Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine
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Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine



Published by Indonesia Water and Sanitation Working Group. First Edition in August 2003

Published by Indonesia Water and Sanitation Working Group. First Edition in August 2003



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    Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine Indonesia Water and Sanitation Magazine Document Transcript

    • Information Media for Water Supply and From the Editor 1 Environmental Sanitation Your Voice 2 Published by:Working Group for Water Supply and Sanitation Main Feature Gender Issue in Water Supply and Sanitation Provision 3 Advisor: Director General for Urban and Gender Implementation in WSS Development Projects in Indonesia 7 Rural Development, Department of Public Works Interview Board of Trustee: Deputy of Gender Mainstreaming State Ministry of Director of Human Settlement and Housing, Women Empowerment 9National Development Planning Agency Republic of Indonesia Regulation Director of Water and Sanitation, Ministry of Health Special Fund Allocation for Water Supply and Sanitation System 11 Director of Water Supply Development, Insight Department of Public Works Director of Natural Resources and Appropriate What Makes CLTS Work? 13 Technology, Director General on Village and Regardless of Funding Source, What Counts is the Plan 18 Community Empowerment, Department of Home Affairs Waste is a Friend Instead of an Enemy 20 Director for Facilitation of Special Planning Environment Management, Balanced Scorecard Method 22 Department of Home Affairs Inspiration Chief Editor: Tatung-Azizahs Willingness to Manage the Communitys Water Supply System 25 Oswar Mungkasa Our Guest Board of Editor: Ananda: Deeply Concerns with Water Scarcity 26 Indar Parawansa, Bambang Purwanto Innovation Editor: Bioporous Infiltration Pit 28 Maraita Listyasari, Rewang Budiyana, Raymond Marpaung, Bowo Leksono Opinion Post Project Facilitation, Anyone Interested? 30 Design/Illustrator: Rudi Kosasih Around Plan Indonesia Togo-togo Needs New Pioneer 31 Production: Machrudin Around ISSDP Sanitation Workshop in Blitar Produces a Declaration 32 Distribution: Agus Syuhada Around WASPOLA 34 Address: Around WSS 39 Jl. Cianjur No. 4, Menteng, Jakarta Pusat Program 42 Phone/Fax.: 62-21-31904113 Water for Environmental Health and Human Being 45 e-mail: Abstracts 47 IATPI Clinic 48 Unsolicited article or opinion items Book Info 49 are welcome. Please send to our address Website Info 50 or e-mail. Dont forget to be brief and accompanied by identity. CD Info 51 WSS Bibliography 52 This magazine can be accessed at Water Supply and Environmental Sanitation Website at Percik magazine can be accessed through WSS website: Percik Magazine in April 2007 is published on partnership activity between WSS Working Group and Plan Indonesia
    • D A R I R E DA K S I SOURCE:KRUHA/DOCW ithout our being aware we are now paving our way in the fifth month of 2007.We havent seen each since the begin-ning of the year. Now we are backaddressing you, Perciks readers, asalways with a spirit of "water andenvironment care and affection". Many things we have to straightenout. Column adjustment, data collec-tion, up to internal coordination. Inthis 17th edition, we again convey toyou water supply and environmentalsanitation related information.Within the last four months, manyevents and activities have taken place,all related to water supply and sanita-tion. The events and activities arewrapped up to be presented to you,our dear readers. Last March the 22nd was the com-memoration of the World Water Day.Its already 10 years since the UN Banner posted by KRUHA (Peoples Coalitian for Rights to Water)General Assembly recommended for the World Water Day commemorationWorld Water Day commemoration (the banner reads: Clean water is still a luxury for 100 million Indonesians)every March the 22nd beginning from1993. It is not without reason that all villages as well in the cities, access to the projects such as ProAir, Sanimas,nations of the world remember that water is still the main issue, especially WSLIC-2, and Prokes have proportio-day. Isnt it that water remains a com- for the poor. And the ones suffering nately provided the opportunity toplicated problem encumbering many the most are the women. women to play a role. To make the pictu-nations of the world, especially the It is already time for women to re complete we made an exclusive inter-poor? And it is undeniable that water take an active role in determining the view with Dr. Surjadi Soeparman, MPH,is human beings basic need. policy related to water supply and Deputy for Gender Mainstreaming, State Therefore, in this edition, we dis- sanitiation provision. Not only that, Ministry for Women Empowerment.cuss topics related to World Water everyone must realize the importance One column that is planned beDay. On the history and several acti- of women involvement. continue is "Our Guest". This willvities undertaken by the Indonesian Speaking of women, just as a bring forth celebrity or public figurecommunities for its commemoration. reminder, on April the 21st once there who is well connected and competentIncluding the government, private was born a woman pioneer and edu- in water supply and sanitation. Wesector, university students, and the cator, Raden Ajeng Kartini. It seems must learn from his/her experience.common people. The enthusiasm re- that in this time, women pioneers and There are still many more dis-flects everyones wish to be liberated educators are in great demand to sal- cussions and information in thisfrom water scarcity. vage the families from water scarcity. WSS-WG published magazine. Yet The theme of this years World Our main feature this time is con- different from the earlier edition,Water Day is "Coping with Water centrated on gender. Historial back- Percik Junior is now published sepa-Scarcity". Quite suitable, because ground, definition and gender main- rately for distribution direcly tofrom year after year water scarcity is streaming, will hopefully shed a light schools. Your comments are mostbecoming more and more significant. to all of us. To place gender issue on welcome. Finally, we wish you enjoy In many areas of Indonesia, in the the table, we try to unearth how far reading. Percik April 2007 1
    • Y O U R VO I C E CREATED BY: RUDI KOZDisaster Emergency Opinion C A R I C AT U R E In considering the disaster that hitJakarta last February 2007 we wish topropose the following preventive mea-sures: ItsBackground NATURES a. The expansion of settlement areas fault…. is difficult to prevent especially for an attractive city such as Jakarta and its urban/suburban areas like Depok and Bogor. b. Relocation of citizens living on riverbanks is equally difficult for various different reasons and con- siderations. c. Regulation on infiltration pit has been declared effective, but in rea- lity the citizens do build ones but at an insufficient quality, lack of pro- per maintainance, and is oriented to conservation of shallow ground- water. Therefore the threat of floo- ding is continuing because the infi- just like a deep well for groundwa- Thank you for your attention. ltration pits do not function pro- ter extraction. Should it become perly. clogged it could be flushed and Bambang Widiyoko d. The economic burden of the com- reactivated. Staf Dinas Kimpraswilhub munity, especially of the flood vul- d. In reference to groundwater extrac- Kabupaten Sleman nerable depression areas, is too tion for drinkling purpose, of which heavy. an extraction deep well can supply Request for Percik 20-40 l/sec of water, the same infil- My name is Joko Sutrisno, teacher,2. Proposal tration pit can absorb an equal SMA 1 of Karangmojo, Yogyakarta 55891. a. Considering that the availability of amount of water, 20-40 l/sec. One day I came across a Pecik maga- sufficient budget both national and e. To maintain and prevent untimely zine and I get so interested with the va- Jakarta provincial region, it should clogging, the draining water is let to rious environmental issues discussed in be recommendable that the infiltra- pass a control structure to catch it. I would be thanful if you could regu- tion pit issue is taken over by the sand and gravel and prevent it from larly send me one copy of the magazine. government/regional government. entering the pit. First it will open new horizon regarding b. The infiltration pits should be built f. This technology may be tried at big the environment, secondly and so on to at a community level, at a suffi- hotels or large commercial bu- get involved in developing ways and ciently large capacity, maintainable, ildings. means of environmental protection of g. To make more applicative it should my immediate neighbourhood and sustaining, and are oriented to con- be previously academically tested. more extensively with the regional gov- servation of the lower level of ernment of Kabupaten Gunungkidul. groundwater. h. If the technology is well proven in Thank you in advance. c. As a pilot project Jakarta should Jakarta it could be disseminated to Joko Sutrisno, S.Pd., M.T. develop a deep infiltration pit, other provinces/kabupatens all SMA 1 Karangmojo, Gunungkidul, somewhere around 80-100 m deep over the country. Yogyakarta 55891 2 Percik April 2007
    • M A I N F E AT U R E Gender Issue in Water Supply and Sanitation ProvisionE veryone, regardless of sex, eve- What is Gender? of Sussex. The experts in the workshop ryday needs water for various If we trace back, the term gender pointed out that women, just like men, different activities. To met the came into use in the academic circle are biological difference, while womendemand for domestic water, especially only towards the end of the 20th centu- subordination was created socially andof the villages, women play a dominant ry. For the first time the word gender not biologically determined. They fur-role, from taking water, cooking, chil- was traceable in 1976 in a workshop on ther ascertained that for the purpose ofdren cleansing, washing, and watering Women Subordination at the University conceptual distinction of these facts it isgarden. But men hold the rein in decisi-on making related to water supply andsanitation provision. This condition later created ineffi- The Evolution of Gender Issue Uciency and ineffectiveness in water sup- p to the beginning of 1970s the equally, many of the activities are notply and sanitation. Most of the con- development policy was focused sustained. The main weakness of WID on the demand of poor women in projects is its failures to consider thestructed facilities turned out to be the context of their role as housewife diversity of womens roles or miscalcula-unsuitable to the demand especially of and mother. Now it is known as welfare tion of the elasticity of womens timewomen who nota bene are the dominant approach, the main concern being placed availability.users, both in terms of number of popu- in mother and child welfare and health, Since the end of 1980s the Genderlation and also in the role in water use. and nutrition. It was assumed that the and Development (GAD) approach was In the latest few decades there arised benefit from the macro economic ori- introduced for the intention of abolishingan awareness of the need to consider the ented strategy will sprinkle to the poor social, economic disparity and political population and thus the poor women will balance between men and women aswomens demand in relation to water receive some benefit from their hus- requirement for community orientedsupply and sanitation provision. This bands welfare improvement. Women are development. Most of water and sanita-issue is later known as gender issue. passive welfare beneficiary. Water sup- tion sector development at this time uses ply and sanitation service is defined in this approach. However, there are manyGender Misunderstood the context of health and hygiene, which ways from which this approach is viewed Understanding gender as female sex is is viewed as womens responsibility. and there is no single blue print to makequite common around us. It is not too sur- In the decade of 1970-80 Women in equality in water supply provision possi- Development (WID) approach was direct- ble.prising if in a meeting someone would ask: ed to integrate women in development Both WID and GAD approaches are"Why all of them are men. Where is the process through placing them in the tar- still being applied presently.gender?" It is even infrequent we would get position, even in a women specific During the last few years the genderfind in a gender related study that all the formatted activity. In this approach and empowerment approach is beingexperts are women. The reason is simple: women remain the passive beneficiary. tried to change the present gender link-"In order to prevent the study from gender Although many WID projects did improve age through emphasis on women empo-biassed." Thus here gender is understood health, short term income and human simply the female sex. resources, but women are not treated Percik April 2007 3
    • M A I N F E AT U R E FOTO:DOK/CWSH other time mens role is the central issue. What is Gender Analysis? Gender analysis refers to the sys- tematic way of looking at the different development impacts between men and women. Gender analysis requires data separation based on sex. Gender analy- sis must be conducted at every level of development, in order to obtain a pic- ture how certain activity, decision, and plan influences men and women in any different way. Why Gender is Important in Water Supply and Sanitation Provision There are several important facts that may serve as the reasons for the importance of bringing up gender issues, such as (i) women are the main collector, carrier, user and manager of water for domestic need and as promo-necessary to identify "sex" as biological ship. tor in water supply and sanitation relat-difference between men and women, To make it simple, gender should ed activities, (ii) bigger benefit than justand "gender" is difference between mas- not be about women but it is rather the a project capacity for provision of waterculinity and femininity which is con- equity of roles between men and women and improved sanitation throughceived for the most part through educa- in all aspects of life. In one opportunity, o Economic benefit: better access totion and socialization. Biological factor the main is the role of women but this water will provide the women withis permanent and unchangeable, but does not deny the possibility that some more time to income generatingsocial factor is changeable. Thus gender later refers to differ-ence between mens and womens in Gender Linkagerole, right, and responsibility and the re- Gender and Education --- More gilrs go to school when water supply islationship between them. Gender does increased and when there is a separate toilet facility for boys and girls.not only refer to men and women, butalso how the quality, habit, and identity Gender dan kesehatan --- health improvement directly in favour of womenare determined through socialization (including in childbirth), and eventually improves family hygiene conditionprocess. Gender is generally linked to Gender and household chorus --- increased water supply decreases burdensinequity of power and access to choices in household activity and provides women more time for their children and forand resources. The difference in the ro- economic generating activitiesle of women and men is influenced byhistorical, religious, economic and cul- Gender and income --- increased water supply and less illness will give moretural facts. The totality of the roles and time for women to find a jobresponsibilities may change over time. Gender and culture --- increased water supply and sanitation facility improves The most recent use of gender it has womens dignity, status and opportunitybeen used extensively just like class,ethnic, race to describe analysis of socialcategory in social interfactor relation- 4 Percik April 2007
    • M A I N F E AT U R E activities, responding to the needs SOURCE:PRO AIR of the members of the family, or to provide welfare and leisure time for their own pleasure. Economy, on the whole will provide several benefits. o Benefit to children: Free from the responsibility to take and manage water which would otherwise pro- vide the children especially the girls to go to school. Therefore, the impact may extend through gener- ations. o Empowerment of womanfolks: Involvement in water and sanita- tion provision projects will empower women, especially if the said project activities are connect- ed to income generating and pro- ductive resources such as credit. One of the empirical evidences Do you know?about the importance of women partici-pation in water supply provision which African and Asian women walk 6 km on average to get often used as reference is the result of While on average Indian women spend 2,2 hours every day.analysis of World Bank sponsored rural When sanitation facility is sufficently acceptable for school-water supply projects. Based on the girls, their attendance increases. In Pakistan, more than 50analysis it was revealed that women par-ticipation improved project effective- persent of schoolgirls drop out because there is not toilet facil-ness in the design, implementation, ity in schools. In Bangladesh, water supply and sanitationO&M and efficacy of the system. increases girls attendance by 15 percent. In Tajikistan, schoolgirls choose not to go to school during Gender Track in Water Supply and menstruation days, for reason of toilet facility not available.Sanitation Provision In the World Summit on SustainableDevelopment in September 2002 theworld leaders agreed to integrate genderapproach into the international water the statement made at the Ministerial objectives are promoted through gendermanagement policy and practice. This Level Conference 2001 held in Bonn, approach.agreement was translated into Political Germany that "water management Gender MainstreamingDeclaration (Principle 18) that reads should be based on participatory Gender mainstreaming is a process"We hereby agree to assure that women approach. Both men and women are of measuring women and men implica-empowerment and emancipation and involved and at equal in sustainable tion in every planned activity includinggender equality shall be integrated into water use management and in taking legislation, policy and programming atall the activities agreed in Agenda 21, benefit. The role of women shall be all levels. This is the strategy to createand Millennium Development Goals improved and participation extended. the same concern between men and(MDGs)." In the 2nd World Water Forum in The women in formulation, implementation, This agreement is the follow up of Hague 2000 both efficiency and equity monitoring and evaluation of policy and Percik April 2007 5
    • M A I N F E AT U R Eprogram in all aspects. In short, gender development; (iv) improvement the ple is in Lesotho and South Africa inmainstreaming is intended as a means capacity of professionals in gender which there is a specific mention ofto guarantee that equity of men and mainstreaming; (v) involvement of pri- women proportion in staffing structure.women is properly manifested in plan- vate sector in WSS provision must con- In Rep. Dominika, the Water Supplyning, operation and maintenance, in sider gender aspect. Authority requires that at least 40 per-project and program management. cent of water supply committee mem- In water supply and sanitation pro- How Gender Issue Translated into bers are the community based approach Policy In Indonesia, gender isssue has beenthe program frequently fails to achieve In many countries the national poli- adopted as one of principles of theefficiency and sustainability because the cy for water supply and sanitation provi- National Policy for Community Basedcommunity is viewed as a group of citi- sion has for the most part made specific Water Supply and Environmentalzens with the same demand without dis- mention about the importance of the Sanitation (CB-WSS) Development. Intinction of women and men. role of women and more detailed in the terms of language it is called the role of In reality, a community is not only a division of responsibilities between men women in decision making. The basicgroup of citizens with uniform principles are then translated into SOURCE:PRO AIRneeds and characteristics. A practical implementation by eachcommunity consists of various of the WSS Developemnt projectsdifferent groups who compete in Indonesia (WSLIC-2, CWSH,one another. When resources Sanimas, ProAir and so on). Theare in limited amount there the implementation format of thiscompetition occurs and as usual principle differs from one projectthe poor will be neglected, espe- to another (see further Gendercially women. The application Implementation in WSS Projectsof gender analysis will help deci- in Indonesia in this issue). Somesion makers allocate resources clearly state the proportion of wo-better without causing any harm men involvement in a number ofto the marginal group. activities, while others make it a When it is agreed that requirement the provision of equ-women involvement is a critical al opportunity for women. Therefactor in achieving efficiency is yet no clear definition of howand sustainability of water sup- gender concept shall be applied inply and sanitation, gender WSS provision in Indonesia.mainstreaming is the way out.Gender mainstreaming in water The remaining homeworksupply and sanitation does, of When gender concept is cor-course, need strategic steps, rectly understood and when gen-among others (i) preparation of der concept has been translateddata for gender analysis through into government policy, whenseparation of data between men gender concept has been broughtand women; (ii) promoting the to implementation in WSS deve-involvement of women in deci- lopment activity, and as manysion making, for instance in program and women, inspite of the fact that a other whens, the question that wafts outscheduling in order to make women complete gender focus is quite rare. In is whether the gender concept related toinvolved; (iii) promoting strategic Uganda, Gender Strategy in Water WSS development in Indonesia is in thecooperation between community based Supply Sector was introduced in 2003 right track? The homework reads: howorganisation and NGO with the commu- with emphasis on women involvement are we going to measure it? This will benity and the regional government in at all levels of water supply manage- our common task, for men as well as forWSS provision and small business ment. A relatively more detailed exam- women. (OM) 6 Percik April 2007
    • M A I N F E AT U R E Gender Implementation in WSS Project in Indonesia SOURCE:PRO AIR making. One of WSLIC-2 (Water and Sanitation for Low Income Com- munities-2) focuses itself in gender and poverty. This project is essentially an effort to awaken and unearth the role of women and poor community of their equal rights and responsibilities in expressing their opinion and in deci- sion making. Similarly with CWSH (Community Water Services and Health Project) this project is characterized by gender development approach. CWSH places women in key position as facilitator that is expected to get involved in each level of the development process. While Sanimas Project does not specifically implement gender sensitivi- ty approach. But in actual implementa- tion women are frequently involved in giving soul to Sanimas through facilita- Speaking of gender is like a road tion and decision making. without an end. In one place a progress has been Dra. Pimanih, M.Kes, a Planning and Financial Management officer of made but on the other there is still limitation CWSH describes the important role of women with the fact that they are of the role of women always connected with water right from waking up in the morning until night time they prepare everything for theB asically, implied or in reality, Secretary, Ir. Deni Mulyana, M. Kes family from cooking, bathing and wash- WSS projects in Indonesia have stresses that women play a central role ing. "In their daily household activity implemented the gender sensi- in water provision, management and women are never far from water, it istive principle. protection. "Therefore, women must be their natural character," she says. ProAir, or Water Program, the involved in decision making related to While according to CPMU WSLIC-2German grant funded water supply the use of water," he said firmly. project Imam Syahbandi, women play adevelopment program strongly empha- ProAir Project refers to the natio- major role in sustaining the activitysizes gender oriented principles for its nal Policy for CB-WSS Development thats why they are important in deter-implementation. ProAir Executive that women are involved in decision mining the technology choice in order Percik April 2007 7
    • M A I N F E AT U R Eto be suitable for both men and women. quota for women representation in each"Women are also important in deter- step and community institution person-mining the rules and sanction related to In CWSH women nel (at least 30 persent are women),use, maintenance and the size of contri- involvement could be seen staff recruitment, and through con-bution to cover O&M costs," he says. from their paricipation in ducting special gender training and gen- meetings, workshops, and der advocacy for the socialization ofEquity of Role group discussions. Women gender approach implementation. In reality, is it fair the division of are requested to express their In CWSH women involvement couldresponsibilities between men and opinion in each step of the be seen from their paricipation in meet-women in water supply and sanitation? ings, workshops, and group discussions. process, from planning,It is not only in villages that women are Women are requested to express their implementation, use,considered lady of the house. Even in opinion in each step of the process, fromthe urban the difference in social status and O&M planning, implementation, use, andis still prevailing. O&M. From ProAir study in 2004 on From the beginning there has been a these worries that make inequality pre-knowledge, attitude and practice in support and involvement of women in vail.water treatment/use especially for the ProAir project implementation so Accoring to Emah, women mustwomen, it was concluded that women that it is easier to follow the existing rule actively involve in each stage of theare more involved in taking water par- in each step of its activity. "It all goes development as far as they are capableticularly from the lower income bracket. back to the women. Whether they are and opportunity permits them.As for the women from the higher willing to get involved or not, or capable "Without choosing the role because inincome level the water taking duty is of taking benefit from this opportunity," reality women can and capable of con-given to their daughter. says Deni. ducting and playing the role in any posi- Of those who take water 27 percent At present, women empowerment tion," says the woman who is anare girls, 41 percent adult women, the and increasing their role is still limited employee of Subdirectorate of Was-remainder are men. While in terms of to the loosely defined involvement or tewater Directorate of Environmentalstatus, regardles of rich, medium or low participation in each step. It is still ne- Sanitation, DG Cipta Karya.the duty for water taking is with the cessary to have a more intensive role. For water supply provision, saidwomen. Imam described that the current Emah further, women should be given According to Pimanih or more inti- WSLIC-2 efforts in empowerment of the first priority in providing their opi-mately called Upi there is still gender women and improvement of their role nion and demand, because women areinequity such as in meeting for decision are conceived as "participation of basically the housewives who are themaking. It is men who are frequently women" following the principle of determinant factor for the future of ainvited because they are considered "equity" because there is yet no specific family. "If our future generation is to bemore knowlegible and more capable of effort directed to empowering women. a generation with quality, the first thingdoing the job. Still an involvement in each step that is to do is to each of the women to become Emah, an employee of Dept Public moving towards decision making. wise and skillful mother," she said.Works who deals with the day to day "In the future, the design of genderactivity related to Sanimas considers sensitive projects must be based on a Women Involvement Effort andthat it is not necessary to argue whose policy that definitely mention not only Conceptresponsibility it is to get water because the quota and staffing but also a specific The method of women involvementwater is everyones basic need. project for women empowerment in in Sanimas is through involving them inHowever, according to Deni, the role development role," he says. each step of community empowerment.provided for the women is not fully Whatever it seems if the community This can be seen from the number ofexploited because some women may empowerment is to be truly implement- women involved in each Sanimas deve-hesitate if it might have exceeded ed, women will become actively lopment.womens role or fear that they might involved and their voice will be heard. In WSLIC-2 women involvementmake mistake because all this time the All that needs a common awareness and process is done through determining therole is always played by men. And all adulthood. Bowo Leksono 8 Percik April 2007
    • I N T E RV I E W Dr. Surjadi Soeparman, MPH (Deputy for Gender Mainstreaming State Ministry of Women Empowerment) WOMEN CARE THE MOST one out of five people suffers from lack SOURCE:BOWO LEKSONO Women are frequently considered as of access to water. While for sanitation the lady of the house destined to take one out of two is experiencing difficulty care of the household. While men are in access to hygienic sanitation. Water free to express themselves and deter- scarcity and poor sanitation is a prob- mine their steps. Frequently womens lem that requires national as well as demand which is actually the demand of regional level policies if HDI standard is the family fails to be realized. Such as in to be achieved. the case of water and sanitation. The State Ministry of Women How significant is the role of Empowerment attempts to improve women in this case? womens backwardness in various If we take a look at the role of both aspects, such as education, health, eco- men and women in terms of access to nomics, politics, and decision making water and sanitation women are the process, including the demand for water and sanitation. What does the steps ones who care the most. The men would taken by the Ministry look like? The following is an interview made by Percik with care about the details, they will accept it Deputy for Gender Mainstreaming Ministry of Women Empowerment Dr. Surjadi as ready for use. Water must be ready Soeparman, MPH. for any form of use. Drinking water, water for bath, washing and so on. Those who care the most are women because they are aware that is will improve familiy health especially to pro- tect the children and the whole familyH ow do you see water and sani- tation development from gen-der perspective? tion. Water scarcity and sanitation sig- nificantly impedes human resources development. from contamination. Whereas it is too expensive for the We see from the viewpouint that poor families to access water, it takes awater and sanitation influences the Who suffers the most if water lot of time and efforts through climbinginternationally accepted human deve- demand is not sufficiently met? up and down hill. And the source is toolopment standard and index, namely Of the families or population suffer- little. They spend a lot of their energyHuman Development Index (HDI) and ing the most because lack of access for water.if it is further classified it will come to water supply and sanitation are the poor One could imagine that women loseGender Development Index (GDI) to ones. Who are actually the poorest their productive hours only to get water.later into gender development index in among the population? They are the The poorer they are the mode difficult itvarious specific aspects such as econo- women. Poverty in Indonesia bears the is to get water. Therefore, we have tomic and decision making. Looking at face of a woman. Somewhere around 84 pay more attention to the demand forHuman Development Index (HDI) of percent of the poor population is water and sanitation as the manifesta-2006 the main topic is water and sanita- woman. In a report it is recorded that tion of respect to women. Percik April 2007 9
    • I N T E RV I E W This is unfair, then How far is the Women Empo- operational level. Yes, it is. As an example, once I werment Ministry play its role?had the opportunity to attend a village One of our programs is women What are the influencing fac-level Development Planning Meeting empowerment in decision making at tors for the inequality?(acronym Musrenbang), the lowest the grassroot level. Oftentimes women Gender inequality is influenced,development planning system avail- aspiration and expectation is far more first by socio cultural factor. Up toable. There are the so-called men rep- oriented to family wellbeing, such as now women are believed as the lady ofresentatives and women representa- the availability of water supply, latrine the house or the second person whotives but there were too few females and good hygiene system compared to are often marginalized from taking anyattending the meeting. How could that of men. This is where the impor- role. Secondly, education. This is onewomen express their of the reasons whyaspiration and expec- women are always left SOURCE:BOWO LEKSONOtion? behind. The the third At that time the factor is poverty thatchairman wished to ha- makes women moreve a decision made. and more marginalized.Men opted to have In reality, if womenimprovement to village were involved in deci-road, while the women sion making throughwanted a water supply opportunity to expressnear the village in order their opinion and nego-to cut the time for ta- tiate at the village levelking water. meeting, women would As it went, women be capable of winningwere outvoted. Finally an important develop-we considered that if ment project such aswomen aspiration, ex- water supply and sani-pectation, and demand tation. Womens opin-is to play its role in a development tant women role lie to enable them ion must be heard because they careprocess, there must be an empower- express their aspiration in village level the most. Thats why we have toment to make them capable of exper- community meeting. involve women in water supply andessing their views in a forum. sanitation development through a In what way? decision made at the village level Decision makers care? Our weakness is that we are not in development planning. We have seen decision makers at the capacity to implement activityevery level, from local, national and down to the grassroot level. Our work- What then is to be done?global levels and we can conclude that ing unit is located at the bureau level at We have to look how far is equalitythey dont care enough. Water is still the province and and women empow- between of men and women in reality.regarded as a commodity without eco- erment section at kabupaten level. The Whether program sensitivity has pro-nomic value. Whereas water scarcity is method is through working out coope- vided equal access? Has it provideda serious threat to human resources ration with women organization, NGO, equal opportunity for participation?that may lead to mortality. We arent and several donors that have activities Equitable decision making? And equi-aware that the number of infant mor- as far down as the grassroot level. table benefit?tality is by far exceeds the number of While at the policy level we are work- If the equality has been there, then wedeath from war. ing in coordination with technical can say that the program and its budget is departments or working units at the gender responsive. Bowo Leksono10 Percik April 2007
    • R E G U L AT I O N Special Allocation Fund for Water Supply and Sanitation Development Pursuant to Finance Ministerial Regulation No. 128/PMK.07/2006I n line with the implementation of long lasting economic value, including 128/PKM.07/2006 on Allocation and decentralization and regional procurement of support physical faci- General Guidelines for the autonomy, the government sets lity. The basic services include educa- Management of Spacial Allocationaside in the national budget an alloca- tion, health, infrastructure (road, irri- Funds FY 2007. Pursuant to the regu-tion for the regions to finance the gation, and water supply), marine and lation in FY 2007 water supply andneeds of the regions, one that is called fishery, agriculture, regional govern- sanitation is alloted Rp 1,206 trillionBalance Fund. This is intended to ment infrastructures, and environ- or 6,21 percent Rp 17,094 trillion beingestablish an equitable relationship in ment. the total of DAK Non RB (Re-terms of financing, public service and forestation Budget). Reforestationbenefit from natural and other Buddget is the fund collected from for-resources between the central and est concessioners for reforestation andregional governments and among the forest rehabilitation.regional governments. DAK is fund allocation to The portion for water and sanita- The balance fund consists of specific region to help in tion may look relatively small in com-Sharing Fund, General Allocation the financing of specific parison to the overall DAK Non RBFund and Specific Allocation Fund regional development allotted by the government. This is(DAK). In principle the three funds activities which are because water supply and sanitation isare intended to finance the activities not yet considered as specific item in nationally prioritizedthat take place in or in conformance the budgeting system therefore it mustwith the regional demands, the differ- share with road and irrigation as partence lies in the scope of activities sup- of infrastructure development.ported but each of the funds. However, this proportion has DAK is fund allocation to specific increased compared to it was two yearsregion to help in the financing of DAK Allocation for Water Supply earlier when in 2005 water supply andregional development activities which and Sanitation sanitation portion of the DAK Non RBare nationally prioritized. As one of the basic needs the devel- was 5,07 percent and in 2006 it slight- While specific activities include the opment of water supply and sanitation ly increased to 5,25 percent. Beforedevelopment and/or procurement facility deserves funding subsidy from 2005 water and sanitation sector didand/or rehabilitation of basic facility DAK. This is stipulated in Finace not get anything from DAK.and community infrastructure with Ministerial Regulation No. In two years since 2005 one could Percik April 2007 11
    • R E G U L AT I O Nnotice the growing tendency of budget beneficiary it has to make available aincrement. FY 2006 the allocation counterpart budget at least 10 percent ofincreases by 0,18 percent from the pre- the total it is going to receive from thevious year while FY 2007 it increases by The technical central government and is also set aside0,96 percent from FY 2006. This hope- criteria differ from for physical construction. Physicalfully may in part erase the pessimism of one sector with construction consist of activities othergovernment half-heartedness in budget another. For water than project administration, preparato-provision for water and sanitation supply and sanitation ry activities, research, training, traveldevelopment. the criteria are expenses, and other project related ge- DAK allocation for water supply and neral activities. The obligation to set determined by thesanitation is intended to increase ser- aside a counterpart budget is intended Minister of Publicvice coverage and installation efficacy. to measure the regions seriousness WorksIn more detail the fund is to be used for about the DAK funded activity. Somerepair works, construction of new facili- region, however, is exempted from thety for urban as well as rural communi- obligation if its revenue equals or lessties with scarce water source and dry than the total expenses for personnel.areas. close to the border, areas with a general In the implementation of the DAK allocation in 2007 does not increase, the Ministry of National PlanningBeneficiary Region food shortage and or drought vulnerable (Bappenas) and the involved Technical To request for DAK fund allocation areas, post conflict areas, and refugee Ministry, in the name of central go-the region must meet several criteria. accomodating areas. vernment reserve the right to monitorThe criteria are classified as general, The technical criteria differ from one and conduct evaluation of the DAKspecific and technical. As for general sector with another. For water supply funded activity implementation andcriteria it is mentioned that DAK fund is and sanitation the criteria are deter- operational procedures. As for thealloted to priority regions consisting of mined by the Minister of Public Works. DAK fund management the govern-ones with low fiscal capacity or below The criteria include consideration of the ment assigns the Ministry of Financenational average. The capacity is based following aspects (a) number of desa or to undertake the necessary monitoringon the balance between regional re- kelurahan (desa/kelurahan as counting and evaluation. In addition to the saidvenue (regional income, general aloca- unit); (b) number of desa/kelurahan assignments the region is also obligedtion fund, and sharing fund) with the vulnerable to water shortage (desa/ke- to submit quarterly report containingtotal expenses for regional civil srvants lurahan); (c) total population; (d) waste the detail implementation and DAKof Regional Budget 2005. water service coverage (percentage of fund disbursement to Ministries of As for the specific criteria, the bene- population); (e) solid waste service co- Finance, Technical and Home Affairs.ficiary region of the following charac- verage (percentage of population); (f) Any delay of failure to submit reporttristics (a) Papua province as a Special total inundation areas in Kabu- by a region may adversely affect theAutonomy Region; (b) coastal and insu- paten/kota (ha); (g) total slum areas in said region and may cause delayedlar regions, regions located at a border kabupaten/kota (ha); and (h) construc- DAK fund appropriation schedule.with other countries, remote/secluded tion price index. Through the said regulations it isareas, and food resilience and tourist hoped that DAK allocation may pro-destination areas; (c) flood/landslide The Obligation of the Beneficiary vide an optimum support to thevulnerable areas, transmigration acco- Region nationally priorized regional develop-modating areas, areas with small islets Once a region is selected as DAK ment. Afif Numan12 Percik April 2007
    • INSIGHT WHAT MAKES CLTS WORK? (A Review from the Social Science Perspectives)I am of the conviction that Kamal feeling of the target community By: Alma Arief *) Karr, a Bangladeshi, is the creator of that they have been doing is a latrine development model that is wrong practice and faulty notion. Muaro Jambi (Jambi), Bogor, W.fully implemented by the community 3. Growth of individual commitment Lombok, and so on. Almost all the(Community Total Led Sanitation). He to immediately change the habit. regions applied the principles at an out-is a pragmatist. He does not like to be 4. Facilitation is conducted in direct standing result, not only in terms oftied in any one pole of social science language, tends to be harsh, with- immediate absortion and growth in cov-paradigm but he prefers mixing them out pity. erage area but also the community selfinto a tool for social engineering to the 5. The basic assumption is that the reliance and willingness to togetherutmost possibility for improvement the community is willing and capable change their habit and upholding socialcommunity wellbeing. He pays no heed of liberating themselves from the control in various different ways.that among the scientists there are problem of defecation in the open. The application of CLTS principles issharp differences, each pole waving its quite consistent. Several of the mainown banner and exclusively group In consistence to the above princi- principles are summarized as the fol-themselves and seldom exchange ideas ples it seems that the mainstay of basic lowing:in a single forum. sanitation development is the CLTS. 1. Without any form of subsidy and Whether one admits it or not the Several selected villages in Indonesia external inputs, such as stimulanteffort to manipulate the principles of are disqualified from the trial because of fund, material or toilet science to engineer an influence the pity from the village administration 2. The application of triggering andand ways of changing habit, has been that tried to provide cash inputs to the shocking the awareness level andquite successful. Its applicability in community out of a pure intention tosome areas in Indonesia has indicated SOURCE: DOK/POKJA AMPLan excellent performance. How not? Ina relatively short time the habit of thecommunity who used to defecate in theopen has completely changed.Household latrine with a model devel-oped by the community itself is devel-oped within a few months, and coverageof users grows very fast up to 100 per-cent. Something that never happenedbefore. Something phenomenal is quiteinteresting, of course. How are we goingto explain it? Performance in several areas In Indonesia CLTS has been appliedin many areas, such as several villages ofKabupaten Sambas (W. Kalimantan), Percik April 2007 13
    • INSIGHT make the objective be achieved faster fish as it drops into water, and so on. paten Semarang, the achievement of i.e the community build toilet at 100 Some name pig or dog neck toilet toilet construction was 100 percent percent coverage. Such an external instead of goose neck because it is pig within only several years. There are input is something to be avoided or dog that takes the role of a latrine. several methods developed by the because it does not comply with self There is also "helicopter or hanging Puskesmas facilitator, among others: reliant CLTS model community and toilet" for a wooden box for latrine Manipulating the parents love to conversely it will create dependency. hanging above the river water. children, distributing simulant There are millions who behave assistance through schoolchild- Pioneer in Indonesia thay way. Sanitation development ren. Inserted here the hygiene Immediately, after the trial has through stimulant promoted by the behaviour message and the dis- indicated its success, various commu- government is growing too slowly if tribution of the stimulant is nities who have been concerned about not stationary. This is because low effected through the kindness of improvement of the habit of defeca- community willingnes to adapt, to schoolteacher who knows exact- tion in the open and improvement of change the age long habit. Research ly who among the children have health and environment, were data indicate that the time lapse not household toilet. shocked and astonished, just like see- between one knowing about latrine At school each class has its own ing an achievement that have never until he really builds one in his home toilet, a wash basin in every been achieved before. Is that really varies between 5 - 33 years, a very classroom, and a small garden in so? long time span. From numerical the school yard. Every year When speaking in statistical num- aspect that is a distressing develop- there is a clean and beauty com- bers, sanitation development achieve- ment performance. Unfortunately, petition of the hygiene facilities. ment in Indonesia up to this time is the development implementors seem In this Piyangang village the more of a sad story. The percentage reluctant to learn from experience, hygiene behariour message is of the population without latrine is and always insist on the model they also disseminated through reli- high and in other words the percent- design. Whereas in fact, there are gious teacher who then explains age of those defecating in the open is sanitation development with spectac- it to the jemaah, and through high. ular results, that should inspire for the PKK gatherings among Where do they defecate all this repetition in other places. Who women of the village. time? In rivers, gardens, backyard, knows, that kamal Kharr was also In the village of Syawal, Banjar- bushes, etc. In short, anywhere in the inspired from Indonesian cases, took negara, C. Java the method is much open. Because of this sad condition, its substance, and synthesized it into simpler. In a village whose communi- the term water closet (WC) for them CLTS model. ty used to defecate in a drainage turns into sad satire. Some name it Is that true that in Indonesia there canal, in the dry season when the with "flying WC" to mention a habit of has never been a model capable of water is low the stench is spreading defecating in a sack and hurl it to a making such an achievement, and is it all over the place, but within a few garbage heap, some call "rotating true that beneficiary community is years the village is free from defecat- WC" refering to defecating behind a slow in responding the idea for ing in the open. Here the method is thicket or a tree, and will move improvement of their own wellbeing? placed more on the role of religious around to avoid the sight of passer- In the village of Piyangang, Village teacher, school teacher (organized by by, other term is "moving WC" said to of Syawal (C.Java), village of Muhammadiyah) and community defecating while carrying a stick to Neglasari, Gunung Sari, Sumur facilitator. The embarassing village drive away dogs or pigs that come Gintung, Kabupaten Subang indentity due to the enormous stench nearby to grab the faeces, again there (W.Java) and Kab. E. Flores the basic was used as the identity to be elimi- is the "plung lap WC" refers to defe- sanitation development has even nated through religious gathering, cating in the river, said of the fact the made a marvellous result. classroom teaching, and explanation faeces dissapear into the mouths of In the village of Piyangang, Kabu- by community facilitator. Because of14 Percik April 2007
    • INSIGHThis achievement, the community The lessons learned from the contemporary action research mod-facilitator was frequently asked to cases are: els that are widely known in organi-join a parade in a national event and It is necessary to generate zation development theory. In theto explain his successes so that oth- awareness through formal as unfreezing phase, a pshychologicalers could take lesson from him. well as non-formal education. transformation process is taking In the village of Lewoloba, E. Transformation of knowledge place, in which a dismantling ofFlores the spectacular toilet develop- through religious teacher, com- wanted and unwanted behavioursment achievement was made munity facilitator, Puskesmas occurs. In terms of time, this processthrough compulsion method and facilitator, school teacher, etc. may sometimes produce tensionimposing of economically heavy Imposing extrinsic sanction in between the group who wishes asanction, and social embarrassment. cash and in kind. change with one who doesnt.When this village was led by a retired Imposing inrinsic sanction In CLTS model the awarenessarmy serviceman, one of the priority through embarrassment, back- development process is dramatisedis toilet construction. During his wardness, etc. in such a way that shocks the com-office the community was compelled Provision of reward (extrinsic) munity and opens their build toilet so that within a short for prestigious Through role playing on social map-time all the households built a toilet. individual/group (group or ping for identification of the distri-The compulsion was followed by class competition). bution of settlement and who is defe-imposing of economic and social Internal reward through social cating in the open, role playing forsantion for those who failed to obey. acceptance, self respect, etc. offering who is willing to drink faecalIn the 17th of August commemora- Provision of pressure through contaminated water through offeringtion the families who had no toilet influential group power (their a glass of water mixed with a drop ofwere announced to the public, and own children who are primary human faeces, and by calculating thewere fined with one hen or dog. school pupils). quantity of excrement contaminat-There was no community facilitator Provision of pressure through ing the environment every day, andinvolved, what was there was a firm powerful institution (village taking a transect walk to placesupholding of rule with sanction headman, retired member of where they usually do their defeca-behind it. armed forces). tion, have been able to really shock In the village of Neglasari, the communitys awareness and feel-Gunung Sari, Margahayu, Sumur Triggering Factor ing (affective as well as cognitiveGintung, Subang the the method is One thing peculiar in CLTS aspects). This is where the aware-highly normative following the model is the dramatising of the com- ness process that is called the trig-intensive participatory faciliattion munity awareness development gering. The community becomesmodel. Several facilitators from process, that in a short time capable aware that all this time they haveYayasan Pradipta Paramitha they of making the community under- lived a non hygienic life, after theyinvited the community to a FGD near stand the disadvantage of the habit are given explanation how pollutanta toilet. The facilitation was con- of defecating in the open and the that quantitavely is enormous isducted intensively so that the com- advantage of doing it in a hygienic scattered around and through vari-munity really understand the disad- toilet. In organization development ous processes the pollutant contami-vantages/risks of defecating in the theory in the section discussing nates food and drink and finallyopen, and what benefit they will gain planned change, the term triggering finds it way into the building and using toilet. In rela- is more closely comparable with the At the time when the communitytively short time, due to the intensive term unfreezing from Lewins is in great shock from the shortfacilitation, all families in the com- planned change model than the two awareness development process andmunity built a toilet. other models, i.e action research and is in a highly guilty feeling, together Percik April 2007 15
    • INSIGHTthey are asked to give their commit- naturalist school who analyse social value that serve as glue and collectivement to change behaviour through phenomenon scientifically assuming agreement.building a toilet. The participants of that the community is similar with 3. Upholding of rules through athe discussion are asked to clap their nature or other object of science strong/firm sanction. This process ishands each time an individual men- whose behavioural order and princi- the continuation of social control withtion his name and give his commit- ples can be determined, and therefore a more concrete and mutually agreedment, and they are named the pioneer can be measured by way of statistical sanction.hero of behavioural change. method. To this school of thought 4. Basically the inroduction of At the final session of the trigger- belong several sub-groups such as hygiene behaviour inherently containsing the community has had a plan to functional structure, conflict struc- conflicting aspect, i.e fighting forbuild a toilet. Guided by the facilita- turalist that is further divided into hygienic space to live in. On one handtor, each of the paricipants will inform Marxist and Non-Marxist structural- stand a group who use to defecate inthe name and when he will finish the ist, and behaviorist sub-groups. the open, while on the other a renova-toilet construction. The group of com- While on the other side standing tion group who wish to live hygienical-munity members who has given its equally firmly the humanist group, ly, create a clean and healthy environ-commitment will serve as pioneer in who sees man as a unique phenome- ment.behavioural change, and will continu- non that cannot be generalised or be 5. Social integrity is establishedously become the change control deduced its rules. The humanist by coercive power: Upholding of thegroup, just like a snowball that is group strongly denies the naturalists established and agreed norms and val-growing larger and larger, finally the views who reduce human values into ues is guarded together throughparticipants will reach 100 percent of identical with natural objects, includ- imposing a sanction which is essen-the community. ing animal. tially a compulsion. Everyone must One of the determining phases of CLTS model uses various princi- obey, or suffer a consequence forCLTS model is the upholding of social ples in each social science paradigm to being considered uncivilized, beingcontrol. This varies widely. Some create behavioural change (manipu- ostracized, alluded to in any meeting,activate children as spy force who late social science principles) regard- announced during 17th of Augustwould directly inform other members less to polarization of school of commemoration, and so on.of the community of someone defecat- thoughts, which, in realty is quite Essentially this is violence, insistence,ing in the open. Some compose songs intense. Several of the principles that though not in terms of physicalto embarrass those who defecate in are manipulated to engineer CLTS: encounter.the open, and so on. This is the most Where are the theoretical compo- 6. If there is benefit (reward) foreffective form of punishment and will nents of each of the school of thoughts a certain activity, then the activity willmake the violator wary, more effective being manipulated for the engineer- be sustained. The triggering partici-than imposing a fine. ing? Here is the explanation: pants will give their commitment to 1. Social control: It comes in var- change behaviour, because the facili-Social Science Perspective ious different models, some uses chil- tator is capable of explaining in every As mentioned above, Kamal Karr dren to spy on who is defecating in the way that they will be benefited if theydoes not care about the polarization of open, some use songs to generate live hygienically. On the other hand, ifsocial science paradigms, he tends to embarrassment for the unwanted he fails, the community will neverdissolve them into social engineering practice, etc. obey him.for the good of the community. As a 2. Socialization: intensive discus- 7. Man tends to avoid a behaviourmatter fact there is in social science a sion, dramatizing and role playing to that does not give him any benefit orpolarization wherein each school car- transfer experience and knowledge on reward, in other word man tends tories its own banner. On one side hygienic life. If successful this process avoid punishment. In managementstanding firmly scientists conceived as will give birth to a new norm and the principles as mentioned in 6. and16 Percik April 2007
    • INSIGHT7. are called the carrot and stick princi- with other things or symptoms. In ened if it is followed by common agree-ples. Here man is assumed as an animal CLTS it is obvious that the triggering ment and application of santion (pointlooking for reward (carrot) and avoiding participants learn a new knowledge 4).punishment (stick). As with CLTS the about the meaning or river, garden, Those are several principles in socialcommunity will obey a common agree- bushes, etc. That those places are no science that are manipulated in de-ment governed under new norms and place for defecation. That defecation veloping CLTS engineering. If it is so,values, otherwise he will undergo a pun- must be properly managed so that the then the CLTS principles have since aishment, becomes a laughingstock, environment becomes clean and long time before been in application inobject of public taunt, public announce- healthy. That defecation must be done Indonesia, as discussed above. Thenment, etc. Although the punishment is in a toilet, et cetera. The success in what makes it different that CLTS per-never corporal such as lashing. While if introducing new meaning to a thing or formance has been so marvellous, pro-one is obedient the reward is social sysmptom highly depends on the skill of ducing sky rocketing result at 100 per-acceptance, improvement in health, etc. the triggering facilitator. cent coverage within less than one year? 8. The value of one thing or symp- 10. The reaction to a certain symp- The answer is the triggering thattom is obtained from social interaction tom or thing depends on the mind set therein contains dramatization of com-process. Up to now the community how the meaning of symptom or thing is munity awareness through implantingdefecates in the open because up to now defined. If someone defines that river is of new knowledge, and visual demon-(since childhood) the knowledge taught place for disposing of any waste inclu- stration, and directly asking for commit-by the elders and other people around ding for defecation then he wont feel ment for behavioural change and anthem that river, garden, bushes, etc. guilty using river as place for defecation. agenda when it will be put into action.means a place for defecation, garbage But if the definition has changed as No less important is social controldisposal, etc. mentioned in 9. he will certainly feel which may come in various different 9. The value of one thing or symp- guilty and will no longer use it as place forms.tom will change through interaction for defecation. This change is strength- *) WASPOLA Consultant STRUCTURE FUNC- STRUCTURALIST BEHAVIORIST HUMANIST/INTERAC- TIONALIST SCHOOL (MARXIST AND NON- SCHOOL TIONIST SCHOOL MARXIST) SCHOOL Social control as a mech- - Establishment of social Through experiment with certain Each thing or symptom has a anism to control beha- order by force/ compulsion animal it is concluded that: specific meaning: vioural deviation 1. If beneficial (rewarding) in The meaning of a thing or - Harsh sanction for violator doing a certain activity, the symptom is obtained Socialization of values activity will be maintained through social interaction and norms to stabilize so- - Conflict for control of scarce (the knwledge about name cial system resources as social reality 2. Will avoid any unbeneficial/ of a thing or symptom is rewardless activity or in other obtained from intraction - Social integrity is esta- words avoid punitive activity. with others) blished through coercive In management this is called power carrot and stick principle The meaning of a thing or symptom changes through interaction with others Response to a certain symptom or thing depends on the definition of the meaning of the thing Percik April 2007 17
    • INSIGHT Lesson from Pekalongan in Optimizing DAK for Water Supply Regardless of the Funding Source, What Counts Most is the PlanningI n the National WSS Development By: Sofyan Iskandar cal minister submits the proposal to Policy Implementation at Se- Dept of Finance. The minister of marang last February Kabupaten implementation it turned out that Finance accompanied by Minister ofPekalongan made a quite interesting there was a need for additional distri- Public Works and Home Affairs, andpresentation. In front of 70 partici- bution pipes, the community held a Bappenas discuss the proposal topants representing 50 kabupatens meeting and agreed to contribute. Budget Committee of DPRfrom 9 provinces the Kabupaten Although it is still far from commu- (Parliament). Finally Minister ofPekalongan WSS-WG told the audi- nity based management principles -in Finance decides DAK allocation forence how they made a coordination which the decision lies with the com- each of the regions. It is clearly seenapproach with the DAK (Special munity- but still the effort of the that the role of regional government isAllocation Fund) 2006 funded water Pekalongan WSS-WG in inviting com- prerequisite, the initiative must comesupply project management. munity involvement should be com- from the regions. It should be recom- The Pekalongan WSS-WG does mended. It seems that effort bears mended that the region proposes activ-really care with the development and some hope as evidenced from the effec- ities that it is capable of doing by itself,this is translated into the best effort tively functioning facility. However, taking into consideration the commu-they can take. Through preparation of facilitation must be given from time to nity preparedness, and the capacity ofthe beneficiary community, it is hoped time because the facility employs a rel- the government itself.that the water supply facility could be atively advanced technology for which In PP (Government Regulation)managed properly by the community. the required technical skill is not No. 25 of 2005 on Balanced BudgetThrough this effort community man- always available in villages. there is a mention that a Specialagement team was established in 11 vil- What is interesting from the Allocation Fund (DAK) is fund origi-lages to manage a facility called Pekalongan experience is the revela- nating from national revenue is allocat-"Village Water Utility" or Village tion of a wrong perception regarding ed to specific regions for specificPDAM. the management of DAK. It seems regional activity in accordance with When it was time for workshop par- there is a belief that DAK funded activ- national priority. The said specificticipants to leave for DAK beneficiary ity falls right away from the central to activity is development and/or pro-villages several questions were raised the region, and with such rigid regula- curement and/or rehabilitation ofto the management and the communi- tions it seems impossible for the region basic facility and infrastructure of thety. In essence the participants wished to undertake any non physical prepara- community and long lasting economicto know how far the community is tion. value, including procurement of sup-involved in the overall stages of devel- If only the DAK mechanism and re- port physical facility. Specifically withopment from planning, implementa- gulations were well understood by all water supply, DAK is intended fortion, and management. There is an of the development implementers, the rehabilitation works, improvement ofimpression that the community partic- regions could have taken the best ben- level of service for optimum use, andipation does exist except in quite limit- efit out of it. The DAK allocation construction of new facility for are-ed amount, at the time when the proj- process is in essence designed as bot- as/villages vulnerable to water scarcityect was about to be implemented. The tom up mechanism. The first stage is during dry season, using appropriatecommunity was asked to determine the the regional government prepare a pro- technology and is located beyond thesite for deep well, but the reason for posal submitted to technical depart- existing PDAM/PAM distribution net-deep well was selected none of commu- ment, in case of water supply it is to work, at village scale coverage and isnity knows anything about. During Dept of Public Works. Then the techni- managed by the local community.18 Percik April 2007
    • INSIGHT SOURCE:BOWO LEKSONO beginning, during implementation and post implementation. It is still a ques- tion how far the regional government could classify which of the activities are directly paid by DAK and which ones by the internal budget as part of regional responsibility in WSS development. Imagine a kabupaten that has its water supply development plan. It has divided the region into zones and prior- ity for development. Some areas are assigned for PDAM service expansion, some are intended for community based facility. Based on the priorities, inter-agency working group begins facilitation for demand evaluation to determine the priority area/village. Through a guidance provided, the vil- lage is motivated to develop its water supply development plan, consisting of: selection of water source, distribu- There are certain rules that must be ably managed by the user community. tion system, im-plementation mecha-observed in relations to DAK, such as: This can be seen from the technical nism, contribution, and O&M plan. All The beneficiary region must speci- guidelines issued by the Minister of these activities will, of course, need fically mention the DAK allocation Public Works. For DAK 2006 imple- financing, of which the regional budget and what is paid for. mentation, it is clearly seen that the would provide. The question is now DAK is used in accordance with definite plan must be prepared in con- which of the acivities is to be funded by the Technical Guidelines on Use of sideration of the program formulation DAK and which one is fully paid from DAK fund. phases, screening and site selection, the regional budget as part of regional DAK is not to be used for adminis- budget calculation, and method of responsibilty in water supply sector tration purposes, preparation of implementation. Pursuant to the development. physical construction, research, abovementioned rules, the preparatory From the village proposals then the training and travel expenses. activities including community prepa- regional government proposes the The beneficiary region is obliged ration is an inherent part of the region- funding to various different sources to provide counterpart budget for al government responsibility. This is including the DAK. As the fund is a particular DAK at least 10% of made clear in the attachment of the available the physical construction can the DAK amount. regulation in which the evaluation of immediately start without any mean- Counterpart budget is used to pay the implementation progress includes ingful preparation. for technical construction costs. three categories, namely i) preparation, The limitation of DAK fund for From the rules it is obvious that consisting of availability of counterpart physical construction does not meanDAK provides only room for physical budget, fixed plan, letter of appoint- that the activity can be implementedconstruction, not for preliminary activ- ment, socialization of the activities without community preparation. Ra-ities, training, and so on. Even the within the community, ii) implementa- ther, it is implied therein that the re-counterpart budget provided by the tion, consisting of tender process, con- gional government assumes the res-region is also for physical construction. tracting, actual activity, tranfer of proj- ponsibility for comprehensive andThe question now is, whether the pre- ect, and post project activity consisting pragmatic planning. In this respect theliminary activities are not needed or of community management team, regional government of Kabupatenthey are necessary but they may not use effective use by the community. Pekalongan deserves a high commendDAK fund. Whereas in fact the real It is obvious that DAK funded water for all its efforts in preparing her com-intention is the development of a facili- supply program is an activity that munity to support the DAK fundedty that is effectively used and sustain- needs specific attention from the very water supply in the area. Percik April 2007 19
    • INSIGHT Waste is a Friend Instead of an Enemy A Community Based Biogas Plant at Batu, East JavaS ince the beginning of regional order to prevent environmental pollu- autonomy in 2001, the city of By: Muji Dwi Leksono, S.H., M.M. tion and sustain water quality. Batu has officially been anautonomous region separated from Community InvolvementKabupaten Malang. This moun- changes to the community that waste is In every community based programtaineous city is famous for its fertile not an enemy, rather it is a useful it must start from socialization in ordersoil, cool and beautiful scenery quite friend. This inducement should start to make the community understandsuitable for tourism and recreation from taking benefit from waste materi- the purpose and the benefit from thearea. Further, Batu is welknown for als (from tofu, tempe, chicken and cat- program. This program is no differ-dairy farms and home industries such tle) to produce biogas as alternative tempe and tofu and broiler chicken source of energy and production of The program was put into realityraising. Consequently it is necessary to farm manure. through labour intensive activity espe-take serious attention to the environ- However, the treatment of these cially by thos who were to directly ben-mental issues caused by wastes from wastes must consider sanitation and efit from the program. In view of longanimal raising and home industry. final disposal of the waste water in term use the community must first The attention is translated into tak- SOURCE:EXCLUSIVEing benefit from the wastes -solid aswell as liquid- as alternative fuel andfarm manure production.The Potential The city has a lot of water springs(111 in all) as source of water supplyand irrigation for some part of E. Java.With this potential it is suitable for cat-tle farming. There are about 6.000milking cows spread in theKecamatans of Bumiaji, Batu andJunrejo. In addition there are 165home industries producing tempe andtofu and broiler chicken raising. Theseindustries are scattered in the keca-matans of Batu and Junrejo. The area with fertile soils and coolclimate is ideal for microorganism forbiogas and farm manure production.What is left now is how to introduce20 Percik April 2007
    • INSIGHTagree with the site of digester. SOURCE: EXCLUSIVE The installation is managed com-munally among the owners of cattleand puoltry farmers and small indus-tries. In the event of the transfer ofthe installation by the local govern-ment emphasized the management totake care the installation in order tolast long.Benefit of Technology In the treatment of liquid waste forthe benefit of the community it is nec-essary for the selection of an appliedtechnology considering low construc-tion cost, simplicity in operation andlow O&M cost. In connection with applied tech-nology in biogas production it isnecessary to make BOD5 content(Biochemical Oxygen Demand) i.ethe amount of oxygen in ml/litrerequired for completely oxydize theorganic matter of a water sample in5 days, and COD (chemical Oxygen Improvement of community par-Demand), the amount of oxygen for ticipation and introduction of appro-chemical decomposition of organic Each program priate technology in environmentalmatter. implemetation management will significantly con- The wastewater treatment facility must be directed tribute to eradication of the negativeproduces methane gas as alternative notion to waste material. That liquidenergy and farm manure. Most towards an expected as well as solid waste is useful in sup-importantly that it reduces environ- target for evaluation porting and makling the burden of themental pollution. A test indicates that of similar effort community lighter from increase ofBOD5 and COD levels decrease by 90 in the future fuel price, the biogas and and electric-percent. ity produced from waste treatmen facility as an alternative source ofThe Product energy. Each program implementation Environmental issue is our com-must be directed towards an expected remain clean, healthy and helps to mon responsibility to maintain sincetarget for evaluation of similar effort improve aesthetique because solid as it is the initial capital and importantin the future. The product of this well as liquid waste is properly con- factor for community wellbeing. It isactivity is the resolution of pollution tained. Methane (CH4) gas produced therefore necessary to have a strategyproblems caused by liquid waste from is an alternative source of energy for make it into reality and capacity andtofu, tempe industry, poultry farm cooking and lighting. willingness of both the governmentand cattle raising. This is evidenced The slurry produced has an eco- and the community is establishingfrom the drop of BOD5 and COD by nomic value because it can be sold as and building Environment Care90 percent in river water. ready for use manure, thus it helps to Community (Indonesian acronym: Therefore the environment will support household income. My Darling). Percik April 2007 21
    • INSIGHT Balanced Scorecard Method As performance indicator of Waste Management System Institution T he increasing frequency of tion of waste management capacity waste related environmental By: Sandhi Eko Bramono, S.T., MEnvEngSc *) must be able to answer the real problems in big cities of demand for whole system. Each sub- Indonesia (Bandung, Jakarta, and system of the management from col- Consultancy in 1992. This method others) is a reflection the stakehold- lection, transport, up to treatment analyses the company performance ers including the waste management must be thoroughly considered and from several aspects: internal aspect, institutions failure to pay sufficient computed. The technical feasibility human resources, external relations, attention to the performance of insti- and efficacy must guarantee that 100 financial, external relations, and busi- tution operating under each ones percent of the waste produced is ness development. This method is control. Various social conflicts treated daily. Besides, in spite of the one of the various institution per- caused by inability to transport all the calculation of tariff represent the formance measurement methods daily produced waste, leakage of costs for operation and maintenance, including Total Quality Management garbage truck leaving traces of the financial capacity of the commu- (TQM) that is also popular and fre- leachate along the roads, up to rejec- nity to contribute must also be taken quently used. tion of the local community to Waste into cosideration. And, the opportu- Along with the regional autonomy Treatment Facility, are examples of nity for investment must be within the in Indonesia, this method will signifi- insufficiency of waste management achieveable range, although one must cantly help the central government in operation. There is a big worry that consider the feasibility and technical facilitating the regions. The central community would lose its confidence reasonableness. provides inputs and makes a regular to the waste management institution As an example, failure to collect, facilitation assistance for effective- that eventually is a total loss to the transport and process 100 percent of ness and efficiency. As an example, it institution. To prevent this to happen the daily produced waste will certain- is quite possible that Province A need there is a need to make an overall ly reflect a poor institutional perform- a different type of facilitation from study on the performance of the insti- ance. In addition to quantitative Province B. This is because the per- tution for performance improvement. capacity the waste management sys- formance of the institution on One of the methodologies is the tem must operate excellently. If the Province A is good in some aspect but application of Balanced Scoreboard daily waste produced can be dealt poor in another. On the other hand in Method. With this method it is hoped with 100 percent one must assure that Province B relatively every aspect of to produce an illustrative simulation it is done properly, such as timely the institution is running all right. and finally provide a recommendation garbage collection by the cartmen, the This of course will decrease the for performance improvement. garbage truck does not leave traces of investment needed for Province B, the leachate along the roads, and opera- balance could be reallocated to Definition of Balanced Score- tion of treatment facility in accor- Province A. card Method dance with the standard operational Balanced Scorecard Method was Internal Performance Aspect procedure. first introduced by Robert S. Kaplan Internal performance deals sub- of Harvard Business School and stantially with technical performance. Human Resources Aspect David P. Norton, Chairman, US From the technical aspect the calcula- Human resources are an impor-22 Percik April 2007
    • INSIGHT SOURCE:DOC/WWStant facttor to guarantee an excellentperformance. Human resourcesinclude a synergy between quality andquality to achieve an objective. As ageneral policy human resources devel-opment is necessary considering theincreasing quantity of waste to bedealt with from time to time. AndHRD through education and skilltraining is no less important. An insti-tution management must be able toguarantee that manpower distributionis based on h real need of each divisionor section. HRD must be directed toachievement of the objective. A mis-take in providing advanced educationor training without a clear conceptualmapping will end to wastefulness.There must be a clear framework, that an advancedtraining investment to a number ofpersonnel will contribute a certainpercentage of the total objective. If inthis case an increment of benefit orprofit does not take place, there isdemand for awareness that the train-ing or education is a mere wasteful- mote for the institution to move for- It is because it is unable to communi-ness. Selection of potential employees ward. The relationship with other cate the planned facility to the sur-to gain benefit or profit must be based institutions can be very useful. The rounding community. Mass commu-on the performance of the employees opportunity for other institution to nication aspect is absolutely necessarythemselves. Through the right selec- invest in the infrastructure is some- to convice the community that thetion, the targeted benefit and profit thing quite possible. Relations with planned system has met the regula-will be likely achieved. educational institution may be useful tions and will produce a minimum As an example, a potential employ- in obtaining inputs through academic negative impact to the in designing waste management studies for performance improve-system is given an advanced training ment. Relations with information dis- Financial Aspecton modern waste management sys- semination institution particularly Financial aspect is a parametertem. While an employee who is capa- mass media may lead to the establish- that must be looked upon if we want toble in administrative and organiza- ment of control by the public. The find out what the performance lookstional matters should be directed to an information about the institution may like. The capability in financial ma-advanced traing in business adminis- be disseminated by the media through nagement determines the sustainabil-tration. an excellent external relationship. ity of the institution. A management As an example, the rejection by the efficiency through cutting down highExternal Relations Aspect surrounding community of an inte- cost economic tentacles is absolutely External relation is a very impor- grated waste treatment plant may be essential. Financial embezzlementtant aspect considering its role to pro- considered as poor external relations. must be given serious attention other- Percik April 2007 23
    • INSIGHTwise the institution may come to a agengies with better targeted wasteserious problem. The calculation of management guidance for each of thecommunity contribution must be Human resources are an different regions. What the central go-based on the viable financial condition important facttor to vernment needs to do is to placeof institution. guarantee an excellent weight or scoring factor for each of the For example, budget for waste performance. Human six aspects mentioned above, in ordertreatment must be higher than the to measure objectively and uniformly resources includefixed costs (such as salary of person- all institutions throughout Indonesia.nel, office supplies, travel expenses, a synergy between The central government also needs toetc.). On the hand however, the type quality and quality to disseminate this information to all ofof institution serves as the basic budg- achieve an objective. the regional level institutions and letet reference structure. A regional pub- them know that this evaluation is notlic company is expected to become a intended to pass judgement on, rathercontributor to the Regional mitted, up to the possibility for illegal it serves to trigger service improve-Government Budget, but if the institu- fees collected by the workers. This can ment of waste management system intion is a government agency it is be done by way of a questionaire dis- Indonesia. This will provide opportu-expected to provide services without tributed to the consumers. nity for regional institutions to devel-profit. At any rate, budget formula- op internal coordination and venturetion must be prepared professionally Business Development Aspect into cooperation with similar institu-and transparently in order to maintain Business development is an entre- tion of other areas. This of course willaccountability. preneurship effort to achieve an opti- lead to improvement of regional insti- mum service coverage without sacri- tutional cooperation to improve serv-Consumers Satisfaction Aspect ficing the primary service mandated to ice coverage and at a better quality. The level of consumers satisfac- the institution. The effort to expand As an institutional performancetion is also an important indicator. In the service qualitatively as well as measurement, this method still needsterms of waste management, con- quantitatively and at the same time a policy and strategy analysis in ordersumers satisfaction is viewed from improve the institutional performance to effective as means for performancewaste collection, transport, treatment both in terms of benefit and financial improvement. This method is one ofof all waste produced daily. In addi- gains. the various methods that may be usedtion, reasonableness and level of con- As an example, selling recycled for the same purpose. It is hoped thattribution collected from the communi- product from inorganic waste may by using this method it can confirmty in return to the level of service. produce an additional income. In more clearly the performance evalua-Complaints from the community for addition, the cost for treatment of the tion of waste management institution.insufficient service must be immedi- inorganic waste would become less, This of course will serve as a good stepately followed up in order to maintain and finally cutting the overall cost for to prevent repetition of cases whereingood performance. The capacity and the systems operation. Through this Integrated Waste Treatment Site isskill in responding the complaints is approach, the community conribution rejected by the community or slidingan indicator for evaluation in this could also be lowered because of the of wase hill like the one in Lewigajah,respect. cross subsidy from selling the recycled in the future. Hopefully! As an example, a survey could be product to cover part of the O&M ofconducted on the quantity of con- the waste treatment system. The author is employee of the Subdirectorate of Policy and Strategy,sumers complaints submitted in a Directorate of Programming,drop box. Then a review is made on The Advantage of Balanced Sco- DG Cipta Karya,the time required to respond these recard Method Dept. Public Works; Member, Indonesian Solid Waste Associationcomplaints, community access to With this method the central go- (InSWA), and Association oftrack down the complaints they sub- vernment can provide the involved Environmental Engineers24 Percik April 2007
    • I N S P I R AT I O N Tatung-Azizahs Willingness to Manage the Community Water SupplyM any areas of Indonesia are the technical matters in the installation To help the daily activity Tatung currently without access to and the distribution network. While hires 3 hands recruited from the neigh- proper water supply. Not Azizah handles procurement of materi- bourhood. As financial manager, Azizahonly in the urban, even in the most als such as solar fuel and chemicals, and pays them each Rp 250.000 a month.remote village people also suffer from collection of contribution. Once in two weeks the workers clean thewater scarcity. It is not infrequent the It should be admitted that water treatment and storage basins andcommunity develop their water supply quality supplied by this installation is remove the silt and sediments.system at their own initiative. One of less than that of PDAM. But because of Although the consumers built theirthem is the community of Kelurahan the 24 hr service the consumers are suf- own piping network, yet whenever thereUlu 12, Kecamatan Sebrang Ulu, ficiently happy. Each of the consumers is a damage or leakage it is Tatung andPalembang, S. Sumatra. pays Rp 50.000 a month flat. Some his crew who have to repair. "Almost Since 1992 the community of the consumers are willing to pay higher everyday there is something to beupstream village took the initiative to because they can resell the water. checked and repaired. At least Rpdeveloping a limited network of water During dry monsoon, says Tatung, 15.000 is spent for this daily," hesupply installation. To make water flow the installation consumes approximate- reveals.into the consumers house it is neces- ly 45 litres of solar fuel pr day at Rp Currently they are in dire need forsary to recruit volunteer workers to 4,500 per litre. The fuel is bought at a new investment to replace the old andserve the community. supplier using a boat at the river Musi. sickly pumps. Tatung has requested It was Tatung Ibrahim and Azizah, a To neutralize water 1,5 kg caustic soda is assistance from the village administra-couple who live in Kelurahan Ulu 12 used. The price of caustic soda is Rp tion but there is no answer. Bank loanwho was and still is is willing to manage 10.000 per kg." While alum is used as has also been tried. The Bank, as a com-the water installation. It is not only the main compound for water purifica- mon practice, requested the evidence ofmanaging the installation, Tatung also tion. About 50 kg or one sack of alum at land certificate or any other collateral.serves as operator after attending the Rp 105.000 per sack is used in 3 days. None of it can be produced by this cou-necessary training and education And chlorine for desinfection 1 kg for 3 ple. "For more or less one year the instal- days, the price is Rp 65.000 per kg. "The amount is actually not solation was managed by the village Azizah tells her story, the installa- much, what is needed is money to buy 2administration. Because of financial tion has only one pump in operation. pumps at a total cost of Rp 5 million,"and operational difficulty the adminis- The reserve has been broken long ago. says Tatung. Tatung and Azizah aretration handed it over to us with an Because of the age, Azizah must set convinced that they can fully pay backagreement that the land and the instal- aside at Rp 50.000 a month for repair. the loan through monthly installments.lation shall remain the government "At least Rp 750.000 is needed for Anyone willing to help?asset," says Tatung proudly. mechanics each time he comes for Job Supangkat The couple worked diligently mana- repair. The amount excludes the costs The author is a team member of study on small scale water supply providerging the installation. Tatung takes care for spareparts," she says. WASPOLA-BAPPENAS Percik April 2007 25
    • Our Guest Ananda, Queen of Environment Indonesia 2007 Apprehensive About Water ScarcityS chool texbook that says that Berung in Bandung and she noticed damages such as denuded forests and water and sunshine are natu- the area has been experiencing water waste clogged rivers will lead to flood ral commodities and are free scarcity for 12 years now. "It is very disaster. In Nandas opinion flood is afor human being to take and use, is no sad to see the people walk a long dis- disaster that must be dealt with con-longer relevant. tance to get their daily need for Ananda, Miss Environment water," says photography hobbyistIndonesia 2006, wishes to implant in who stands at 170 cm and weighs 50Indonesian childrens mind that water kg. She is not only a Missis now getting scarcer. "Thats why we Indonesia Environment, as ahave to use water efficiently", says the candidate for Miss World con-runner up of Indonesian Beauty testant shen feels deeply con-Contest 2006 and at the same thime cerned with water scarcitynamed as Miss Friendship and Unity experienced by theIndonesia. According to Nanda, as Indonesian community.she is intimately called, the govern- "Indonesia is located in ament has chosen one solution to water humid a wet tropical cli-scarcity i.e digging infiltration pits. mate. Yet ther are vast"Infiltration pits works both ways, to areas that suffer from water FOTOprevent water scarcity and prevention scarcity," she says. :DOKof flood during rainy season," says the Water scarcity, according PRIbeauty contestant who was born in to the winner of The Beauty ofBanjarmasin on 3 June 1984. Indonesian Eyes Contest by Nanda visited many places in Soft Lens X2, is not a mere nat-Indonesia and she shares her experi- ural phenomenon. There isence with us about water scarcity, human factor that contributes toincluding her hometown Ban- the environmental degradation,jarmasin. The Indonesian delegate in such as cutting forest to build athe Miss International Earth villa without considering envi-describes that in some kecamatan in ronmental protection. They,Banjarmasin the community, espe- according to Nanda, are thinkingcially the poor families, have difficult in terms of immediate benefit into access water so that they have to disregard the future gene-buy from water street vendors. rations. One day, the daughter of H. Ir.Nur Achmad MH and Hj Dra AccumulatedNurana Alwi who once was also a Environmentalfree lance contributor to daily DegradationBanjarmasin Post, visited Ujung Environmental26 Percik April 2007
    • tinuously. "Floods that frequently ous achievements and experiences, demands a high responsibility tohit Jakarta a couple of months ago within the next decade, the envi- always reflect care to envirnment.and during the recent years is the ronment care must be built inten- "Environmental care must alwaysresult of accumulated environmen- sively in order to cope with the con- be translated into application anytal degradation," said the Mustika tinuing degradation of the environ- time and anywhere. If everyoneRatu advertisement star and one of ment. cares to environment an environ-car manufacturers. She takes as an "With the Miss Indonesia mental balance balance will surelyexample the environmental degra- Environment it is hoped that the be achieved," says the lady who isdation because of the shrinking of community gets more conscious also a skilled Master of Ceremony.resorption areas due to con- Therefore, asstruction of buildings without Miss Environ- FOTO:DOK PRIconsidering environmental ment, the formerconservation. member of Natio- The non hygienic habit nal Paskibraka*)due to poor water quality and maintains a mis-insufficent sanitation is hap- sion to convincepening unconsciously. It will the communityfinally cause several diseases. that the responsi-According to the graduate of bility for impro-Faculty of Medicine Uni- ving the degradedversity of Lambung Mang- environment, as iskurat, Banjarmasin she has a happening up toway in resolving the various now, not only liesdiseases. Nanda said that to with the govern-overcome the prevalence of ment particularlywater borne diseases is the Ministry ofthrough extension activities. Environment, but"Especially to the communi- also with the com-ties of the remote areas," she munity includingsays the NGOs that In addition, says Nanda specialize in envi-further, a preventive measure ronmental mat-through construction of water ters.reservoirs for the community. Nanda pro-"Basically water borne dis- mises that if so-eases are caused by non meday she is nohygienic habit," says the longer the Missyoung physician who once I n d o n e s i aparticipated the Indonesia- Environment, sheCanada youth exchange pro- will continue togram. campaign that environment is aWhat Miss Environment Means that environment is useful to sup- vital part of human life. "If the To Nanda, Miss Environment port their life," says the presenter environment were deterioratedtitle means the holder is someone of "Mathematics is Beautiful" in human life will be seriously threat-who is highly concerned with envi- TVRI national station and a mor- ened," said the lewading lady of anronmental sustainability. Accor- ning news reader of a private TV indpendent movie entitled "Orending to the young lady with numer- station. Nanda feels the title Jus". Bowo Leksono Percik April 2007 27
    • I N N O VAT I O N Bioporous Infiltration Pit Marvellous Pit from Simple TechnologyI SOURCE:BOWO LEKSONO ndonesia is blessed with a rela- tively high preciptation rate. Iro- nically, though, there are manywho are afraid of water scarcity. Vastareas are suffering from drought andother areas are suffering from flooding.Year after year water scarcity is notonly in terme of quantity but also quali-ty. This conditon is a consequence ofmany who do not feel grateful to Godwith the blessing and be prepared forfor the event of disaster, such as flood,landslide, and drought. Men tend toblame natural phenomenon as thecause of every disaster. A soil scientist and expert in IPB(Bogor Institute of Agriculture), Ir.Kamir raziudin Brata, MSc developed asimple technology and relatively noncostly to bribng down runoff velocity means to reduce environmental pollu- from decomposition and must bethrough digging infiltrastion pits. This tion from the habit of littering that may refilled. "The compost so produced cantechnology is called "Bioporous eventually clog drainage system and be harvested at the end of every dryInfiltrattion Pit" (BIP). contamination from various diseases. season and the activity at the same time BIP consists of cylindrical holes 10- Another advantage is that the organic serves as maintenance to the pit. To30 cm diam. at a depth of somewhere waste will finally turn into compost, strengthen the the mouth of the pit wearound 100 cm or not deeper than the which is good for our plants. can apply a lip made of concrete mix-groundwater table and are placed at a "I have developed this simple tech- ture 2-3 cm wide and 2 cm thickdistance of 50 to 100 cm from each nology so that no one would have any around the mouth," adds the expertother. These holes are filled with excuse of being responsible for pre- who graduated from IPB in waste in order to stimulate the venting water scarcity," says Kamir R. According to Kamir, the number offormation of biopores. Biopores or Brata, instructor at the Faculty of pits to be dug can be computed usingsmall cavities are formed by microbial Agriculture, IPB when Percik visited an equation: number of pit = rainfallactivities of by plant roots. The capaci- him in his campus. intensity (mm/hr) x area of waterproofty of each of the small hole is to hold 8 surface divided by infiltration rate perlitres of water. Simple and Non Costly pit (litre/hr). For example, for a region This simple technology has many The technology can be applied easi- with rainfall intesity at 50 mm/hr andadvantages. It is not only to increase ly by any level of the community, rich rate of infiltration per pit at 3 lt/mininfiltration rate, this method is also and poor. A family with a small patch (180 lt/hr) for every 100 m2 water-beneficial for preventing inundation of land around the house can and need proof surface we need to dig (50 x 100)and therefore a preventive measure to dig these infiltration holes. Kamir : 180 = 28 pits.against malaria and dengue fever. further explained that organic waste If the diameter of a pit is 10 cm andWhile the use of organic waste is a that is filled in the pit will soon sink the depth is 100 cm each pit can fill 7,828 Percik April 2007
    • I N N O VAT I O N SOURCE:BOWO LEKSONOlitre of organic waste, this means eachpit can contain organic waste for 2 to 3days. "Therefore the 28 holes can befully filled only after 54 to 84 days,thats the time when the pits must berefilled," says the expert who is cur-rently preparing his doctorate disser-tation from IPB. Kamir himself did not only startdigging infiltration pit in the yardaround his house. He also did itaround the campus such as the spacesin the surrounding yards, at the parkparticularly around a tree and in theresearch garden. The pit is even effec-tive for the bottom of a ditch as is evi-denced if we dammed it up. He guar-antees that 100 percent of the drainagewater will penetrate the ground. "Thismethod does not need any specialattention. The only thing that needs to nary infiltration well is less effective nology was officially made public bybe done is removal of inorganic mate- because of the big amount of water the campus.rials that may clog the pit." entering the well so that water will not According to Kamir, the communi- According to Kamir digging a pit is penetrate immediately and for some ty ignorance is because it lacks promo-easily done using soil augur that can be time it will remain stagnant. "Because tion and a want of a technical guid-made by a blacksmith at a cost of the amount of water is beyond the ance. He hopes that all interested par-between Rp 150 to 200.000. "The cost capacity to penetrate it will dampen ties such the technical governmentfor digging will be cheaper if one augur and soften the soil around the well and agencies would help in promoting it tois bought collectively by several fami- further retard the infiltration process. the community. "All this time I havelies," he says. Finally it will produce some stinking been hoping that the community odour and source of contamination would be interested in applying it. TheNothing to Lose because the organic matter does not method is by looking at the applica- There is a belief that the organic decompose immediately," he reveals. tion," ke said.waste buried underground will spoil In Jakarta, said Kamir, it is onlyunderground water reserve through Lack of Promotion the Office of the Ministry ofcontamination brought in by the infil- Everyone needs water and every- Environment that has put it into trial.tration water. Kamir denies this belief one produces waste. The problem is "I have an intention to promote andon ground that the organic waste is rel- how to make water demand satisfied apply this technology in the vicinity ofatively too few and the infiltration water and waste does not harm others. Who the State Palace," he said firmlyis not stagnant. "This does not retard would think the expert has created the At any rate the effort in environ-microbial decomposition process thus it bioporous infiltration pit technology mental care such as digging bioporousis safe for the infiltration water," says the since 1970s. Yet there are not many infiltration pit that is capable of restor-expert who is a graduate from the who have tried it including the IPB ing clean water content will enrich thisWestern University, Australia. campus itself. As a matter of fact it earth. So, what are waiting for? Lets Even, according to Kamir, the ordi- was only last April 5, 2007 this tech- try! BW Percik April 2007 29
    • OPINION Post Project Facilitation, Anyone Interested?Q uite often we heard the term some one to assume the role of a facil- capable of acting as facilitator accept- sustainability. This is a key- itator who could become a pioneer able by the community from the ini- word that is frequently men- and capable of stimulating the phases tial phase up to O&M of the system.tioned in every community based of sustainability development process Even, if necessary up to the project re-project, WSS related or otherwise. It is needed and can assume the respon- investment paid for from the commu-is used as precondition by donor sibility continuously even for several nitys internal sources.organizations and by project man- years after the project has entered the Must there be a special strategy foragers. O&M phase. Since it is the actual pio- identifying and preparing a pioneer in Various strategies have been neers role and is expected to become community based projects in orderdeveloped to guarantee that the key- part of problem solution rather than that the actual sustainability couldword could actualize in the communi- problem creation. really happen in the community? It isty. One of the strategies is through Pioneer must not always be under- no secret that the Regioanlbuilding community participation or stood as the role one man, neither as Government as the reponsible andcontribution in cash and in kind. This individuals but may also an institu- authorized party is incapable of play-is frequently made as prerequisite in tion, government or otherwise, that is ing the pioneering role, much lessalmost all community based projects. willing to intensively facilitate and making the preparation since admit- The partipation and contribution behaves as truthful guardian of the tedly the activity is not interesting atthough at varied levels are required at community. all.the different project phases and in all From several visits made to water What about the donor? Neithereconomic strata. The question is supply and sanitation projects that does it seem an interesting effortwhether all these strategies effective have been in O&M stage for more worth trying. Is it possible that theto guarantee sustainability? These are than 3 years nearly in all cases it was lack of Government support is due tonot guranteed in the community found that there is no more pioneer the post project facilitation is consid-based projects because there are still who intensively conducts facilitation ered as the communitys or the localother factors influencing in the vari- to stimulate the community manage- governments responsibility?ous phases of the implementation. ment team to function properly. On If neither the party with resources The uniqueness of our country is the other hand there is a tendency nor the financial provider is interest-that she has a wide variety of social, that the intensity of the management ed in post project facilitation, than areeconomic, cultural characteristics. team is decreasing, therefore the we going to let the investment thatAnd it is not easy to translate the key- dream of sustainability is moving cost billions even trillions rupiah meetword "sustainability" into practical away from reality. It is sad indeed the same fate? Or merely a monu-application. However, the paternalis- seeing that the fact frequently hap- ment? When are we going to move atic pattern of our community in which pens in a village that has been given step forward? Tofik Rochmana facilitator is always needed is never assistance from more than one proj- contemplationtoo far from within our community. ect. of a worker in water supply and Taking this as point of departure it The question now is how and who sanitation sectoris undeniable that there is a need for should prepare the pioneer and is30 Percik April 2007
    • ARROUND PLAN INDONESIA Togo-togo Needs New PioneerT he Togo-togo water supply sys- home connections to 1.000 households. Batang. The election is made through tem is one of the systems deve- The monthly gross income from open election system and is directly loped in 1994 from cooperation water contribution increases from Rp informed to the community/users.between Plan Indonesia with the com- 1,8 million before year 2000 with saving For the elected chairman it will be amunity. The system draws its water capacity of 500 to 600 thousand. In big challenge for him to straightenfrom underground source using deepwell pump. From a depth of 102 m TOGO-TOGO WATER SUPPLY SYSTEM SERVICE PROGRESSbelow ground a pumping test was madeindicating the discharge at that time at Total consumers Year Tariff Area of Service (Village)20 litres/sec. At the beginning of its HC PHoperation the system operates at acapacity of 13 litres/sec serving 125 1994 125 20 300 Togo-Togohome connections and 20 public 1995-1997 212 20 300 Togo-Togo, Arungkeke Palantikanghydrants, each of the hydrants is used 1998-1999 350 20 450 Togo-Togo, Arungkeke Palantikang, Camba-cambaby 10-15 households. 1999-2000 >500 20 700 Togo-Togo, Arungkeke Palantikang, Camba-camba A watr meter is affixed at each serv- 2001-2003 1000 20 1250 Togo-Togo, Arungkeke Palantikang, Camba-camba,ice point, home connection as well as Bontorappo, Bontorayapublic. The system charges the same 2004-.... >1000 20 1500 Togo-Togo, Arungkeke Palantikang, Camba-camba,tariff for both services. Then the O&M Bontorappo, Bontorayacosts, consisting of electricity, salary of HC = HOME CONNECTION; PH = PUBLIC HYDRANTpersonnel, and estimated costs for spareparts and pipes, were calculated. For a 2007 the gross income from the same is things out that calls forsystem using pump as technology Rp 14 million with a balance of asset Rp extra hard work in order to preventchoice, the Togo-togo system is excep- 15 million. the decline of quality of managementtionally excellent in terms of O&M ma- The total amount for O&M is Rp 12 that is becoming noticeable from con-nagement. After operating for more million a month, of which Rp 6 million tinuing. The success in straighteningthan 12 years the system is still func- for electricity, salary for 13 people things out and improving managementtioning and even has significantly including 3 from local government offi- and quality of service of the Togo-togoexpanded its coverage area and conse- cials (approximately Rp 4,5 million) and system is notwithstanding depends onquently its consumers and monthly Rp 1 to 1,5 million for actual mainte- the quality of the new chairman whoincome. nance and Rp 50 thousand for tax for must be able to become a pioneer in the The things that help in maintaining mining groundwater payable to the community because the needed capitalits existence, namely the high demand Mining Agency. within the community is already there,for water supply and accountability of It is unfortunate that since 2005 the i.e the high demand for water supply.the management team, especially the capacity of facility has gone down from What is lacking is the presence of afirst batch of management team that 13 to 8 litres/sec. Also the position of highly integrated pioneer in motivatingwas in office from 1994-2005. During Chairman of the Management Team is the available capital of the community.that period a replacement of pump that now vacant. There is a worry that thiscost Rp 90 million was made payable vacancy will lead to slowdown in the Source:from the savings fund. management. For the time being pend- Lessons learned from a visit made by In 2001 Plan Indonesia help in the ing the election of a new Chairman the Budi Suranto from Plan Indonesia whenexpansion of the coverage area from position is held by the chairman of passing Togo-togo on January 22, 2007.three to 5 villages making a new total of board of directors, i.e the Camat of Percik April 2007 31
    • ARROUND ISSDPWorkshop on Sanitation in Blitar Produces a Declaration FOTO:ISSDP DOC.T he cities that participatein the Indonesia Sanitation Sector Development Project (ISSDP)have indicated a significant progress.From the six participating cities Blitar,Solo and Banjarmasin have reachedthe City Scale Sanitation Strategy Planformulation phase. WhilePayakumbuh, Jambi and Denpasarare still finalising the White Book onSanitation, containing the portrait ofsanitation condition that will be dealtwith through the formulation of CityScale Sanitation Strategy Plan. On 28-29 March 2007 the secondsanitation workshop of the six ISSDPcities carrying the theme "The Roadtowards City Scale SanitationStrategy" was held in the city of Blitar. The purpose of the workshop wasas a means for information sharingamong ISSDP cities. In this activity Also present as paricipants were way below the demand and improve-the municipalities may improve their representatives of the cities participat- ment of sanitation facility, especiallycapacity in the strategy plan formula- ing in the Metropolitan Sanitation of the slums, constitutes a strategiction and strengthen their cooperation Management and Health Project step towards poverty reduction inwith the central government and the (MSMHP) consisting of Medan, cities.stakeholders. It is also hoped that Bandung, Makassar and Yogyakarta. The first day of the workshop start-from this activity some support could Their presence was to take a lesson in ed with keynote speeches by Basahbe gained from the municipality legis- the City Scale Sanitation Strategy Plan Hernowo, the Director of Housing andlators and inputs from central govern- formulation currently being developed Settlement Systems, Bappenas andments that may help in promoting through ISSDP. Chairul Djaelani, Head of Housingsanitation development. In this workshop a Blitar Agency of E. Java Provincial The real political support was evi- Declaration was agreed and signed by Government. This was followed withdenced from the presence of the the mayors of the cities involved in presentations by M. Taufik, Chairmanmayor of Blitar, mayor of ISSDP. The city managers agree to of Bappeda Blitar who presented theBanjarmasin, Regional Secretary of implement the declaration through topic on Pro Poor Sanitation, AlexJambi, Chief of Bappeda Surakarta, formulation of an action plan that was Chalik, Head of Subdirectorate ofAssistant II of Denpasar Municipality, to be completed within one week after Drainage System and WasteHead of Health Agency Payakumbuh, the date of the signing. They realize Mnagement, Bappenas who discussedand ISSDP consultant team. that up to now sanitation service is a topic on Minimun Service, and an32 Percik April 2007
    • ARROUND ISSDP SOURCE:ISSDP DOC. ed to take a look at an effort made by the government of Blitar to combine sanitation program with BR2LK for the poor community. From the improvement of decrepit houses up to provision of sanitation facility there are strategic steps that could inspire other cities in implementation of pro- poor program. The municipal government pro- vides stimulant subsidy to repair and develop worthy settlement aimed at the poor families. Blitar Municipal Government provides a specific fund for construction of communal septic tank to make the settlement worth liv- ing in. On the second day the workshop agenda was allowed to presentation of the progress made by each of the Sanitation WG. The WGs of Jambi,ISSDP consultant who discussed the tribute. The innovation that was Payakumbuh and Denpasar eachFramework of National Policy and introduced is the understanding and declared their plan to write a whiteSanitation Funding Sources. implementation of the rights and book on sanitation, containing the In his welcome speech, Basah responsibilities of public service portrait of city sanitation condition.Hernowo, emphasized his hopes that actors. Discussion and questions and answersthe 6 cities could function as centre of This approach has proven capable in each presentation looked quite live-excellence or replication agent for san- of improving Puskesmas services. To ly, a process that provides additionalitation development in other cities of supervise and monitor service per- inputs to each citys program. The lastIndonesia. To get a better picture formance a supervisory body was session of the workshop was groupabout pro poor sanitation in the city of established manned by members of discussion on the method of sanitationBlitar the participants are invied to DPRD and community leaders. strategy plan formulation.visit 3 locations, namely Puskesmas Puskesmas performance evaluation is The workshop was concluded withBendo (citizen charter), Sanimas 3 measured from customers satisfac- a summary by Tri Nugroho Utomo,facility at Kelurahan Sanan Wetan, tion. Apart from that this approach is Chief of Subdirectorate of Drinkingand BR2LK (Subsidy for applicable because of support from Water and Waste Water, Bappenas.Revitalization of Impaired Houses) at Blitar regional government in provid- Nugroho underscored the BlitarKelurahan Tanjung Sari. ing achievement incentive. Declaration as an important momen- In the visit to Puskesmas Bendo it In visiting Sanimas 3 it was evident tum for sanitation development and itwas revealed that the Puskesmas is that the community are capable of will be made into reality through theone of the citizen charter projects con- developing and maintaining sanita- city governments commitment. Thestitutes a contract between the munic- tion facilities and provide access to the workshop was officially closed by theipality government as service provider poor families. The involvement of the Chairman of Bappeda of Blitar. Afterand the community as the customers. community from the beginning of the the closing the participants took theThe project emphasizes on what and planning is the key to Sanimas 3 suc- opportunity to visit the citys libraryhow a service should be provided and cesses in Sanan Wetan. and Bung Karnos cemetary. IA andhow the community should con- The visit to BR2LK site was intend- YW Percik April 2007 33
    • ARROUND WASPOLA WASPOLA Activities January-March 2007 Nurse Wisdom to Harvest Success FOTO:DOK WASPOLAI t is almost a decade now since WASPOLA took the first step car- rying the mission on Water Supplyand Environmental Sanitation (WSS)Policy formulation for the purpose ofincreasing the regional level WSS serv-ices. It was not a short time and thecountless barriers that have been metwhile taking each of its steps. In spite ofall those, the exit strategy in this year ismarked with the spirit of nursing wis-dom in interpreting the Nastional Policyfor Community Based Water Supply andEnvironmental Sanitation (CB-WSS)Development in the regions throughlooking at the successes made by theregions from implementing the policy.The need for executive and legisla-tive support The evidence of succes can be seen team or writers for the preparation of the meeting with the community andin several regions from the fact that Lessons Learned WASPOLA expressed the result is a solution developed by thepolitical support from the regional head that community involvement will community itself. CLTS (Communitywhich is shown from the involvement of broaden achievement and success Total-Led Sanitation) has been imple-the officials of the technical agencies in because of the sense of belongingness mented successfully. The communitythe policy implementation. Besides, the and awareness of the community. enjoys the changes towards bettermentlegalization of WSS-WG institution Commitment for participation should in their daily life. With the availabilitythrough Letter of Decision from the be supported by the regional govern- of a toilet, the womanfolks now say: "WeHead of the Region or legalization of the ment and parliament," he says. While are happier now." While their menWSS development Strategy Plan. the Chairman of DPRD of Kabupaten could concentrate on their job, "We go Another achievement is the institu- Gorontalo, Anto Naue, has no objection out to sea we do not have to think of tak-tionalization that indicates the strength in supporting the commitment and par- ing water any more".of WSS-WG role and function through ticipation of the community.various regional level WSS-WG initia- This is evidenced from the teams Strategy Plan, one of key outputstive and innovation. And the funding visit to 3 villages: Dembe I, Olimoo, and from policy adoptionsupport in the form of budget allocation Lonu. Since 2004 WSS-WG has been Strategy Plan for WSS Developmentfor WSS-WG operation, mobilization of playing major role in facilitation of for a region is an important output forfunding sources in operationalization of problem solving faced by the previously us as a yardstick to guarantee that poli-the Strategy Plan. organized institutions such as BPAM, cy adoption has been going within the The Bupati of Gorontalo, David UPS and so on. planning mechanism. Up to the end ofBobohoe Akib in an interview with a Regional level WSS-WG facilitated December 2006 14 regions have final-34 Percik April 2007
    • ARROUND WASPOLA FOTO:DOK WASPOLAized their Strategy Plan, 8 completingdraft, and 24 formulation in progresss. Several kabupatens have indicatedinnovation or initiative to ascertain thatthe Strategy Plan is given support fromthe stakeholders including the commu-nity. One of them is KabupatenPekalongan which in last January con-ducted the second workshop that wasintended for deliberation and consider-ation of the inputs from the stakehold-ers including the community. While in S. Timor Tengah on 19January a Strategy Plan workshop washeld and was attended by 25 partici-pants representing the stakeholders.The result was an agreement of WSSdevelopment strategic objectives con-sisting of bringing down the prevalenceof contagious diseases, improvement ofawareness, and formulation of regional take water from far away palces. can be implemented from non-subsidypolicy for community based WSS devel- Several programs were proposed, approach.opment. The workshop that was held at among others capacity improvement,Rotendao was opened by the Bupati and preparation of WSS development strate- Building Commitment and Sus-at the closing session the chief of DPRD gy, promotion of environmental protec- tainabilityconfirmed his support in the formula- tion, improvement of WSS service, and To collectively build commitment totion of Strategy Plan. During the two improvement of community participa- sustainable WSS development aday session the second WSS developem- tion. National Workshop was held innt stategy plan was completed. Several In the meantime the C. Java provin- Semarang on 6-9 February 2007. Theagreements and confirmation from the cial WSS-WG puts emphasis on the event was attended by participants rep-workshop will be revised as working strengthening of working group institu- resenting the regions, 21 participantsmaterial for presentation to the Bupati tional capacity through provision of from WSS-WG and WASPOLA.and DPRD before legalization. improvement session to its 20 mem- Semarang was selected the site for the bers. The topic discussed included workshop because of an innovativeDiversity of Approaches in Policy development paradigm, national policy example from Kabupaten PekalonganOperationalization for WSS development, principles of that is considered as successful in February 2007, W. Sumba and E. facilitation, working group collaborative adopting the policy principles into WSSSumba together held a wokshop and management, and formulation of action development program.formed a working group that was plan. The topic of the National Workshopattended by 60 paricipants representing Kabupaten Kebumen held CLTS is sharing the Strategy Plan experience,the stakeholders from the government (Community Total-Led Sanitation) funding innovation and improvement ofand the community. The workshop was training at Bocor village for sanitarians. the role of coordination and effective-opened by the deputy Bupati. Attended by 57 participants from the ness. At the end of the workshop, trig- E. Sumba sees it as an important Health Agency and community leaders. gered from the experience from othermandate for the formation of a working This training produced an action plan regions all the provinces and kabu-group because there are many facilities for the Health Agency to conduct trig- patens feel optimistic to go on with thebuilt in the past but they are not sus- gering activity in 11 selected villages and WSS development agenda. This calls fortained, low service coverage, and waste establishing a support from the local support and assistance for its imple-of productive time for schoolchildren to government that sanitation program mentation. WH Percik April 2007 35
    • ARROUND WASPOLA Establishing Water Supply and Sanitation Communication Network Making Water Supply and Sanitation a "Sexy" Issue to the MediaE SOURCE:WWS DOC. ach of the crews is standing by in his position. The light is set to famous presenter who iscoming with a glass of water. Thecameramen are ready each with hisangle. The the program director sig-nalled; "Action". "Hullo, good morning, I am bring-ging a glass of water because today isthe World Water Day, greeted DickDoank and Desy Ratnasari in openingthe Good Morning" at Trans TV. Thatmorning it was specially to publish aseries of water and sanitation relatedtopics. WSS-WG Coordinator Dr.Oswar Mungkasa was present as aspecial guest. The awareness of TV, radio sta-tions and printed media in presenting Jakarta. team in Communication Workshop onwater and sanitation related news is of On the other hand, this sectors Water and Sanitation Reform in Eastcourse something that make us happy. implementers claim that they have Asia - Discussion Forum forIt is because all this time the media completed so many projects but the Governments, Mass Media and WSSpractitioners do not consider WSS benefit and echo to the public is bare- Agencies organized by WSP/Worldrelated issue some "sexy" (read: inter- ly audible. The news in the media is Bank in Bangkok early February. Itesting) to publish. always the bad side of WSS. Therefore was attended by 6 nations represent- In fact the matter is important for it becomes a challenge for all to sit ing the government and mass media.the public to know. Beside its compli- together including in this case the The Indonesian delegates consisted ofcacy, the data available with the water mass media, to think a way out for an Public Works, Health, Bappenas, andand sanitation implementers are optimum synergy between the parties. mass media consisting of the Jakartagrossly inconsistent, a fact that con- Post, Kompas, Antara Nerws Agency,fuses everyone. Then, where do the Bringing Up WSS Issue through Xinhua News Agency and Trans have to go to get the informa- Mass Media As a follow up of Bangkok meetingtion? It still remains unclear, while In this early 2007 the central gov- the first action was inviting massthe media needs a quick response. ernment is preparing a series of com- media to visit WSS-WG, WASPOLAThe opinion was brought up by media munication strategy implementation and ISSDP on 22 February 2007. Thepractitioners in the WSS Open House activities, one of them is media rela- event consisted of light discussion fol-22 February 2007 at the WSS-WG sec- tions and media advocary. It started lowed by a luncheon was attended byretariate at Jl. Cianjur 4, Menteng, with the participation of WASPOLA 25 journalists from various media36 Percik April 2007
    • ARROUND WASPOLAincluding 4 TV stations. in their possession a lot of information sexy is beginning to be looked upon. The media practitioners were but they do not know how to publish Several special cover stories andintroduced to the key officials related them. It is clear that there is a need broadcasts on water and sanitation areto WSS sector development, including and each party could respond the beginning to get place in various massBappenas, Public Works, Dept Home other, what is needed now is some media. A monitoring indicates thatAffairs, Dept Health, Ministry of adjustment. during March 2007 there were moreEnvironment, WASPOLA, ISSDP, and This meeting concluded an agree- than 6 TV stations intensively dis-ESP-USAID. Most of the journalists ment for establishment of a "WSS cussed the issue through news, airsaid that they need more information Communication Network" as the vehi- magazine, as well as talkshow. Theand materials for publication. From cle for sharing of information and same is with radio and printed media.the meeting everyone takes into con- public campaign. A meeting is sched- WSS related reports have been wellsideration the importance of develop- uled every three months, the secretari- a sustainable communication net- ate will take place at the WSS-WG The positive progress needs be fol-work and the involvement of media in office. lowed up with establishment ofsimilar agendas in the future. One of the common activities was Information Centre to help the mass made int reality on 20 March by con- media to bring forward WSS relatedCommunication Network Deve- ducting "Media Dialogue on Raw issues in the future. As an initial step,lopment Water Scarcity: A Challenge to Urban on 11-14 March WASPOLA in coopera- As a response, the above event was Water Supply" in the framework of tion with PUSKAT Audi Visual Studiofollowed up by Communication World Water Day commemoraton. conducted a WSS Media DevelopmentNetworking Workshop attended by 50 The event invited Erna Witoelar, the Training for internal staff and CentralWSS implementers and mass media MDGs Ambassadress, Syahrial WSS-WG in Yogyakarta.on 27 February. The workshop was Loetan, Deputy for Infrastructures, During the three day training-by-organized by BAPPENAS and Bappenas, Agoes Widjanarko, DG doing implementation was designed toWASPOLA in cooperation with Water Cipta Karya, Dept Public Works, I build a good understanding and skilland Sanitation Network (WASAN) Nyoman Kandun, DG for PP & PL of the participants about a well target-and FORKAMI. The purpose of the Dept Health, Budirama ed and effective WSS communicationworkshop was to initiate a meeting of Natakusumah, Head of BPLHD of media, including in it the teamworkminds and mapping of everyones Jakarta Provincial Government. capacity. The participants trainedpotential through communication net- Followed by a visit to Kelurahan themselves on media characteristicsworks mechanism to collect informa- Jatake, Kecamatan Jati Uwung, and producing their own photo essay,tion more extensively. Tangerang to take a look at radio drama, and video/TV service From the strategy mapping some- MCKPlus++ a product from BEST advertisement program. The teamthing interesting cropped up, it turns facilitation to see that MCK does not also had had an opportunity to visitout that there are many overlappng only work as a place for defecation but Radio BBM Community that is self-acttivities have been done by the vari- also at the same time to produce bio- managed by the Minomartani villageous implementers and stakeholders. gas for daily cooking purposes. The and conducted a live broadcast togeth-It would be more effective tyherefore, media practitioners seem so enthusi- er with the local community.if each one of them contribute or make astic with such sanitation model as At any rate, the WSS sector imple-use the other for the sake of common evidenced from the fact that more menters need the medias power forgood. Jakarta Post and Media than 6 stations put the news on air. publication while mass media needIndonesia made mention that the WSS related materials for their pur-media needs more information and The Need for Information Centre pose in broadcasting to the public.reliable and accurate data and the pic- and the Development of WSS The establishment of dialogue andtures of real field condition to support Media public sphere becomes one of thepublication such as the World Water Partnership relations that is pro- important strategies in buildingDay. gressing with mass media show us that favourable and critical public partici- While the WSS implementers have the WSS issues that used to be non pation in WSS development. WH Percik April 2007 37
    • A R R O U N D WA S P O L A The largest number of toilets (1719 units) built within one year MURI Certificate for Pandeglang Community FOTO:WIWITA s many as 1719 units of house- hold latrines were built within one year. It was quite an achie-vement for the community of 6 villagesin five kecamatans, namely Saketi,Pagelaran, Angsana, Patia and Su-karesmi of Kabupaten Pandeglang,Banten. The more so it is because thelatrines were built from their ownresources free any external subsidy,government or otherwise. This achievement was made throughthe communitys awareness about envi-ronmental pollution and the risks fromdefecation in the open or in the river.This awareness eventually thickenedinto the communitys initiative to buildhousehold latrine. It is no wonder that this achieve-ment wins an appreciation from MURI(Museum of Indonesian Records)."Construction of the largest number(1719 units) of toilets within one year," tion," he said after receiving the MURIso MURI records the Pandeglang com- (Indonesian Museum of Records) cer-munity achievement. tificate. it turned out that the This movement started from an ini- The appreciation is inseparable from approach developed tiation by WASPOLA through CLTSthe initiatives made by BantenProvincial WSS-WG and PCI (Project through exciting (Community Led Total Sanitation) atConcern International), the government abhorrence and Banten provincial level training. Thisof Kabupaten Pandeglang, and the sup- embarrassment among has inspired the Banten Provincialporters consisting of the forum and PKK WSS-WG to follow it up with PCI facili- the people has proven tation. The community empowermentmovers of 5 kecamatans, as well as effective to focused movement was initiated from aCentral WSS-WG and WASPOLA. Thecertificate was presented by Nadri, stimulating the people study on the surrounding environmentMURI Representative to A. Dimyati, the to build toilet of the locality and the risk from theBupati of Pandeglang on Sunday 1 April habit of defecating in the open. And it2007 which happens to be the Ka- turned out that the approach developedbupaten Pandeglang Inauguration Day. from exciting abhorrence and embar- Dimyati mentions that this appreci- behaviour. "The spirit and hard work is rassment among the people turned outation is a challenge to be more con- the common responsibility between the to be effective in stimulating the peoplecerned in building the culture of hygiene regional government and the popula- to build toilet. BW38 Percik April 2007
    • AROUND WSS World Water Day 2007 Strategy for Coping with Water ScarcityI SOURCE:MALIK t is more than 10 years now that World Water Day was first launched. It seems that water willremain a complicated problem in manyparts of the world, especially the poorercountries. It is undeniable that water isindeed human beings basic need. World Water Day is commemoratedevery 22 March. The Commemorationserves as vehicle for renewal of thedetermination for the implementationof Agenda 21 that was proposed in theUN Conference on Environment andDevelopment (UNCED) in 1992 at Riode Janeiro. The event is known as theEarth Summit. At the 47th UN General Assembly on22 December 1992 through ResolutionNo. 147/1993 the Agenda 21 proposalwas passed and at the same time it was ing 0,01 percent is water in rivers. to clean water supply. In a similar con-determined that World Water Day is Its quite relevant therefore that this dition is the increasing frequency ofcommemorated on 22 March every year years World Water Day commemora- water related disasters (flood and land-beginning 1993 by all UN members tion bears a theme "Coping With Water slide) that hit the country during the lastincluding Indonesia. Scarcity". This theme highlights the 5 years claiming death tolls of more that Today, somewhere around 100 mil- worlds water scarcity and the need for 750 lives, 250 people lost and hundredslion of Indonesian population has no integrated and collaborative effort to of thousand took refuge and more thanaccess to safe water for consumption. assure a sustainable, efficient and equi- 200.000 homes destroyed.Accoding to Central WALHI record the table resources scarcity management at Food and Agriculture Organizationtotal volume of world water is 1,4 billion the international as well as local levels. (FAO) of the United Nations - Waterkm3. An exceedingly big amount, of As a tropical insular country, in (UN-Water) in its capacity as the organ-which 97,3 percent is salt water of the terms of quantity, Indonesia will not izer, prepared several agendas for theseas. Only 2,7 percent is fresh water have any water shortage. World Water Day commemoration thatavailable on lands. But even so, of this Unfortunately, from time to time her took place from January till March. Theplanets total fresh water 77,3 percent water quality is decreasing while the commemoration on 22 March was held37,8 million km3 is contained at the top demand for clean water is cntinuously at FAO Headquarters in Rome. Thisof mountains and glaciers, while ground increasing. Therefore the theme event was attended by experts from alland infiltration water is only 22,4 per- becomes more important considering over the world to present their viewscent and lake and mashland water 0,35 the fact that our source of water is dete- and opinions related to water scarcitypercent. Then water vapour of the riorating at an increasing intensity that issue.atmosphere 0,04 percent, the remain- it is presently becoming a serious threat The World Water Commemoration Percik April 2007 39
    • AROUND WSSDay in Indonesia was translated by var- WORLD WATER DAY YEARLY THEMEious different communities each in itsown format and way of doing it. 1994 : Caring for Our Water Resources is Everyones Business 1. Bappenas, FORKAMI, ESP- 1995 : Water and WomenUSAID and Central WSS-WG held a 1996 : Water for Thristy CityDiscussion and Media Visit that was 1997 : The Worlds Water: is There Enough? 1998 : Groundwater-The Invisible Resourcewrapped in a theme: "Scarcity of Raw 1999 : Everyone Lives DownstreamWater: Challenge to Urban Water 2000 : Water for 21st Century 2001 : Water for HealthSupply" at the Bappenas Building, 2002 : Water for DevelopmentJakarta on Tuesday 20 March. The 2003 : Water for FutureDiscussion was attended by Syahrial 2004 : Water and Disasters 2005 : Water for LifeLoetan, Deputy for Infrastructures, 2006 : Water and CultureBappenas, Agoes Widjanarko, DG Cipta 2007 : Coping with ScarcityKarya, Dept Public Works, I NyomanKandun, DG for PP & PL Dept Health, Works among others were water care cleaned the area surrounding the pondBudirama Natakusumah, Head of campaign and promotion of World that was built during the reign of kingBPLHD of Jakarta Provincial Water Day, several workshops, exhibi- Pakubuwono X.Government, who were invited as tion and contests, and regional/local 8. The students of Environmentalresource persons. Ms Lula Kamal was activities. The peak national event was Engineering Department of the Tech-named the moderator. After the discus- planting of economically valuable rare nical Faculty University of Indonesiasion, the newsmen were invited to visit plant species (arboretum) at critically offered free of charge or 90 percent dis-Kelurahan Jatake of Kecamatan Jati degraded river basin under the spirit of count water quality test to examineUwung in the city of Tangerang to take a "Plant While Young, Harvest When Old" water quality within specific para-look at the MCKPlus++ facilities. on 9 May at lake Cikaret, Bogor. maters. The water quality test ran from 2. An interesting talkshow wrapped 5. A number of environmentally 1 till 22 March "Good Morning" program was put on focused NGOs held an environmental 9. The World Water Day in Nang-air by TransTV, Thursay 22 March, pre- care campaign at Ancol Beach, N. groe Aceh Darussalam was centred atsented under a topic "Life in an Jakarta. The campaign that took place the Taman Sari to serve as manifesta-Improved Sanitation and Water on the World water Day was sponsored tion of the importance of protectingSupply". Present as resource person by the UN and National Integration water source for the good of the commu-Oswar Mungkasa, the Head of Movement affiliated Anand Ashram nity. The theme of the event "WaterSubdirectorate of Water and Drainage Foundation. They urge the community Scarcity" has attracted the attention ofSystems, Bappenas. Ms. Desy Ratnasari to love water and the environment. the majority of Serambi Mekah (Meccasand Dik Doank were named the presen- 6. Some 45 students of Surabaya Veranda) population. It is not only theters. Institute of Technology (SIT) who are city of Banda Aceh that experiences 3. Radio Delta FM held a talkshow members of Environment Love of SIT scarcity of water, it is also felt in theon water under the program "Indonesia Cycle held a theatrical show at the upstream areas such as in the village ofSiesta" on Thursday, 22 March. The Gubeng Pojok Square, Sunday 11 March. Jreuk Balee.talkshow presented a theme "Scarcity of They specifically highlighted their con- 10. An NGO named Gebrak (Ge-Raw Water; Challenge for Urban Water cerns to the highly polluted Kalimas rakan Bersama Rakyat, Movement inSupply". Oswar Mungkasa chief of river yet it is still being used for drinking Collaboration with the People) made aSubdirectorate of Water and Drainage water by the Surabaya population. public theatrical show by bathing inSystems, Bappenas was forced to 7. On the commemoration of World Batam Authority Circle in commemora-become the resource person accompa- Water Day hundreds of primay school- tion of the World Water Day. This the-nied by artist Shahnaz Haque as presen- children of the city of Solo released fish atrical show was to illustrate how diffi-ter. fingerlings into Kapujanggan pond cult and expensive it is to get water, the 4. Various different activities were located at the Sriwedari Entertainment basic need of human life. BWcoordinated by the Dept of Public Park, Friday 23 March. They also40 Percik April 2007
    • AROUND WSS Discussion and Media Visit Sanitation is Our Common ResponsibilityT he access to water supply and other nations declining performance is Loetan (acting Deputy for sanitation for the majority of not limited in water and sanitation only, Infrastructures-BAPPENAS). Indonesian communities is but also in some other sectors such as According to him, poor sanitation man-wanting. Up to now, more than 100 mil- education and mortality of mothers fol- agement in Indonesia is caused by thelions of Indonesian population is des- lowing delivery," Erna reveals. belief that the responsibility for sanita-perately in want to safe water supply as According to her there are a number of tion lies fully with the households andis to sanitation. Based on MDGs Report factors influencing this decline, such as problem is considered resolved once theAsia Pacific 2006 and the report A political conflict and the frequent occur- household has built a good sanitationFuture Within Reach Indonesia belongs rence of disasters. the group of nations with a decreas- Ironically, though Indonesia belongs "We have to take in mind that sani-ing MDGSs achievement. That is the to 10 nations rich in water resources yet tation is no longer a problem of the indi-problem that was revealed from the the threat of raw water scarcity seems vidual family, instead it is a commonDiscussion and Media Visit with the unavoidable. Based on records of water problem of the government and thetheme "Raw Water Scarcity: Challenge balance on the island of Java, up to year community. Therefore the problemto Urban Water Supply in commemora- 2000 per capita water availability is must be dealt with collectively becausetion of World Water Day 2007. The 1.750 m3 per annum is lower than the the demand for it is pressing and cannotevent was organized by WWS-WG in minimum of 2.000 cu m per capita per wait any longer," says Syahrial. Further,cooperation with FORKAMI and ESP- annum. This amount is continuously Budirama Natakusumah, the JakartaUSAID on March 20 at the Bappenas decreasing down to 1.200 m3 per Provincial Head of BPLHD, explainedBuilding. annum by 2020. Outside Java, the the condition of surface and groundwa- The event that was attended by scarcity is also threatening Bali, W. ter of Jakarta and its vicinity.newsmen from both printed and elec- Nusa Tenggara (NTB) and S. Sulawesi. In Jakarta domestic waste compris-tronic media was also attended by The potential for raw water scarcity es the dominant source of pollution toresource persons consisting of Erna is made worse with the pollution of the 13 river basins of the city. "In thisWitoelar (MDG Ambassadress), rivers especially by domestic wastes. Up connection it is necessary to have pre-Syahrial Loetan (Acting Deputy for to 76,2 percent of the rivers of Java, ventive measures through upholding ofInfrastructures, Bappenas), Agoes Sumatra, Bali, and Sulawesi are heavily regulations related to domestic waste-Widjanarko (DG Cipta Karya, Dept polluted with organic matter. While water management," he says.Public Works), I Nyoman Kandun (DG eleven major rivers of Java are heavily While I Nyoman Kandun, DG forfor PP & PL Dept Health), Budirama polluted with ammonia. The majority of Disease Prevention and EnvironmentalNatakusumah (Head of BPLHD of the rivers flowing in densely populated Sanitation (DG PP & PL) Dept HealthJakarta Provincial Government). Ms of Java tend to be polluted with coliform stated his wishes to continue withLula Kamal was named the moderator. and fecal coli bacteria. The presence of socialization of hygiene behaviour. Isnt MDGs Ambasadress, Erna fecal coli bacteria indicates pollution it impossible to live hygienically withoutWotoelar, put forward that in order to from human excrement, the main cause water?" he said. Based on the result ofachieve MDGs target in 2015 of diarrhoea. Further Erna revealed the studies washing hands with soap andIndonesias performance has been less apprehensive condition of Indonesia flowing water prevents contaminationimpressive if not declining. This places that demands cooperation from all by 65 percent. The hygiene behaviourIndonesia into the lowest category stakeholders to improve it. "Any com- depends to the most part on the eco-nations together with Bangladesh, Laos, munity participation is important such nomic condition and a good education.Mongolia, Myanmar, Pakistan, Papua as campaign, river cleaning, digging The key is, our world is habitableNew Guinea and the Philippines. "In infiltration pit, and so on. because of water," so said I Nyoman2006 report Indonesias and several Similarly was expressed by Syahrial Kandun. BW Percik April 2007 41
    • AROUND WSS More Comfortable with MCK Plus++W FOTO:BOWO LEKSONO ho wouldnt feel comfortable living in a hygienic environ- ment? Moreover if thedemand for MCK (bath, wash and defe-cate) facility is met satisfactorily. Thisof course is everyones dream. Theproblem of basic MCK frequentlyencounters the urban community, whofor the sake of a better life they have nochoice but to live crammed in a crowdedcity. "Since the operastionpresence ofthis MCK++ we live more comfortablynow. Gone were the days when we hadto wait in a long queue at the waterpump", said Hartati (54) a housewife ofJatake, Kecamatan Jati Uwung,Tangerang, during the media visit onthe World Water Day 2007 commemo-ration held by WSS-WG on Tuesday 20March. Hartati, one of the housewives of thearea feels quite lucky to have an MCK++ According to him the tariff for defeca- excrement. Almost 80 percent of them.built in her neighbourhood. "There are tion Rp 300, bath Rp 400 and wash Rp But the question remains whether themany factory workers living in rented 1.000. "Most of the users are factory excrement collector system has met thehouses and water was always in short workers. On average 150 users come to hygiene requirement? Since one of theamount. Now everything has been ful- the outfit," says Marwan, father of three preconditions is that the septic tank isfilled. Bathing, washing, eveything children. Accompanied by his wife they free from leak and must be located atbecomes very easy," she says radiantly. operate a small foodstall at the outfit. least 10 m away from their water well. The facility was built with German To prepare instant noodle or hot water There are in Tangerang 26 MCK++ cur-technology and is located at Kelurahan for coffee the biogas produced by the rently in operation.Jatake RT 02/01, Kecamatan MCK++ is quite enough. There is noth- In 2003 through cooperation withJatiuwung, Tangerang City consists of ing to worry about, the MCK++ complex AusAID, WSP and the World Bank the12 rooms, 6 for toilet and 6 bathroom is always clean and comfortable. Government of Indonesia adopted thiswith shower. While washing floor is The MCK project was implemented system for application in a pilot projectbuilt outside. In addition, the human BEST (Bina Sosial Ekonomi Terpadu, named SANIMAS (sanitation by the com-excrement is used to produce biogas for Integrated Social Economic Develop- munity). In SANIMAS community invol-cooking and lighting. The 3 m by 8 m ment) involving the community partici- vement is the main key to the projectfacility that was built at Rp 200 million pation. Hamzah Harun Al Rasyid, BEST implementation. Community contribu-is also equipped with an infiltration well Director, says the MCK++ is built water- tion is prerequisite and the facility isand a green garden to make the environ- and air tight. "Therefore it is guaran- directly managed by the community.ment clean, hygienic and comfortable. teed clean and hygienic" he confirms. Since 2005 the SANIMAS concept has Marwan (50) the MCK++ attendant There have been many households been replicated by the Dept Public Worksstarts his day immediately after Subuh in Indonesia, especially those of the and has presently reached somewhereprayer and he works till 10 PM. towns, built septic tank to contain their around 80 kabupatens/citys. Bowo42 Percik April 2007
    • AROUND WSS Workshop for Formulation of Policy for Handling Slum Areas SOURCE:EXCLUSIVES lum is characterized as a very densely po-pulated settlement area, formulation will involve all the stake- holders through for-decrepit houses and mation of a workingimproper basic facilities group.including water supply, It is hoped thatroad, liquid and solid through this effort awaste disposal and policy frameworkdrainage systems. for resolving the The effort to formulat- problem of sluming a policy for develop- areas can be formu-ment of slum areas start- lated for use as guid-ed with a workshop held ance by all whoon 7-9 December 2006 by intend to improvethe Directorate of Housing and cooperation with State Ministry for the condition of slums in Indonesia.Settlement Systems, BAPPENAS in Housing. It is planned that the policy BW Workshop on Planning and Coordination for WSS Development Program in NTTI n connection with program imple- mentation in 2007 the NTT (E. NusaTenggara) government in cooperation between GOI and UNICEF. "At this time the working partners only cover NTT and NTB, but later they can be source, (ii) lack of communitys capaci- ty, (iii) lack of community involvement in O&M of the facility after construc-with UNICEF held a workshop on expanded to nine other regions," she tion, (iv) choice of appropriate technol-Coordination and Planning for WSS says in between the workshop sessions. ogy, (v) lack of community awareness,Development on 28 February - 1 March During the discussion there were (vi) conflict right of use of water source,in Kupang. several WSS development related issues (vii) weak inter-agency coordination, The workshop was officially opened revealed, they are (i) environmental (viii) inconsistency between plan andby the Secretary of Bappeda of NTT and degradation and pollution of water implementation, (ix) lack of data base,was attended by representatives from and (x) absence of strategy plan. FOTO:DOK/POKJA AMPLBappenas and Dept of Public Works, In broad line the collaborative activ-secretariate of Central WSS-WG, ities during 2007 will cover (i) capacityprovincial and regional level agencies of improvement through establishment ofthe site of UNICEF assisted activities WSS-WG in each region, straighteningconsisting of Kabupatens of Alor, Ende, up data collection and processing andBelu, and Sikka. This workshop was formulation of strategy planning, (ii)organized in cooperation with UNICEF, improvement of community awarenessBappeda NTT, WSS-WG and WASPO- through hygiene behaviour and CLTS,LA. (iii) physical construction particularly Astrid, the UNICEF representative rainwater collector and school toilet sys-stressed the importance of an improved tem, and (iv) improvement in monevWSS development program cooperation program. BW Percik April 2007 43
    • AROUND WSS In Anticipation of the World Water Day Sharing Trees Sharing Life SOURCE:BOWO LEKSONO"M adam, do you know were distributed to schools and the when is it the world management of critical lands and upper water day?" asked Geri watersheds.Andrian, a YPI 45 Bekasi High School While Titie Sadarini, Chiefstudent to a woman driving a car. While Operating Committee of Coca Colaaccepting a tree seedling from Geri, the Foundation Indonesia, says that by dis-woman asked back, "I have no idea. tibuting tree seedlings the committeeWhen is it really?" invites the community attention to plant It may not be too important for this trees in their neighbourhood for thewoman to know when the world water purpose of helping water infiltrationday is. And there is no compelling process. "In so doing, each individualrequirement that we must celebrate it. actively participates in the effort toBecause what is important is that we are resolve the water scarcity problem," sheaware of the reality and essence behind Water is basic human need, no dred seedlings were distributed to driv- Not only in Jakarta. The Love Waterhuman being can live without it. ers who day after day commute the Program was also held in several loca- The date for the commemoration roads around Cibubur. The remainder tions in Semarang and Surabaya. BWworld water day is 22 March 2007, andon 18 March Coca Cola Indonesia incooperation with USAID Indonesiaorganized several activities at theCibubur Camping Ground. This activity Learning While Playing Minvolved 40 students from 4 high s. Linawati, a Biology teacher of has the practical application, makingschools of Bekasi, namely SMAN 2, Public High School No. 6 in Bekasi observation of oxygen content in water.SMAN 6, SMA YPI 45, and SMA Al- diligently teaches the student to love "I come to a conclusion that it is time for water. She taught them the technique of us to economize water use. We mustAzhar Kemang Pratama. measuring oxygen content in Cibubur start it from ourselves, such as taking Why was it that the World Water lake water during the World Water Day bath with a douche," said the charmingDay event concentrated in Cibubur? event sponsored by Coca Cola Indonesia girl.According to Trijono Prijosoesilo, the and USAID. The students of four high schools inDeputy Chief Executive Operating "The result is 1,7 ml for every 3 min- Bekasi were invited to to join the envi- utes," said Tia Marianti, second year ronmentally sensitive event particularlyCommittee Coca Cola Foundation Science student after collecting lake one related to water and environmentalIndonesia, Cibubur is a water catchment water in a measuring glass and poured it conservation.and infiltration area that is nearest to into a container with Hydra sp. a plant To Percik, Prijono Projosoesilo saidJakarta. "Cibubur commanding an area species in it The teacher concludes that that Go Green School, a program involv-of 210 ha is an urban forest that serves the oxygen content is at medium level. ing high school students is part of theas water infiltration area demands a "The more the plant the more extensive educative approach of Love Water is the oxygen producing photosynthesis," Program. "By involving the youth it isspecific attention from the community," said Linawati. hoped they will become a generationhe said. As a student Tia was very happy to who is aware of the importance of water As the main agenda of this event is have the opportunity to join the World and environmental conservation,: hedistribution of 2.007 seedlings to the Water Day event. She used to study said firmly. BWcommunity. It is hoped the community more of the theoretical aspects, now shewill pay a greater attention to water andenvironmental conservation. Five hun-44 Percik April 2007
    • PROGRAM Water for Healthy Environment and Human BeingT SOURCE:EXCLUSIVE he United States Agency for International Development (USAID) funded EnvironmentalServices Program (ESP) in cooperationwith Indonesian communities and localgovernments develops programs for theprevention of diarrhoea throughimprovement of access to clean water,construction of communal septic tanks,protection of water springs, improve-ment of the understanding and care tothe importance of handwashing withsoap, protection of water treatment andstorage, and waste collection for com-posting and recycling. ESP is operating in water catchmentareas of 7 provinces: Nanggroe AcehDarussalam, N. Sumatra, E. Java, C.Java, Yogyakarta, W. Java and Jakartacovering about half of the 200 millionplus Indonesian population. Service; ESP helps in improvement through multi media campaign ESP applies upstream-downstream of water supply, sanitation, and program.approach in integrating water resources waste management for urban and In each of the seven provinces wheremanagement wth improvement com- sub-urban areas. ESP is operating it applies an inte-munity health, creating a Blue Thread 3. Funding of Environmental Service; grated approach to bring the fourapproach taking water as theme for ESP attempts to help the commu- technical aspects simultaneouslyintration to link environmental health nities and private sector with long into application for supporting thewith human being. and medium term funding as need- community of locally specific ini- Based on the community initiatives, ed to stimulate investment in water tiatives.ESP provides support in 4 technical supply system and the develop- The integrated ESP approach con-aspects: ment of wastewater drainage sys- sists of Blue Thread, Clean-Green- 1. Water Borderline Management tem. Hygiene, and Water for the Poor. and Biodiversity Conservation; in 4. Communication Strategy for cooperation with the stakeholders Behavioural Change; ESP in coop- Blue Thread ESP helps in stabilising and eration with the network of local In Blue Thread ESP uses raw water improving raw water supply for the mass media promote care and dis- source as entry to improve community downstream communities. courses of important issues such as health and restore and maintain ecosys- 2. Provision of Environmental water, environment and health tem that sustain water source for the Percik April 2007 45
    • PROGRAM SOURCE:EXCLUSIVEcommunity. ESP helps in creating com-munity networking, from upstream todownstream, to enable to talk and takeaction locally to develop care to thewater catchment as a whole. The ESP field staff helps the com-munity identify the possible action to betaken to protect water catchment areas. With ESPs support, the communityis beginning to protect water spring,establishing gardens, dan replantingdegraded lands.Clean Green Hygiene The Clean Green Hygiene approachuses sanitation and waste as anothermeans for improving communityhealth. Waste water and domesticwaste contain organic and inorganiccontaminants and harmful bacteria that technical and financial capacity andneed pretreatment before disposal into protection of water source, it willthe environment. improve its service to community with With ESPs support, Unfortunately, in most regions of In- main emphasis on the poor families who the community isdonesia, there are not enough infrastruc- otherwise were overlooked. The princi-tures such as collection and waste trans- beginning to protect ple maintained by ESP in increasing theport system, and urban sewerage system water spring, access for the poor is that the poor fam-that are needed for such treatment. establishing ilies are capable of paying the normalWater bodies such as rivers, irrigation gardens, dan PDAM tariff so that they should havecanals, and drainage ditches are frequent- replanting sustaiinable service under flexible pay-ly used for disposal of domestic and agri- degraded lands ment condition (daily paayment by acultural, and also industrial wastes. local communty organization instead of It is tragic indeed, though still reme- monthly payment at PDAM office).diable, that as a result of life quite close Rather than asking PDAM to buildto wastewater and untreated solid waste munity to identify their present condi- more public taps which are difficult tois the degradation of water bodies, tion and the opportunity for implemen- monitor, where PDAM and the poorspreading of diseases, increase of cost tation. community are apt to loose money, ESPfor health care, increase in school designed a program to motivate theabsence, retarded growth of children, Water for the Poor community around the public tap andand eventually lost of human life. In urban areas, ESP improves has started with a new program combin- The program is implemented in col- PDAM capacity to protect its water ing individual and public water meterlaboration with the community, the source. Technical assistance is made for a group of poor families in variouslocal government, and non government available to as many as 30 PDAMs. In different metropolis of Indonesia.organization to identify all possible the area of feasibility study for improve- All the above is an ESP effort to helpactions they could take by themselves, ment of raw water source and or of dis- Indonesia in achieving MDGs in rela-from the simplest to the most complex tribution networks. tion to improvement of access to waterresolution, such as assisting the com- Along with improvement in PDAM supply and sanitation for all. FN46 Percik April 2007
    • ABSTRACT This column deals with abstracts of WSS related thesis or dissertation Perceptive Evaluation of Facilitation of Adoption and Implementation of the Policy for Water Supply and Environmental Sanitation Development in 7 Provinces through WASPOLA Project SOURCE:DOC/WASPOLA The problem of sustain- given policy facilitationability of water supply and through WASPOLA proj-sanitation facility that was ect since 2005.provided by various different Respondents perception isprojects has attracted a wide measured through 8 indi-variety of attention. During cators: i) inter-agencythe era of decentralization, coordination in WSSthe responsibility for water development; ii) knowl-supply and environmental edge and understandingsanitation (WSS) develop- regarding participatoryment has been relinquished approaches particularly into the regional governments. WSS sector development;The central governments iii) involvement of stake-responsibility is limited to holders outside the gov-facilitation, technical assis- ernment in CB (communi-tance, and provision of the ty based) WSS develop-necessary directives and ment; iv) priority of CB-guidelines. WSS development; iv) The government effort in regional governmentformulating a national policy for WSS officials and employees of the govern- budget for the physical construction ofdevelopment demands the responsibili- ment agencies involved in WSS sector the CB-WSS development; vi) regionalty for implementation by the regional development, who are responsible in the government budget to support the CB-governments. Upon completion of the daily affairs and management of the sec- WSS development; vii) legal ruling inpolicy formulation in 2003, it was tor development. Based on theory, the support of the CB-WSS development;immediately brought to trial implemen- acceptance of the logic of a policy is pre- and viii) planning activities in supporttation in 7 provinces, and later it must requisite for its implementability. of the CB-WSS implemented more extensively to The study indicates that 11 policy Through the measurement ofother areas. statements, both individually as well as respondents perception on the condi- This study is intended to take a look collectively indicate an average value of tion before and after the facilitation,into the response of the seven provinces, 3,31. This figure tells us that the average there are three possible trends: i) chang--they are W. Sumatra, Bangka Belitung, policy logical acceptance varies between ing towards a better direction, ii) noBanten, C. Java, W. Nusa Tenggara acceptable and highly acceptable. change, and iii) changing towards worse(NTB), S. Sulawesi, and Gorontalo- to However the average respondents per- condition. With the application of non-the National Policy for Community ception on policy implementation parametric statistical analysis usingBased WSS Development. Through a shows a lower value, i.e 2,98. This fig- McNemar test, an overal 81,275 Chimeasurement made to the level respon- ure indicates implementability slightly Square value was produced. This valuedents acceptance of the logic of the pol- below implementable. The average dif- is greater than Chi Square Table of 3,481icy we will know the average perception ference in logically acceptable and for free 1 grade and 5% significant level.of the respondents of the policy. implementability indicates the presence This means that the policy facilitation The level of respondents perception of various barriers in the water supply according to the respondents percep-is stated in scale, varying from 1-4, scale and environmental sanitation develop- tion has produced a positive change.1 for unacceptable, 2 fairly unaccept- ment. Summarized from Masters Thesisable, 3 acceptable and, 4 highly accept- This study also takes a look into the at the Public Policy and Planningable. The respondents comprise the performance of the regions that were Graduate School of the University of Indonesia, by Sofyan Iskandar Percik April 2007 47
    • Question can be forwarded through Percik magazine I AT P I C L I N I C Contributors: Sandhi Eko Bramono ( Lina Damayanti ( Percik magazine in cooperation with the Association of Sanitation Engineers and Environmental Engineers maintains Clinic column. This column deals with questions and answers on water supply and environmental sanitation Drinking Water The dosage variation within the Answer: abovementioned range is made to deter- Drainage serves to quickly drain aQuestion: mine the opttimum dosage. There is a location in order to prevent inundation How do we determine the coagulant fixed level above which the turbidity and (flooding). Using a canal with lowdosage in Water Treatment Installation the remaining suspended particles roughness coefficient (such as concrete(WTI)? increase. This indicates that the coagu- with Manning roughness coefficient of Seto, Bandung lant dosage is exceedingly too high and 0,013) will make water flow faster. the optimum must be lower than that. However the benefit of unpaved canalAnswer: For the average turbid surface water in bottom (vegetative covered or infiltra- The most widely used coagulant in Indonesia the coagulant (aluminium tion floor at the canal bottom) willIndonesia is alum or aluminium sulfate, sulfat) dosage level is around 40-50 increase water infiltration rather thanAl2(SO4)3. The dosage is determined mg/l. discharging it directly into a river (asthrough a laboratory test using a tool runoff).known as jar test. The dosage depends Drainage With the provision of infiltrationhighly on the raw water quality (turbid- floor the underground water reserve willity, suspended particles, amount of Question: increase thus helps in groundwater con-organic compound, and pH), the quality In a drainage construction what is servation. This will prevent under-of the coagulant (purity and particle the advantage of one with concrete floor ground water contamination, since sur-size), operation procedure in the WTI compared to one without? face water is relatively easier to get con-(percentage of coagulant solution, tech- Rama, Kupang taminated than underground water is.nique of application, and stirring inten- Sandhi Eko Bramono, ST., MEnvEngScsity), and the quality of the treated SOURCE:RESKI DDwater (particularly turbidity dan sus-pended particle to be disposed of). In the examination using jar test,coagulant is applied at a variety ofdosages (between 30 - 80 mg/l) stirredat 100 rpm (quick stirring) for 1 minuteand continued with slow stirring at 60rpm for 10 - 20 minutes. It is a standardprocedure in WTI that the 100 rpm isconsidered as a model for quick stirring(coagulation process) and the 60 rpm asslow stirring (flocculation process). After the slow stirring the jar test isswitched off and let to stand for 20-30minutes (model for sedimentationprocess), and the quality floc is evaluat-ed. The measurement is made on thevelocity of floc sedimentation (depth ofjar against time required to reach thebottom of the jar), the type of the floc(solid or non solid), turbidity and sus-pended particles isolated after stirring.48 Percik April 2007
    • BOOK INFO Gender Equality and MDGsA s we all know, the achievement Title equality and evaluates gender equality of Millenium Development GENDER EQUALITY AND THE MILLENNIUM with MDGs particularly in the context of Goals (MDGs) is set for 2015. DEVELOPMENT GOALS poverty, education, health and nutri-Yet there are still many nations, espe- Author:: tion, as well as environment.cially the poorer ones, are still lagging Gender and Provided with data in target achieve-far behind in the achievement of various Development Group ment diagrams we can see the achieve-sectors. There are even cases of Penerbit: ment in terms of difference of sexes. Itdecreasing in achievement. Gender and is also provided with attractive photo- The MDG projects are based on agree- Development Group, graphs illustrating the role of women inment of 198 world leaders in September World Bank, 2003 varous different nations.2000 to together fight the problems faced PAges: 24 halaman Gender equality is not intendedby the majority of the developing nations of merely as a dream, more important thanthe world. The problems include poverty, anything is to turn it into reality. Theilliteracy, hunger, high infant mortality role of women is very important becauserate, lack of education, and lack of water it is very close to issues such as poverty,supply and sanitation. and Development Group of the World education, health and nutrition, as well This book was published by Gender Bank. It presents a picture on gender as environment. BW Implementation Manual for Gender Based PolicyT he ADB sponsored water supply and sanitation projects have in the lastseveral decades proven a strong positive Title GENDER discussion is also made on example of terms of reference (TOR) for gender spe- between gender sensitivity and CHECKLIST It is hoped this checklist will serve as awomen involvement in one hand with Author: guideline for users from all project/pro-project success and sustained water supply Sonomi Tanaka gram phases in determining gender basedand sanitation management in the other. Publisher: access to resources, roles and responsibili- Women are the collector, transporter, Asian Development ties, constraints and priorities in the provi-user, and manager of domestic water and Bank (ADB) sion of water supply and sanitation and inas the promotor in sanitation related activ- Pages: designing gender sensitive strategies, com-ities within the household and the commu- 28 halaman ponents and indicators in response to gen-nity. However, in many communities, Year: 2005 der issues.women opinion is not systematically repre- This checklist is mainly developedsented in decision making institutions. for water supply and sanitation pro-Water supply and sanitation project pro- jects in villages and for urban commu-vides the best opportunity to narrow this nity based projects. In spite of a num-gap. (GAD). ber of issues and methodologies The purpose of this book is to help Beside the above purpose, this book brought forward in this book, yet inADB staffs and consultants in implement- questions the importance of gender in general they are for application ining ADB policies and stategic objectives in water supply and sanitation project and water supply and sanitation projects.relation to gender and development the primary step in project cycle. An ample BW Percik April 2007 49
    • WEBSITE INFO related information. The background is published topics are: a Change of clearly presented, the relationship with Course, The Millennium Development human right and additionally the Goals Through the Lens of the Womens addresses of other websites that could Global Charter for Humanity, Taking support the information related to the Actions: Achieving Equality and papers. Empowering Women; Mainstreaming Gender to Achieve the MDGs: Summary Record. This website is a collaborative effort by UN Inter-Agency Network on Women and Gender Equality, the OECD/DAC Network on Gender Equality and Multilateral Development Bank Working Group on Gender. GENDER AND WATER ALLIANCE (GWA) ELDIS GENDER RESOURCE GUIDE The site is maintained by WHRNet a n this website the visitor could find project managed by the Association forimportant gender related information. Womens Rights in DevelopmentThe information may come in the forms (AWID).of case studies, publication, bulletins,declaration, training materials, andlinks. Several interesting publications GENDER EQUALITY AND THE MILLENNIUMcould be found here, among others: DEVELOPMENTAdvocacy manual for Gender and Water www.mdgender.netAmbassadors; For Her-Its the BigIssue; Putting Women at the Centre of This website serves as source ofWater Supply; Sanitation and Hygiene; information to promote a better under-Gender, Water and Sanitation: a Policy standing and various tools towards gen-Brief; The Gender Approach to Water der equality. It provides the visitor with This website contains various gen-Management; MDG, Gender & Water. various published materials such as der related publications, among others: GWA is a global network dedicated books, reports, working papers, articles, Gender and Integrated Water Resourcesto popularize gender issues related to and speeches. Several of the interesting Management; Gender andwater resources management. GWA is Participation; Gender Health andmanaged by a committee elected for 2-3 Wellbeing; Gender and Povertyyears. GWA is a program associated to Reduction Strategies; Gender FocusedGlobal Water Partnership (GWP). Manuals and Toolkits; Gender; Conflicts and Emergencies and many other interesting topics. The papers areWOMAN HUMAN RIGHT NET (WHRNET) presented in .pdf files. This website is maintained by Eldis. water.html Eldis is a resource centre under the Institute of Development, Sussex, In this website the visitor could England. Eldis is funded by SIDA,obtain Water and Water Privatization NORAD, DFID and SDC.50 Percik April 2007
    • CD INFO The Path Walked By NTT Community to Get Water Village women together with their together with ProAir to find ease in get-children walk in a single line along the ting clean water.trail in the steep hills and barren vales. What is interesting is that one ofThis long walk is made for only one pur- requirements for the ProAir cooperationpose: get water for their family to live. is the involvement of women in the proj-"We make this walk twice a day, morn- ect. Women are the prime actors for theing and afternoon. Walk from home to availability of water in the family. It canthe water source," says one woman from be seen from the presentation that theone of villages of NTT Province. women are actively involved in the A clear picture nicely presented in a water supply management.documenbtary film entitled "Is it diffi- As a promotion media, this ProAircult for you to get water?" illustrating produced short documentary film is wellthe hardship borne by the community of in target as it exposes the local poten-the arid NTT to get clean water. tials, such as the location, cultural traits, This pathetic reality of life was the and traditional music of the locality.routine before the ProAir (Clean Water Indonesia. The structure of the film is easy to fol-Program), a program from the coopera- The 30 minute VCD presentation low. Yet there are some scenes thattion between the Indonesian and portrays the walk of the grassroot com- seem trivially too long so that the half anFederal Republic of Germany was intro- munity in the remote areas until they hour presentation is felt as being tooduced to the eastern regions of finally agree to a common effort and slow. BW New Way of Getting Drinkable Water A film as an audiovisual product is ways of using PUR to produce drinkablequite effective in influencing a commu- water.nity way of thinking. Therefore, an The powder is quite suitable foradvertisement with commercial back- areas with turbid water source or placesground must be prepared as attractive frequently suffering from floods. Theas possible. effective, safe and economical character This concept has been used effec- of the product is presented as the advan-tively by Dian Desa Foundation in the tage of this product.socialization of a PUR (water purifier) The presentation is quite attractiveproduct to purify turbid water and at the because the picture taking is made thatsame time kills bacteria so that the end way so as not boring combined an excel-product is readily drinkable. lent editing process. The more so, this is This product takes the form of a made more attractive by the presenta-powdered mixture of materials that kills tion of the widely known Cici Tegal. Sheharmful bacteria and removes dispersed alone is an additional attraction to thesolids to clear the water. through a fragment of a show. The frag- show. This eight minute film is opened ment introduces the advantages and the BW Percik April 2007 51
    • AGENDADATE MONTH ACTIVITY16 January Limited Discussion: "On the intricacies of water privatization" by KruHa (Coalition of Population Rights to Water) in Jakarta17 January Workshop on Minimizing Urban Solid Waste, held by WJEMP in Jakarta18-19 January ISSDP Evaluation Workshop, held by Indonesia Sanitation Sector Development Program (ISSDP) at Purwakarta18 January Media Discussion "Fighting Diarrhoea Through Improved Access to Water Supply and Sanitation", held by ESP-USAID in Jakarta18-19 January Workshop on Consolidation and ISSDP Performance in Jakarta23-24 January Workshop on Gates Foundation Project, held by DG PP&PL Dept Health in Jakarta24 January Meeting for Finalising of Guidelines for Implementation and Capacity Improvement of Nat. Policy for CB WSS Development, held by WASPOLA in Jakarta29 January Workshop on Sustainability of Raw Water for PDAM, held by Bappenas jointly with Univ. Merdeka of Malang29-30 January Workshop on Condition of Sanitation in Metropolis and Big Cities of Indonesia, held by DG Cipta Karya, Dept Works30 January Preparation of Conference on Sanitation Indonesia 2007, held by ISSDP in Jakarta31 January Workshop on WSS Data, held by UNICEF in collaboration with WSS-WG in Jakarta31 January Coord Meeting on Planning of Housing Sanitation Program in Surabaya5-8 February Monev of ProAir Activity, by DG PP&PL Dept. Health6-9 February National Workshop on consolidation of Implementation of National Policy for Comm Based WSS, by WASPOLA in Semarang13 February WG Meeting: Water and Sanitation Activity 2007, by AusAID jointly with UNICEF and WSS-WG16 February WASP Review Meeting for Component E - Water and Sanitation Monitoring, by ISSDP in Jakarta20 February Coord Meeting of Cooperation between Indonesia-UNICEF, by UNICEF and WSS-WG in Jakarta22 February Open House on Water Supply and Env Sanitation, by ISSDP jointly with WSS-WG and WASPOLA in Jakarta22-23 February Workshop on Strengthening of NTT Provincial WSS-WG, by DG PP&PL Dept. Health in Kupang23 February Seminar: "Demand for Higher National Budget for Provision of Water as Basic Human Need", by LP3ES in Jakarta26-28 February CWSH Supervision Mission, by DG Cipta Karya in Aceh26 February WSS-WG and UNICEF Meeting in Jakarta27 February Workshop on WSS Communication Network Development, by WSS-WG jointly with WASPOLA, Forkami, Water and Sanitation Network and ISSDP in Jakarta28 February Workshop on Coordination and Planning for Water Supply and Env Sanitation of NTT Prov. Program, by UNICEF in collaboration with WSS-WG in Kupang2 March Working Group Debriefing, by AusAID together with WSS-WG and WASPOLA in Jakarta5 March Dialogue for Sharpening of Water Consumption in Indonesia, by DG Cipta Karya Dept. Public Works5 March Info Meeting re BRI Financing Scheme for ESP Program, by ESP-USAID in Jakarta5-6 March CWSH Supervision Mission, by DG Cipta Karya in C. Kalimantan5-6 March Socialization of Special Allocation Fund Technical Guidelines for Infrastructure 2007, by SecGen of Dept. Public Works6-8 March CWSH Supervision Mission, by DG Cipta Karya in Nias, N. Sumatra8 March Workshop for Formulation of PLP of Solid Waste, by DG Cipta Karya, Dept. Public Works5-9 March Post Construction Institutional Orientation for WSLIC-2 Kabupaten and Provincial level WSS-WG, by DG PP&PL at Mataram9 March Socialization of Water Supply and Environmental Sanitation Activity, by WASPOLA in Jakarta13 March Workshop on Solid Waste Management Best Practices within the framework of Regional Initiative on Environment & Health ASEAN & East Asian Countries, by DG Cipta Karya, Public Works14 March Workshop on solid waste management institutional strengthening, by DG Cipta Karya in Jakarta12-14 March Training on WSS Media Production, by WASPOLA in Yogyakarta14-17 March Finalising of Guidelines for WSS Policy Operationalization, by WASPOLA in Yogyakarta16-17 March Meeting for Improvement of General Guidance for Rural Water Supply and Sanitation Program by DG for PP&PL dept. Health at Prov. NTT18 March Love Water Program: Distribution of Tree Seedlings, by ESP-USAID at Cibubur20 March Discussion and Visit by Media re Commemoration of World Water Day 2007, conducted by WSS-WG in collaboration with WASPOLA, Forkami, and ESP in Jakarta20-23 March Facilitation for Sumba Timur WSS-WG, conducted by WASPOLA in Waingapu21-23 March Basic Facilitator, by WASPOLA in Kebumen22 March TV Talkshow re World Water Day in Good Morning Indonesia program by Trans TV Station Jakarta22 March Radio Talkshow re World Water Day, theme: Scarcity of Raw Water Source, A Challenge in Urban Water Supply broadcast by Indonesia Siesta program by Radio Delta FM Jakarta23 March Preparation for Implementation of WASAP Component D - Sanitation City Pilot, by ISSDP in Jakarta26-27 March Training Seminar on Facilitation, by WASPOLA in Semarang27-30 March Sanitation Seminar for 6 cities of SSDP II, by ISSDP in Blitar, E. Java28-29 March Training Seminar on Facilitation, by WASPOLA in Brebes, C. Java30 March Follow-up meeting on Small Scale Independent Water Providers Study, by WASPOLA in Jakarta Percik April 2007