale.However, for carbon trading, big scaleand magnitude are preferable.Carbon Trading In Kyoto Protocol agreement,developed countries listed in Annex 1is obligated to lower their green housegases by 6% from their green housegases emission on 1990. The reduction can be done domes-tically by joint implementation espe-cially in the countries former USSRand carbon off-set in cooperation withdeveloping countries through CleanDevelopment Mechanism (CDM). Although it is quite complex anddifficult to join in CDM, most of theinvestor or private are still interested Machine to burn garbage in final dumpsite. Photo: exclusive.to invest the carbon trading scheme.This happened because without the tlement waste produce methane emis- fill technique.support of carbon credit, solid waste sion around 400 tons of CO2/year. Decomposed mound of organicmanagement in final dumpsite will not Small scale can be proposed into large waste and the leach in final dumpsitebe feasible. Unit used in carbon trad- scale by bundling several locations into contain high organic concentration hasing is Carbon Emission Reduction one. Or this small scale activity can fol- not yet treated carefully. From the(CER) which is equal to ton CO2. low the last agreement and become magnitude and size, final dumpsite is In CDM, there are two scales of Programmatic of Action. For large the significant source of green houseprojects which can be funded: small scale project on waste sector, it is nor- gases emission, especially methane.scale (up to 60.000 ton CO2) and large mally targeting final dumpsite. One final dumpsite in a city at leastscale (starting from 60.000 ton CO2). Landfill gas flaring is actually the stan- produces green house gases equal toFrom 1000 persons of domestic or set- dard guideline from the sanitary land- 140,000 tons CO2 per year. Unfortunately, carbon trading has very complex requirements and expen- sive. Sometimes, CDM is called as Complicated and Difficult Mechanism. Now, the decision is on our hands. If we want to be serious in participating on reducing the green house gases emission which contribute to global warming, whether there are carbon credit incen- tive or not, we can start to avoid methane generation by reducing waste, separation, composting and recycling at home or at the work place. The impor- tant is that we can and must try zero waste for zero warming to keep our earth ever lasts. „ Managing solid waste and conserving environment are preventive action for global warming. Photo: exclusive.
    • Percik May 2009 37 „ KNOWLEDGE „ GREEN BUSINESS FOR PLANET EARTH hen economic crisis hit make their brand become relevantW business world and indus- tries, there are several eco-nomic activities which can still operate By: Dr. M. Gunawan Alif* with their customers demand. When consumer has become more demanding, brand should evolve tobecause their raw materials are always stay relevant for its target. Because theexists. Their market is always available basic premise of marketing is the effortbecause the materials they provide can to understand what the customershelp business to run more efficiently. want, so when customers are getting This economic activity is not presti- more aware on environment, thegious, because it is dealing with waste brand should do so. Not only because itand not a very interesting business. gives benefits to the environment, butHowever, this activity gives living for more to the significant impact for thethose who work in this sector. company bottom line. Waste collectors, especially thosewho have become collectors and have Green Workaccess to final dumpsite will get signif- In another side, the efforts to over-icant income. This explains that this On the other hand, if recycling from come the environmental crisis havebusiness moved from slum areas but the raw material, production activity become job opportunity for those whoparticipates in creating better living will have efficiency in operational as are creative. For example someoneenvironment and at the same time cre- well as developing the environmental who sees a lot of nutshell because hisates job opportunities for some people. friendly brand. This is important when neighborhood is peanut producer, is At this moment, living quality is there are lots of other products in the creatively turning the nutshell into bri-heavily pressurized with the growing market since it will minimize the dif- quette to generate energy. With thispopulation, business and industrial ference and create product parity. kind of creative approach he can devel-development. As a result, environment Brand is a differentiator in con- op a profiting business as well asquality is decreasing and following is sumers view when they chose on reusing the waste into more benefitingthe increase of global warming. This brand and not the other. When more product.forced people t find solutions for a bet- consumers are aware of the environ- In Denpasar, several tofu industriester life on earth. ment, associating a brand with envi- which have dirty and smelly residue Here, 3R concept (reduce, reuse ronment will create competitive realized that that kind of business isand recycle) is not a jargon anymore, advantage compared with other not good for everybody. Not only to thebut rather a must to help releasing the brands when the product is showing a environment, but also the sustainabili-heavy burden of this planet. The inter- consistent that their operational is ty of their business since that riskyesting part is that this activity can be really environmental friendly. activities is vulnerable to the commu-done voluntarily or for business pur- Several companies have associated nity protest and from the environmen-pose. their activity with this kind of effort to tal agency. The voluntary activity done by vol- increase their competitive advantages, Realizing the reality, the tofu indus-unteer if it becomes a movement will for example is Unilever Peduli. Several tries then cooperate with Balifokus, angive huge impact on waste reduction. other companies have showed their NGO which concern on sanitation andHowever, business is also important by effort to be more green because they solid waste management, to solverecycling the waste into another prod- realized by making the operational in their problem by creating auct which reduces the waste disposal. more environmental friendly way will wastewater treatment
    • 38 Percik May 2009 „ KNOWLEDGE „plant which is equipped with biogas. important to have several small scaleTherefore, they turned their tofu waste areas which can strategicallyresidue into biogas which can be used separate the recyclables and turnas an alternative source of energy to organic waste into compost.support their industry. Since they do PT Jimbaran Lestari (JL) is seeingnot have to buy gas anymore, they have this as an opportunity and proactivelycompetitive advantage and the possi- cooperates with several hotels in Balibilities to generate bigger profit mar- to collect their waste. With this kind ofgin from it. cooperation, the hotel gets the assur- As what mentioned above, the ance that their place is free from wasteaccumulation of waste in the final and PT JL is getting the waste for theirdumpsite is a big business. There, the business.waste collectors depend their life on, as The recyclables are sold to the fac-well as the collectors who can bring the tories, and the organic waste is sold torecyclables to the factory. the pig farm and some for compost. However, besides recyclables, what The recyclables are collected by theis left is organic waste which is also a collectors and create community eco-promising business opportunity. If it is nomic circles which is profiting.turned into compost, the organic waste By dividing the waste accumulation Garbage in final dumpsite generates income Photo: Bowo Leksonohas more economic value and will in several places, to be recycled andreduce the amount of waste in the final reused, the final dumpsite load shoulddumpsite and prevent the smell. be less and city waste accumulation By dividing the volume of waste, Of course, building compost facility can be solved. With heavy load of the treatment will be easier and createin the final dumpsite is not easy espe- waste accumulation, like what makes several business areas in severalcially due to the space availability in Bandung into a waste city, will not places.the final dumpsite area. Here, it is happen. If all waste can be treated in a prof- itable way, the other benefits are wait- ing. This kind of activity will be consid- ered as reducing the global warming effect since there are no wastes burned and reduce the methane. And furthermore will fulfill the requirements for carbon credit pro- gram and developed countries can buy their emission reduction. This green jobs explanation will give benefit to the environment, com- munity and economy. Therefore, it should be a movement from all for the sake of the earth and the future chil- dren living on it. „ *Writer is a lecturer in Brand Management and Marketing Communication in Postgraduate Program FE UI and Binus Business School Cardboxes from the separation process in the one of final dumpsite. Photo: BaliFokus
    • Percik May 2009 39 „ „ WAWAE D G E „ KNOWL SAN „ Solid Waste Experiences in Different Countries by: Yuyun Ismawati olid waste management at theS household and neighborhood level is also popular in differentcountries. For the same reason or not,all solid waste management done bythe community is moved by communi-ty groups, NGO and government. From Thailand and Philippines,there are several interesting experi-ences which can be shared. InThailand, outstanding community ini-tiatives are Garbage Bank. Economicincentive is high because in Thailand,there are lots of industries who takethe recyclables from the community,so only small amount are in final Garbage collector trucks. Photo Noka Destalinadumpsite. In Subhanburi, or in Thammachote fabric bags are normal situation here. around 10 million rupiahs per monthSuksalai school, there is a School This school is not only teaching the and is still subsidized by the local gov-Garbage Bank. Besides helping the students on the academic curriculum ernment.amount of waste disposed into final but also the ideas to save the environ- Around 40% of the waste residue isdumpsite, students participating in ment and starting the initiative to taken to the nearby final dumpsite. Inthis activity are also understand their reduce the global warming. the composter machine, organic wastecontribution in reducing the global Meanwhile in Pak-Kred has been slices and composted in thewarming caused by solid waste. Their Municipality, there is one community digester on temperature of 700 C for 7activity was getting award from the consist of 200 households who manage days. Waste processed in the rotatingEnvironmental and Natural Resources their own waste. This idea was initial- digester is a mixture of organic wasteMinister in 2007. ized to the community by Bangkok and Bokashi/EM4. The capacity of the School with 2.000 students is Municipality Administration (BMA) in rotating digester is 70-80 kg per day.aware that they produce significant 2002 and welcomed by JICA which After being composted in the digester,amount of waste. Therefore, school give them support of composting the compost is putted into the aerationauthority proclaimed this program two equipments and separation facility compartment for 4 days to return ityears ago to encourage students to worth around 750 million Rupiahs. into normal temperature.recycle by giving it to the garbage bank The operational cost is carried out Meanwhile in Laksi Don Mueangin return for cash. by local government and the retribu- and Romkklao Community, Besides garbage bank, this school is tion fee paid by the community is Ladkrabang, garbage bank is popular.also encouraging their students to use around Rp 2.000 per household per In Bangkok, there are 1.000fabric bag which is more environmen- month and manages by BMA. The garbage banks whichtal friendly. Therefore, students with operational cost of this facility is are operational.
    • 40 Percik May 2009 „ „ WAWA E D G E „ KNOWL SAN „ Composting machine with electricity powered Clean Composting Center in Pak-Kred Municipality. Photo Noka Destalina rotational digester Photo Noka DestalinaEach of the garbage bank can process the community committee. City gov- ing with roof to collect the residual50 tons of recyclables every day. ernment allocated the budget of 250 waste from the community weekly. The income in Pak-Kred is quite big million rupiahs for each location. The Recyclables are sold directly to the col-since it is located in the business trad- fund is given based on the queue of the lectors and organic wastes are com-ing area. The management of this facil- community proposing for the program. posted in houses using used tiresity said that they at least are getting In most of Barangay or village in method introduced by Mother Earth125 million rupiahs per month from Philippines, lots of MRF were built Foundation. The compost is used asthe recyclables. since 2000. Most of the investments fertilizer for the vinegar tree which The community pays monthly fee to are supported by the local govern- produce vinegar oil.the management of the facility and it is ments fund. In around Manila City, In Cavite, there is Center of Ecozoicself-sustaining without any subsidize Pasig City and Quexon City, there are Living & Learning (CELL), a trainingfrom the city government or BMA. several MRF Barangay which main- center for sustainable living initiated Experiences in Philippines are dif- tained by community. by a Columbian priest in 1996. CELLferent. Ecological Solid Waste Barangay Parang in Marikina City also provide fund for eco-waste man-Management Republic Act 9003 (RA is success in exporting handycrafts agement in Cavite. This training center9003) were applied since 2001. This from the recyclables to US, Japan and is also promoting the waste treatmentact gives the obligation to minimize the Europe. Barangay Bagumbang, using bio digester. The methane pro-waste in all level, from the household Barangay Yakal in Silang-Cavite is suc- duced is utilized for water heater, eco-up to the volume of waste disposed cessfully reducing their waste genera- garden and composting toilet.into final dumpsite. tion by 70% by composting and recy- Barangray Bugumbuhay in Quezon In the village level, RO 9003 gives cling. City started on 2002 and con-mandate to built Material Recovery In Barangat Bancod, Indang, sists of MRF activitiesFacility (MRF) which is maintained by Cavite, the MRF is only a simple build- (composting,
    • Percik May 2009 41 „ WAWA NE D G E KNOWL CARA „ Clean Composting Center in Pak-Kred Municipality. Photo Noka Destalinacollecting the recyclables and urban Philippines are steered by captain or imization target for the waste disposedfarming). The key to their success is leader and each of them is having clear to final dumpsite during 5 years of RA4Es: Education (active and intensive concept, management pattern and 9003 implementation is 25% includingcampaign), engineering (using proper their own principles. Most of them are the conversion of the final dumpsitetools and methods), enforcement assisted by NGOs such as Mother which previously practicing open(enforcement of RA 9003) and eco- Earth Foundation, CELL and KILUS dumping become controlled landfillnomic. Foundation. All MRFs are funded by then become sanitary landfill. Barangay Bagumbuhay also pro- local government because it is already In India, there are EXNORA,motes the utilization if non-recyclables stated in RA 9003. Excellent, Novel and Radial whichwaste into tile, concrete block, etc. Only several MRFs are funded by activities are charity club like RotaryThey even have small wildlife center. ADB, NGO or other donors. The Club or Lions Club. They have branch Almost all MRF in villages in important thing is, in Philippines, min- organization structure in several state and city level and promoting several models. Some of the models are Vellnore, Green Cross, etc. in General. What EXNORA is working on is to raise the awareness of the community to clean up their environment. No standard system is applied by EXNO- RA but they believe that if every person is having willingness to do the best and do it radically, it will give significant impact towards the environment. „ Yuyun/taken from Noka Destalina and Prapti Wahyningsih Reports, 2007 MRF Barangay Parang conducting several activities and business related to solid waste, such as plant nursery. Photo Prapti Wahyuningsih
    • 42 Percik May 2009 „ WAWA NE D G E KNOWL CARA „ Solid Waste Management and International Agreements By: Yuyun Ismawati Principle which was released in 1992 vention and we are in the vulnerable during the first Earth Summit group for illegal practice of hazardous Conference in Rio de Jeneiro which waste export. Electronic waste which olid waste management is not focused on precautionary principles, in developed countries is mostlyS only a domestic problem. It is related with the internationalagreements and conventions since prior inform consent, polluters must pay, etc. ECOSOC convention or convention labeled with useable products and dis- posed to developing countries since in developed countries, those productssometimes, it is possible to release the on economic, social, and cultural rights may contain hazardous materials andresponsibility, and dispose the waste to including health, social security, and can no longer be distributed.another country with or without agree- basic living rights in Basel agreed on Kyoto Protocol and CDM discussments. Mostly, the country who is the matters related with hazardous the waste from the methane generationweaker in economy or law will be the waste across nation. Since the treat- prevention and how to capture it andone who receives waste from another ment in developed countries is expen- utilize it so it will not endanger thecountry. sive, they tend to export it to develop- atmosphere. Several technologies rec- Several international agreements ing countries that are willing to accept ommended in CDM are potential forand conventions related with solid it for money. conflicts with another convention, likewaste is the Sustainable Development Our country has ratified Basel con- the Stockholm convention since pro- ducing polluted compound should be removed like dioxin. Stockholm convention which we ratified on 12 April this year, agreed on the importance of reduction and removal of Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) to protect human and environmental health. Deliberate POPs is produced from waste burning which contains PVC or chlorine. To solve the global problems, it has to be managed in a multi-track and realistic ways. The use of technology is mostly sees as one of the options for solution like the incinerator which become alternative to remove waste. Precautionary principles in most coun- tries remain as a discourse. UNEP research in 2001 showed that incinerator is one of the biggest dioxin producers in the world. Around 69% of dioxin emission comes from incinerator. Dioxin is one of danger- A girl carrying hazardous garbage which can easily found in Africa. Photo Basel Action Network (BAN)
    • Percik May 2009 43 „ WAWA NE D G E KNOWL CARA „ Factory chimney, producer of hazardouz chemicals Foto: Neil Tangri (GAIA).ous and carcinogenic chemical sub- need to find the strategic options to tion on the usage of hazardous sub-stance as a result of waste burning handle the waste which will help stance.which contains PVC or chlorine. Indonesia government to fulfill their The last international agreement is The philosophy of precautionary responsibilities as a party in the related with environment and healthprinciple is that science has boun- Stockholm convention or the other which encourage all parties, across sec-daries, so it requires precaution activi- conventions. Indonesia has adopted tors to gather around to solve the envi-ties. Therefore, environmental friendly zero waste strategy and consistent ronmental problem, including ha-technology which is allowed to be use waste minimization with the guidance zardous waste so that human and envi-in temporary or final dumpsite needs from Strategic Approach to Interna- ronment remain healthy for the nextto be carefully selected. Besides, trans- tional Chemical Management (SAICM) generation.parency on technology made us realize in Dubai 2006. Where do we want to turn? Wethat we should try the non-technical SAICM Global Plan of Action have to take care of our own waste assolution. besides agreeing on the removal and close as possible because disposing it Stockholm convention has further stopping the production and usage of in the country in the form of materials,encourage countries who have ratified dangerous chemical substance by ashes, or smoke is not an easy prob-the convention to promote and use 2020 also including the implementa- lem. Lots of fences and regulationsreplacement or modified materials, tion of capacity building activities in have been made. So it is up to us nowproducts and processes to prevent the waste minimization and resource to take care and hold our self so weunintentional release of chemical sub- development, resource management wont be fooled by another countrystance like dioxin and another POPs with zero waste approach, waste pre- regarding with waste problem. „side products. vention through eco-design, encourage The implication is that we now the replacement substance or reduc-
    • 44 Percik May 2009 „ KNOWLEDGE „ Developing a Sustainable Composting lmost every city in Indonesia is post, just like UPDK.A now facing peculiar solid waste problems such as pollutioncaused by burning, uncontrollable waste By: Sri Wahyono* plenty of types of compost in the mar- ket. It seems like there is a big market At this moment, most of the com- post producer has stopped their busi- ness and no longer producing com-accumulation, disposal to the river which opportunity for compost while actually post. Only few of them are still operat-causes flood, and difficulty in looking it cannot be used as reference to count ing such as PD Dharma Jaya, CVfinal dumpsite area. However, the prob- the profit from compost. Agroduta and CV Mitra Tani. How canlems can be overcome with good solid they survive without market to distri-waste management like composting. Experiences in City Waste bute their product?Around 50%-80% of the city waste is Composting The factors which keep them sur-organic, so composting will reduce a In the 1980s in Jakarta used to vive are different. PD Dharma Jaya forlarge amount of waste. have 13 places (UPDK) for recycling example, it can survive because they Composting is a process to decom- and composting city wastes in several can specifically penetrate far into thepose organic waste into compost prod- areas. The activities are meant to make flower shops in Jakarta. At this time,uct in an aerobic controlled condition. a business from solid waste based com- almost all the compost produced is dis-Compost product can be used to enrich post in a small community scale. tributed into the flower shops with athe soil substance so it is mostly used Technically, the technology used is good quality. In cooperation with 5by farmers as fertilizer. simple and easily applicable. The space compost distributors, around 3 tons of Knowing the importance of com- and composting facility is given for free compost per day is distributed to theposting, almost every city is now and the quality of the compost is also flower shops.implementing this kind of activity both maintained. The management is sim- Meanwhile, CV Agroduta ingovernment institution and private. ple and structured. However, despite Bandung still survive the businessComposting is not a profit oriented all mentioned before, within 2 years, because the company is having a mainactivity but rather a non-profit one to the business has stop running since company which work on agribusinessshow governments responsibility in there are no market for the compost. activities in Lembang, Bandung. Mostproviding their service for the commu- The experience was then repeated of the compost produced is distributednity and environmental protection. in 2004-2005 with the growth of 40 there got fertilizer and the rest is dis- That community service is the same composting activities in Jakarta, West tributed to the market via the networkwith another governments service Java and Banten. The capacity of the they have. The main company issuch as security, education, etc. the compost produced is around 1-30 tons expanding and having wide businessmain result is the city cleanliness and per day. The technology used is simple relation so the compost distribution iswaste neutralization from dangerous semi mechanic and managed by pri- operating well.goods into safe products. vate who has cooperation with local While CV Mitra Tani in Tasik- The compost produced is consid- government. On June 2005, total com- malaya is not having a main companyered to be a byproduct or a side effect. post produced is around 250 tons per like CV Agroduta and is not havingTherefore, if the compost is sold and day. great composting facility like PDgetting profit, it considered as bonus, The multiplication of composting Dharmajaya, but rather a small com-and not the main income. activities is because it is subsidized by pany with high motivation. The com- Generally, compost market is still the Environmental Ministry. Every posting facility is simple as welllow, so it is difficult to place compost compost producer gets Rp 200-Rp 350 as the managementas a significant income. The demand of per kilogram compost produced. but managed toit is still low because the perception on However, due to the end of the subsidycompost is not understood by most of program, the compost producer is hav-the community. Besides, there are ing difficulties in distributing the com-
    • Percik May 2009 45 „ KNOWLEDGE „exist up until now. The key to the exis- than the normal rice. So the main busi- portation to the composting area.tence of this company is the achieve- ness of this company is not only com- Besides the support on compostingment in creating a good relationship post, but also high quality organic rice. operational, in a macro point of view,with the rice farmers. It is not only dis- cooperation between departments/tributing the compost but also doing Government Support in ministries is needed regarding theempowerment activities to the farmers Composting Activity application and distribution of theand distributing their crops. Based on experiences, several gov- compost products. Related ministries To all the rice farmers, the compa- ernment supports is expected to help are Environmental, Farming, Publicny introduced safe water system, high the production efficiency especially Work, Mining and Energy andcrops, and organic farming with rice done by private. The support can be in Forestry.intensification system. The fertilizer the form of tripping fee to the compost Environmental Ministry and Publicused is the compost produced by CV producer since they provide service for Work Ministry are authorized to deter-Mitra Tani and replacing the chemical waste management. The amount mine the policy of national waste man- agement including waste minimization through composting. While Farm- ing, Mining and Energy, and Forestry Ministry can be involved in taking the compost products for farming, critical space reclamation due to the mining, and national green program. The support from the related department can be in the form of Collective Decision Regulation bet- ween the related min- istries. At the compost producer level, besides market pene- tration, revitalizing the asso- ciations of the compost pro- ducers is required. The asso- ciation can be a place to dis- cuss and exchange informa- One of large scale composting location. Photo Bowo Leksono tion on compost application, technology development, global carbon trading, etc. from thefertilizer. The payment of the fertilizer depends on the local government socialization; they can distinguish thecan be done after they harvest the rice. budget and the solid waste manage- basic price for the compost product to Organic pesticide is also introduced ment cost. maintain good competition. „to the farmer replacing the chemical The other support is by giving *Sri Wahyono is researcher and city waste composting practitioner inones. Without using chemical fertilizer access to the space and building facili- the Environmental Technology Center of BPPT.and chemical pesticide, the rice pro- ty and composting equipments. He is finishing his Doctorate program in Environmental Science in UI.duced is organic and having a high Compost actors in region are normallyquality. CV Mitra Tani also buying the high motivated with low capital. Thecrops and sell them to the big markets other support can be access to theand the price is 3 times more expensive composting materials and trans-
    • 46 Percik May 2009 „ „ GUESTS A WAWA N C A R„ „ Yuyun Ismawati Managing Wastewater and Solid Waste Receiver of Goldman Environmental ast April is the month of the Ashoka, Balifokus Team and helpingL birth of one of the national heroes on women equalitymovement, RA Kartini. One day before SANIMAS Community Based Organi- zation, KIPRAH and another commu- nity group which have initial incentivethe honor of the birth of RA Kartini, but do not know yet how to start theone Indonesian woman is winning activities in sanitation and or wasteGoldman Environmental Prize for sus- management.tainable development category. The The process of getting the awardaward is similar to noble prize for envi- has been started since November 10th,ronment. 2008. Yuyun Said it took 3 days to sign Yuyun Ismawati, is the nominee the confirmation forms for the winnerfrom the islands and island nations, and sent it back to Goldman. "It took aalong with 6 other world activists, week to tell the family about this sinceMario Gunmoe from US, Wanze I cannot publish it before April 19,Eduards and Hugo Jabini from 2009, " she explained.Suriname, Rizwana Hasan from Yuyun is selected as one of theBangladesh, Olga Speranskaya from award winner because she was nomi-Europe and Marc Ona Essangui from nated by another organization, sinceGabon who are getting the same prize she cannot nominate herself.in San Franciscos Opera House, US. "Goldman gives recognition on the These seven persons with their own grass root environment activist whoways were showing that a strong effort shows consistence, persistence andto increase environmental condition is willing to risk personal life to realize Photo: Goldman Environmental Prizepossible as long as there are commit- the vision".ments and courage to act. Experiences worth US$ 150,000 This award is a reminder for me and a Yuyuns Domestic Rolementioned by San Francisco Chronicle beginning of a new work and life Yuyuns commitment, anDaily, is the biggest and most presti- cycle," she replied to Percik. Indonesian environmental activist, atgious prize for the grass root activist Yuyuns achievement is worth for the grass root level showed with push-which become pioneer in improving US$ 150,000 or around 1,5 billion ing the community which is buried inthe environment condition where they rupiahs. The money, she planned, will waste problems and bad sanitation toare. be used for private like childrens edu- stand up and improve their life. This award is on the 20th year and cation and buying a house. "Since Through the foundation she leads,always given to the grass root warriors 2003, my children and I are renting a Balifokus, Yuyun is supporting com-every year. Starting from 1989, this house and we have to provide the munity based solid waste managementprize has been given to 133 activists money every 2 years," said the single (CBSWM) as a solution to give jobfrom 75 nations. parent. opportunities for low income "I was surprised when I got the While the other half will be used tonoble. I am happy and thanks to god. contribute to the organization such as
    • SUPPLEMENT - Percik KIPRAH Kita-PRO-SampahA community based solid waste management program for low income, densely populated urban areas initiated by Indonesia NGO, namely BEST, Balifokus with fund support from BORDA Germany, and IDRC Canada. KIPRAH was developed based on operational-costrecovery, managed by the community and has been implemented in 7 cities in Indonesia. This booklet was prepared for special edition of Percik, by Gressiadi Muslim, Yuyun Ismawati, Oswar Mungkasa and Surur Wahyudi 1
    • SUPPLEMENT - Percik„ An Illustration keeping log. These bags are transported to the MRF n a very hot afternoon in Banjar sari, sub- (Material Recovery Facility) in the village to be soldO district of Ubung, Denpasar, Bali. Mrs.Komang Kicen, a house wife and Mrs.Nur, a lady who has been living for 10 years in a to public. After 2 months, the solid waste savings can be withdraw. Although the amount is small, Mrs. Nur, Mrs. Komang and other house wives are happy because they have additional income for theirsmall rented room in the village, both of them werechatting in front of their houses while disposing the expenses or tuition fee for their children.vegetables leftovers into a basket near the door. In the MRF, the separated solid waste from theThen they stirred the content and then closed it households will be collected based on the materials.with Kampil Sekam. Papers, cardboard, plastics, iron, glass, bottles, One month cans, aluminumlater, the garbage foil and others.can be used as Those collectedcompost fertilizer goods will bewhich they will bought by recycla-use to fertilize the ble goods tradersplants in front of every 2 weeks ortheir houses. They depending on theeven already sold volume. The salessome of the of recyclableplants they grew goods is one ofto flower vendors. MRF incomes.Beside flowers, Besides recy-they also plant clables, MRF alsochili, shallots, egg- conducts com-plant and other posting for thevegetables to give organic waste thatadditional support they gatheredfor their expens- from the house-es. They also holds which doesplanted herbal not want to com-medicine which post by them-they can use for selves. The com-their family members. posting process in the MRF is using stacked They do these activities everyday after cooking Takakura method. Some other places also use Openand have become new habit for the house wives in Windrow method. The produced compost is alreadyBanjar Sari village. The basket is a composting bas- has consumers even though the priced is not soket using Takakura method invented by Prof. high but at least it served as an income for themTakakura from Japan. This method is favored by The residue is being disposed to the final dump-the community because it is affordable, easy and site with the amount of 1 truck load/every 10 days.does not smell. Some of the houses even put it in This amount is far lower than previously when therethe living room. was no MRF program with the average of 1-1.5 Some of the housewives in Banjar Sari village are truck per day.already starting to make handicrafts bags made of MRF, with the size of 10X20 meter, is beingsoap and candy plastic wraps and packages. They managed by the KMPS/Community Group of Solidalso make artificial flowers from drinking straws. Waste Manager which was established by the com-Some teenagers even made recycled papers which munity at the beginning of the program. MRF hiresthey sold in exhibitions for a good price. Their boxes workers, consist of head of MRF, garbage collectorare even regularly exported to America and Europe. and separator. Some of the workers are from the Next to the basket is a plastic bag contained local villages and some from scavenger who usednonorganic garbage which already been separated to work around the neighborhood. They are beingand collected. Once a week these plastic bags are paid according to the regional minimum wage. Thecollected by the leader to be recorded in the book- funds are gathered from user fee, recyclables and 2
    • SUPPLEMENT - Percikcompost. This phenomena is quite common especially in the Community based solid waste management in the year of 2000 until 2008, where almost all cities,sub district of Ubung, Denpasar, Bali has been run- whether it is metropolitan, big cities or small ones,ning since November 2006, which was initiated by have CBSWM groups.an NGO called BALIFOKUS with financial support This raise a question, why does CBSWM activitiesfrom BORDA Germany and IDRC Canada. For the are increasing like "mushroom during rainy season" inMRF construction, some areas received funds shar- several cities all in Indonesia. An intensive study ising from the Public Works department and needed to answer this question. However, we cancity/municipality government. The name of the pro- easily point out some possible reasons. First, the solidgram is KIPRAH, an abbreviation of Kita-PRO- waste management carried out by local governmentSampah, treats solid waste as friend not enemy. This cannot cover 100 percent of the city. Therefore, thereprogram has been implemented in 7 locations in are areas where illegal dumping still exists. Secondly,Indonesia, which was facilitated by BEST/Integrated this illegal dumping usually located by the river or atSocial Economic Development, LPTP/Institute of any empty lands which really jeopardize the environ-Rural Technology Development, located in ment health, cleanliness and could cause flooding.Tangerang, Sidoarjo, Blitar, Tarakan and Makassar.. Thirdly, the community is just following the trend because there is chance and promise of financial gain.„ Phenomenon Actually, we already have solid waste regulation, The community based solid waste management namely Regulation No. 18/2008 which was enacted inprogram actually has been growing for years in sev- May 2008. However, this has not given clear role foreral cities in Indonesia. For example, Mrs. Bambang the community to be involved in solid waste manage-Harining in Banjar sari, Jakarta. Mr. Siswanto ment. The community initiative was not admitted andSukunan, Yogyakarta, Mr. Warjiman in Cibangkong, accommodated, let alone appreciated. Therefore, theBandung, to name but a few. phenomena of communitys awareness and eagerness Generally, the CBSWM is an initiative from the to manage their own solid waste will soon subside.community, although many were initiated by the It very regretted that the communitys eagernessgovernment. The development also shows varied to be involved in the effort of solid managementpattern, some stay as individual program while oth- which would actually help the government in manag-ers became village or RT/RW program. There are ing the public services goes unappreciated.even some which are expanded to subdistrict levels.From the time of the program, there are programs „ Identical or Different?which are already more than 5 years old and still run- KIPRAH is community based solid waste manage-ning well. Meanwhile some of them only last for few ment program, with the aim of developing options ofmonths. Quite a few survived without subsidy and solid waste management in urban areas while opti-some others "died" after the subsidy was cut out. mizing communitys role in managing their solid This CBSWM can be seen as a phenomena, in waste to guarantee sustainability. To be more specif-which the community shows efforts in managing ic, this program is directed to help the community insolid waste. We can say that in general, the commu- low income and densely populated urban area innity is only considered as retribution object who must Indonesia.manage their own garbage from the household level Then, what is the difference between KIPRAH anduntil temporary dumpsite. While they still need to pay other community based solid wasteretribution to the government who will take care the managemen/CBSWM?garbage from the temporary dumpsite to the final In general, the CBSWM activity is based on some-dumpsite including the treatment and management. ones pioneering or strong figure. Their figures are Sometimes the government gives additional sup- generally so strong that it is enough to convinceport by providing stimulus help such as garbage cart. other people to follow or try to be like them, evenHowever, the growing amount of garbage produced with many challenges. The effort of convincing otherand limitation of final dumpsite space, press on the people is then extended and shared to other peoplecommunity to implement 3R (Reduce, Reuse, based on government and private requests.Recycle) activities. The private sectors are also However, the problem lay on finding local figure whoinvolved by launching several solid waste reduction wants to work in solid waste management in hisprograms from the source level. environment, which sometimes voluntarily or without 3
    • SUPPLEMENT - Percikfinancial gain. KIPRAH then formulated by considering severalexperiences in many areas and based on the opera-tional cost recovery principle. This means all opera-tional cost must be covered by the income of theprogram. Therefore KIPRAH must really calculatethe economical feasibility of the community, eventhough it is not business oriented. KIPRAH is man-aged by the community based organization with themembers from users or program beneficiaries.„ KIPRAH: Is it still needed? In Indonesia, the produced garbage every yearhas reached critical condition. Based on theIndonesian Infrastructure book (BAPPENAS, 2003)the garbage produced in the year 1995 reached22.5 million tons and was predicted to increase upto 53.7 million tons in the year 2020. This meansthat every year, the produced garbage is increasingin the average of 1.25 tones. The garbage produc-tions in big cities in Indonesia reach 0.6-0.85 kg perperson/day. The existing solid waste management can be cat-egorized as follows: 1. Collection and transportation to final dumpsite dumpsite pushed the government to think of alter- (4.2%) native location. If this is not solved immediately, 2. Disposed to the river/sewerage (4.9%) landslide disaster like the one in Leuwigajah and 3. Burning (37.6% Bantar Gebang final dumpsite is inevitable. Besides 4. Unmanaged (53.3% that, lack of proper infrastructure, weak law From the data we can see that more than half of enforcement and no incentive for garbage reductionthe produced garbage goes unmanaged and untreat- are some factors of increasing garbage productioned which gives potential for rats breeding ground, every year.bugs, and worms. This brings about diseases. In The communitys awareness to managed theaddition, garbage also pollutes the environment and solid waste is not yet reach significant point. Thereground water rendering it inconsumable. are a lot of inhabitants who are still throwing their It is very understandable that without communi- garbage in the river, ditch or other open water chan-tys involvement, solid waste management any- nel which resulted in clogged drain and floods. Otherwhere will not function maximum. Community and than that, a lot of communities prefer to burn theirsettlements are one of the largest solid waste pro- garbage instead of managing it. Burning garbage willducers and garbage is one of the side effects of produce dioxin and worsen the global warming inhuman activities. micro level. Long time ago when the worlds populated is not The community involvement could give signifi-as much as nowadays, the produced garbage is also cant contribution toward the amount of garbagenot so much. Therefore, people at that time was not transported to the final dumpsite. The experienceso concern on solid waste as the nature and envi- from Surabaya showed that the amount of garbageronment can still "treat" the garbage. However, as transported to the final dumpsite was decreasedthe population grows and garbage mound is getting down to 10%. It is imaginable that if the number ofbigger, the garbage started to become problem. community who want to manage their own garbage The garbage problem in Indonesia had reached an is increasing then the amount of garbage in the finalalarming phase. The mountainous garbage in tempo- dumpsite will be significantly reduced, the TPArary dumpsite, not transported is a common view. length of productivity will be longer, and environ-Apart from that, the shrinking capacity of final ment pollution due to suboptimal solid waste treat- ment in final dumpsite can be decreased. 4
    • SUPPLEMENT - Percik KIPRAH was started based on this consideration; agement of solid waste in all communities condi-the objective is for CBSWM to be easily and quickly tion. Beside management technology options,replicated, growing communitys enthusiasm to organization option should also exist in order tomanaged its own garbage due to economical bene- manage the constructed facility.fit and empowerment. If the government gives suf- 4. Multi-source Funding. The funding used byficient appreciation to the CBSWM group, the com- KIPRAH program came from several sources.munitys motivation and enthusiasm will be built up. Government, private donor and community. This is intended so that all stakeholders will have„ Principles of KIPRAH the sense of ownership to the solid waste man- KIPRAH was developed based on these main agement program.principles: 5. Cost recovery and Operational Maintenance. Cost 1. Gender perspective, which encourages active recovery is one of the important factors which involvement of men and women in managing determine the sustainability of the program. solid waste based on each portion and ability. When a system can cover its operational and Everybody will have their own responsibility and maintenance cost then subsidy is not needed to can support the implementation of the program. run the program. In the context of KIPRAH, cost 2. Demand Responsive. KIPRAH will only be imple- recovery can be achieved by the combination or mented in areas which really need it. This will user fee, recyclables sales and usage. With this ensure maximum result, considering that the income, the KIPRAH facility can cover its opera- community will be more serious in implementing tional and maintenance cost. the program. The degree of necessity can be 6. Community Empowerment. KIPRAH is a commu- identified from several different aspects. For nity based solid waste management; therefore example, from the local government point of the community decides, plans, implements and view, necessity can be seen from the Letter of manages their own system. However, this does Interest from the community, willingness to par- not mean that the community is without any sup- port. KIPRAH implementation always accompa- nies and facilitates the community. KIPRAH also gives trainings (capacity building) related to usage, operational and maintenance. These train- ings are not only given to the community but also city/municipality government, management and operators based on their roles and responsibilities. „ The Aim of KIPRAH The objectives that this program wants to achieve are: a. To develop decentralized community based solid waste management which solves the problem directly from the source. b. To manage communitys solid waste with cost- ticipate and contribute and not included in the recovery system so that they will not be bur- areas which have not been covered by city solid dened by the fees and also get benefit from it waste management system. c. Garbage reduction at the household level, 3. Informed Choice Catalog and Managing d. Stakeholder involvement starting from central Organization. KIPRAH program has several sys- government, provincial and local government, tem options which can be implemented based on NGO and community based on their portions the need of community. These options are pre- and capabilities. sented since the beginning of the project so that all stakeholders are aware and able to analyze „ KIPRAH Implementation Phase which system is the most suitable for their area. In general, KIPRAH implementation is divided into With the provided options, it is expected that a 8 main phases; planning, city/municipality selection, perfect solution can be implemented for the man- 5
    • SUPPLEMENT - Percik Preparation city municipali- location Construction and com- developing RPS-BM munity capacity build- ty selection selection ing PSBM operational replication monitoring and support evaluationlocation selection, development of community based where MoU has been signed. The location selectionsolid waste management plan, construction and is carried out through some processes, starting fromcommunity development, operational and mainte- criteria definition, shortlist, and explanation to thenance support, evaluation and replication. Using the community, self selection process by using Rapidflowchart, the phases can be described as follows : Participatory Appraisal followed by signing the loca-1. Preparation tion selection official report. Location selection In this phase, several modules guidance for process is the most crucial phase because it relatessocialization, promotion and program marketing, to the land availability and communitys readiness.module for location selection, training module, and Wrong selection of the community will produce fatalinformed choice catalogue of community based solid result for the solid waste management system.waste management facility. At this phase, lobbyingis conducted to stakeholders to provide funding. 4. Development of RPS-BM (Community Based Solid Waste Management Plan)2. City/Municipality Selection Once the location was selected, the next phase is The next phase is city/municipality selection. In to help the community develop CBSWM plan bythis stage, multi-city seminar is conducted to inform using participative approach. In this process, servicethe stakeholders from the government about the coverage, beneficiary selection, technology selec-concept of KIPRAH program. If the city/municipality tion, training and construction schedule, detail tech-government is interested then a road show will be nical planning and budget plan, community basedconducted to provide more detail explanation about organization establishment as the manager of theKIPRAH to the related government officials. This program, user fee agreement, operational plan andevent will be followed by signing Memorandum of integration with city solid waste management sys-Understanding. The city/municipality government tem.will have to appoint responsible agency and the All the agreements will be documented and madeleader while the NGO choose the field facilitator. into community action plan book, legalized by stake-Trainings for NGO and local government staffs who holder from the government, NGO and community.are going to facilitate the implementation of KIPRAH The book will be an official document of communityprogram. based solid waste management. This phase usually lasts for 3-4 months.3. Community/Location Selection This phase will only be conducted in the areas 5. Construction and Capacity Building 6
    • SUPPLEMENT - Percik After the community action plan phase, the nextphase is construction of solid waste managementfacility or MRF (Material Recovery Facility) includingsolid waste treatment equipments provision such as,carts, garbage chopper and composting tools untiltechnical work commissioning implementation. Inthis phase, the community is trained to separate,compost the garbage and manage the bookkeeping.This phase usually takes 3-3.5 months.6. Operational Support After the construction has finished and all theequipments are available, the next step is opera-tional phase. For the community based solid wastemanagement, this step is very crucial becauseeverything is new and the community and operatorare still new on this program. Most of them will be"shocked" after starting the operational even though tralized approach. It means that garbage should beit had been carefully planned. However, they are managed right from the source. However, the mostmore excited on the idea of having their own solid important thing in managing community based solidwaste management facility. Therefore, operational waste management is to involve community in allsupport at this stage is very crucial to make sure the processes so that the community will have sense ofsystem is functioning and user fees are collected so belonging. The community must be given opportuni-that the system will be independent and sustainable. ty to take the best decision for them. The facilitator7. Participative Monitoring and Evaluation as an outsider only facilitates the community to take After the facility and the system are running well the best decision.in the community, the next step is monitoring and Secondly, the decentralized solid waste manage-evaluation. In this stage, the running system will be ment in urban areas in Indonesia can be operatedmonitored so that problem can be immediately with cost recovery system. This means that thesolved. Evaluation will be conducted to give input for operational and maintenance cost can be covered bythe ongoing implementation of this program. the monthly user retribution and sales of recyclableMonitoring and evaluation involves the community and compost. The monthly retribution for eachas the manager. household/month is varied. In Talaga Bestari, Tangerang is Rp 7000, in Ubung, Denpasar it is Rp8. Replication 5000 while in Janti, Sidoarjo it is Rp 5000. The The last phase is replication. An activity conduct- composts and recyclables sales are around Rped to replicate the model of community based solid 800,000 - 1,000,000/month.waste management program based on the lessons Therefore, community based solid waste man-learnt to improve the impact of the program in the agement system can reach cost-recovery conditioncity/municipality level. The impact of this program if managed appropriately. This is of course will light-will be much bigger if it is implemented in more en the communitys burden and give them confi-areas. Incentive models for the community who dence that they are able to manage their ownmanage its own garbage must be formulated to garbage and get benefit from it.encourage the effort and reduce the amount of Dengan demikian, sistem pengelolaan sampahgarbage transported to the final dumpsite. berbasis masyarakat jika di kelola dengan baik akan dapat mencapai kondisi cost-recovery. Hal ini ten-„ Lessons Learnt tunya akan lebih meringankan beban masyarakat serta memberikan kepercayaan bahwa mereka When we look at the KIPRAH experience in those mampu mengelola sampah mereka sendiri sertaplaces, what can we learn from them? mendapatkan keuntungan darinya, walaupun belum bisa menjadi usaha sendiri. Firstly, that garbage can be managed with decen- Thirdly, the KIPRAH system is proved to be able 7
    • SUPPLEMENT - Percikto reduce the transport cost and volume of garbage managed sustainably by the community who lives intransported to the final dumpsite is also reduced. low income, densely populated urban area.The residue of the final dumpsite is only around 30- KIPRAH, based on the activity, had shown that it40 percent of the total input. This will lengthen the can be an alternative of community based solidfinal dumpsite productivity period. If the garbage waste management which are sustainable andtransported to final dumpsite is reduced then the encourage and motivate the community to managetransport cost to the final dumpsite is also reduced its own garbage. If anyone is interested in replicat-to 60 percent. ing, please contact BORDA, BEST and BALIFOKUS.„ Conclusion & This is a brief description of KIPRAH program or Read Field NotesKita-PRO-Sampah as one of the form of CBSWM on the next pages 8
    • Field Note Issue | Date INDEX KIPRAH UBUNG I. PREFACE Denpasar - BALI II. EXISTING CONDITION III. PROGRAM IMPLEMENTATION IV. OPERATIONAL V. MONITORING & EVALUATION VI. RESEARCH FINDING + ! Research Team : ! %!#(  %!# - . !! , #!# - Frank Fladerer % # "! #! - .    !# &# ! %!"" "!  % # ""# - . 
    • $!#! - Surur Wahyudi $#   ## !"!  # "  " &"# - Yuyun Ismawati #  $! !  "+ " # " # - Hamzah HAR $# (+  $"   -   " ! $.) " #  # (+ - Noka Destalina - Ilhamsyah Lubis    #" !# " #  !% # %!# #  "## #  #  $#  $! &  !) - Abdullah Basyri " ( ! &  !+   "* - Assisted by Field •   !%  % $#( " " &"# Facilitator #  #"  $! !" •  " ! #  !  $#( " " &"# #  !# #  !  # (  #!$ !#!" +
    • KIPRAH UBUNG Issue | Date 1    &( $ #%& (-  :;@/@A "; +( ( !! $ )#   %$%)!($# $ :<1:=; !*1 %$%)!($# $ ?:<1<>= !*1  %$%)!($# &$+(  !$($#  =1> " &$" ( (- #(& $ #%&1<E2-&/ ( *& %$%)!($# #(-  <1?9= $#( $ :1;99 / "$( #(#( +$& # %&*(%&$#2 ";/
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    • KIPRAH UBUNG Issue | Date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•  ( &( */ &( )&#  -)* $%$%* ? $#$%* % 5 # &"+) 7 ) % % % $&* ,* *& $(&, * . )* % %/ &$$+% */ )/)*$2 $&-($%*8 • . )* % ## #% ) * #&* &% &(  5 &$$+% */ 7
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    •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
    • Field Note Issue | Date INDEX KIPRAH JANTI I. PREFACE BERSERI II. EXISTING Sidoarjo, Jawa Timur, CONDITION INDONESIA III. PROGRAM IMPLEMENTATION IV. OPERATIONAL V. MONITORING & EVALUATION VI. RESEARCH FINDING + ! ! %!#(  %!# - . !! , #!# % # Research Team : "! #! - .    !# &# ! %!"" - Frank Fladerer "!  % # ""# - . 
    • $!#! $#  - Surur Wahyudi  ## !"!  # "  " &"# #  $! !  "+ " # " # $# (+  $" - Yuyun Ismawati   -   " ! $.) " #  # (+ - Hamzah HAR    #" !# " #  !% # %!# #  "## - Noka Destalina #  #  $#  $! &  !) " ( ! & - Ilhamsyah Lubis  !+   "* - Abdullah Basyri •   !%  % $#( " " &"# # - Assisted by Field  #"  $! !" Facilitator •  " ! #  !  $#( " " &"# #  !# #  !  # (  #!$ !#!" +
    • KIPRAH JANTI BERSERI Issue | Date 0    ) % % % $. ( >8;/9; !#9 ,) &%&*")%$ "" % $) ( "%) $ (*()) % */% 1.685.278 person0/ &%&*")%$ %,) 9/=9E1.0 )% % % $. ( %*(%" (%" ,()% *$ $ *" &%&*")%$ ( <7E/ %&*")%$ $(). $ &%"#(0  &%&*")%$ ( 9087< %$(() %*$  ( 907>: &(%$1!#9/ #$ %*&)%$ $ ) *$ !#&%$( $ %*($ %#&"- ()) $ 97 ( )%. ,%!0  $ ;  ,) ) )%)" &%&*")%$ % ?089? "+(0 ) &%*( 8>/@ A (%" ,() & . ( %$ ())()" )/ )%)" &%*)%$ % (%" ,() $ $ ()"" "!( % (& )% *#& ) (%" ,()0% % $. ( :0=>> #:1.0 ""  (&%( )% < $" 
    •  $ %$". )) = #A1. *() % $)*#& ()( *($ )*!(0 %# ) )%)" -()$  %$". +"" 3
    •  977>40::E ( $ %"")0   =7E % ) )%)" #%*$) % ()"" $%) %"")0  *( % $" *#& () (&) )%  %$". < .( ")0% % $./ ( ) $)"$ % *. (  "%) %%*($ %#&"- *") $ ( . ( ,) ) "%" $)$)(0%()". ) (%" ,() ( $%) ,""2#$0 %/
    • ,( #&"#$) $ +"" % $)/ *()) % */% % $.0  *$+""). %  #!( ) $)$)( % """ *#&$ $ %&$ (& %*$ ) %*($ %#&"-0 2
    • KIPRAH JANTI BERSERI Issue | Date 4        !,15-&!!($!,1 $,!&   ",!.  ,  +$,!& !+ , +$, !,15%-&!!($!,1 / * /!$$!& , $, -&+ * ,  (**%4 !*" *&1 + (*(+ & *1 , $, -&+2 %!& /!, -&+ *% -$! *#+ (*,%&, , *- +, . ,+#*4  $*1 +!& ,/& -$! *#+ ,+#*2 $$ .*&%&,  !**"2 &  ,!& $,!& +-%
    •  !%($%&,,!& &(, +,*, /!, $,!& < &+,*-,!& * , 6 +4 =;;B +$,!&4 & $!+, (*++ /+ &-, ,  + ,  = &+,*-,!& +, (4 CB@4;;;4;;;26 $,!& / ! + ,  *)-!* *!,*! 4   $& $!+, > -&!& -* <4 -$! /*#+ $,!& , & , + $,!&+ * !& + *, $!+, & (*,%&,2  +& $,!& + & *!,*!3 !,"& !(,
    • *12 !*#,*, •   !+,& ,/& ,  -+!& &%4  %($0+ , ,  !&$ -%( +!, + -$ &, 7(%&-&&8 0 <@ #% + !, !&$-&+ ,  =4 $$ .*&%&, ,*&+(*,,!& +, , ,  !&$ -%( +!,4  !*" .! • +1 ++ * -%( ,*-#
    •  *% ,  + *, $!+, $,!&2 < /+  +& * 7(%&-&&8 (**% !%($%&,,!& + & +.*$ *!,*!3 >4  6  7&+,*-,!& & • %%-&!,1 !+ /!$$!& , (*.! $& * (*,!&$8  $,!& ?4 %%-&!,1 7(*,!&$8 • %%-&!,1 !+ /!$$!& , (1 * $$,!& ? %($%&,!& &+-$,&, (,4  & *,*!-,!&4 &1  7  6  •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
    • KIPRAH JANTI BERSERI Issue | Date 3    3  8    %)* %$)*(+*%$2 - )*) *% "%*%$ = *#)4-! / - )%" -)* *% "$ * ( $ * )+((%+$$  )* (1 *% "%) """ +#&)* $ &(,$* $- """ - %%!!&$ (&%(* *% * +#&)* %$+* $ = /) %##+$*/ ,(/ A #%$*) %( -$ - %* +$$  .&"$*%$ %$ * +$*%$ %  $ (+( / * %##+$*/ ()&%$)" &()%$ $ -%(!(3 - % %%!2 ,%"+# % $%#$ )%" -  *(/%+* -* ( %""*%$ $  %&(*%$3 -)* "%1 ,%"+# % &(%)) - )*")$ ))*#2 %#&%)*1 $%(#*%$ %$ * )" o +#( % -%(!( C &()%$ 6(%# * "%" ,"+ % (/""1 ,%"+# ()+1 $*$*)7 %#&%)* ,%"+# $ * +) o ) %$ (#$*2  )"* $ %&(*%$" - ,( $%# & @1A *4#%$* $ )/)*# ) A -%(!$ /)1 B5C -%(!()1 +)(  & ,( %&(*%$ %)* ) & @1;;; @1> *4#%$*1 ),$ & o +#( % *(* %+)%" B;; %+) 6?;F7 (%# >;;3;;;4#%$*3 * *%*" =3<;@ .)*$ %#3 o #$)*(*%$ /
    •  $* ()( $ ))))* /  +(/ -* < " "**%( 3      - * ) %# * %##+$*/ ))+#&*%$ ** ( )  &+" ))+ *(%( %,($#$* ) * %$ -% ) *% #$ * +) * %##+$*/  & (*(+*%$3 - * )%-) ** ( $  #$ $*("0"/1 $%* "" ( )%+"  )&%) (*"/ *% $" +#&)*3 ( $ ")%  #$ / %)*5(%,(/ ) )/)*#1 ,$*%+ )*"" %) $%* ($ $$" $* -  %##+$*/ &(( (+"( )%" -)* #$#$*3 4
    • Field Note Issue | Date INDEX KIPRAH SAMBUNG JAWA I. PREFACE Makassar, South Sulawesi II. EXISTING CONDITION III. PROGRAM IMPLEMENTATION IV. OPERATIONAL V. MONITORING & EVALUATION VI. RESEARCH FINDING Research Team : ! %!#(  %!# - . !! , #!# - Frank Fladerer % # "! #! - .    !# &# ! %!"" "!  % # ""# - . 
    • $!#! - Surur Wahyudi $#   ## !"!  # "  " &"# - Yuyun Ismawati #  $! !  "+ " # " # - Hamzah HAR $# (+  $"   -   " ! $.) " #  # (+ - Noka Destalina - Ilhamsyah Lubis    #" !# " #  !% # %!# #  "## #  #  $#  $! &  !) - Abdullah Basyri " ( ! &  !+   "* - Assisted by Field •   !%  % $#( " " &"# Facilitator #  #"  $! !" •  " ! #  !  $#( " " &"# #  !# #  !  # (  #!$ !#!" +
    • KIPRAH SAMBUNG JAWA MAKASSAR Issue | Date 1    &( $  & (-/ %&$*# $ $)( &$! $ ")# +
    • "%$# 9)!+  8><1>>
    • " +( ( ($(! %$%)!($# $ 81< " &$" ( (&( #(& $ "# #8/99:/<;7 %&$#1 $%)!($# #(- $  & (-  91< " &$" ( (- $  &1=@=8 %&$#2 "9 # ( "# $)%($# $ ( &( $ )(&( $ ")# + 9@1?7#(#(  (&&1
    • "91  $# ( 977= (((! (/ ( ($(! %&$)($# $%)!($# 9/97< / #(#( &$)#0 @/=8=$ $! +( #  & (-  :1<?9/78 ":2-/ %&$#1+ !! ( -&/ :/8<819> ":2- +& %$ ($ $#( $ @  3$"")#(- !)(&4( #! )"%(1   & (- $! +( $& $)%($# $ ( #(#( & %)!$!!($# #&(&)()& &  $!!$+/ 8=; $#(#&/ ($& 3:7C4/ (&& 387C4/ &("# 387C4/9:< ("%$&&- )"%(/ # =< $%# ("%$&&- &"# 3<C4/ !$)& 3>C4/ &(& 387C4/)"%(1 &$" ( ($(! ,(# &/ $#!- ?>1@> C *#& 38C4/ &* 39C4/ *! &*#( 397C4/+& # (&#%$&( ($ ( #! )"%(/ !*# &"- 3<C418917: C $ ( +( )#$!!(1 $! +( "#"#(  #! - 2/ $!!( (& ("  + )# ( (&)#  & (-/ (& & "#- ((!"#( & +& %&$* - ( $*&#"#(1  #(#(( $! +( & #$( "# %&$%%&!-1 &$&/ +$ & !*# $)( ( (&) $*& *
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    •  &$&" "%!"#(($# 4#(! %&$ $ $"")#(- !($#/ %(- )!#3(&##/  / $#(&)($#/#&(&)()& %&$*$#51
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    •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
    • 2  8 
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    • Field Note Issue | Date INDEX KIPRAH TALAGA BESTARI I. PREFACE Tangerang II. EXISTING CONDITION III. PROGRAM IMPLEMENTATION IV. OPERATIONAL V. MONITORING & EVALUATION VI. RESEARCH FINDING + ! ! %!#(  %!# - . !! , #!# % # Research Team : "! #! - .    !# &# ! %!"" - Frank Fladerer "!  % # ""# - . 
    • $!#! $#   ## !"!  # "  " &"# #  $! - Surur Wahyudi !  "+ " # " # $# (+  $" - Yuyun Ismawati   -   " ! $.) " #  # (+ - Hamzah HAR    #" !# " #  !% # %!# #  "## - Noka Destalina #  #  $#  $! &  !) " ( ! & - Ilhamsyah Lubis  !+   "* - Abdullah Basyri •   !%  % $#( " " &"# #  #"  $! !" - Assisted by Field •  " ! #  !  $#( " " &"# Facilitator #  !# #  !  # (  #!$ !#!" +
    • KIPRAH TALAGA BESTARI Issue | Date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
    •   #(#( $ !!! "%!"#( # ! (& $)# )"%# # $%# $"%!,0 % &$)# ( $)# $"%!,0 2
    • KIPRAH TALAGA BESTARI Issue | Date 5        !,17-&!!($!,1 $,!&  ",!.  ,  +$,!& !+ , +$, !,17%-&!!($!,1 / * /!$$!& , $, -&+ * ,  (**%5 /.*3&*& *&1 /+ $*1 !&  +& + ,  (*", $,!& *% -$! *#+ (*,%&, !%($%&,, *- &+-$,&, , ** ,  .*&%&, &,*!-,!& % *% -$! *#+5,!& $,!& +-%
    •  !%($%&,,!& &(, +,*, /!, $,!& ? &+,*-,!& * (*!$ 9 -& @>>E+$,!&5 & $!+, (*++ /+ &-, ,  + ,  @ &+,*-,!& +, (5 @ED5F>>5>>>38$,!& / ! + ,  *)-!* *!,*!5   $& $!+, A -&!& -* ?5 &,*$ .6, , *- -$!$,!&+ * F3 & , & , + $,!&+ * !& + *, *#+3 !,"&$!+, &  +& A $,!&+ + & *!,*!4 !(,
    • *13 !*#,*, •   !+,& ,/& ,  -+!& &%&& %($0+ , ,  !&$ -%( +!, + -$ &,  0 ?C #% + !, !&$-&+ ,  :(%&-&&; ,*&+(*,,!& +, , ,  !&$ -%( +!,5 @5  8  • +1 ++ * -%( ,*-# :&+,*-,!& & *% ,  + *, $!+, $,!&3 ? /+  +& * (*,!&$;(**% !%($%&,,!& + & +.*$ *!,*!4 A5 .$(* B5 %%-&!,1 • .$(* !+ /!$$!& , (*.! $& *  :(*,!&$; $,!& B %($%&,!& 5 *#&!& : &+-$,& • %%-&!,1 !+ /!$$!& , (1 * $$,!& &1 (,5 ; &  :%!,* *,*!-,!&  8  ; C ,*, (*,!& D --+, @>>E • %%-&!,1 /!$$!&&++ , (*, /!$$  D -%*  /*#* C (*+& :    3 +,, !&  $$,*3 +(*,* /*#*; ,* ,  $,!& /+ +$,3 ,  &0, (*++ !+4 E -%*  /*#!& C 1+ :&8,; 17/# -  ,/& .$(*3  &  F $-%  %& * $ 3 - $! /+, %&%&, &,*, ,/& 3 /+, %(+,!& 3 !+(+$ %%-&!,1 & .$(* * C 1*+ !&$-!& *+!- ,  %-&,  *,*!-,!& & %%-&!,1 & G -%*  ,*, FBB * *-& EAJ   *+(&+!!$!,!+5 -+ $+ ,  ,,$ -+ !& ?C  - !$!2,!& , 7 %&%&, !& @  - &.!*&%&, $, %(!& * ,*, *-( ?> $! /+, (5 E5>>>7 7%&, * :, *3 %, * &  !$*&; *,*!-,!& & ( C5D>>5>>>5 - $, ,,-+ &0 :
    • ; !&% - *!&!& * ,  0!+,!& * $$,* & ,  ?? (*+!&$ +, ( C5A>>5>>>7%&, !&$-!& :/*#* +$*13 +*.! & ,  -+  %,*1$ -$3 %,*1$ %!&,&&3 *+!-  !+ ,!.!,1 /+ & , ,  +% ,!% + ,  !+(+$; &+,*-,!& (*++ !%($%&, 1 5 *#&!& &+-$,&, & &,*,* /!, ,  $$/!& ( +4 ,*-,-* & !&*+,*-,-* (*.!+!&4 -  &!$ ($&&!& - A ,*!1$+ - & -, ($& - ? + **3 ? +!,*3 ?> !& &,!&* - &+,*-,!& - *# ,,!* :+ +3 $.+3 /*(#; - %%!++!&!& - $+ :+ .$3 %,,#3 **/3*%3 +( +#,3 %(+,!& %$; 3
    • KIPRAH TALAGA BESTARI Issue | Date 1    1
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    • Percik May 2009 47community and empower community the dumpsite. Besides reducing theto improve the environment condition. heap of waste, the communities also Through the institution which she got benefit from the selling of recycledled, BALIFOKUS, Yuyun started com- product and compost.munity-based solid waste management Since 2004, Yuyun has developed a Solid waste and sanitationas a solution which can give a chance waste management program namelyfor to the community to repair their management involving "decentralization initiative solution" byquality of life. community will make focusing on the family in the urban Bali In order to restore the environment, waste problem easier to and other cities in Indonesia.Yuyun built a mutual cooperation solve This program is aimed to reducebetween business activity and the poor waste in the dumpsite by maximizing thecommunities. It is seen from her effort in waste management in the householdestablishing Jimbaran Lestari Corpora- level. Housewives were given training oftion which managed waste from five-star compost making and waste recycling.hotel and later on it was made use by Yuyun was also involved in thescavenger and swine breeder. "By this this action will be very beneficial development of SANIMAS (Sanitasikind of effort, all parties get the benefit because we might receive carbon cred- Berbasis Masyarakat-Communityand environment becomes clean," she it," said Yuyun. She declines the use of Based Sanitation) in 2001-2003.said. incinerator which she thinks can cause SANIMAS is a series of options of Yuyun who graduated from the global warming and release environ- waste and sanitation management forFaculty of Health Technology Bandung ment damaged substances. community who lived in the poorInstitute of Technology, became an After resigning from Wisnu urban areas. Since 2008, SANIMASenvironment activist in 1996 through Foundation, she and her four friends became a national program imple-Wisnu Foundation, a private commu- formed Bali Fokus in the middle of mented in approximately 200 cities innity institution located on Bali. 2000. Bali Fokus focused its attention Indonesia. She left her job as a lecturer in on the effort to improve sustainable Last year, together with someTrisakti University and a consultant in quality of the environment. "Bali activists, Yuyun created Indonesiaa private company in Jakarta. Fokus differs from the other NGO Toxics-Free Network (ITFN) focusing Together with Wisnu Foundation because it is formed by lending money on issues of hazardous and poisonousand Asia Foundation, Yuyun imple- from the bank," she said. waste and its effects.mented programs focused in waste Yuyun added that other NGO more IFTN struggled to free Indonesiamanagement, "Waste is, actually, easy focused on advocating or environment environment from poisonous materi-to manage. But it becomes a serious conservation and less focused on als, which are very close to the commu-issue when it does not get support from urban problem. "It is a chance and also nity, such as: paints, leaded gasoline,the government," she said. a challenge for us to do something sus- heat resistant materials or non-sticky Yuyun thought that waste or sanita- tainable," said this social entrepre- pan.tion management involving the com- neur. Yuyun expected that the young gener-munity will be easier to be managed. ations, individuals, or even other partiesManaging solid waste in a small scale Sustainable Solution were inspired to do changes in the areasis probably easier to be optimally recy- On 2003, Bali Fokus cooperated of environment health in context of sus-cled and composted, so that heap of with regional Rotary Club in initiating tainable development.waste in the final dumpsite can be solid waste management program in "It is not to get award but it is more onreduced and the environment becomes Temesi Village, Gianyar, Bali. Local social solidarity, social welfare, and toclean. communities were given waste man- improve the nation dignity and pride," Waste management solution by agement training by practicing to recy- she said at last. „recycling and composting can also cle the waste, separate the waste, and Dini Haryati/Bowo Leksonoreduce the green house gasses. "Doing make compost before it was brought to
    • 48 Percik May 2009 „ KNOWLEDGE „ Environment Representatives and CBSWM by Sri Wahyono* tarting August 2007 untilS January 2008, Japan Bank for International Cooperation(JBIC) did a study and a communitydevelopment of the waste managementin Jakarta. Those actions were done inorder to support the community-basedsolid waste management. In addition,the implementation of such programwas started in October 7, 2007 by hold-ing Recycling and CompostingTraining. The total representatives who weretrained by JBIC were 42 persons whoconsisted of representatives from RW01 and RW 02 (31 representatives) andfrom regions other than those two RW Green and clean environment in RW 01 East Cempaka Putih district, Central Jakarta.(11 representatives). The environment Photo Sri Wahyonorepresentatives who lived in RW 01were 22 persons whereas representa- After training there was a monitor- with the number of householders oftives who lived in RW 02 were 9 per- ing to check whether the environment 1.265 or about 5.060 inhabitants. Itsons. Seven representatives were the representative applied their skills. The was approximated that they producedrepresentatives from Uli Peduli implementation of monitoring was 15 meter cubic solid waste per day.Foundation. also accomplished by doing assistance That waste was dominated by organic The environment representatives who and training to the environment repre- waste which was 65,55 percent. Otherdid not live in those two RW consisted of sentatives so that their difficulties, if waste was inorganic waste which wasgarbage collectors (4 representatives), any, could be solved. dominated by paper 10,57 percent andNGO members (6 representatives), and The activity of monitoring was WASTE COMPOSITIONHealth Department staff (1 representa- achieved by interviewing, distributing INRW 01 AND RW 02tive). Because of JBIC program, the total the questionnaires, as well as regular No Types Composition (%)environment representatives in RW 01 observational visitation 3-4 times a 1. Organic 65,55and RW 02 East Cempaka Putih district week to the environment representa- 2. Paper 10,57increased from 53 representatives to 77 tives. They also coordinated to the 3. Plastic 13,25representatives. The cadre gender ratio is stakeholders, for example, health 4. Wood 0,07mothers (70 percent) the rest is male (30 Agency of Jakarta, Environment 5. Cloth 0,61percent). Technology Center-The Agency for The 6. Metal 1,06 Each of the representatives was Assessment and Application 7. Glass 1,91responsible to encourage their neigh- Technology, Uli Peduli Foundation, 8. Hazardouswaste 1,52 9. Dismantledwaste 0,81bors to maintain the environment and local government of East Cempaka 10. Other 4,65quality in their house surroundings Putih district. Source: PIL KAB programme, 2007especially about cleaning issue andwaste recycling. They were also Integrated Waste Managementresponsible to spread knowledge and Systemwaste management skill to everybody RW 01 and RT 02 in East Cempakawho needed. Putih district were populated areas
    • Percik May 2009 49 „ KNOWLEDGE„ logy. In that place, most of the waste was Integrated Solid Waste Processing Place Rawasari composted and recycled and other waste was putted to indoor landfill to be ntegrated Waste Processing Place Rawasari was by RW 01 and RW 01 East Cempaka Putih, Central I built on 2000 by using local budget of Special Capital District of Jakarta government in the Jakarta. In Rawasari, there are some facilities of waste management, those are composting hall, processed and brought to Bantargebang landfill. The least part of leftover waste Integrated City Waste Management Activity to Zero inorganic waste recycled machine, indoor integrat- was burnt to the incinerator. Waste. This place was built in order to provide a ed waste processing place, and little incinerator. media to manage community waste. Today, some waste which is not managed by The management of this place was done RW 01 and RW 02 communities are brought to this Independent Waste Management together between Environment Technology Centre- place. Then, some will be recycled and compost- RT 04 and RT 08 in RW 01 started to The Agency For The Assessment And Application ed, and some will be disposed to the final dump- Technolog. (as the technology research organiza- site Bantargebang, the residue will be burnt in do green action on 2004. Housewives in tion) and Special Capital District of Jakarta Hygiene the incinerator. that area were gathered in one local Agency. On 2005, this place was developed by The By having this place, the volume of waste organization namely dasawisma. They Agency For The Assessment And Application which is disposed to disposal place Bantargebang Technology.by extending the area of composting as decrease. So, it saves waste transporting cost and also get the runner up winner in the well as improving the operational management. makes the age of disposal place Bantargebang Green Competition, Special Capital Then, on 2007, recycled machines were installed so becomes longer. In addition, the community can get District of Jakarta level. that the performance of this place became com- other result of waste such as compost fertilizer, plete. recycled plastic products, and paper. This kind of On 2006, the activity of green action Nowadays, development of integrated waste management can also be replicated in other places and hygiene management got a prize in the processing place Rawasari is also integrated with based on the condition in their area. „ "Green and Clean 2006" competition held community-based waste management which is done by Uli Peduli Foudation. From the result, it is known that 53 percent of the environment representa- tives doing daily waste separation and composting, and the rest doing it every 2- 3 days. 89 percent environment represen- tatives who do not manage their waste said that the amount of their organic waste was just a little and other said that they are busy. Organic waste which is managed into compost consists of leaves, ornamental plants waste, fruit peel, leftover vegeta- bles, and chopped vegetables. If we saw from the total amount of the waste which has been composted, then RW 01 increased their waste manage- ment as well. Before the pilot project, waste to be composted was only 624 liter Waste composting in integrated waste processing place Rawasari, Central Jakarta. Photo Sri Wahyono but now 984 liter in a month. In line with the increasing number of composting, compost product increased as well fromplastic 13,25 percent. be moved, yet, those were not suitable to 156 liter to 246 liter per month. Waste, then, was separated and man- the condition of those areas which were Managing inorganic waste is asaged into handicraft by half of the com- dominated by narrow alley with no side- important as composting organic waste.munity and environment representatives. walk. As much as 42 percent of environmentThe leftover waste was putted in the rub- Waste from household which was not representatives said that they havebish bin. The community used many managed into compost was gathered to employed plastic waste to be made intokinds of rubbish bin such as plastic barrel, the waste cart and 2-3 times a week was other useful things such as pottin drum, cemented basin, and plastic brought to integrated waste processing and handicrafts.bag. place Rawasari which was managed by Most of the rubbish bins were tin Special Capital District of Jakartadrum and plastic barrel. Those two things Hygiene Agency and The Agency For Thewere chosen because those were easy to Assessment And Application Techno-
    • 50 Percik May 2009 „ KNOWLEDGE „ Whereas other 21 percent repre- FLOW DIAGRAM OF INTEGRATED SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT IN KELURAHANsentatives gather and give the waste to CEMPAKA PUTIH TIMUR, JAKARTA PUSAT.scavengers. However, some representa-tives (about 10 percent) still have notemployed their inorganic waste yet anddirectly dispose it to the rubbish bin. Plastic waste which is usually used as Compostpot is mineral water glass/bottle andpainting tin. Moreover, plastic waste PLANT RAWASARI Recyclables productswhich is usually used as handicraft is a Residuegood thick plastic package. One of the Community of RWenvironment representatives, Hendrik, 01 and RW 02has employed painting tin as the com- Separation, Composting,poster basic material which is ordered by recycled papers, plastic handicraftUli Peduli Foundation to be spread in Indoor Temporarysome places in Jakarta. Those painting - Uli peduli dumpsite Rawasari - JBICtins are interestingly designed and paint- - BPPTed. - Community - Sudin Kebersihan An environment representative, Tri AshesDarmayanti, has been given a specialtraining by Uli Peduli Foundation to Constructionmake handicrafts using plastic material. materialsThe handicraft products are in form ofbag, wallet, tissue box, tablecloth, carpet, Final Dumpsiteetc. She got a sewing machine from Uli BantargebangPeduli Foundation. Those products thenwere sold to some shopping centers inJakarta. Just like in Banjarsari (JakartaSelatan), the location also has solid waste tatives and residents are needed to reducemanagement motivator like Harini the waste problem so that it can alsoBambang Wahono. With just about the reduce the waste transporting cost andsame age, which is 70 years, the enthusi- final dumpsite Bantargebang is long life.asm is still high. Plastic waste which is "Besides, involving the society to manage usually used as pot is their garbage gives advantage to the soci-Special Capital District of Jakarta mineral water glass/bot- ety itself," he added.Governor Message tle and painting tin. Governor confessed that it needed To socialize the community based Moreover, plastic waste time to improve the community aware-waste management in Jakarta, on 2008 which is usually used as ness to manage their waste independent-there was an event which was attended by handicraft is a good thick ly. Because of that, the community lead-Fauzi Bowo, Special Capital District of plastic package. ers and environment representativesJakarta Governor. On that event, the gov- were expected to grow the consciousnessernor stated "Community-based Waste of managing waste. „Management Movement". *Sri Wahyono Reseacher and practitioner of city solid waste composting The event included the governor visi- in Pusat Teknologi Lingkungan-BPPT. Currently taking Ph.D,tation to RW 01, after that, the governor to be visited was indoor final dumpsite. In majoring Environment Science in Universitas Indonesia.went to the integrated waste processing addition, the event was completed by con-place Rawasari which was about 200 ducting a dialog with Jakarta residentsmeter from the previous place. In that about the waste problem.place, Governor observed the activity of Governor Fauzi Bowo said that thecomposting and recycling. The last place involvement of environment represen-
    • Percik May 2009 51 „ KNOWLEDGE „ Community as the Upstream in Solving the Waste environment. By: Imam Muhtarom* According to He- alth department of owadays waste becomes a Semarang city, a heapN huge problem. This problem is triggered by the increasingnumber of waste, uneven management of waste in the Sema- rang city achiev-ed the number of 75,71 per-from the upstream to downstream, the cent on 2005 or 2650careless behavior of the community as m3 coming fromwell. Those three factors cannot only households, wasteblock the drain but also invite many from markets wasdiseases to the community. about 13,57 percent or In the developed countries, waste is 500m3, and the restgovernment responsibility so the gov- came from commerceernment is responsible to manage the area, public facilities,waste from the beginning to the end. street, industrial area,Over the community involvement to and drain. Accordingthe waste management, the serious to Health departmentproblem of waste can be overcome. of Special CapitalEven the waste can be changed into District of Jakarta,other products to fulfill the community every person inneeds. By exact management of waste, Jakarta creates 2,9the community can live healthy and liter of waste. By thecomfortable and waste administrator number of residents ofcan get the advantage. 12 million inhabitants, Now, the problem is that how about everyday they pileIndonesian government who cannot 26.945 cubic meter orsolve this waste problem completely. about 6000 tons ofWe often heard that waste becomes a A waste carrier truck. waste. In addition, Photo Bowo Leksonodisaster in the community starting National Monumentsfrom the blocking drain, scattered many bad effects. It is not only disturb- yard can be covered by waste in 40waste in the disposal place which is ing and taking large spaces but also days with 1 meter height!very disturbing the community espe- basically can spread the disease and From the government side, there iscially in Bandung, until the death of damage the environment starting from no comprehensive and firm policy ofscavenger and resident around waste skin disease until the disease which the waste management. There is nofinal dumpsite Leuwigajah. attack inside part of the human body, complete management in a city like Why is so important to manage the mainly about breathing system. Waste, Jakarta so that the waste is not dis-waste? The answer is simple. It is especially in the big city which is dom- posed in final dumpsite. Practically,because the waste is increasing day by inated by factory waste which is hard waste cannot be used anymoreday especially in the big city like to be decomposed by the soil andJakarta. If the waste is not managed needs hundred years to be decom-well, waste will be the greatest problem posed in the soil. Clearly, waste is thein the city beside traffic jam. Waste has crucial problem in creating healthy
    • 52 Percik May 2009 „ KNOWLEDGE „but economically, waste has huge value The solid waste treatment activityboth organic and anorganic. turned out to encourage the idea and With the big number of waste and Organic waste is waste empowering the women in Ngemplakno government involvement, then, the which can be decomposed Caban. Other types of garbage such ascommunity who creates the biggest aluminum foil were reused by the by the microbe or can benumber of waste has to play role in housewives to make handicrafts. For rotten (leaves, leftover food,managing this problem. example, bags, wallet, newspaper Waste management system which etc.) whereas anorganic holder, cell phone pouch, and station-is developed must be a management waste is waste which is hard ary bags. They even trying out to makesystem with the basis on the communi- to be decomposed (plastic, cupboard and raincoat from the samety starting from management in the rubber, etc.). materials.household. Implementing 4R (reuse, "The innovative designs and mod-recycle, reduce, and replace) can be an els of the products came up from thealternative for the community to start creativity of our inhabitants. The mar-managing their waste. development. Social capitals and com- keting try out is already showing good This is the explanation of 4R: munity empowerment becomes the result and well accepted by the cus-  Reduce: we have to minimize major performance of that laboratory. tomers. using materials. The more materi- Hempri Suyatno, S.Sos., M.Si, the Organic fertilizer and handicrafts als we use, the more waste we pro- leader of RT Ngemplak Caban revealed made of aluminum foil had been duce. it. As far as his concerned, the waste exhibited in the competition of village  Reuse: we have to choose things management laboratory in his village potential in the level of Sleman which can be used again and avoid is an effort to develop independent Municipality at the village hall on the the use of things which can only community-based waste management. 5th of June 2007. be used once. "the emphasis is on the empowerment The inhabitants of dusun Sukunan,  Recycle: we have to make use the of the community to manage their village of Banyuraden, Subdistrict of used things or make it into the waste. Waste which is former problem Gamping was the pioneer in managing, useful things. is changed become useful things. For separating and reusing solid waste  Replace: we have to change our the Special Region of Yogyakarta gov- based on community empowerment. products with the products which ernment and local government of The inhabitants of Padukuhan Mulu- is long lasting and environmental Sleman district, it is the expected solu- ngan Wetan, Sendang adi village, and friendly. tion," he said. subdistrict of Melati followed the Organic waste is waste which can At that time, the group of society examples. Until now, the activities inbe decomposed by the microbe or can service from Gajah Mada University those two location is still running andbe rotten (leaves, leftover food, etc.) which consisted of Mesiyarti, Yohan even developing.whereas inorganic waste is waste Kartika, Ika Rahayu, Rina Sumanti, Experiences from the two villageswhich is hard to be decomposed (plas- and Reni Shintasari taught the society can actually be adopted by all commu-tic, rubber, etc.). to separate their garbage. Next, they nities whether in urban or rural areas. taught them how to change the In the city itself is very potential toThe Experience of Ngemplak garbage into useful and economical implement similar activities becauseCaban Village things. This program received a good the garbage volume is larger and more It is important to understand how response from the society. varied. Therefore, the effort of recy-the community is involved in the waste Right now, the youth organization cling will be economically more prom-solution in their area. The residents of (Karang Taruna) of Ngemplak Caban ising.Ngemplak Caban village continued the together with Karya Manunggal farm- Beside the clean and healthy envi-direction from Student Creativity ers association and cattle association ronment, the community also receivesGroup Program, Community Service Subur established a organic and com- additional income from the recycleddivision majoring in Social Behaviors post fertilizer management team. "We solid waste.Measurement, Social and Politics already have two organic fertilizers,Science, Gajah Mada University in which are from cattle dunk and house-form of waste management laboratory hold organic waste", Hempri added.
    • Percik May 2009 53 „ KNOWLEDGE „ Hazardous-and-Poisonous-Material Household Waste hy we talk about hazardous-W and-poisonous-material waste? Does it usually con-cerning on the industrial area? Maybe Fluorescent lampswe need to know first what is haz-ardous-and-poisonous-material waste. According to Government Regu-lation no. 19/1994 about the manage-ment of hazardous and poisonous Contactwaste, the definition of waste is: Pins Hazardous-and-poisonous-mate-rial is every waste which containsdangerous material and/or poisonousin which its characteristics and/or itsconcentrate and/or its amount, Glassdirectly or indirectly, can damage Tubeand/or pollute the environmentand/or endanger human health. Electrode Based on that regulation, wastewhich includes to the category of haz- Internalardous-and-poisonous-material has Insert Gas Phosphor Mercurycharacteristics as follow: (a) flamma-ble, (b) explosive, (c) reactive, (d) poi- Coating Photo: exclusivesonous (e) infectious, (f) corrosive, (g)other waste which if it is tested using has the same characteristic with the  Dangerous means that those prod-toxicology method can be known as hazardous-and-poisonous-material ucts are very poisonous, easy tohazardous-and-poisonous-material waste. The examples of hazardous- flame, or corrosive. Look for thewaste. and-poisonous-material household word "dangerous" in these prod- One more characteristic of haz- waste are drain cleaners, paint, lubri- ucts: cleaner, paint polishes, insectardous-and-poisonous-material waste cants, mosquito repellent, herbicide, repellent, and mosquito repellent.is persistent or hard to be cleaned or insecticide, fluorescent lamps, battery, "Dangerous" means that thosehealed. Hazardous-and-poisonous- electronics, including computer and products can contaminate you withmaterial household waste is the term cell phone. the poison, cause serious effect towhich is used to chemical products your skin, eyes, or easily burn.which used in the house- How to know hazardous-and-  Cautions shows that the producthold but can no poisonous-material prod- corrosive, reactive, or easy to belonger be used. ucts in the household? burnt. Chemical Know the package: Products which do not have suchproducts and  Poisonous shows high labels can be categorized as the prod-compounds dangerous level. Poison- uct which is not really dangerous.which are ous means that thoseused in those products are very toxicproducts and can cause death if it s h o w is swollen, inhaled, or that it absorbed by the skin.
    • 54 Percik May 2009 „ KNOWLEDGE „ Photo: exclusiveProducts which include as hazardous- when those products are not used any- will spread out and contaminate theand-poisonous-material household more, those still considered as the dan- environment and it causes humanwaste are: gerous products. For example, CFL sickness. a. Cleaning products: all cleaning lamp, when it is used, it is not danger- Some households and families who products, anti-bacterial and disin- ous, but when it is broken, mercury have understood and care about the fectant products, bleaching prod- inside the hazardous-and-poisonous-material ucts, powder or liquid drain clean- lamp waste problem have started to separate er, furniture polishes, metal clean- their waste. I have separated haz- er, rust cleaner, toilet cleaner, ardous-and-poisonous-material waste ceramic tiles cleaner in my house into two categories. I col- b. Products which contain lect those waste using tin can, the Mercury: fluorescent lamps, first can contains used cell batter- thermometer ies, and the other can contains c. Battery: cell battery. used CFL lamps. The problem is d. Household pesticide: mos- that the community awareness of quito repellent spray. separating their hazardous-and- e. Other household products: poisonous-material waste in my ant killer, bug repellent, city is not accommodated yet. So, it anti-flea shampoo, rat killer, is better to keep it until Hygiene asbestos, fire extinguisher liq- Agency and final dumpsite have spe- uid. cial place to gather this kind of Those products contain dangerous waste. „ Yuyun Ismawatichemical substance when it is used. So,
    • Percik May 2009 „ BEST PRACTICES „ 55 The gate of Tarakan, Eastern Kalimantan decorated by monuments of several awards.such as Adipura trophy. Photo Bowo Leksono Local Government and the Commu- TARAKAN nity Commitment In order to support the cleanliness Actualizing a Clean City by program, Local Government of Tarakan created a regulation in form of Regional Regulation No. 13 year 2003 about Town Managing Waste Cleanliness Control. This regulation binds the community. Therefore, they have responsibility to keep their environment aking a clean town is not easy East Kalimantan Province, is one of the clean .M since it needs commitment as well as high awareness fromthe people. Local government, private towns in Indonesia which is pretty suc- cessful in actualizing a clean town. No wonder, two years in a row, 2007-2008, In that regulation, which regulates waste, is stated that community has to dispose their waste on the certain times,and NGO, educational institution, mass the town got Adipura award, an environ- in the morning at 06.00-08.00 Middlemedia and also community play role in mental award, as the cleanest town. Indonesia Time and in the afternoon atcreating a clean town. Nobody wants nei- Since 1999, Tarakan have had a mayor 17.00-20.00 Middle Indonesia Time.ther unclean nor uncomfortable town. who really cares about town cleanliness. Along with it, the government, Cleanness,Because of that reason, every government Even in the early his leadership, dr. H. Parks, and Cemetery Department, bringsmust have cleanliness program. The Jusuf Serang Kasim proclaimed his major the waste into final dumpsite at 08.00-problem is that either such program program about how to reduce the waste 10.00 and 20.00-22.00 Middle Indonesiabecomes community responsible or just a quickly. "A clean town reflects who the Time.formality from the local government. residents are," he said. "The rule of disposing and distribut-Besides community role, to support actu- As the center of trading and also the ing is expected to be in final dumpsite foralizing such program, budget is needed as second gate to Kalimantan, after about 2 hours so that it will not be stinkywell as regulation which supports. Balikpapan, Tarakan becomes a strategic and disturb the environment," said the Not all Indonesian towns have such town. Anybody who comes to that town head of DKPP Drs. Ibrahim Adam, M.Si.supporting factors. That is why some will be impressed by the cleanliness of the In a day, Tarakan brought about 400towns are succeeded to be a clean town town as well as the comfortable and cubic meter or about 150-160 tons of and some others are not. friendly environment. The situation is waste. The huge volume of waste and the Tarakan, expected to bring about investment to the solutions could not be burdened solely to town and activate the tourism sector. the government since it is also the com- munity responsibility. "Do we have to
    • 56 Percik May 2009 „ BEST PRACTICES „wait until it becomes a mound of waste or Surabaya is also a town which has suc- Strategies in Overcoming Wastewe have to manage it?" said the mayor of ceeded to encourage its community to ProblemTarakan, Jusuf SK. manage their waste. The government of Waste is one of the complicated prob- If the answer is no, then, managing this town succeeded because they got sup- lems which is owned by every town inthe waste is the solution. For that reason, Indonesia. This problem is always beingcommunity-based waste management homework for the government to behas been realized since 2006. solved. Many strategies were implement- Besides the budget from the National ed to solve that problem but it had noBudget and Local Budget, Tarakan gov- result.ernment also cooperated with NGO Limited budget and human resourcesBORDA and BALIFOKUS in doing clearly hinder in solving the waste prob-Community-based waste management by lem. Surabaya had a strategy to overcomedoing a program called KIPRAH (Kita that problem; those were fixing the regu-Pro Sampah). The pilot projects were in lation, acquiring and implementing tech-the four regions (RT 03 Karang Anyar nology, and educating community.District, RT 16 Karang Anyar Beach The implementation of Community-District, Karang Rejo District, and based waste management is the actualiza-Kampung Enam District). tion of educating Surabayas citizen. The The basic waste management in the result is that thousands of representativeshousehold level is by separating the were created in each district. "It is expect-waste. One way to managing the waste is ed the representatives of each village willby composting. "Nowadays, there are 500 increase and they will care the environ-environment fighters who manage their ment. They are the representatives forwaste by composting using Takakura their own and also representatives formethod," said Ibrahim. their environment," said the mayor of To keep motivating and inviting com- Surabaya, Drs. Bambang Dwi Hartono,munity to manage the waste, Cleanness, M.Pd.Parks, Cemetery Agency cooperated with Environment representatives in theRadar Tarakan, a local newspaper, held community got a assistance and trainingGreen and Clean Competition every year. from facilitator and motivator. The peakThis year is the third year of holding such of the program Community-based wastecompetition. management was Green and Clean To get top-ten-rank in this competi- A housewife in Tarakan makes simple compost Competition which was fully supported from the kitchen waste. Photo Bowo Leksonotion, how the participants applied com- by the local government. This programmunity-based waste management beca- could influence almost all RT and districtsme one point to be graded. "That is a form port from all level, starting from Local in Surabaya. "Finally, this program notof socialization and campaign," explained government, private, mass media, NGO, only belongs to Unilever and local govern-Ibrahim. educational institution, and of course the ment but also all community," said the To accommodate the citizens com- community itself. Team Coordinator of Unilever Indonesiamitment who has separated their waste, Surabaya success in actualizing a Foundation, Nunuk Maghfiroh.Tarakan Government provided appropri- clean town is not only in the centre of the For Surabaya community, technologyate trucks to carry the waste, yellow truck town but also in the village. Corporate which has been used by Surabaya com- to bring inorganic waste and blue truck Social Responsibility (CSR) from munity to manage their waste into com- to bring organic waste. Unilever also started Community-based post was Takakura basket. In addition, waste management in other towns. the newest regulation in Surabaya about littering and also the punishment is still being discussed. „ Bowo Leksono
    • Percik May 2009 57 „ BEST PRACTICES „ Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) to Manage Solid Waste ne of the commitments and mented their social responsibility in the reused. One of the companies which itsO cares of a company or national corporation in social and envi-ronment aspect is actualized in form of environment aspect. By creating an inde- pendent division, those corporations have run their care to almost all regions in products are environment-friendly is Body Shop. In using the CSR funds, corporationsCorporate Social Responsibility (CSR) Indonesia. are aware that giving money to the com-which has been ruled in the law. munity without any assistance is notNowadays, a company or corporation The Corporation Concern effective. The Santa Claus pattern ofcompetes in running CSR as the effort to Related to the concern on environ- handing out gifts and money is not appro-contribute in national development. ment, referring to Law Number 18 Year priate for the community nowadays. Besides social, education, and health 2008 about Waste Management on Verse The community will not use the giftaspect, environment aspect often 14, it is stated "Each company has to the way it is meant to be and come back tobecomes the goal of CSR implementation. assert a label or sign on the package their bad daily habit. To change bad habitIt cannot be avoided that human live with and/or the products connecting to the of the community, one way that can bethe presence of the environment, because waste reduction and waste management". done is by educating the community toof that we have to preserve the environ- "The company must manage their pack- manage by separating and recycling.ment around us. age and/or their products which cannot Unilever Indonesia Corporation, Unilever Indonesia Corporation, be decomposed by the nature" is stated on through the Unilever Peduli, in 2009Danamon Bank, Telkom Corporation, Verse 15.. On Verse 15, what is meant by made the community in Jambanganand Tetra Pak Corporation are the exam- managing package is that the company District, Surabaya became the pilot proj-ples of corporations which have imple- takes the package back to be recycled or ect.. Making the society accustomed to managing their waste is one of Uli Peduli Foundation program. Photo Collection Uli Peduli
    • 58 Percik May 2009 „ BEST PRACTICES „ "The key is motivating the cant role in overcoming the problem," she The program is changing organic wastecommunity to manage their waste inde- said. into compost.pendently because the community is the According to Silvi, Unilever still hasagent of change," said Nunuk Maghfiroh, homework to be solved related to the Cooperation between Stakeholdersthe coordinator of Uni Peduli Surabaya environment problem. Unilever as a com- It is impossible for running a programFoundation. pany which produces packages feels that without support from other stakeholders. That strategy is effective to reduce the if the package arrives in the consumer, it In managing the waste, CSR fund will notwaste problem. The problem decreased will become garbage which pollutes the mean anything if there is no support fromsignificantly. And the most important environment. "We try to educate the com- the local government. Actually, wastething is that Unilever is always fully sup- munity that product packages can be used problem is one of the local governmentported by the local government and local again," she said. responsibilities, financial problem andmass media, so that it is effective to influ- This community empowerment limited human resources hinder the gov-ence community especially through method cannot be seen from CSR pro- ernment in overcoming the problem.Green and Clean competition. gram implemented by Telkom Here, the cooperation between private In 2006, Unilever reached the capital Corporation and Tetra Pak Corporation. sectors, universities, mass media, andcity of Indonesia, Jakarta, followed by Both corporations still give the communi- community awareness are needed.Yogyakarta in 2007, then Makassar in ty things such as trash bin, trucks, fund Executive Director of Danamon2008, and Medan, Bandung, and hygiene facility for the community. Peduli, Risa Bhinekawati, stated thatBanjarmasin this year. Unilever Corpo- Whereas Danamon Bank, a private bank Danamon Go Green Program needs theration replicated the program in Surabaya in Indonesia, through Danamon Peduli commitments from the local leader into other cities because basically each city has already replicated CSR to do commu- assuring the successful and continuoushad another waste problem and they nity-based solid waste management in the program. "Danamon is not only wantscould overcome it by implementing com- traditional markets in Indonesia. to donate but also runs the programmunity-based solid waste management. On 2007, Danamon Peduli succeeded together with the government since this Environment Program Manager to clean three traditional markets in program has a long-term effect," she said.Unilever Indonesia Corporation, Silvi Ciputat (Tangerang), BantulTirawaty, said that Unilever has limita- (Yogyakarta), and Sragen (East Java). Corporation Compensationtion in spreading that program to every Through Danamon Go Green program, Either directly or indirectly, the imple-city in Indonesia. "The cities we choose this bank alocates Rp 2,1 billion from the mentation of Corporate Socialare the cities with complicated problem of total CSR fund Rp 10 billion to be spread Responsibility clearly will influence thewaste in which community plays signifi- to 31 traditional markets in Indonesia. corporate business. At least, CSR is the actualization of corporate responsible and obligation to community. Silvi said that corporate image, the impacts from the implementation of CSR, has a significant position. "If the corpo- rate image is good, the other divisions will be optimal. For example, the employees are proud of their corporate, so, they will work hard to achieve good corporate impression from the community," she added. Thats what Risa said also. As far as her concerned, Danamon is known as a bank which concerns to the community welfare. "Market community remedial is also social investment for Danamon," she added. „ Bowo Leksono Changing traditional markets become clean and tidy is one of the Uli Peduli Foundation program as well. Photo collection: Yayasan Danamon Peduli
    • Percik May 2009 „ BEST PRACTICES „ 59 NGO Effort and CBSWM Project GO is one of stakeholders in the main target of Mercy Corps.N implementing Community- based waste management pro-gram in many locations. NGO has a Besides USAID, the ESP fund comes from the local governments as well as other donors, such as JBIC. Inrole as initiator and motivator for the Bintari Foundation, the fundingcommunity in managing the environ- sources are JICA, GTZ, and also fromment which is clean and healthy. local government. There are many NGOs who careand do action in managing waste. NGO Involvement in Community-Usually, this program (Community- based waste managementbased Solid Waste Management) is a (CBSWM)part of environment management like The involvement of an NGO inwhat is done by Environmental implementing Community-basedServices Program (ESP). In imple- waste management is adjusted to thementing their programs, ESP works goal and function of the NGO itself.with some partners to develop a Basically, what is done by one NGO ishealthy life by improving clean water similar to what is done by other NGO.management as well as extending As the initiator and motivator, NGOwater access and sanitation to the com- gives education/training, communitymunity. mobilization, and capacity building. Managing the garbage is impossible without The goal of ESP program is to involvement from the society. Foto istimewa The involvement of an NGO usuallyimprove community health through also is in monitoring and evaluating.water and sanitation. The main focus located in Semarang, Central Java, has Urban Governance Advisor Mercyof this program is on the connection run some programs about waste man- Corp, Pramita Harjati, said that coop-between the quality of the environ- agement since 2001. Some areas in eration form between Mercy Corps andment and waste which is one of the Semarang have been pilot projects and the community is generally formulatedpoint in disease contamination route then it developed to another city in by composing working plan togetherparticularly diarrhea, which will dete- Central Java such as Tegal, Pati, and with RW, young generations, district,riorate community health. Kudus. and village representatives. The coope- Waste management from NGO ration usually uses Community-basedMercy Corps is one of the activities Funding Organization (CBO) which is availablewhich is appropriate to the major goal Not all NGO have fund to run their in the community. She added,of urban program. Community-based program. But it does not mean that "Whereas government involvement iswaste management always tries to be they do not have money at all to start varied. Some give full support evenincluded in many urban projects, for their programs. They have money to they give many kinds of help and someexample sanitation project, flood pre- start the program and while the pro- just give moral support."vention, lack of nutrition prevention gram is running they ask other parties According to ESP-USAID Nationalfor infants, etc. to participate in funding the program. Sanitation Coordination, Winarko Bina Karta Lestari (Bintari) In NGO Mercy Corps, all funds is Hadi, community can be involved by Foundation, a local supported by United States Agency for starting to separate and manage their NGO which is International Development (USAID), waste so that it reduces the waste IDRC, Netherland government, etc. which is disposed out, managing the including the fund for implementing wet waste into compost using house- community-based waste manage- hold composter, and also using recy- ment in slum settle- cled bag so that it reduces the use of ment which is plastic bag. "The government
    • 60 Percik May 2009 „ BEST PRACTICES „involvement is needed to support the Obstacles It is not very much different fromprogram integration and continuity," According to Feri, the big obstacle what is experienced by ESP, that, thehe said. in implementing community-based local government still gives less sup- Meanwhile, Program Manager waste management is the sustainabili- port to this program. This also influ-Bintari Foundation, Feri Prihantoro, ty of the program. He said that the sus- ences the paradigm, behavior, andexpected the society contribution in tainability of the program is related to commitment of the society in manag-community-based waste management the society boredom in prolonged ing the waste.program implementing zerowaste waste management especially with "We need to keep campaigning thatprincipal, so that it decreases the vol- more area to cover which demand waste is our responsibility and wasteume of waste outer the residences. more assistance in managing the can be a resource. The society tends to"For the implementation, it is given to waste. "Because of that, we keep in get instant and generating incomethe society who manages it independ- effort to hold the local government to from implementing this program,"ently," he added. make innovation for the society," he said Winces, Winarko Hadis nick- NGO said that community-based said. name.waste management which is accom- The general obstacle, based onplished in some areas is an effective Mita, is that the government attention Community-based Waste Mana-program. For example in ESP advising on the community-based waste man- gement Sustainabilityarea, RW VI Wonokromo District agement program is still inadequate. With the existence of Law numberSurabaya city, this program can reduce This can be seen from the society who 18 Year 2008 about the Solid Waste Management, which can be an umbrel- la for community-based waste man- agement program and AMPL network which covers Community-based waste management practitioners, the society can be easily asked to run the program. This is also measured from society and local government interest and request which become the place for ESP. It needs to encourage the local government to make community- based waste management as a priority by giving not only slogans but also many stimulants. To make sure that this program is always continuing, Mercy Corps makes Jomblang district residents, Semarang city, have a meeting talking about Takakura basket the society to be able to gain network, supports the society to be involved inthe waste volume as much as 1 meter is difficult finding the land to be made Musrenbang in RW and district level,cubic per day. The effectiveness of as the activity center and lack of sup- advocates to the government so thatwaste pile also happened in the Mercy port. The government should also give they keep continuing the programCorps area such as in RW 4 and RW 5 incentive to the society who has done which has been built by the society.Kapuk Muara District and RW 8, 12, community-based waste management. Meanwhile, according to ESP, theand 13 Penjaringan District North other obstacles are that the community continuing community-based wasteJakarta, as well as RW 8 Petojo Utara readiness to pay the operating cost (for management program can be deter- District Cetral Jakarta. communal scale), the difficulty in gath- mined if the society keep doing waste ering plastic material to be recycled, management and the amount of par- less variation products and high oper- ticipants is getting higher although ating cost, as well as society time man- they are not guided by ESP or govern- agement to participate. ment. The environment become more clean and beautiful and also this pro- gram become the society needs. „ Bowo Leksono
    • Percik May 2009 61 „ BEST PRACTICES„ Barat, South Jakarta becomes cleanSOLID WASTE HEROES and so-called ijo royo-royo. "We manage waste as an activity of community service because we knowin Society and see that the condition of this coun- try demand the community to partici- pate actively in tackling the waste," she said. Nowadays, who does not know Eyang Harini who since 1985 has struggled in the garbage. In Jakarta, so many areas have been changed by her and that have spread to another cities outside Jakarta. Harini is often invited as a speaker and she trains people in many places about how to manage household waste. "We developed a basic-level waste management which is easily done without capital. The only capitals are the willingness and con- cern," she said. Fun Waste ManagementIswanto (39) a resident of Sukunan village, Sleman District, Yogyakarta, with his composting barrels. Willingness and concern are also Photo Bowo Leksono implemented by Iswanto (39) to inde- pendently manage the waste in his vil- riend or foe! Maybe those are about solid waste to the government. It lage. Since 1997, in his early relocationF the options for everything con- cerning solid waste. Yes, thereare only two choices, either waste will needs our initiative as a part of com- munity to manage waste. There are many initiators who from Gondomanan to Sukunan, Yogyakarta has faced waste problem. His idea to invite his neighbors tobe a good friend for us or on the other apply waste management in their com- manage their waste came from hishand it will be a foe which endangers munity and surroundings. Almost all small yard and because he did not getus, our family, and society. cities in Indonesia have a person who any service from the local government Its going to be easy if we choose initiates to help resolving the waste in terms of conveying the waste.waste as a foe, just ignore the waste problem. "For the residents who have widethat we dispose everyday. But if we yard, waste is not a problem althoughchoose waste as our friend, we have to Waste Management Initiators they handle the waste incorrectlyshow our concern to waste. Jakarta, the capital city of which is by burning, burying, or throw- Concern is not only for human and Indonesia, often becomes an attention ing away," said this Politeknikother creatures. It is not easy to be con- mainly about solid waste problem. The Kesehatan Yogyakarta lecturer.cern to something which is dirty, city in which 6.000 tons of waste is Waste problem was also experi-stinky, and disgusting like solid waste. generated everyday does not have its enced by the farmers in Sukunan vil- Whether we aware or not, we can- own final dumpsite. So, it is not sur- lage. It was caused by the irrigationnot avoid waste because human itself prising that waste keep being a drain which often brought plasticproduces waste. It means that it needs polemic problem. waste to their rice field. Since that,brave personal action to start being There is pride when one of its citi- 2002, Iswanto tried to solve the wasteconcern to waste so waste can be our zens, Harini Bambang Wahono, a 79- problem starting fromfriend and not endanger us. year-old grandmother who is very his family. His Although solid waste is government energetic, with great persistence andresponsibility, it is not wise if we just patience changes the neighborhood inblame and pour out our exasperation the Banjarsari district, Cilandak
    • 62 Percik May 2009 „ BEST PRACTICES „ management. In Sleman district, there neer in managing waste into compost. are about 16 villages which implement He has a 6000m2 area which becomes that program such as Mulungan, a place to manage the waste. In that Ngemplak, Sidokarto, and Minomar- place, which is also his residence, he tani. From those villages, Independent established a studio namely Citizen Waste Organizer Networking was based Initiative-Karya Pengayuh Sen- formed. tosa (CBI-KPS). That place triumphed in the year Stand for Change 2003. More than 40 dustmen managed It is not easy to make the society to for about 18 tons of waste per month do waste management. It is harder to which was as much as two third waste maintain the society who has succeed- in Sleman. Wisnu, then, got support ed in community-based waste manage- from many corporations, one of those ment. So, it may remain only the initia- was Ashoka Indonesia. tor alone. Wisnu feels irritated to what hap- Yet, Wisnu Wardhana (59) chose to pened nowadays. He is annoyed by his be survived. The man who likes to be workers attitude who quit working called dustman thought that working because they do not feel proud of their in this field has not been untouchable job yet their income increase. He also yet by many people. "Actually, working protests to the local government in this field is promising but many pri- because they are not serious in han-Inhabitants activity making compost from kitchen waste. Photo:BORDA vate corporations are not brave enough dling the waste problem. "Do we have to guarantee about this job," said to wait until a disaster comes like whatfirst trial was organic compost made Wisnu who lives in the river bank not happened in final dumpsite Leuwi-from his kitchen waste. He told his far from Minomartani housing, Sle- gajah Bandung?" he asked. „ Bowoneighbors whether successful or not man district. Leksonowhen he was in village patrol. Since 1996, Wisnu has been a pio- Up and down condition was alsoexperienced by Iswanto and his friendswho felt certain to keep managing thewaste independently. And 2004, manyof the residents in Sukunan villagehave managed their own waste and itwas decided that January 24, 2004 wasthe birthday for independent wastemanagement in Sukunan village."Nowadays, the residents in Sukunanhave felt that managing the waste isfun. Besides the environment becomesclean, they also get additional income,"said the leader of Paguyuban SukunanBersemi who is often as speaker aboutwaste management. Other than Sukunan, there aremany villages in Yogyakarta whichimplement community-based waste Wisnu (left) and Harini Bambang Wahono (right). Photo: Bowo Leksono.
    • Percik May 2009 63 „ BEST PRACTICES „ Mass Media Role in CBSWM The successful of Surabaya city was, then, replicated by other big cities in Indonesia such as Jakarta, Yogyakarta, Bandung, Makasar, Medan, Ujung Pandang, and Banjarmasin. Besides the local government role as the facilitator, in fact, mass media in each city has a big role in holding the communitys activity. The information made by the mass media is expected to be able to influence other small town around it. From that role, mass media lays its responsibility to soci- ety. Basically, mass media is functioned as information dis- tributor, education, and entertainment. "All media want to change the society habit, from bad to good. And in fact, it can be done by the media," said Support Marketing Manager of Jawa Pos, Erry Suharyadi. Jawa Pos is a influential local newspaper in East Java which fully supported community-based waste manage- ment in Green and Clean program Surabaya. "Even the function of the media is seen as the connector among the stakeholders," added Erry. In Yogyakarta, community-based waste management ass media is expected to be the leader in every com- has been applied since 2007. Kedaulatan Rakyat is a localM munity actions to be better and achieve welfare. newspaper which cooperated with Unilever Peduli to runThrough mass media, either printed or electronic, is the Green and Clean program. "The support from this newspa-effective way to encourage and influence community in per is more about educating the society to live healthy," saidevery sector. the Vise Editorial Staff Leader of Kedaulatan Rakyat, The role as a leader is proven in the sector of environ- Ahmad Lutfi.ment handling. Media, not only local but also national, has Meanwhile, in Jakarta, besides Jakarta Green and Cleanan important role in inviting community to love their city. program on 2007, Jakarta Green Office was also held on 2008, The success of a program cannot be achieved without the which is a green and clean competition among offices inrole of mass media, including community-based waste man- Jakarta. Entering 2009, Unilever Peduli cooperated withagement program in many cities. Mass media not only Special Capital District of Jakarta to hold a green and cleanbecomes supplement but also actively designs and evaluates competition namely Jakarta Green School.the program. Two mass medias, Republika Newspaper and Radar In the recent days, many cities in Indonesia are trying to Delta FM Radio, also fully supported that program. Firmly,make their environment clean and healthy. Through Green Promotion Manager Delta Radio, Junas Miradiarsyah, saidand Clean Program, those cities are trying to make their that the Delta Radio support is a part of Corporateenvironment clean by applying community-based waste Social Responsibility (CSR). "This is ourmanagement. commitment in education, environ- A foundation owned by Uniever Tbk. Corporation, Uli ment, and humanity," saidPeduli Foundation, becomes one of the pioneers of the city Junas.clean program. As the pilot project, Surabaya city got thefirst chance to follow Green and Clean program in 2005.
    • 64 Percik May 2009 „ BEST PRACTICES „The Involvement of a Media aware of it. By having Green and Clean city is called a full of flower city. It Media not only communicates the program, this will make community describes Surabaya which has succeed-program so that it inspires and moti- keep struggling and mass media keep ed in planting the flowers.vates the community but also involves guiding the community to achieve a According to Yulia, Republika has ain planning, implementing, and evalu- better life. Mass media also informs a target support until the environmentating the program. message invite the community to actu- in Jakarta greener than before. Mass media gives a signifi-cant influence in advertisingthis program. They give a freeadvertisement every day in amonth, if it is counted, theadvertisement cost will bevery high. They also give theirmind and power to supportthis program. That is whymass media takes a big role ininfluencing the society. According to Erry, if it wascommercially counted, JawaPos advertised the green andclean program for two monthsin a row. "In Rupiah, we onlyprovide 450 billion rupiah forthe prize. We get this amountcollectively," he explains. Eventhough the massmedia spent tens even hun-derds of million for pubblish-ing news about this project,there is still of course busi-ness calculation. It is not inthe form of commercial calculation but alize the goal. Besides that, we keep influencingin the form of good names and addi- According to Promotion Staff the society to manage and recycle theirtional subscribers. Republika, Yulia Ayu Trisia, Republika waste. How to do that is by adding Junas said that positive image is as a media which cares about the envi- more representatives so that they willpretty important to be built. "Consis- ronment will keep continuing this pro- keep informed," she said.tence good image as well as positive gram. "We will keep holding the gov- This is not really different fromperception, at last, will give advantage ernment and private so that this pro- Delta Radio which also wants to maketo a business unit," he said. gram runs faster," she said. Jakarta cleaner and to set an good example for other cities. "Delta FM willThe Chance in the Role of Media Keep Guiding always guard vision and mission of this Mass media thinks that its support Yulia also said that her media will program to create a better environ-to the environment care program will keep guiding this program in Jakarta. ment and life by improving the societybring advantage to them in the future. The support from mass media will not awareness," said Junas Miradiarsyah.Remembering that the condition both fade away until the goal of this pro- „ Bowo Leksonoenvironment and economy are getting gram is really accomplished.worse, we need to change our habit. After achieving the clean and green At present, there are many people village and implementing community-who have done a transformation and based waste management, Surabaya
    • Percik May 2009 „ BEST PRACTICES „ 65 Educating the Students in MANAGING the WASTE esolving the waste problemR cannot be done only by using technology. For many years,human have tried to use technology toovercome such problems even theycreated technology. In fact, all of thoseactions do not run well. After all we askwhere the core of the problem is. Theanswer is not a secret because every-one knows it. The awareness to livehealthy and clean is the core whichmakes waste problem never resolved. Good behavior clearly cannot beformed just in second. We need timeand process. Building communityawareness to care of this problem bymanaging it is closely related to the Two students of Public Senior High School 34 Jakarta who are members of Karya Ilmiah Remaja (KIR)education. Educational institutions was practising to make compost in their school. Photo Bowo Leksonosuch as school, university, etc. haverole in educating community to love cative and contextual. the middle of the community,their environment. One of the implementation pro- Pusdakota which is located on For school category, 34 State Senior grams is community-based waste man- Jl.Rungkut Lor III No.87 Surabaya,High School Jakarta is one of the edu- agement. In this program, we need the did assistance to the community in thecational institutions who is concern role of community to participate and Kalirungkut district to do waste man-about the environment. This school maximize their potential. Through this agement besides in the many areas inincludes environmental education into program, the awareness of the commu- Surabaya and other areas in Indonesia.their main curriculum instead of nity about the environment manage- Management is started by sorting theincluding it to their extracurricular ment is expected to be achieved. waste, which is separating the dryactivity. Pusdakota participates to solve the waste and wet waste. For university category, there is a waste problem using technosocial "Community do not indirectlycentre of empowerment of urban com- approach by integrating technological understand what dry waste and drymunities Surabaya University with aspect and sociological aspect. Tech- waste are because they consider plasticintegrated environment management nological approach is important to and sanitary napkins as wet garbage.program. This program is designed to change the organic waste into fertilizer Yet, this is part of community partici-create a type of environmental educa- and inorganic waste into recycled pation process which is important to tion which is appli- products. move on to the next stage," said Pusdakota has actively organized Nurlailah, microeconomics develop- community to care about our envi- ment staff of Pusdakota. ronment since 2000. As a part Achievement which is pretty pre- of the centre of empower- dominate is when Pusdakota cooperat- ment which is in ed with Japan Governemnt through
    • 66 Percik May 2009 „ BEST PRACTICES „Kitakyushu International Techno-Cooperative Assosiation (KITA). Theycreated simple technology, research The Beautiful Environment arifatun (42), a res- post," she said. Becauseresult in year 2004. The result isTakakura Home Method. This method S ident of RT 03 RW 14 Kalirungkut district of their spirit and awareness, their villageis suitable to be used in the city who Surabaya city, did not successfully won thewants to manage their own organic believe that she and Green and Cleanwaste but do not have space. "By using her friends successfully Competition 2008. made their environ- Nowadays, manycheap materials which are easy to get ment becomes green regions both nationaland without chemical substance, and beautiful. Three and international camehousehold can change their organic years ago, she made to their village, in whichwaste into fertilizer in a quick times," compost using Takakura used to be a flood vic-said Nurlailah. Method taught by tim, to do comparative Pusdakota. study. "Our environment ""Every three is not only governmentSchool with Environment months, we harvest Resident of RT 03 RW 14 responsibility but alsoInsights and the result we used Kalirungkut district with the Green our responsibility," said and Clean 2008 trophy. Stevan Deby, a 10th grade student for fertilizing the plant Sarifatun. „ Photo Bowo Leksono as well as making com-of 34 State Senior High School, is stillfeel trendy when he deals with waste inhis school. "Since I was in Junior High Senior High School and Advisor of KIR dominated. That is why, it needs theSchool, I have been motivated in tech- extracurricular, said that this was the role of school residents to be involvednology engineering and creating a third year of environment education to in the waste management, whatevertechnology. Through this garage man- be included in the curriculum for grade the contribution is." In the past, organ-agement, I hope I can share my inte- X and XII. "Since curriculum has not ic waste still mixed with the inorganicrest in technology engineering and cre- been published yet by the Education waste.ating technology," he said. Department, we arrange the curricu- "School made a rule which forces He and his friends, which are gath- lum by ourselves related to the envi- the students to bring their own lunchered in extracurricular namely KIR, ronment education which includes the box. This is expected to be able tofeel happy managing the waste. waste management in little scale," she reduce the waste volume. Also the"Although our school does not have said. school asks the food seller at the schoolenvironment insights label , we have to In the education environment les- canteen to use food wrapper which iskeep our school environment," explain son, the students are trained to make environmental friendly," said Endang.Steve. compost. "Because of limited facilities Managing the waste is considered It has been so many schools which and many students, they make their as a difficult thing to do because theybecome school with environment compost at home and bring it to are the institute which holds the learn-insights like 34 State Senior High school," said Endang. ing process from morning till after-School Jakarta which is located on noon. The key is the awareness to keepPondok Labu, South Jakarta. Seeing The Effectiveness of Managing clean the environment as well as thethe bad development of environment, the Waste behavior to keep clean the environ-as a school in the big city, Senior High Not only Pusdakota but also 34 State ment.School feels responsible to make its Senior high School confess the effective- Actually, community has manystudents and its employees to take part ness of managing the waste on the all potential to be maximized. To emergein keeping clean the environment. scale of managing. "Community which the potential, of course community Endang Werdaningsih, Biology manages the waste are able to reduce the needs to be involved. Here, education teacher of 34 heap of waste until 20% in the communi- plays significant role in building the State ty," said Nurlailah. awareness and independency of the In the 34 State Senior High School community to manage the waste. surroundings, organic waste is „ Bowo Leksono
    • Percik May 2009 67 „ BEST PRACTICES „ Solid Waste in the Point of View of Religious Leader Waste Becomes the Theme in Faith Waste is social issues which needs social awareness. Many factors influ- ence the waste problem such as equip- ment, education, discipline, and com- munity concerns. General Chairman of the High Council of Kong Hu Cu Indonesia (Matakin) Budi Santoso Tanuwibowo believes that religion has a very strong community basis to resolve the envi- ronment problem such as waste prob- lem. "This is truly problems about cul- ture and awareness. It needs a long time to solve but if it is done together and continuously, it will have a result." he said. In line with the government pro- Catholic nuns are learning to compost in Karya Penggayuh Sentosa (KPS) workshop Yogyakarta. Photo gram of community-based waste man- KPS collection agement which refers to the Law num- ber 18 year 2008 about waste manage- ll the religions and beliefs in human, nature and our surrounding, it ment, Bishop councils of Jakarta start-A the world teach goodness and compassions to every creaturein the world including its environment. is our job to conserve it. Because of the nature and environment human can live and survive. The actualization of ed on last year implemented "waste" as the theme of faith. According to Clean and HealthyHarmony of this relationship creates loving the environment can be done by Life Movement and the coordinator ofgoodness and balance between live in keeping the environment clean, espe- Bishop Council s of Jakarta, Fatherthe world and heaven. cially by managing the waste. Andang, to solve the waste problem in In Islam, there are sayings, Hablum According to Buddhist, nature has Indonesia the important concept is notMinallah and Hablum Minannas, both positive and negative energy. on the management but on the chang-meaning that there are vertical rela- Waste which is dirty contains negative ing behavior. "Because of that, resolv-tions, between God and human, energy which causes disease and dis- ing the waste issue is not only the gov-human and human, and also human advantages human. ernment or NGO task but also religiousand his environment. In Hinduism, the Islam and other religion also make leaders," he said.lesson about the relation between God, cleanliness as the priority. Clean is Bishopric Jakarta gives media andhuman, and nature is stated in the Tri beauty because Allah is The Great training to their community to makeHita Karane. Beauty. Clean have two meanings, compost and take care of the plant. In Bali, we often see trees which are physically clean and non-physically "Under Clean and Healthy Lifecovered using cloth, that is not because clean. Waste problem can be both Movement, Bishopric also givesthey worship tree but it is more about physically clean and non-physicallyhow they treat tress like they treat clean problems since it deals withhuman, full of compassions. human behavior. Concerning the relation between
    • 68 Percik May 2009 „ BEST PRACTICES „training about waste management tothe household and schools." he said. The scope of Bishopric Jakartaincludes Special Capital District ofJakarta, Tangerang, and Bekasi.Through Clean and Healthy LifeMovement like what Department ofHealth has planned, Bishopric alsodoes campaigns and community edu-cation among others by training andgiving guidance book about healthylife. To support this program, Bishopric Religious leader is giving speech about environment cleanliness in front of thousands of followers.Agung cooperates with two NGO Photo: exclusivenamely Perkumpulan Pemerhati Ling-kungan Hidup (Perpuli) and Gerom- garbage, and get people to sort out the aged others? Is it a sin? For Hindu, liv-bolan Peduli Sampah (Groupes). garbage," he explained. ing clean by managing waste is a good In the bishopric Jakarta, preaching advice. Whereas for Buddhist, do notWaste Preaching about the habits of clean and healthy manage the waste well can cause Religion leaders who do preaching living is the center of the bishopric karma law. "We believe on karma law.are demanded to have a broad knowl- instruction. "People are also directed Doing something or not, we get theeedge. Not only knowledge about the to conduct sin repentance against the consequences." said Walubi Chairper-religion but also teach about good environment," said Father Andang. son, Sujito.morals. Religion is made to solve prob- Protestant Christian activist who is For Kong Hu Chu, managing wastelem not only in earth but also in heav- also coordinator of the NGO Mandiri, is about attitude connecting to theen. Further, preaching is not in the Milchior, said that hygiene is associat- human behavior. If we do not manage,narrow sense by giving the advice to ed with the awareness because it is not it means that we do not loyal (inthe community. The most important just a matter of morals but also human Chinese put hauw/buxion)?thing is to give examples by actions concern. Father Andang said that it is noteven in the simplest form. said yet that not managing waste is sin. According to the chairman of Activities Dealing with Waste He thinks that there is still a step toIndonesian Ulama Council (MUI) Problem warn society to care to the waste prob-Amidhan, a kyai or religious leaders Some religions, through its institu- lem. In addition, Amidhan considersnot only knows about faith but also tion, have started to do socialization that thing which is mudhorat evenother areas including environmental and even activity in waste manage- harmful others is banned and it isproblems. "MUI set of environmental ment. This becomes an interesting haram.theme since last year, among others phenomenon which needs to get a Indonesian Ulama Council is strictalso about the garbage," he said. reply from the government. in publishing fatwa, although it is not The assistant of Pedanda Hindu The Hindu leader in Bali, said as strict as the implementation.Gede Made Gunung, Dewandra Dewandra, give example to the stu- Considering waste problem, Indo-Jelantik, said that Hindu always urges dents Pasraman to pick garbage nesian Ulama Council also publishespeople to manage waste. "After the cer- around the city every month, especial- fatwa connecting to environment asemony trash can scatter everywhere. ly plastic garbage. "We cannot only ask well. "Fatwa which keeps environmentThis should get peoples attention," he our children to do something, but also is connected to how we keep clean bothsaid. have to do it alone as well as give physical and non-physical, including According to Dewandra, his side is example to them," he said. about waste," he said. „ Bowo Leksonoin cooperation with Eco Bali to con- Talking about religion, of course itduct waste management for the is close to what is called sin or punish-Hindus in Bali. "The Cooperation is in ment. If we do not do the religion les-the form of socialization about two son, we are in sin. How if we do notkinds of rubbish bin, for wet and dry love our environment which can dam-
    • Percik May 2009 69 „ BEST PRACTICES „ The Role of NGO Lestari in Yogyakarta ommunity-based waste man- also sanitation in general like the media which does not need to buy.C agement program in Yogya- karta is developed in somecommunities. Environmental NGO development of IPAL Komunal in 10 RW in Yogyakarta city. "In the process of assistance, we implemented 3R con- This is the application of reuse," said the alumni of Gajah Mada University majoring in archeology.plays role to guide the community, like cept. Demikian pula dengan penggunaanwhat NGO Lembaga Studi and Tata Agus gave an example of the mak- EM4 (effective microorganism 4)Mandiri (Lestari) which are located in ing compost. For the composter, they sebagai media pengomposan atauKotagede did. did not use Takakura method but make starter. Lestari Executive Director, Agus use of the ingredients which can be The same case happened to theHartana, said to Percik that they give found in that community itself. "For usage of EM4 (effective microorgan-not only assistance about waste but example using used basket or other ism) as the composting media or starter. According to Agus, we can make starter by making use of banana peel and pineapple peel waste. By doing that, Agus continued, every household is able to make composter and composting media by themselves. Besides compost, the community trained by Lestari also produced briket which is made by leaves waste. Meanwhile, in the implementation of recycling or making use of anorgan- ic waste can be done by producing craft such as bags, sandals, umbrellas, etc. in addition the result should not show the brand. Agus said that what have Lestari done is not a part of promoting the brand of the product they use to recy- cle. "If brand is shown, it will legalize those companies to produce the prod- ucts which use plastics." he said. This NGO tried to implement com- munity-based waste management by persuading the community. Because of that, in the training, not only the theo- ry how to make compost but also how to make composter and its media. So, it maximized the concept of 3R „ Bowo Leksono NGO Lestari shows recycling products in an exhibition. Photo Bowo Leksono
    • 70 Percik May 2009 „ I N N O VAT I O N „ Takakura Composter: Home Method and Stacking Method Photo : exclusive akakura composter is an organic waste compostingT helping media which is very famous in Indonesia in the last three years. Takakura basket packaging issimple and clean, usually using covered laundry basket orbamboo braided basket. The advantages of using Takakuracomposter are practicality and have no smell. Some familiesplace the Takakaura basket inside their house even in thehigh population area, housewives put the basket in their ter-races, in the corner of the room, or under their tables. Takakura basket is designed to manage household orga-nic waste. After separating the organic waste with otherwaste, that waste then put into the basket. Bacteria inside thestarter (mixture of soil, chaff, tempe yeast, rice mould) willdecompose the waste into compost without smell and no liq-uid. This is the benefit of composting using Takakura basket.That is why this method becomes favourite among the house-wives. This composting technique is introduced by KojiTakakura-san, an expert from Japan. He came to Indonesiato help cooperation program in some cities in Indonesiawhich are sponsored by Kota Kitakyushu in the frame ofKitakyushu Techno-Cooperation Assistance (KITA). Forabout a year , especially in Surabaya and Denpasar,Mr.Takakura managed the waste so that it will not stinky andhave such liquid. From his research, Takakura-san found a way to stimu-late the emergence of local bacteria which is suitable to makethe starter. Besides that, Takakura-san also looked for someoptions of composting media and found the form of ideal bas-ket which is known by Takakura Home Method. In someplaces, this method is known by Takakura magical basket. Besides Takakura home method, Takakura-san alsointroduced other Takakura composting techniques to the of the composter. Then, put the waste into with the starter withneed of separation facility, depo transfer, or waste manage- the starter composition one third, two third waste and then stirment facility, named as Takakura stacking method, modifica- it. If the mixture is warm, to avoid smell and flies, covered withtion of a container or bag. Other research which has been chaff pad or charcoal pad to avoid fishy, covered again with blackdone by Takakura-san was market sewage management. cloth, and last covered with composter cover. Stir compost Takakura composting technique is very simple. How? everyday until waste decompose become compost for about 1,5-First, organic waste is chopped into pieces. Takakura-san 2 months. After compost is well cooked, we can aerate to reducesaid that this way helps bacteria to eat the waste because they the temperature and we can use it to plant.have very tiny mouth. „ Yuyun Ismawati Next, prepare a chaff pad or coconut shell in the bottom
    • Percik May 2009 71 „ I N N O VAT I O N „ Photo: exclusive TABLE 3. BIOGAS EQUALITY (1M2) WITH OTHER RESOURCES MATERIAL BIOGAS FROM M3/TON MATERIAL Milk 50 Fruit pulp and sugar 50-70 Cow dump 60 Swine dump 65 Pulp/ leftover distillery 70 Chicken dump 130 Brewery seeds pulp 180 Grass, algae 400 Glycerin 500 Seeds 500-560 Fat 1300 TABLE 2. POTENTIAL GAS FROM THE DIFFERENT KIND OF MATERIAL WASTE BAHAN BAKAR Elpiji JUMLAH 0,46 kg BIOGAS Minyak tanah Minyak solar Bensin Gas kota Kayu bakar 0,62 liter 0,52 liter 0,80 liter 1,50 m3 3,50 kg iogas consists of methane (CH4) and carbon dioxideB (CO2). Biogas is the result of carbon decomposition by microorganism from the organic compound inthe absence condition of oxygen or anaerobic. Pulp from waste which has been decompose and pushed to the transfer tub can be composted and utilized to be fer- tilizer or soil conditioner. In the fermentation process, organic waste produces bio- Biodigester construction can be made from constructiongas. The gas can be used to turn on the heater, lighting, as brick, fiberglass, concrete, and ferocement. Each of thosewell as electricity. Such gas can also be kept for some times. constructions has advantage and disadvantage. All biodi- Organic waste which has been chopped into small parts gester constructions, certainly, have to gas impermeable,is mixed with water with ratio 1:1. The mixture, then, can be cannot leak, and have to be placed near material. „ Yuyunpoured to the reactor. After five days, gas will be formed lit- Ismawatitle by little. Putting the mixture constantly will remain the Photo: Bowo Leksonogas production. For the primary starter, it can be mixed bycow dump to fast the fermentation process. TABLE 1. BIOGAS COMPOSITION Biogas composition gen- erally consists of 50% COMPONENT % methane, carbon dioxide Methane (CH4) 55 - 75 about 25-45%, and other Carbon dioxide (CO2) 25 - 45 Nitrogen (N2) 0 - 0.3 gases depend on the Hydrogen (H2) 1 -5 material which is used. Hydrogen sulfida (H2S) 0 -3 Waste or pulp from Oxygen (O2) 0.1 - 0.5 drink production pro- cess, animal dump, fat, ispotential to produce different methane gas.
    • 72 Percik May 2009 „ I N N O VAT I O N „ VERMICOMPOST Every 2-3 days, the worm is fed by chopped fresh vegetables or vegetables porridge. e. After a half of the waste is eaten, about 30 days, the worm dump appears and we can har- vest in. Worm needs 7 weeks to grow up and on the week 8, worm will lay eggs. A worm will lay 2 eggs every week and every egg will hatch 2-3 worms after 5-10 days incubations. Worm pop- ulation will expand only on a month. Harvesting vermi- compost can be done in a simple way by spilling all the component out the Size of worm compared to pen cap. Photo: exclusive. ground and wait until the worm go to the bottom of ermicompost or Vcompost is a compost because worm will eat the the heap. Worm will avoid sun light.V mixture process of organic waste from vegetables, fruits,leftover food and garden waste with waste without being ordered to do so. Composting using worm is not a new technique, but we need time to Vermicompost can be taken out and moved to another media which has been prepared before. Vermicompostworm (vermicast) which is got from deal with these creatures. There are which can be harvested, is drought,the vermiculture process from some some briefly steps to make compost: and sifted to catch cocoon and youngspecies of worm. Vermicompost con- a. Choose the waste, separate meat, worm and also organic material whichtains nutrient which is easy to larut fish bones, and other bones. has not decomposed yet. Cocoon andand bacteria which is able to decom- b. Prepare the worm. You can use young worm is putted into the newpose the organic waste. waste which has been cold for a media. The species which can be used in week so that it has same tempera- Vermicompost who has been fil-Indonesia are Eisenia fetida and ture and is not warm or hot. You tered is fertilizer rich of macro nutrientLumbricus rubellus, those are worm. can use waste with the cow dump and nitrogen binding bacterial. For some people, worm is disguis- mixture or cow innards. In United States, vermicomposting. Some people are not, like Charles c. Put the worm into the media, it is bet- rubbish bin is available in some officesDarwin who said that worm is stronger ter to use log which is covered by plas- canteens and universities. So, com-than African elephant, and ore impor- tic and given worm (Lubricus rubellus posting can be done every-tant than cows. Worm is seen as coop- or Eiseinia fetida). where. „ Yuyun Ismawatierative and efficient friend in making d. Breed the worm for six weeks.
    • Percik May 2009 73 „ I N N O VAT I O N „ Photo: exclusive Biomass Briquette aterials which can be man- than kerosene.M aged into biomass are plants, trees, grass, sweetpotatoes, farm waste, forest waste, Some people often offer it as biobriquette, biochar- coal briquette, super carbon, or waste briquette. The making of biomass briquette takes a longerdump, organic waste from time than the making of common charcoal. Afterkitchen waste. All those thing can becoming charcoal, that thing, then, is smashed, mixedbe used to make briquette for by sticky substance, and covered by protecting liquidkerosene substitution. It is for the burning efficiency.easy to make it and save. Biomass briquette can be used as the energy The price of a kilogram bio- resources alternative. Organic waste is one of poten-mass briquette is IDR 2.500. tial biomass resources which can be formed intoCompare to the price of bioliquid or solid. Biomass is also used by cement com-kerosene which is IDR 5.000 pany to replace a half of coal used in the burningper liter and both can be used process to reduce green house effect. „for two hours, biomass bri- Yuyun Ismawatiquette is definitely cheaper
    • 74 Percik May 2009 „ I N N O VAT I O N „ Electric Composter any ways are accomplished to encourageM people to compost their waste. One cor- poration in Bandung offers Automatic orElectric Composter which is created to make theenvironment lovers easier to compost their waste.The size of this electric composter is 55cm x 55cmx 85cm, almost as big as small washingmachine.The body of this machine uses casingmade from fiber, plastic, and motor from a factoryin Bandung, and spare parts from Batam. Thismachine uses electric power of 330 watt, 220 volt Making compost using this machine is prettycomplicated because it needs a treatment. Organicwaste is prepared about 20-30 liter (about 10 kg),then mixed up with soil-loose fertilizer and onetablespoon of bio-activator (a special bacteriapotion). This bio-activator solution has to be made fourhours before and mixed up with water but not con-taining chlorine or other cleaningchemical . Waste should be finely chopped. And then, mixthe soil-loose fertilizer compost as much as threepercent of the waste weight or about 300 gram.This soil-loose fertilizer is functioned as odor-causing bacteria absorbance. Last but not least,spray the bio-activator microbe to the compostdough inside the electric composter. Put electric composter timer for 10 minutes,you just need to switch the button once to turn themachine on. Turning the machine on is done onlyat the beginning of the mixing process until theharvesting day on day five from the last wastewhich is putted. On the third day, if the aerobecomposting process runs well, hot reaction and Photo : exclusivevaporization will appear. On day five from the lastwaste which is putted, usually dough has fermented and keep it, and aerate it in the shaded place and free from directcompost temperature achieves room temperature also col- sun heat or rain. One day after that, the dough will be dry,ored black. black, and loose. Prepare a plastic barrel, 5 liter capacity, to contain result By hitting for a while, the dried dough will be fade away andfrom water disposal hose, when compost will be run out. becomes crumb. A chunk of compost crumb which is big can beThen, turn the spinning button on the left side of the returned to composter to be processed again. During the use ofmachine. Composter will squeeze compost dough so that electric composter, solid waste material on the secondleachate and solid waste is separated. day and the rest can be added without disturb- Add water as much as 10-30 liter from the leachate liquid, ing the aerobe composting process. „then, liquid compost is ready to be used as liquid organic fertil- Yuyun Ismawatiizer. After the liquid is running out, put out compost dough,
    • Percik May 2009 75 „ S E P„ TA R PR L A K U U A C TO E „ „ INFOAROUND STAKE-HOLDERS olid waste problem has been aS problem in Indonesia since a long time before. This problembecomes local government, stakehold- Garbage collector is doing his job by collecting household garbage using garbage cart. Photo: BORDAers, and NGO attention. What are their During 2004-2009, this Direc- been managed as environmental fri-programs and activities? What are torate handled six programs; those are endly or sanitary landfill.their characteristics? Here are some society empowerment, residence The low target achievement wasexplanations about who they are. development program, institution caused by the society low awareness of development, drinking water and live healthy and solid waste disposalDIRECTORATE OF SETTLEMENT AND waste water management develop- pattern. In addition, solid waste han-HOUSING OF NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ment, and improvement in drain and dling program was not a priority of thePLANNING AGENCY -BAPPENAS waste management. government. However, by the exis- Directorate of Settlement and Whereas the target program solid tence of solid waste regulation, it isHousing has a vision that is to be a waste management is to improve expected to be able to improve theplanning institution which is reliable, transported solid waste up to 75 per- society awareness of solid waste man-credible, and proactive in determining cent at the end of 2009 as well as to agement and solid waster service.the goal of nationhood. improve final dumpsite management Based on Government Regulation which is environmental friendly in all DIRECTORATE OF DEVELOPMENT &PPN/Bappenas No. PER.005/M.PPN/ metropolitan cities , big cities, and mi- ENVIRONMENTAL SETTLEMENTS, CIPTA10/2007 about Organization and ddle cities. KARYA DIRECTORATE-GENERAL,Administration of the State Ministry of The achievement of solid waste DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC WORKSNational Development Planning/Nati- development in 2007 was still far from Directorate of Development &onal Development Planning Agency, the target which was set at the end of Environmental Settlements, CiptaDirectorate of Settlement and Housing 2009. Target of solid waste develop- Karya Directorate General, Depart-has a task to implement the prepara- ment in RPJMN 2004-2009 is to ment of Public Works has a vision thattion of formulation, policy, coordina- improve transported solid waste up to is to actualize health, clean, solidtion, synchronize the implementation 75 percent at the end of 2009, but until waste-free, puddle-free, and waste-of planning and evaluating, national 2007 the amount of transported solid water-free settlements. Moreover,development planning as well as its waste was only 20,63 percent there are three missions of thisimplementation and evaluation. One (BPS,2007). Related to final dumpsite institution: (1) doingof the settlement sectors is solid waste management work on 2008, almost allmanagement. final dumpsite in Indonesia have not
    • 76 Percik May 2009 „ WAWATO R R A „ AC NCA „ „a service of waterwaste, waste, and optimum development, revitalization nance (GEG) to improve society wel-drain infrastructure to improve the and regionalization temporary dump- fare.quality life of community in village and site, as well as private investment pro- Its task is to formulate policy of pol-city, (2) building and developing infra- motion. That program has target to lution control, implement and coordi-structure focused on waterwaste, improve the amount of transported nate monitoring and arrangementswaste, and drain to prevent environ- solid waste up to 75 percent and to supervision by local government, ana-ment pollution, (3) building govern- improve work of final dumpsite man- lyze, evaluate, and make report, as wellment or society institution which is agement which has environmental as coordinate monitoring and supervi-efficient, effective, and responsible. insight. sion by local government. The task of this institution is to for- One of Assistant Deputy ofmulate and implement policy, techni- ASSISTANT DEPUTY OF DOMESTIC SOLID Domestic Waste Pollution Control andcal planning, also technical training WASTE POLLUTION CONTROL AND SMALL Small Scale Enterprises programs isand standardization of wastewater, SCALE ENTERPRISES OF ENVIRONMENTAL Adipura program which is aimed todrain, and waste. Furthermore, the MINISTRIES encourage local government and socie-function of this institution are about Assistant Deputy of Domestic Solid ty to actualize a city which is clean and(1) technical development and formu- waste Pollution Control and Small shade. 3R program is a strategic pro-lation planning of norm, standard, Scale Enterprises do not specially have gram of Environmental Ministriesguidelines, and manual in wastewater, their own vision and mission. But it is which is still new and aimed to pro-waste, and drain sector, (2) investment integrated to the vision and mission of mote and implement 3R principals indevelopment, (3) Supervising, control- Assistant Deputy of Domestic Solid solid waste management.ling, and coaching, (4) wastewater, waste Pollution Control, Environmen-waste, and drain management tal Ministries. CENTER FOR ASSESSMENT ANDempowerment, (5) implementation of Vision of Deputy is same as vision APPLICATION OF ENVIRONMENTadministration directorate. of Environmental Ministries that is to TECHNOLOGY OF THE AGENCY FOR THE Directorate of Development & actualize Environmental Ministries as ASSESSMENT AND APPLICATIONEnvironmental Settlements runs this the institution which is reliable and TECHNOLOGYprogram through 3R promotion pro- proactive in actualizing sustainable Solid waste problem has to be inte-gram, campaign and education, insti- development through the implementa- grated managed by seeing solid wastetution development support, waste tion of good environmental gover- as a resource. That is why the more it is used, the better. That concept is devel- oped by Center for Assessment and Application of Environment Techno- logy of the Agency for The Assessment and Application Technology namely Teknologi Pengelolaan Sampah Kota Secara Terpadu Menuju Zero Waste - Integrated City Waste Management to Zero Waste. That technology is a combination of appropriate technology which involves organic waste composting technology, non-organic waste recycle technology, waste burning technology by using incinerator, and sanitary landfill tech- nology. Since 2004, The Agency Using tricyle to collect and transport solid waste is a part of "Sampah Pro" program from BEST. Photo: BORDA
    • Percik May 2009 77 „ WAWATO R R A „ AC NCA „ „for the Assessment and Application vernment society, NGO, and private (a forum for agent in drinking waterTechno-logy has implemented Cluster corporations. and environment health sector).Dissemination Technology Programentitled "System Development and GUGUS TUGAS PENGELOLAAN SAMPAH INDONESIA SOLID WASTE ASSOCIATIONWaste Management Technology in (GTPS)-SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT (INSWA)Special Capital District of Jakarta". TASK FORCE (WMTF) It is a place for professionals, That program consists of (1) WMTF was first launched on researchers, organizations, and com-Preview of solid waste management January 16, 2008, at the same time munities to give contribution in givingsystem master plan in Jakarta; (2) with the implementation of Workshop information and finding a better solu-Development of solid waste manage- on Solid Waste Management. This tion. In its journey, it will find otherment policy in Special Capital District institution has a function to manage partners as well.of Jakarta; (3) Waste management the waste continually on 2015 through InSwa was built with the awarenesstechnology and strategy planning in improvement of care and effort from that government and society do notJakarta; (4) Development and imple- the stakeholders. care enough to environment, especial-mentation of organic waste manage- Whereas the missions of this insti- ly about waste handling. Until today,ment technology; (5) Development and tution are to improve data availability we still consider that waste is some-implementation of non-organic waste and waste information management, thing unuseful without knowing itstechnology; (6) Waste management to open an opportunity in cooperating advantages.technology mapping in Special Capital and exchanging information among Vision of InSwa makes this nationDistrict of Jakarta. the stakeholders, to develop human is aware and care of environment, Center for Assessment and resources in doing waste management whereas InSwa mission is how to findApplication of Environment Techno- activity, as well as to improve the solution of the waste problem whichlogy of the Agency for The Assessment stakeholders concern in taking deci- involves many aspects such as social,and Application Technology in the pro- sion. economics, politics, laws, etc.gram of strengthening competence WMTF is aimed to synergize the In implementing the goal, InSwaalso does utilization review on final potencies of information, knowledge, does waste seminar, training, anddumpsite which has sustainable envi- and communication of waste manage- socialization, and also encourage go-ronment insight. ment which gives benefit to others. vernment to publish regulations about Some researches and technology Many programs are run by WMTF, waste.development which have been done, such as, waste management resource The specialty InSwa is on its mem-beside what have stated above, are city center, waste care improvement, and ber idealism in struggling environmentsolid waste management master plan, decision making about waste manage- by giving awareness to the communitycity waste and agro industry waste ment in Indonesia trough public cam- and helping the government to social-composting technology, plastic and paign and advocacy, doing national ize its programs either local or nation-paper recycling technology, garbage seminar about waste management, al.and medical waste incinerator techno- website, milis, and newsletter develop-logy, hazardous-and-poisonous-mate- ment as medias to get and exchange BORDArial management technology, waste information, award for stakeholders as Bremen Overseas Research andmanagement information system, agri- the motivation to keep on working, and Development Association (BORDA) iscultural waste treatment technology implementing comparative study to a non-profit organization found infor livestock feed, etc. another place or countries to get a new 1977. BORDA plans and implements In implementing its review of idea about waste management. projects which tend to reduce povertyCenter for Assessment and Application WMTF membership has character- in village and city in develop countries.of Environment Technology of the istic which focus on willingness and Development and extent technology,Agency for The Assessment and flexibility can be from personal or which is environmental friendly,Application Technology cooperated institutional. motivate the emergence ofwith government institution, local go- WMTF is a part of AMPL network
    • 78 Percik May 2009 „ WAWATO R R A „ AC NCA „ „independent community, women par- which works on the national, regional, manage an organization with compe-ticipation as well as natural resources and international level. BALIFOKUS tent human resources, accountableprotection. always tries to integrate local issues and transparent mechanism, in imple- BORDA is permanent member of with global development so that it can menting budget planning effectively"Jaringan Perbaikan Sosial-Social contribute to changes which are need- and efficient, third, to improve theRepairing Network" Germany which ed by both local and international quality of life especially poor commu-consists of 8 NGOs chosen by Federal community. nity, social sector, health and econom-German Ministry of Economic BALIFOKUS was established on ics, fourth, to improve environmentCooperation and Development which June 14, 2000 by five people who had quality especially in residencesgive continuity support to fix the social different background. They were A.A through pollution prevention programstructure n develop countries. Raka Dalem (a biology lecturer of to create a better environment.Nowadays, BORDA supports many Udayana University), A.A Ngurah Programs which run by BALI-project activities in Indonesia, China, Surya Anala (activist/HIV/AIDS con- FOKUS are environment managementIndia, and Vietnam. Financially, sultant), David Kuper (a former Swiss programs. The programs involve com-BORDA program is supported by the Contract Director in munity empowerment to manage bet-Federal Republic of Germany, the Indonesia),Michelle Togass (graphic ter domestic waste, small and middleCommission of European Union, Free design), and Yuyun Ismawati (environ- business, waste, clean water, andHanseatic City of Bremen, and other ment activist). chemical. In addition, it also managesprivate contribution. Being an institution which is inde- the continuity of tourism. As an organization which has a spe- pendent with professional manage-cial skill, BORDA Indonesia has ment to continually develop communi- BESTworked in Indonesia for 20 years. In ty capacity, quality of life, and environ- Bina Ekonomi Sosial Terpadu1988, BORDA cooperated with some ment together with stakeholders is the (BEST) is an Indonesian NGO whichIndonesian LSM in some integrated vision of BALIFOKUS. was established in 1995 in Tangerang,village and city development projects. Whereas the missions of BALI- Banten Province with the aid fromProject activities connecting to inde- FOKUS are first, to develop solid and German NGO, BORDA. BEST clearlypendent local groups which focus on independent institution in developing stated its mission, which is to improveprograms which improve income, and implementing ideas and programs the quality of life by participation prin-build local institutions, supplying for community welfare, second, to cipal.clean water, energy, and fix the publicsanitation facilities. Until 2007, more than 320Decentralized Wastewater TreatmentSystems (DEWATS) and Community-based Sanitation have been imple-mented in Indonesia in the coopera-tion between BORDA and companioncorporations such as LPTP, BEST, andBALIFOKUS. The DEWATS and CBSproject work framework is aimed tosupport districts, community groups,institutions, also small and middle cor-porations in planning, designing, andbuilding wastewater managementwhich is useful and economical basedon the available needs and choices.BALIFOKUS Integrated Solid Waste Treatment 3R in Kabupaten Sidoarjo, Jawa Timur BALIFOKUS is a local institution is a program by BORDA. Photo: Bowo Leksono
    • Percik May 2009 79 „ WAWATO R R A „ AC NCA „ „ Plastic waste in dangerous to the environment because it hard to decomposed. Photo: Bowo Leksono The major activity of BEST is to Program Gajah Mada University with and local governments.raise poor family welfare. In the begin- University College of Boras and Boras This program aims to be the centrening, the program concentrated on the Municipality Sweden. of scientific and media to cooperatedevelopment of clean water. Day by This cooperation program is a mix- with others. International cooperationday, this program expanded and ing between research activity in the with Sweden was done to get a goodincluded all sanitation concepts, waste university and the application in the waste management pattern and bemanagement as well. real field especially about waste man- adapted in Indonesia based on situa- On 2002, this NGO opened its sec- agement. Systemically, it will be evalu- tion and condition in Indonesia.ond office in Surabaya. Nowadays, this ated, developed, and integrated from Many activities have done in theNGO employed 13 expert staff in engi- many kinds of waste management framework of this program. Someneering, social, management, environ- technique to change the waste into activities which have done and will bement, and education, and 16-20 part- energy or valuable things. done are visitation of Indonesia repre-time staff. This program has been started sentatives to Sweden waste manage- On 2004, BEST started program since November 2006 and has suc- ment place, visitation of Sweden expertcalled "Sampah Pro-Pro Waste". This ceeded to implement some activities to Indonesia, Waste Refinery work-program used three wheels small such as workshop, expert exchange, shop, students and staff exchange,motor to gather waste from each house student exchange between Indonesia research cooperation, as well as pilotof the participants every two days. and Sweden, as well as proposal writ- project development.After this cart full of waste, then, it ing to either to Sweden or Indonesianbrought to final dumpsite. research institutions. Cooperation pro- ASSOCIATION OF ENVIRONMENT gram which is in progress now is ENGINEERING STUDENTS OF BANDUNGCHEMICAL ENGINEERING PROGRAM between Gajah Mada University and INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY - ITBGAJAH MADA UNIVERSITY Sleman Local Government, There is approxi- Waste Refinery Program was sug- Yogyakarta. It is expected this cooper- mately 500gested by Chemical Engineering ation can involve other universities
    • 80 Percik May 2009 „ WAWATO R R A „ AC NCA „ „million until one billion plastic bagsused by people in the world in oneyear. This means that there are onemillion plastic bags per minute. Tomake it, it needs 12 million barrels ofoil per year and 14 million trees cutdown. Global warming is getting worsebecause the worlds lungs which canabsorb green house gasses get gone.Besides its basic material which is non-renewable, the making process of plas-tic does not save the energy as well. Plastic is very dangerous to theenvironment because it is hard to bedecomposed, it needs 500 years to beperfectly decomposed. The bad thing isthat plastic bag which is used whenshopping usually ends in the waste binwhich can pollute the soil and waterand if it is burnt, it will cause danger-ous dioxin gas. One corner of Mittran company in Bekasi. Solid waste is being managed proffesionally here. In fact, more than 90 percent Photo Bowo LeksonoBandung residents do not care abouttheir waste. One kind of the waste is in taking care of environment in the BORDA.used plastic bag. The production of entire Indonesia. As a result, the volume of waste inplastic bag waste in Bandung in a day Mustika Tiga Raksa Residence hasis so huge that it can covered 50 foot- KSM KIPRAH been reduced from 45 times wasteball fields. TIGARAKSA TANGERANG transporting to eight times only per For that reason, Association of Community Based Organization month. In the future, BEST estimatedEnvironment Engineering Students of Kita Pro Sampah (KSM KIPRAH) in on 2010 waste contribution cost willBandung Institute of Technology held Tigaraksa, Tangerang District, Banten, increase to IDR 8.000-12.000 perAnti Plastic Bag Campaign in February succeeded in handling sanitation in the month along with the increasing num-each year. society through NGO BEST. ber of residents in that residence. . Anti Plastic Bag Campaign is one of The waste collection is done by BEST experience showed that notthe actualization of the students care in small motors. Households which are only fund from others but also commu-order to preserve the environment. Target participated in this program pay nity support is needed to swift theof this program is to create trend in young monthly contribution to gather the activities.generations to bring their own bag when waste or they pay per kilogram. Then,shopping as the substitution of plastic BEST built temporary dumpsite which MITRRAN CORP.bags. The target of this campaign is young functioned as the waste separation Hidayat, S.E., Director of Mitratanigeneration in range of age of 15-25 years place in which waste is divided into Mandiri Perdana (Mittran) Corpora-old. two, recycled and not. tion, works with waste 300 families in Besides involving its students, Supported by increased environ- Jatimurni district, Bekasi, consistingBandung Institution of Technology ment awareness, projects in many of puluhan RT, some RT, and two dis-also involves some community ele- aspects of environment is run, includ- tricts. In two years, this program hasments, NGO, other stakeholders as ing IPAL development, hospital, public invited many people to join through itswell. Whereas the anti plastic bag cam- bathing, washing and toilet facilities program.paign target are youngsters as well as development, and biogas productionpublic community. The campaign is as the substitution of kerosene. Inexpected to create an awareness trend terms of funding, BEST is helped by
    • Percik May 2009 81 „ WAWATO R R A „ AC NCA „ „ In fact, what Hidayat has done sibility of Pembangunan Jaya Ancol The result of managing and arrang-about managing waste was not only a Tbk Corporation, beach tourism man- ing slum village is seen from the envi-hobby but also a source to earn money. agers in the Bay of Jakarta, for com- ronment which change from ugly toToday, he has about 60 employees who munity development in environment beautiful, economics chance is alsomostly are drop off school children and sector is to implement environmental wide-open as well. Mustofa and some10 staff. programs Ancol Sayang Lingkungan - of his neighbors in RT 007 are serious Besides producing waste managing Ancol Loves Environment (ASL) since in producing products from recycledmachines, Mittran manages waste 2008. paper.which can produce the products such One of ASL creation program is Along with the increasing businessas compost, biomass briquette, organic environment establishment in slum units in his village, not only used paperfertilizer, and recycled products. dense populated settlements in Shoho from Pembangunan Jaya Ancol Corp.Mittran also handles the service such alley, RT 02 and RT 007 RW 02, Ancol but also used paper from others facto-as waste management training, trans- District, Pademangan, North Jakarta. ries in Ancol area are recycled.porting and managing waste, 3R store, It is impossible to change something Moreover, other waste such as bananaand consultation service. slum becomes beautiful without pio- plant trunk, turmeric fiber, and hard- Financial advantage has not been neer who was born in the middle of the wood fiber are also functioned as sup-much yet, but it is enough to change community. Mustofa Hidayat is the porting materials to color the paper.thought pattern of the society to man- pioneer in that area. Not only Danamon Award on 2006age the waste. Waste problem is not Together with his neighbors, Mustofa but also Kehati Award on 2007 whichabout its waste or its institution, but it created Environment Care Community. was got through Pembangunan Jayais more on human appreciation on the Besides managing the environment, this Ancol Corporation proved that the soci-intention of handling the waste. community also recycles paper and ety in his village succeeded in changing makes compost from the organic waste. the environment. „ BW/ several sourcesPEMBANGUNAN JAYA ANCOL CORP. From this activity, they get financial A model of corporate social respon- advantage. Kelurahan Ancol, Northern Jakarta was a densely populated slum area which turned into beautiful area because of the inhabitants awareness. Photo: Bowo Leksono
    • 82 Percik May 2009 „ AGENDA „HARI PEDULI SAMPAH NASIONAL is the continuity of the previous pro- (NATIONAL WASTE CONCERN gram when a US Senator Gaylord DAY) (FEBRUARY 21) Nelson showed how dirty and polluted aste problem is a serious prob- out earth was. Gaylord Nelson deter-W lem. It may be as serious as thecorruption problem in this country. mined Earth Day on April 22, 1970 whereas World Environment DayOne proof that government is serious determined on June 5, 1972 when thein handling the waste problem is by United Nations Conference on Envi-determining "Waste Concern Day" ronment was held in Stockholm.which is celebrated every February 21. Indonesia also took part in that confer- This year is the first celebration of ence by sending Prof. Emil Salim, whoDay Care Waste and for the first time, was a head of Agency of NationalSurabaya city becomes the host of the Planning and Development at thatcelebration. Why Surabaya? It is time, as representative.because Surabaya, one of metropolitan The purpose of this program is tocities in Indonesia, has the advanced improve public awareness in takingcommunity-based waste management care and fixing the environment as wellsystem. as preventing negative effects of the Why February 21? It is because on environment.that day in 2005, a waste torrent hap- Garbage in the dumpsite becomes incomepened in final dumpsite in Bandung. Photo Bowo LeksonoThat was the great waste disaster MINGGU BERSIH-BERSIH DUNIAwhich killed 143 people and caused big strate in Fifth Avenue, New York, (CLEAN UP THE WORLDloss. Washington and San Francisco. The WEEKEND/SEPTEMBER 18-20) For that reason, the government, first celebration of Earth Day in 1970 lean Up the World Weekend isthrough Ministry of Environment,determined Februray 21 as the Day assessed the glorious peak of an envi- ronmental movement of the 1960s. C community-based environment program which inspires and raises theCare Waste. This is also an effort to This movement, according to spirit of the community from all overreminiscent the torrent disaster in Nelson, who died on 4 July 2005, was the world to clean up, fix, and do envi-final dumpsite Leuwigajah. This called as "astonishing grass-roots ronment conservation.tragedy also inspired the government explosion". It is not wrong if Nelson is This year is the sixteenth year ofto publish Law number 18 of 2008 known as the father of the internation- implementing Clean Up the Worldabout Waste Management.. al Earth Day and so far, countries (CUW). From United Nations around the world commemorate the Environment Programme (UNEP) Earth Day every April 22. support, each year for about 35 million HARI BUMI The commemoration of earth day is volunteers from 120 countries gather (EARTH DAY/APRIL 22) clearly intended to allow mankind to and make the biggest community- n 1969, Wisconsin senator, Gaylord remember that we only have one plan- based environment campaign in theI Nelson in Seattle, United States sug-gested that it needs to done nationally et that can be inhabited. So people need to keep and immediately save the world. This campaign involves businesswhat so-called teach in, the additional earth from damage. performers, community groups,class session that discusses controver- schools, governments, and individualssial themes, especially about the envi- who positively contribute in fixing theronmental. HARI LINGKUNGAN HIDUP environment. Nelson idea received extraordinary SEDUNIA (WORLD ENVIRONMENT The participation is suggested tosupport from civil society. This was the DAY/JUNE 5) be done in the third week ofembryo of earth day. Because a year orld Environment Day was September. Clean Uplater, exactly 22 April 1970, millions ofpeople took to the streets to demon- W established on 1972, two years after Earth Day on 1970. This program
    • Percik May 2009 83 „ AGENDA „the World is also designed to give sup-port for groups to do activities and pro-grams in one year. Clean Up the World is coordinatedby United Nations, Public InformationDepartment and supported and collab-orated by companion organizationsfrom many countries. HARI DAUR ULANG(RECYCLING DAY/NOVEMBER 15) here is no countries that do notT produce waste. every day, man is aproducer of garbage. Most countriesstill rely on final dumpsite and inciner-ator for the k that waste can be recy-cled and have value added. Recycling is one way of solid wastemanagement activities which consists Mothers celebrating National Waste Concern Day. Photo: exclusiveof separation, collection, processing,distribution, and manufacturing the Change by international NGO and peo- Copenhagen, Denmark in upcomingused materials or trash. Goods that can ple who care about the environment. December 7-18, 2009.be recycled are in the form of glass, The determination was made in con- On Global Action Day on Climatepaper, metal, plastic and wet garbage. junction with the United Nation Change, the worlds leaders will beBy recycling we can save energy and Conference for Climate Change in called to take important decisions andprolong the lifetime and age of a pro- actions related to climate change.duct. Copenhagen Climate Talks is the Not only have added value, recy- worlds last chance to ensure emissioncling activities also help protecting the reduction treaty that will replace theenvironment from pollution which Kyoto Protocol.clearly harm human beings them- There is a growing consensusselves. Because the waste problems among the scientists that over the lastbecome world problem and the impor- 10 years there was a very little efforttance of recycling becomes common that we did to stop and restore theinterest, it is necessary to set recycling global growth of greenhouse gas emis-day. sions. This means that the internation- Recycling Day is good chance to al talks in December 2009 ateducate the society about the impor- Copenhagen will be our last opportuni-tance of recycling for the environment, ty to prevent disastrous world.as well as how each person can con- On world global action, all citizenstribute for a better world by recycling. are encouraged to remind the leaders HARI AKSI GLOBAL of their country to commit in working UNTUK PERUBAHAN IKLIM harder to reduce emissions of green- (GLOBAL ACTION DAY ON house gases in various sectors: CLIMATE CHANGE /DECEMBER forestry, industry, agriculture, waste, 12, 2009) and energy. „ ecember 12 was determined as Treating solid waste into compost helpsD Global Action Day on Climate reduce global warming. Photo: BORDA BW/YI/ several sources
    • 84 Percik May 2009 „ R E F E R E N C E O N S O L I D WA S T E „ Community-based Solid Waste Management System cipals, integrated community- Title : based waste management PENGEMBANGAN SISTEM PERSAMPAHAN technical components, and BERBASIS MASYARAKAT the pattern of community- based waste management. the Author : second part tells about the Rudy Yuwono, Laksmi Wardhani, Utari beginning steps of what the Ninghadiyati, dan Endro Adinugroho community should do in preparing community-based Publisher : waste management develop- Kelompok Kerja Air Minum dan ment and operation. Penyehatan Lingkungan (AMPL), The third part explains Jakarta 2008 some potential residences Page : which the society should 40 pages know before doing communi- ty-based waste management. the fourth part tells about the arrangements of community- very change is in the community based waste management. based waste management planning. InE hands. During this time, nationaldevelopment is not successful with- This system is not only a concept because many places have already suc- this part, motivator groups and the society arrange a waste managementout support and role from the commu- ceeded in implementing this system. planning.nity, including waste development in The successful of this program is In this planning step, the societyIndonesia, beside it also needs role proven that it can reduce the govern- has to decide the type of waste bin, pat-from the others. ment burden in handling the waste tern of gathering the waste, manage- Waste is always a problem because problem. It is a common thing if the ment techniques, and compostingit does not well manage. Therefore, government facilitates the develop- including the fund resources as well aswaste becomes an everyday problem in ment of community-based waste man- administration management.the city. Day by day, the volume of agement. The description in this book is com-waste increases in line with the How to start implementing this sys- plete, though it is just 40 pages thick.increased number of residents and tem in an area? What the society Especially this full color book is com-types of waste. Clearly, local govern- should do? How to maintain the conti- pleted by pictures, both photos andment cannot solve this problem alone, nuity of community-based waste man- diagrams which explain waste man-it needs support from others. agement? agement process. The interesting part The development of waste in A simple book published by AMPL is that this book, published at lateIndonesia has a characteristic, that about Community-based waste man- 2008, has a summary on the best prac-involves the communities in planning agement discusses community-based tices study from community-based and operating the waste waste management and its develop- waste management in Indonesia. management. the sys- ment stages clearly. With the cover of a housewife and tem is community- This book entitled "Saatnya waste drums, this book is dedicated to Masyarakat Berkawan" is divided into the city stakeholders, including com- four parts. The first part tells about munity who wants to help the society waste classification, community- in managing the waste. „ BW based waste management prin-
    • Percik May 2009 „ „ R E F E R E N C E O N S O L I D WA S T E BOOK INFO „ CD INFO „ WEBSITE „ „ REGULATION „ 85„ BOOK INFOACT OF THE REPUBLIC OF INDONESIA called the pioneer of 3R waste, who in theNUMBER 18 YEAR 2008 REGARDING past was called Laskar Mandiri -WASTE MANAGEMENT Independent Group. That appreciation was Publisher: State Ministry of made as a symbol how serious we are inEnvironment The Republic of Indonesia, applying 3R principles and to appreciate2008. their bravery. This book constitutes act of Republic ofIndonesia number 18 year 2008 regardingwaste management in English version. MEMANEN SAMPAH Publisher: Kanisius, 2007 In this book we will find why waste canBUMI BEBAS SAMPAH be very beneficial. This is a useful book for Publisher: Pusdakota (Center for Urban whom who wants to learn how to imple-Community Empowerment) - KITA ment the real waste management, or at(Kitakyushu International Techno- least in waste management in their ownCooperative Association) - Surabaya City environment. This book is divided into 5government, 2008 parts: preface, reality, challenge and prob- This book helps us to identify the kind of lem, solution of the problem, and futurewastes in daily life and how to manage it. opportunity.Through this book, we can learn aboutwaste management and practice it in ourenvironment. By doing that, it is expected PANDUAN PRAKTIS PEMILAHANthat the environment will be clean and we SAMPAHall will be healthy. Publisher: Ministry of Environment - JICA, 2008 Waste sorting is one of the hardest partsPEMULUNG SANG PELOPOR of waste management because it deals with3R SAMPAH human behavior which needs big effort and Publisher: KLUPN & PIDUS-Zero Waste time. This guide is expected to be basicIndonesia, 2008 guide of waste sorting in integrated city Since 1960 or 1970, scavenger has waste management, especially in imple-already reduced, reused and recycled menting waste management in province.waste when the society, business world,and government have not put any concernon it yet. Those activity was called as the PENANGANANimplementation of 3R (reduce, reuse, recy- DAN PENGOLAHAN SAMPAHcle) waste. Scavenger focused on non- Publisher: Penebar Swadaya, 2008organic waste in which it is as much as 30% The increasing of waste amount alongof total city waste. There were thousand with population growth caused a pile of even millions scavenger waste and unsolved problems. In order to earning a living on solve it, it needs a serious handling. This waste. They handling should start from our household deserved into disposal place. Waste handling can be to be done with several ways: gathering, exter- mination, collecting, disposing, and recy- cle. In addition, this book also discuss about waste processing to be useful products.
    • 86 Percik May 2009 „ „ R E F E R E N C E O N S O L I D WA S T E BOOK INFO „ CD INFO „ WEBSITE „ „ REGULATION „PRAKTEK MENGHENTIKAN ship, waste can be very advantageous. WithPEMBUANGAN SAMPAH KE SUNGAI the authors slogan "waste is gold" the Publisher: Ministry of Environment author invites all the people to be waste(KNLH), 2008 hunter and change it to be useful product This guide is aimed to give information so that one of our problem is solved.the newest condition of rivers in big citiesin Indonesia, as well as practical method tostop littering and also to improve the qual- KALAU SULIT DILAWANity and the function of river as valuable JADIKAN KAWANresource. This guide is made especially for Publisher: Pokja AMPL (Agency ofstakeholders in the region whereas this National Planning and Development, Dep.practical method could be as guidance for PU, Depdagri, Depkes, dan ENVIRONMENTALgovernment institution and local govern- MINISTRIES), 2007ment to stop littering on the river. This book gives basic information about waste and the management concept. Readers can find information about wasteSTATISTIK PERSAMPAHAN INDONESIA management hierarchy, kinds of waste, andTAHUN 2008 waste utilization opportunities. This book Publisher: Ministry of Environment, 2008 gives enough information about basic This book gives common image of waste understanding in waste utilization as partmanagement in Indonesia and could be of integrated waste management; try to bebasic instruction for policy maker on inte- friend of waste than fight against it.grated city waste management.Information and data in this book includeinstitutional aspects of waste management „ CD I N F Osystem, data of waste relief data, data ofwaste collecting and handling, temporary CARA PENGOLAHAN SAMPAHplace for waste collecting and saving, ORGANIK DI KEBUN KARINDAwaste carrier, waste last processing place, Publisher: PT Karnos Film, 2007waste management facility, recycle, policy Waste is everywhere and usually blamedaspects, waste costing aspects, and society as the source of disease. However, human isparticipation. The latest data in this report also part of it. Household is active organicis on 2006. waste producer. Everyday one household produces at least 2 kilograms of waste. How much waste produced by 100 house-SUKSES MEMBUAT KOMPOS DARI SAM- hold? And how if it is not well managed?PAH Luckily, God made perfect chain-link. Rano Publisher: PT. AgroMedia Pustaka, 2006 Karno (actor) gave prolog on video about This book is written by a person who "Organic Waste Processing". By his appeal,really concern about environmental cleanli- this video invites people to learn makingness. Waste which is concerned by most of compost in Karinda Garden which leads bypeople as dirty and disgusting can turn into Djamaludin Suryohadikusumo and Srigold by the author, especially organic waste Murniati Djamaludin. In teaching compost which by the author is processed to be making, Djamaludin Suryohadikusumo, who compost. The author looks for a part- also former of forestry minister in the New ner in managing the waste Order, uses cheap and easy to get principal and by partner- that is to make compost from kitchen waste and yard waste. Karinda Garden located in Bumi Karang Indah, Lebak Bulus, North Jakarta is a garden as a place to
    • Percik May 2009 „ R E F E R E N C E O N S O L I D WA S T E „ BOOK INFO „ CD INFO „ WEBSITE „ „ REGULATION „ 87sampling unit, counseling, training, family and do not cover a criteria of sustainablewaste processing and compost utilization. waste management system and environ- ment health requirement as well. This CD isSAMPAH DI MATAKU softcopy from book entitled Pedoman Publisher: Yayasan Griya Mandiri, 2004 Pengelolaan Sampah Perkotaan (city waste What was waste in the sight of the late management guide). This book is madeMr. Min (60) who gathered waste by himself especially for legislative and executive, sofrom home to home in Minomartani, Sleman the book provides information and criteriaregency, Special District of Yogyakarta? Yes, to make strategic policy.in the hand of Mr. Min, the waste wastaken, sorted, and processed to be com-post. The waste processed in Karya Penarik MUDAH, MURAH, DANSampah studio which will be Comunity MENGHASILKANBased Initiative-Karya Penggayuh Sentosa Publisher: -(CBI-KPS) later on. The video made by Griya This VCD consists of some success storyMandiri Foundation on 2004 is inspirational about waste management in some regionsbecause in elite residence, there are some because of the society role. There arepeople who able to process waste in com- some success stories such as; in 34 Statemunal. Senior High School Jakarta which success- fully run school waste management by sort- ing organic and non-organic waste, makePENGELOLAAN SAMPAH compost and recycle waste in place calledRUMAH TANGGA Griya Daur Ulang (Recycled House). It also Publisher: Tabloid Rumah, 2008 told about Banjarsari village, Cilandak, This video is a presentation of compost South Jakarta which already made a goodand handicraft making from household waste management. There is waste sortingwaste done by Ninik Nuryanto who lives in in every house, organic waste is recycledKampung Argo Wisata Rajawati Pancoran, and non organic waste is sold to scavengerNorth Jakarta. The presentation includes which later on will be recycled. Last butthe sorting process of waste from the least, in Mustika Tiga Raksa Residence,source (our house), making compost, mak- Tanggerang, Banten, the residents also sorting handicraft from used newspaper, mak- their waste into organic and non-organic.ing bag from used household refill package, Organic waste is processed to be compostas well as making biopori hole. and the water from the waste is accommo- dated in septic tank and later will be used as biogas. The biogas will be connected toPEDOMAN PENGELOLAAN stove for daily use.PERSAMPAHAN PERKOTAAN Publisher: Ministry of Settlement andRegional Infrastructure, Directorate TALKSHOW AMPL "RAKYATGeneral of Urban Governance and BICARA" TPI-27 NOVEMBER 2006Administration of Rural, 2003 "PENGELOLAAN SAMPAH, SUDAH OP- Nowadays, the work of city hygiene TIMALKAH?" department system decrease Publisher: Pokja AMPL, 2006 rapidly. Meanwhile, policy This video contains recorded AMPL Talk made by region execu- show in program Citizen Talk broadcasted tive are vari- by Televisi Pendidikan Indonesia (TPI) on ous November 27, 2006 with theme is waste management already optimized?
    • Percik88 May 2009 „ „ R E F E R E N C E O N S O L I D WA S T E BOOK INFO „ CD INFO „ WEBSITE „ REGULATION „ „DEWATS-SME UNTUK INDUSTRI LAPORAN PELAKSANAAN cerning with waste management andKECIL DAN MENENGAH, LOKAKARYA PENGELOLAAN environment care.DEWATS-CBS SANITASI BERBASIS SAMPAH BERBASIS MASYARAKATMASYARAKAT, DESWAM DI INDONESIA,PENGELOLAAN SAMPAH TERDE- JAKARTA 16-17 JANUARI 2008 PEDULI SAMPAH (CARE WASTE)SENTRALISASI VERSI INDONESIA (SERI 1 DAN 2) www.pedulisampah.org Publisher: BORDA (Bremen Publisher: Jejaring AMPL, 2008 This site is managed by masterOverseas Research and Development This video is audio visual version degree students of SystemsAssociation) from Workshop report of COMMUNITY Management Technology, This video explains waste and BASED WASTE MANAGEMENT In Concentration Techniques And Urbangarbage management system which Indonesia, Jakarta, January 16-17 , Waste Treatment year 2006/2007developed by BORDA (non-profit 2006 in two CDs. Gajah Mada University Yogyakarta.organization from Germany) which This site has a program called asgives alternative solution for commu-nity, small and medium industries inmanaging waste efficiently, as well as „ WEB INFOfor community who decentralizes inmanaging the waste. GUGUS TUGAS PENGELOLAAN SAMPAH (SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT TASK FORCE)CBSWM (COMMUNITY BASED http://gtps.ampl.or.idSOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT) Solid waste management taskTRAINING MODULE force (SWM-TF) is a place to synergize Publisher: ESP-USAID, 2008 information, potency, knowledge, and This is a CD version from communi- communication between members ofty based waste management training SWM-TF network in garbage manage-module, community based waste ment field to give benefit for others.management flip chart, and also other In this synergized frame, it is impor-important points concerning on com- tant for a media site to be accessiblemunity based waste management. in frame of waste management and environment recapitalization. If you want to know more, you can sign up.SISTEM PENGELOLAAN This site has a good layout and com-SAMPAH TERPADU (SIPESAT) plete content. There are news, arti- Publisher: Yayasan Indo Enviro cle, clipping, organization list dealt Waste Refinery which processes wastedengan PT Agung Cakra Wiwaha with environment recapitalization. into useful product. Optimizing waste Garbage has been and will be a There are also good practices con- conversion into high quality productmajor problem especially in urban can help the society to sustain. Thearea because of environment pollu- aim of the program is to be scientifiction, limited area development, and reference center and to give mediumthe raising of operational cost. This to make cooperation for everyonemethod is a method to apply clean who concerns with solid waste man-environment concept that is each dis- agement in urban area in Indonesia. trict or RT has to manage So it can be processed to be useful their own waste. materials and/or energy source. International cooperation is made by Sweden to get good urban area solid waste handling model and adapted to Indonesia condition and situation. This site also has varied information and article dealing with
    • Percik May 2009 „ „ R E F R E N C E O N S O L I D WA S T E BOOK INFO „ CD INFO „ WEBSITE „ REGULATION „ „ 89waste management in bi-lingual: consultation service, also products There is information about wasteIndonesia and English. concerned with garbage processing management which discus landfill output. problem, compost, remediation sites, solid waste utilization, storage tankSOLUSI SAMPAH (GARBAGE system, waste water and etc. There isSOLUTION) WASTE WATCH also discussion about waste regula-www.solusisampah.com www.wastewatch.org tion. Some of the topics discussed are Garbage still considered as useless Waste management is important hazardous waste rules, solid wastething, so must be dumped and keep it remembering that resources is limited rules, etc. Visitor can get publicationout from our environment. When the in earth. Because of that, we must materials dealing with waste withpopulation was few and the needs recycle every material that recycla- interesting topic. This site is managedwere still low, the amount and the ble. Recycle activity can reduce the under Minnesota Pollution Controlkind of the garbage were limited. But amount of garbage in the disposal Agency in which their commitment is place, save energy and reduce dan- to keep this site accessible as a part gerous gas, and protect our natural of MPCA effort to keep, do conserva- resources. There are three key factors tion, and increase the quality of envi- in recycling activity: reduce, reuse, ronment in Minnesota, US. and recycle. Recycling product is the result of consumer waste and industri- al waste. Activities concerned with US ENVIRONMENTAL PROTEC- recycling completely discussed in this TION AGENCY site. www.epa.gov/msw/reduce.htm Information dealing with reducing, reusing and recycling can be found in this site from definition, fact, and brief history as well as application process from each activity. This site belongs to Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), a US institution who concentrates on keeping US environ- ment. EPA have already worked since 1970 to make a clean environment and healthy for US citizen.then, when the population and needincreases, the amount and the kind of REDUCEthe garbage also increase. Now, www.reduce.orggarbage became serious problem in Through this site, visitors can getevery city and regency in Indonesia. information about waste managementThis site of Mitratani Mandari Perdana especially about reducing. There are(Mittran) Corporation offers some facts about garbage reducing activitysolutions dealing with garbage. and simple steps on waste manage- Mittran Corporation pro- MINNESOTA POLLUTION ment in daily life. In addition, there vides service assis- CONTROL AGENCY are educational tools feature which tance such as http://pca.state.mn.us/waste/index.ht can be used by educator in dealing training and ml with waste management on reducing. In this site, visitors can get infor- This site is managed by Minnesota mation concerning environment. Pollution Control Agency, a govern- One of those is waste problem. ment institution which has a task to
    • „ R E F E R E N C E O N S O L I D WA S T E „90 Percik May 2009 „ BOOK INFO „ CD INFO „ WEBSITE „ REGULATION „keep, do conservation and gain envi- and search activity about environ-ronment quality in Minnesota, US. ment which is also useful for parents and teachers. This site is managed by Earth 911, a Non-governmental organ- ization formed by U.S Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The aim of this organization is to make society active in increasing life quality with keeping the environment. RECYCLENOW http://recyclenow.com By filling up our post code, we can know where our use materials can be sold and distributed. There are also many tips dealing with waste manage- ment. Moreover, there are many tips EARTH 911 http://earth911.org/master.asp Through this site visitors can get information about recycle, household dangerous waste, power conserva-RECYCLING GUIDE tion, composting, etc. There is also awww.recycling-guide.org special corner for children which is This site contains of best practice provided to play, gain information,information about waste managementfrom many kind of materials aroundus. That information is simple andapplicable in our daily life. We canalso found information about wastefacts. This site interface is reallyinteresting with illustrated picture.This site is managed by guides net-work, a organization established bygroup of researcher and writer whofeel frustrated to search useful infor-mation in internet to apply in dailylife. which discuss how to manage our garbage and keep environment around us, at home, school, work place, gar- den and where ever we are. There are not many sites which can be guidance like this site. This site answers our question about how to manage house hold waste easily.
    • Percik May 2009 „ „ R E F E R E N C E O N S O L I D WA S T E BOOK INFO „ CD INFO „ WEBSITE „ REGULATION „ „ 91„ R E G U L AT I O N I N F OACT OF THE REPUBLIC INDONE-SIA NUMBER 18 YEAR 2008ABOUT SOLID WASTE MANAGE-MENT In order to make integrated andcomprehensive waste management,fulfill society right and obligation, anddo public service by Government andlocal government, it needs a law toorganize it. Waste management heldwith responsibility, continuity, useful,justice, awareness, togetherness,welfare, safety, and economic valueprinciples. Waste which is managed based onthis law are household waste, otherkind of household waste, and specificwaste. Everyone who has waste man-agement business should have permis-sion from regent/mayor based on the One of independent solid waste management (Material Recovery Facility) in Sidoarjoauthority. The Mayor can give any Photo: BORDAadministrative punishment to wastemanager who break the provision ning), united nations meeting declara- waste management, whereas, therequirement which prescript in the tion especially habitat declaration and society has the right on the wastepermission. Government and local 21 agenda about proper place for management system. Local govern-government must finance waste man- human and sustainable housing devel- ment can involve business agent inagement. People can take a role in opment, also KTT Millennium PBB waste management after having per-waste management which held by September 2000 which is made mission from the regent. GovernmentGovernment or local government. Millennium Development Goals (MDG) also provides landfills as last place to in order to make a better environment. process waste. Government cooper- KSNP-SPP is used as guidelines to ates either whole or partial to doMINISTER OF PUBLIC WORKS admission, implementation and devel- waste management and/or with otherOFFICIAL REGULATION NUMBER opment of environment friendly waste local government.21/PRT/M2006 ABOUT POLICY management system in central level or The development and monitoringAND NATIONAL STRATEGY IN local based on the condition of the of waste management by businessSOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT place. agent or society is held by SKPD.DEVELOPMENT (KSNP-SPP) Everything dealt with waste manage- This regulation is based on the need ment retribution is attached by thisof Policy and National Strategy in Waste SIDOARJO DISTRICT REGULA- district regulation. Society either asManagement Development as guide- TIONS NUMBER 18 YEAR 2008 personal or organization who litters,lines for housing environment cleanli- ABOUT SOLID WASTE MANAGE- burns garbage, sends garbage more ness (like what is mandated by MENT than 1 meter cubic each day to the Government Regulation As a result of the increased popu- temporary dumpsite, throw un-sorted Number 16 Year 2004 lation and society consumption level, garbage, mix garbage which already about land use plan- the waste that is produced also sorted, and mix hazardous-and-poi- increase. Therefore, local govern- sonous-material waste with other ment has an authority on the garbage, also business agent who can-
    • Percik92 May 2009 „ R E F E R E N C E O N S O L I D WA S T E „ BOOK INFO „ CD INFO „ WEBSITE „ REGULATION „ „not fulfill their obligation already tion to test the loyalty to fulfill retribu- encourage society to aware about thegiven by government, will be given tion obligation in order to apply retribu- importance of clean, comfortable andpenal provision each. tion legislation. Functionary civil ser- health environment for life force. vant in local government is given special Everyone or institution must putSLEMAN DISTRICT REGULATIONS authority as investigating officer. Every the garbage in the provided place.NUMBER 10 YEAR 2001 ABOUT violation on this district regulation each Local government provides temporarySOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT will given penal provision. dumpsite as a place to pile up garbage Every person or institution must put for temporary and as a place to startthe garbage in the provided place. BANDUNG CITY DISTRICT REGULA- out of garbage transportation byGarbage bin are reachable for waste TION NUMBER 27 YEAR 2001 garbage collector. Garbage trans-officer, covered and does not disturb the ABOUT CLEANLINESS MANAGE- portation from temporary dumpsitecleanliness and beauty of public streets. MENT BANDUNG CITY into final dumpsite carried out byEvery person or organization can get In local region cleanliness manage- local government. Everyone have thewaste service with permission from the ment was held with sustainable perpet- same right for clean, comfortable andregent. uation concept. Cleanliness manage- health environment. Everyone must Waste service is subject to retribu- ment is the obligation of local govern- keep the environment clean, comfort-tion for everyone who uses it. The rate ment and society. Local government is in able and health also prevents environ-of retribution expense is made based on the implementations of cleanliness man- ment contamination.local government policy concerning on agement of city waste with waste reduc-waste service cost, society capability, tion policy from the source, reuse, recy- SURABAYA CITY DISTRICT REGU-and justice aspect also retribution cle and maximum waste compost. LATION NUMBER 4 YEAR 2004expense component. Retribution Cleanliness management is financed ABOUT WASTE SERVICE RETRI-expense withhold based on formula and by the user of the service or who take BUTIONnominal cost. benefit from it. Local government As an implementation from act Regent is competent to have inspec- finances the implementation of cleanli- number 18 year 1997 about local tax ness management for public service. and district retribution, the govern- Local government decides the rate of ment of Surabaya city makes a regula- service fee through mayor decision after tion of waste service retribution. This having consultation with assembly at retribution includes removal, trans- provincial. The rate of the cleanliness portation and demolition from tempo- service expense count based on given rary dumpsiteinto landfill, garbage service, operating cost and consider the processing, temporary dumpsite and solvency with economic and justice landfill preparing also garbage facility aspects. This district regulation replaces provision. Bandung city district regulation number Waste service retribution includes 33/PD/1977 about retribution, orderli- in public service retribution. Level of ness, cleanliness and public health. the service used is based on volume, kinds of waste, user classification and BONTANG CITY DISTRICT REGU- road wide also kinds of waste service. LATION NUMBER 4 YEAR 2004 The structure and the expense of the ABOUT SOLID WASTE MANAGE- retribution are attached in this regu- MENT lation. For the user of this service who Cleanliness and beauty are impor- does not pay on time or late will sub- tant aspects of life which need to be ject to administration fee 2 percentWeekly community group work of separating solid developed continuously by local gov- every month based on district retribu- waste by the community of Mulungan. Photo: ernment and society for the sake of tion claim letter. Dealing with devel- BORDA clean, comfortable and health envi- opment and monitoring on cleanliness ronment. One of the aims of this reg- implementation held by Mayor or the ulation is as a medium to chief of cleanliness official. „ BW/DW/ Several sources
    • „ G L O S S A RY „Aerobic Composting Leachatea method of com-posting organic wastes using bacteria liquid (which may be partly produced by deromposition ofthat need oxygen. This requires that the waste be exposed organic matter) that has seeped through a landfill or ato air, either via turning or by forcing air through pipes compost pile and has accumulated bacteria and other pos-that pass through the material. sibly harmful dissolved or suspended materials. If uncon- trolled, leachate can contaminate both groundwater andBalling (Pemadatan) surface waterCompacting municipal solid waste or plastic and metalrecyclables into blocks (called bales) to reduce volume and Nimbyfacilitate handling using compactor. Carried out in the "Not In My Back Yard." An expression of resident oppositiontransfer depot or in final dumpsite. to the sitting of a solid waste facility based on the partic- ular location proposed.Bar ScreenTreatment unit of pretreatment for solid waste (garbage, Open Dumpingdebris and other materials dragged by water) to reduce an unplanned "landfill" that incorporates few if any of thethe treatment load of next treatment characteristics of a controlled landfill. There is typically no leachate control, no access control, no cover, no ma-Bulky Waste nagement, and many waste pickers.Large items of municipal solid waste including but not lim-ited to appliances, furniture, large auto parts, tree stumps Organic Wasteetc., which cannot be handled by normal municipal solid technically, waste containing carbon, including paper,waste management methods. plastics, wood, food wastes, and yard wastes. In practice in MSWM, the term is often used in a more restricted senseCompactor to mean material that is more directly derived from plantA device using mechanical power to reduce garbage vo- or animal sources, and which can generally be decomposedlume by microorganisms.Compost ReduceThe stable, humus-like material that is produced from the solid waste reduction from the sourcecontrolled decomposition of organic wastes. Commonlyused as fertilizer. Reuse the use of a product more than once in its original form, for the same or a new purpose.CompostingThe controlled biological decomposition of organic wastes Recyclein the presence of air to form a humus-like material. the process of transforming materials into raw materials for manufacturing new products, which may or may not beCommunity Based Organisation similar to the original product.Community based interest groups formed by the membersof a local communityto take charge of their interests or to Rubbishinfluence events. a general term for solid waste. Sometimes used to exclude food wastes and ashesControlled Landfill Sanitary Landfillthe final dumpsite simple and controlled method, which an engineered method of disposing of solid waste on land,covers the garbage mounds by using layer of soil 15-30 cm, in a manner that meets most of the standard specifica-if the final dumpsite is already full. This is a transitional tions, including sound siting, extensive site preparation,method from open dumping to sanitary landfill. proper leachate and gas management and monitoring,Fly Ash compaction, daily and final cover, complete access con-the highly toxic particulate matter captured from the flue trol, and record-keeping.gas of an incinerator by the air pollution control system. ScrubberHazardous Waste emission control device in an incinerator, used primarily towaste that is reactive, toxic, corrosive, or otherwise dan- control acid gases, but also to remove some heavy metals.gerous to living things and/or the environment. Many Shreddingindustrial by-products are hazardous breaking solid waste materials into smaller pieces by tear-Incineration ing and impact action. Shredding MSW is done to minimisethe process of burning solid waste under controlled condi- its volume, so it will go through screen unit.tions to reduce its weight and volume, and often to pro- Sortingduce energyduksi energi. one form of solid waste management, which separatingInorganic Waste the garbage based on the materials or recyclability.waste composed of material other than plant or animalmatter, such as sand, dust, glass, and many synthetics.. Tipping fee the cost paid to the collector to unload the garbage. In theLand Disposal dumping site, incinerator or MRF.method of disposing final sludge by piling up in an openarea. Source: www.metap-solidwaste.org and www.gdrc.org