Experimental Study on the Use of Human Urine for Selected Philippine Vegetable Crops: Assessment of Macronutrient Nutrient Content in Philippine Urine and Determination of Appropriate Urine Application Rates
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Experimental Study on the Use of Human Urine for Selected Philippine Vegetable Crops: Assessment of Macronutrient Nutrient Content in Philippine Urine and Determination of Appropriate Urine Application Rates

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prepared by R. Gensch*, A. Miso* and G..S. Itchon** * Sustainable Sanitation Center, Xavier University – Ateneo de Cagayan, Masterson Avenue, Manresa Heights, Cagayan de Oro, Philippines (E-mail: ...

prepared by R. Gensch*, A. Miso* and G..S. Itchon** * Sustainable Sanitation Center, Xavier University – Ateneo de Cagayan, Masterson Avenue, Manresa Heights, Cagayan de Oro, Philippines (E-mail: robert.gensch@web.de; annamiso@googlemail.com) ** Department of Preventive and Community Medicine, Jose P. for Urban Environments in Asia, 25-28 May 2011, Manila, Philippines. organized by International Water Association (IWA).

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Experimental Study on the Use of Human Urine for Selected Philippine Vegetable Crops: Assessment of Macronutrient Nutrient Content in Philippine Urine and Determination of Appropriate Urine Application Rates Experimental Study on the Use of Human Urine for Selected Philippine Vegetable Crops: Assessment of Macronutrient Nutrient Content in Philippine Urine and Determination of Appropriate Urine Application Rates Document Transcript

  • Experimental Study on the Use of Human Urine for Selected Philippine Vegetable Crops: Assessment of Macronutrient Nutrient Content in Philippine Urine and Determination of Appropriate Urine Application Rates R. Gensch*, A. Miso* and G..S. Itchon** * Sustainable Sanitation Center, Xavier University – Ateneo de Cagayan, Masterson Avenue, Manresa Heights, Cagayan de Oro, Philippines (E-mail: robert.gensch@web.de; annamiso@googlemail.com) ** Department of Preventive and Community Medicine, Jose P. Rizal School of Medicine, Xavier University – Ateneo de Cagayan, Corrales Avenue, Cagayan de Oro, Philippines (E-mail: gsijuly18@yahoo.com) Abstract To assess agricultural potential of human urine as a liquid fertilizer under Philippine conditions an experimental study was conducted to determine the average macronutrient (N,P,K) content of human urine and appropriate urine application levels for commonly planted vegetable crops: Petchay, Sweet Corn and Eggplant. The study was conducted in 3 study locations representing the 3 main Philippine regions: Luzon, Visayas. Mindanao. In each study area urine was collected from 10 different toilets and the average N,P,K content per study site and the countrywide average was determined. A randomized complete block design was used for agricultural experiments with 5 different treatments and 4 replications for each crop and study site. The 5 treatments include 3 urine application levels (75%, 100%, 125% of calculated optimum level that correspond to N-demand of plants), 1 treatment with application of synthetic fertilizer, and 1 treatment without urine/synthetic fertilizer application. The experimental variables observed were fresh marketable yield and plant height. The determined average N,P,K content in Philippine urine is N: 4.35 g/l, P: 0.4 g/l, K: 1.74 g/l. Of the 3 investigated urine levels, the 125% treatment showed best results in terms of marketable yield and plant height and can be attributed to the fact that the study was conducted during rainy season. Urine application with best results in plant height and marketable yield showed comparable results to synthetic fertilizer treatment, with either no significant difference or only slightly lesser yields. Compared with no fertilizer application the addition of urine significantly increased yield by 1.5-5 times, depending on plant type and study location. Application of urine as a fertilizer source can be recommended to increase agricultural production and may potentially substitute synthetic fertilizers. It is recommended to conduct larger-scale follow-up studies in order to consolidate existing data and to investigate potential differences during dry season. Keywords Sustainable Sanitation, Ecological Sanitation, Urine, Agricultural Reuse, Urine Diversion Dehydration Toilets, NutrientsINTRODUCTIONHuman urine is a valuable source of nutrients and properly sanitized urine can be considered aneffective liquid fertilizer in agricultural production (RICHERT et al. 2010). Substantial portion ofthe soluble elements in urine are essential plant nutrients such as Nitrogen (N), Phosphorus (P) andPotassium (K). The nutrient amount in human urine is dependent on the local diet and almost all ofthe essential plant nutrients (N, P, and K) consumed with the daily food intake leave the humanbody unchanged (JOENSSON et al. 2004). Urine contains most of these macronutrients as well assmaller fractions of micronutrients in a plant available form and is particularly rich in Nitrogen.Urine can, therefore, be considered a well-balanced nitrogen-rich liquid fertilizer.Ecological Sanitation (ecosan) recognizes the potential of urine as a vast largely untapped valuable
  • resource that can help in the mitigation of poverty, malnutrition and food insecurity particularly at ahousehold level by providing a liquid fertilizer source that is immediately available and free,regardless of logistic and economical resources. The term ecosan is often associated with the so-called Urine Diversion Dehydration Toilet (UDDT), which is the most popular and most widelyused ecosan solution in the Philippines. Due to the different properties, urine and faeces arecollected separately in UDDTs and after storage of one month urine can be considered safe for usein agriculture (WHO 2006).However, since the nutrient content in human urine is very much dependent on the local diet it canvary greatly between countries and regions. Up to the present time, there is neither reliable dataavailable on the nutrient content in human urine in the Philippines nor are there anyrecommendations available on appropriate urine application levels for different vegetable cropsunder Philippine conditions. While the ecosan community is promoting the re-use of urine inagriculture, there is no scientific evidence on the response of different crops to different applicationlevels of urine.Such information would greatly support the further spread of more sustainable sanitation solutionslike ecosan in the Philippines and would allow for the development of sound guidelines for theagricultural community on the use of urine as a liquid fertilizer in vegetable crop production underPhilippine conditions and thus, make its agricultural use more attractive to farmers.In order to address this knowledge gap this study will therefore determine the average amount ofmacronutrients (N,P,K) in source-separated and 1-month old, stored human urine coming from 3different representative areas in the Philippines (La Union, Bayawan, Cagayan de Oro). It willfurthermore determine appropriate urine application rates based on existing recommendations forsynthetic fertilizers for 3 different commonly planted vegetable crops, namely Sweet Corn, Petchayand Eggplant in the 3 different study areas.The findings of this study will enter into a national Philippine guideline document on the use ofurine as a liquid fertilizer in agriculture.METHODSThe study was conducted from February 2010 until January 2011 simultaneously in three (3)different study sites in the Philippines namely La Union, Bayawan and Cagayan de Ororepresenting the three (3) main Philippine regions: Luzon, Visayas and Mindanao.An amount of around 1000 liters of urine per study area was collected from a minimum of 10different household and/or school Urine Diversion Dehydration Toilets (UDDT) per study location.The urine was stored for 1 month in a 1000 liter storage container for hygienization purposes asrecommended by WHO (WHO 2006). Randomly chosen urine samples from five (5) out of the ten(10) toilets as well as three (3) samples from the homogenously mixed urine were analyzed in termsof their Nitrogen (N), Phosphorus (P) and Potassium (K) content. Based on the results the averageN, P, K content for each study site as well as the average for all the research areas was determined.A randomized complete block design was used for the agricultural experiments with five (5)different treatments and four (4) replications for each of the three (3) planted vegetable crops(Sweet Corn, Petchay, Eggplant) in each study site. The planting bed size was 5m x 1.5m forEggplant and Sweet Corn and 2.5m x 1m for Petchay with 20 plants/bed, planted in 2 rows, toimitate actual field conditions as far as possible.The five (5) treatments include three (3) treatments with different urine application levels, one (1)treatment with application of synthetic fertilizer using existing synthetic fertilizer recommendationsand one (1) control without any urine or synthetic fertilizer application. The three (3) urinetreatments are 75%, 100% and 125% of the theoretically calculated optimum urine application levelthat correspond to the N-demand of the plants, based on existing synthetic fertilizer
  • recommendations from the Philippine Allotment Garden Manual (PUVeP 2008) and initiallydetermined average N, P, K content in Philippine urine.Standard operating procedures (PUVEP 2008) for Eggplant, Sweet Corn and Petchay were followedwith basal fertilizer application (at transplanting) for all three (3) vegetable crops and additionalside dressings one (1) week and three (3) weeks after transplanting for Eggplant and side dressingsone (1) week and four (4) weeks after transplanting for Sweet Corn. Prior to application theidentified urine amounts were diluted with water at a 1:1 ratio. In order to draw conclusions for laterinterpretation of the data, soil samples were taken from experimental areas and analyzed as regardsN, P, K content.The research variables used were the fresh weight of the marketable yield at harvest (with oneharvest for Petchay and Sweet Corn and the sum of three (3) consecutive harvests for Eggplant) aswell as the height of the plants for Sweet Corn and Eggplant at transplanting/basal fertilizerapplication, at first and second side dressing and at the time of harvest.RESULTSUrine analysisThe results from the laboratory analysis determining the N, P, K content of the urine samples fromthe different study sites can be found in Table 1. It also included the calculated average N,P,Kcontent in the urine per study location. The average N, P, K content is based on the results from themixed samples in each study location. The only exemption is Bayawan. Here the average P contentis based on the individual collected samples since the P-content of the mixed sample is significantlylower than those from the individual samples. It is assumed that this is because the urine has notbeen mixed properly before samples were taken and that part of the available P in the mixed urinealready settled at the bottom of the 1000-liter container.Table 1. Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium content (in %) in analysed urine samples andcalculated average per study site Location N (%) P (%) K (%) CDO sample (Elementary School) 0.260 0.027 0.251 CDO sample (Chapel) 0.313 0.015 0.260 Cagayan de Oro CDO sample (Elementary School) 0.284 0.020 0.244 CDO sample (High School) 0.339 0.014 0.171 CDO sample (Hospital) 0.305 0.012 0.037 CDO mixed sample 1 0.448 0.048 0.162 CDO mixed sample 2 0.437 0.034 0.180 CDO mixed sample 3 0.437 0.037 0.185 Cagayan de Oro - Average (based on mixed samples) 0.441 0.039 0.176 La union sample 1 (Household) 0.342 0.014 0.154 La union sample 2 (Household) 0.522 0.033 0.143 La union sample 3 (Household) 0.072 0.006 0.102La Union La union sample 4 (Household) 0.356 0.014 0.086 La union sample 5 (Household) 0.06 0.007 0.058 La Union mixed sample 1 0.469 0.046 0.176 La Union mixed sample 2 0.490 0.066 0.157 La Union mixed sample 3 0.478 0.051 0.180 La Union - Average (based on mixed samples) 0.479 0.054 0.171 Bayawan sample 1 (Household) 0.178 0.013 0.144Baya Bayawan sample 2 (Household) 0.079 0.023 0.165
  • Bayawan sample 3 (Household) 0.207 0.024 0.155 Bayawan sample 4 (Household) 0.037 0.026 0.147 Bayawan sample 5 (Household) 0.276 0.045 0.028 Bayawan mixed sample 1 0.341 0.008 0.195 Bayawan mixed sample 2 0.344 0.010 0.171 Bayawan mixed sample 3 0.469 0.009 0.160 Bayawan - Average (of mixed samples, except for P. 0.385 0.026 0.175 Average P concentration taken from individual samples)The corresponding average macronutrient (N,P,K) content per study location and the Philippineaverage (in g/liter) can be found in Table 2.Table 2. Calculated average N,P,K content (in g/liter) per study area and Philippine averageLocation N (g/liter) P (g/liter) K (g/liter)Cagayan de Oro 4.41 0.40 1.76La Union 4.79 0.54 1.71Bayawan 3.85 0.26 1.75Philippine average 4.35 0.40 1.74The urine application rates for Sweet Corn, Eggplant and Petchay have been determined based onthe average macronutrient content result for each study area above and the existing syntheticfertilizer recommendations of the Allotment Garden Manual (PUVeP 2008). Since the N content inhuman urine is considerably higher than the P and K content and to avoid over-application of urinethe calculations are based on the N-content of the urine (4.41g/liter in Cagayan de Oro, 4.79 g/literin La Union, and 3.85 g/liter in Bayawan respectively).Table 3. Calculated urine application rates for Petchay, Sweet Corn and Eggplant for each of the 3study areas Application Synthetic fertilizer Treatment (% Recommended amount of recommendations following of assumed urine to be applied (liter/hill) SOP* (corresponding optimal nutrient CDO La Union Bayawan nutrient content in g/hill) application)Sweet Corn1st 7.0 g/hill Complete 14-14-14 75 0.17 0.15 0.20Application (N: 0.98, P: 0.43, K: 0.81) 100 0.22 0.20 0.26(Basal) 125 0.27 0.26 0.33 nd2 4.0 g/hill Urea 75 0.31 0.29 0.36Application (N: 1.84) 100 0.42 0.38 0.48(1 WAT) 125 0.52 0.48 0.60 rd3 7.0 g/hill Urea 75 0.54 0.50 0.63Application 4.0 g/hill MOP 100 0.73 0.67 0.84(4 WAT) (N: 3.22, K: 1.99) 125 0.91 0.84 1.05Eggplant1st 10.0 g/hill DAP 75 0.31 0.28 0.35Application (N: 1.80, P: 2.02) 100 0.41 0.38 0.47(Basal) 125 0.51 0.47 0.59 nd2 3.9 g/hill Urea 75 0.31 0.28 0.35
  • Application 5.8 g/hill MOP 100 0.41 0.38 0.47(1 WAT) (N: 1.79, K: 2.89) 125 0.51 0.47 0.59 rd3 7.9 g/hill Urea 75 0.62 0.56 0.71Application 5.8 g/hill MOP 100 0.82 0.76 0.94(3 WAT) (N: 3.63, K: 2.89) 125 1.02 0.94 1.18Petchay1st 10.0 g/hill DAP 75 0.31 0.28 0.35Application (N: 1.80, P: 2.02) 100 0.41 0.38 0.47(Basal) 125 0.51 0.47 0.59(WAT: Weeks after Transplanting, DAP: Diammonium Phosphate, MOP: Muriate of Potash)Soil analysisTable 4. N,P,K content in the soil in Cagayan de Oro, La Union & BayawanLocation N (g/liter) P (g/liter) K (g/liter)Cagayan de Oro 0.05 0.007 (73ppm) 0.04 (406ppm)La Union 0.06 0.03 (318ppm) 0.04 (374ppm)Bayawan 0.10 0.02 (233ppm) 0.04 (438ppm)Agricultural experimentsThe agricultural field trial with 3 different urine level treatments (75%, 100%, 125% of thecalculated urine application optimum), 1 synthetic fertilizer application treatment and 1 control(without any urine or synthetic fertilizer application) showed the following results for themarketable yield of Petchay, Eggplant and Sweet Corn in the respective 3 study locations:Table 5. Average marketable yield (kg/bed) for Petchay, Sweet Corn and Eggplant in Cagayan deOro, La Union & Bayawan T1 T2 T3 C1 C2 (urine (urine (urine (control w/o (control application application application urine/ with with 75% of with 100% of with 100% of synthetic synthetic calculated N calculated N calculated N fertilizer fertilizer optimum) optimum) optimum) application) application) Petchay Cagayan de 1.830 2.202 2.411 0.511 2.513 Oro La Union 0.611 0.608 0.588 0.261 0.660 Bayawan 2.375 2.425 2.613 0.925 2.728 Sweet Corn Cagayan de 8.276 8.341 8.879 5.056 8.839 Oro La Union 3.572 3.641 4.186 2.103 4.679 Bayawan 6.700 7.125 7.350 5.100 7.775 Eggplant (after 3rd harvest) Cagayan de 9.186 12.594 18.070 3.506 16.205 Oro La Union 8.261 8.047 8.593 5.634 9.808 Bayawan 5.250 5.625 6.675 1.425 6.175
  • Average marketable yield - Petchay Average marketable yield - Petchay Average marketable yield - Petchay (CDO) (La Union) (Bayawan) 3 3 3 2.728 2.513 2.613 2.411 2.375 2.425 2.5 2.202 2.5 2.5 2 1.83 2 2 kg/bed kg/bed kg/bed 1.5 1.5 1.5 0.925 1 1 1 0.611 0.608 0.588 0.66 0.511 0.5 0.5 0.261 0.5 0 0 0 T1 T2 T3 C1 C2 T1 T2 T3 C1 C2 T1 T2 T3 C1 C2 Average marketable yield – Sweet Average marketable yield – Sweet Average marketable yield – Sweet Corn (CDO) Corn (La Union) Corn (Bayawan) 10 10 10 8.879 8.839 9 8.276 8.341 9 9 7.775 8 8 8 7.125 7.35 6.7 7 7 7 6 6 6 kg/bed kg/bed kg/bed 5.056 5.1 4.679 5 5 4.186 5 3.572 3.641 4 4 4 3 3 2.103 3 2 2 2 1 1 1 0 0 0 T1 T2 T3 C1 C2 T1 T2 T3 C1 C2 T1 T2 T3 C1 C2 Average marketable yield – Eggplant Average marketable yield – Eggplant Average marketable yield – Eggplant (CDO) (La Union) (Bayawan) 20 18.07 20 20 18 16.205 18 18 16 16 16 14 12.594 14 14 12 12 12 kg/bed kg/bed kg/bed 9.186 9.808 10 10 8.261 8.047 8.593 10 8 8 8 6.675 6.175 5.634 5.25 5.625 6 6 6 3.506 4 4 4 1.425 2 2 2 0 0 0 T1 T2 T3 C1 C2 T1 T2 T3 C1 C2 T1 T2 T3 C1 C2The measured height at different planting stages for Eggplant and Sweet Corn in each of the 3 studyareas is reflected in the following graphs: Average plant height of Eggplant (CDO) Average plant height of Sweet Corn (CDO) 90 250 C2 T3 80 C2 T2 T3 T1 70 200 C1 T1 T2 60 C1 150 50 cm cm 40 100 30 20 50 10 0 0 basal 1st side dressing 2nd side dressing harvest basal 1st side dressing 2nd side dressing harvest
  • Average plant height of Eggplant (La Union) Average plant height of Sweet Corn (La Union) 70 120 C2 C2 T3 T3 60 100 T2 T2 T1 T1 50 C1 80 C1 40 cm cm 60 30 40 20 20 10 0 0 basal 1st side dressing 2nd side dressing harvest basal 1st side dressing 2nd side dressing harvest Average plant height of Eggplant (Bayawan) Average plant height of Sweet Corn (Bayawan) 80 250 C2 C2 70 T3 T3 200 T2 60 T1 T2 T1 50 C1 150 C1 cm cm 40 100 30 20 50 10 0 0 basal 1st side dressing 2nd side dressing harvest basal 1st side dressing 2nd side dressing harvestDISCUSSIONN,P,K content in urineThe results of the study show that Philippine urine contains considerable amounts of N, P and K andis particularly rich in Nitrogen. For the 3 study areas there are no significant differences in the Nand K content. However for the P content there are significant variations among the 3 study areas.Since the P content is the only significant deviation this might be explained with the fact that part ofthe P content tends to precipitate at the bottom of the urine container and it is assumed that the urinemight not have been mixed properly during the sample taking.Urine application rates (Cagayan de Oro)Petchay: Out of the 3 urine treatments the T3 (125% of the calculated urine optimum) treatmentshows the best result with regard to the average marketable yield. The average yield with the 125%urine treatment is comparable to the use of synthetic fertilizer. T test shows no significant differencein average marketable yield using 125% urine application and using synthetic fertilizer. Applicationof synthetic fertilizer as well as all 3 urine treatments results in significantly higher yields than nofertilizer application (control). The average yield of the synthetic fertilizer treatment and the 125%urine treatment is around 5 times as much as the control (C1). Therefore, this study is able to showthat the use of 125% urine is able to produce comparable marketable yield in Petchay as usingsynthetic fertilizer.Sweet Corn: The comparison of average yields of T1, T2, T3 (75%, 100%, and 125% urine,respectively) shows no significant difference using the t-test. Based on the results obtained, 75%,100% and 125% urine concentrations are equally effective for use in Sweet Corn. However, basedon the trend seen, 125% urine concentration seems to produce the best result in terms of yield.Comparing the results of the application of 125% urine treatment (T3) to the use of syntheticfertilizer also shows no statistically significant difference. This shows that the use of 125% urineon Sweet Corn is as effective as using synthetic fertilizer. Comparison of C1 and C2, and C1 withthe 3 urine treatments is significant. Application of synthetic fertilizer as well as all 3 urinetreatments results in significantly higher yields than no fertilizer application (control). The average
  • yield of the synthetic fertilizer treatment as well as the 3 urine treatments is around twice theamount compared to the control (C1). As for the average plant height at harvest T1, T2, T3 and C2show very similar results and the results show no statistical difference using the t test. Use of 75%,100%, or 125% of the calculated urine optimum will produce the same height at harvest as use ofsynthetic fertilizer. C1 (control), however, resulted in significantly shorter plants compared to allthe other groups.Eggplant: Among the urine treatments the best result is shown by T3 (125% urine application),which is similar to the C2 (synthetic fertilizer) application. The difference between T3 and C2 is notsignificant using the t-test, which means that the use of 125% urine treatment will producecomparable results to the use of synthetic fertilizer. Application of synthetic fertilizer as well as all3 urine treatments resulted in significantly higher yields than no fertilizer application (control). Theaverage yield of the synthetic fertilizer treatment and the 125% urine treatment is around 5 times asmuch as the control (C1). As for the average plant height the best result is shown by T3 followed byC2. T3 and C2 results show no statistical difference, meaning that the T3 treatment will producecomparable results to the use of synthetic fertilizer in terms of average height of plant at harvest.Urine application rates (La Union)For Petchay the best result for average yield is exhibited by C2. Among the urine treatment groups,it is exhibited by T1. There is no significant difference between C2 and T1, between C2 and T2, andbetween C2 and T3 results using t-test. Furthermore, there are no significant differences between T1and T2, T2 and T3, and T1 and T3. There is a slightly significant difference, however, between T3and C2. C1 (control) compared to all the treatment groups and C2 shows highly significantdifferences with a considerably lesser yield than all other treatments. The average yield of thesynthetic fertilizer treatment as well as the 3 urine treatments is around twice the amount comparedto the control (C1).For Sweet Corn the best result for average yield is shown by C2. Among the urine treatment groups,it is shown by T3 with no significant difference between T3 and C2. There are significantdifferences seen between T1 and T3 and T2 and T3. C1 (control) compared to all treatment groupsand C2 shows highly significant differences with a considerably lesser yield than all othertreatments. The average yield of the synthetic fertilizer treatment as well as the 3 urine treatments isaround twice the amount compared to the control (C1). Best results in plant height are shown byC2. Among the treatment groups, best plant height result is shown by T3. There are no significantdifferences shown comparing C2 to T3, C2 to T2 and C2 to T1. However, the difference issignificant comparing T1 and T2, T1 and T3, and T1 and C2. C1 (control) compared to all thetreatment groups and C2 shows highly significant difference.For Eggplant T3 shows the best results for the average yield weight. Using t-test, the difference isnot significant compared to mean weight results at harvest of T1, T2, T3 and C2. Results of C1,however, are highly significant compared to T1, T2, T3 and C2, with considerably lesser averageyields. The average yield of the synthetic fertilizer treatment as well as the 3 urine treatments isnearly twice the amount compared to the control (C1). Best results in plant growth are exhibited byT3 in all stages of the study and at harvest. Using t-test, the result for plant height is highlysignificant compared to T1, slightly significant compared to T2 and highly significant compared toC1. T–test further shows there is no significant difference in growth rates between T3 and C2.Urine application rates (Bayawan)For Petchay best result for the average yield is shown by C2. Among the urine treatment groups, itis shown by T3. There is no significant difference shown between C2 and T3. There is a slightstatistically significant difference between C2 and T2, C2 and T1. C1 (control) shows a significantdifference when compared to all treatment groups and C2. Application of synthetic fertilizer as wellas all 3 urine treatments results in significantly higher yields than no fertilizer application (control).The average yield of the synthetic fertilizer treatment as well as the 3 urine treatments is aroundthree times the amount compared to the control (C1).
  • For Sweet Corn the best result for the average yield is shown by C2. Among the urine treatmentgroups, T3 shows the best result, followed by T2, and then T1. There is no significant differencebetween C2 and T3. However, there are significant differences between C2 and T1, and betweenC2 and T2. There are statistically significant differences between C1 (control) and all the urinetreatment groups and between C1 and C2. Application of synthetic fertilizer as well as all 3 urinetreatments results in significantly higher yields than no fertilizer application (control). The averageyield of the synthetic fertilizer treatment as well as the 3 urine treatments is around 1.5 times theamount compared to the control (C1). Best results in plant height are shown by C2. Among thetreatment groups, best plant height result is shown by T3. There are only slight significantdifferences shown comparing C2 to T3, C2 to T2 and C2 to T1. C1 (control) compared to all thetreatment groups and C2 shows highly significant difference.For Eggplant the best results are shown by C2 in terms of average marketable yield. Among theurine treatment groups, T3 shows the best result, followed by T2 and then T1. There is nosignificant difference between the T3 and C2. However, there are significant statistical differencesbetween T3 and T1 and T3 and T2. C1 (control) shows a significant difference in comparison to allthe urine treatment groups and in comparison to C2. Application of synthetic fertilizer as well as all3 urine treatments results in significantly higher yields than no fertilizer application (control). Theaverage yield of the synthetic fertilizer treatment as well as the 3 urine treatments is around fourtimes the amount compared to the control (C1).SummaryOut of the 3 investigated urine treatment groups in the majority of cases T3 (125%) showed the bestresults in terms of average marketable yield and plant height in the 3 study areas. One of thepossible reasons might be that due to a delay in the initial urine collection the study was conductedduring the rainy season and a certain amount of the applied urine nutrients might have been washedout during the rainfall events.In the majority of cases the urine application with the best results in plant height and marketableyield showed comparable results to the synthetic fertilizer treatment, with no or only slightsignificant difference. It shows that urine can be considered as effective as synthetic fertilizers.The increase in yield that can be attributed to the application of urine as well as application of thesynthetic fertilizer treatment in comparison to no urine or synthetic fertilizer application (negativecontrol) is between 2-5 times for Petchay, around twice as much for Sweet Corn, and 1.5-5 timesfor Eggplant.Among the 3 study areas considerable differences in the overall average yield for the 3 plantedvegetable crops have been observed that cannot be fully explained. The analysis of the nutrientcontent in the soil from the 3 study areas shows no significant differences (except for the P contentin CDO which is comparatively low, and the N-content in Bayawan which is comparatively high)and allows no further conclusions that would explain the differences in the overall yield. Thedifferences in the yield may be attributed the other local site conditions such as available sunlight,water, and general soil conditions. Despite the differences in the overall yields and plant heights thegeneral trends and results per treatment, however, remain comparable.CONCLUSIONSDue its high macronutrient content, particularly N, urine can be considered a valuable liquidnutrient source and a potential synthetic fertilizer substitute in agricultural production. The averageN, P, K content in Philippine urine is 4.35 g/l of N, 0.4 g/l of P, and 1.74 g/l of K with a N,P,K ratioof 11/1/1.5.The application of urine that corresponds to the actual N requirements of the plants results in similaryields and plant heights as those grown with synthetic fertilizers. Compared with no fertilizerapplication the addition of urine in quantities corresponding to the plant needs can significantly
  • increase the marketable yield by 1.5 to 5 times, depending on the study location and the cropsplanted.Best fertilizing results with urine were achieved with applying a urine rate that corresponds to 125%of the calculated optimum N requirements of the plants based on existing synthetic fertilizerrecommendations. However since the study was conducted during the rainy season this slightlyhigher amount might be partly attributed to nutrient losses during periodic rainfall events.RECOMMENDATIONSFrom an agricultural point of view the application of urine as a liquid fertilizer source isrecommended to increase agricultural production at only minimal costs. An application of urinecorresponding to around 100% to 125% of the calculated optimum N requirements of the plantedcrops is recommended and the amount of urine applied during the rainy season can be slightlyincreased since it is assumed that some of the nutrients might be washed out during periodicrainfalls.It is furthermore suggested to conduct follow-up studies in the same study locations in order tofurther consolidate the existing data and particularly to investigate potential differences with urineapplication during the dry season.ReferencesJOENSSON, H., RICHERT A., VINNERAAS, B., SALOMON, E. (2004): Guidelines on the Useof Urine and Faeces in Crop Production, Stockholm, Stockholm Environment Institute (SEI),EcoSanRes Publication Series, Report 2004-2PUVEP (2008): Philippine Allotment Garden Manual with an Introduction to Ecological Sanitation,Peri-Urban Vegetable Project, Xavier University College of Agriculture, Cagayan de Oro,Philippines, http://puvep.xu.edu.ph/publications/AG%20Booklet_final.pdfRICHERT, A., GENSCH, R., JOENSSON, H., STENSTROEM, T.-A., DAGERSKOG, L. (2010):Practical Guidance on the Use ofUrine in Crop Production: EcoSanResProgramme, StockholmEnvironment Institute, Stockholm, SwedenWHO (2006): Guidelines for Safe Use Wastewater, Excreta and Greywater, Volume 4: Excreta andGreywater Use in Agriculture, Geneva, World Health Organisation