Water Supply in East Asia and the Pacific - 2012 Update

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Water Supply in East Asia and the Pacific - 2012 Update

  1. 1. A SNAPSHOT – 2012 UPDATEWATER SUPPLYIN EAST ASIA AND THE PACIFIC
  2. 2. OverviewThe East Asia and Pacific Region has made good progress in drinking water supplyover the last 20 years: The proportion of people using improved water supplies increased by 21 per cent between 1990 and 2010, a greater rate than in most other regions More than half of the population of the region now have access to piped water Regional and World Water Coverage Trends on the premises East Asia and the Pacific has already met 7 2 6 3 Surface water Unimproved 8 the MDG water target 8 18 677 million more people use improved 24 drinking water than 20 years ago, the 32 Other 35 improved majority of them in China The majority of people in the region use 31 appropriate household water treatment 39Coverage (%) to improve their drinking water quality Piped onHowever, challenges remain: Premises 58 54 Almost 200 million people still do not 45 have access to improved water supply in 30 the region Coverage disparities are pronounced in the region: national coverage levels 1990 2010 1990 2010 range from as low as 40 per cent (in East Asia World Total and the water Surface Pacific Surface water Surface water Papua New Guinea) to over 95 per cent Unimproved Unimproved Unimproved (in Thailand, Malaysia and other Other improved Other improved Other improved countries) Piped on premises Piped on premises Piped on premises Access to water is inequitable within countries: urban dwellers are more likely to have access to improved water supplies than rural households Poverty levels are also an important factor influencing the use of improved drinking water: poorer households are much less likely to have access than richer households The Pacific sub-region is lagging behind: coverage levels for improved drinking water has actually decreased from 51 per cent in 1990 to 50 per cent in 2010 Information about this Snapshot  This snapshot is produced by the UNICEF Regional Office for East Asia and the Pacific  The UNICEF East Asia and Pacific Region encompasses 27 countries; 12 in East Asia and 15 in the Pacific (see last page for listing)  Unless otherwise indicated, data in this snapshot is from the WHO/UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme for Water Supply and Sanitation 2010 dataset, the latest available  See page 6 for full citations and creditsA Snapshot of Water Supply in East Asia and the Pacific – 2012 Update 1
  3. 3. Drinking Water Inequities Urban-rural coverage disparity still exists, but the gap is narrowing  The East Asia and Pacific Region 1 4 3 10 3 Surface water urban-rural drinking water gap has 13 Unimproved 18 13 shrunk from 37 percentage points in 1990 to 13 points in 2010 32  However, there are still significant Other improved urban-rural gaps in some countries, 49 notably in Papua New Guinea (54 Coverage (%) percentage points between urban and rural), Mongolia (47 points), 84 77 Timor-Leste (31 points) and 48 Cambodia (29 points) Piped on  Piped water on the premises is much Premises more common for urban households 35 than for rural households 10 1990 2010 1990 2010 Urban Rural Surface water Surface water Surface water Unimproved Unimproved Unimproved Few people have access to piped water in rural Other improved areas Other improved Other improved Piped on premises Piped on premisesPiped on premises Rural Water Coverage 97 97 99 100 95 95 96 96 92 93 17 97 99 85 64 87 29 56 67 85 84 81 Rural Drinking Water Coverage (%) 78 40 70 80 74 49 80 80 52 75 66 60 62 58 66 60 53 48 59 53 51 40 45 33 40 30 35 31 29 20 25 17 12 5 8 8 0 0 Piped Other ImprovedUse of improved drinking water in rural areas in 18 East Asia and Pacific countries, compared to regional and worldtotals, 2010, per cent. Full data not available for countries not appearing in this graph (see last page for all data). A Snapshot of Water Supply in East Asia and the Pacific – 2012 Update 2
  4. 4. Poor households have lower water coverage levels in 100East Asia and the Pacific 7 80 86 The poorest households have lower access to improved Coverage (%) drinking water than richer households in many countries 60 29 (notably in Lao PDR and Indonesia) 40 43 39 Disparities are most pronounced for access to piped water 41 33 supply on the premises (such as in the Philippines where 20 only 8% of poorest quintile households have piped water 0 1 5 10 compared to 93% of the richest households) Poorest 2nd 3rd 4th Richest Lao PDR MICS 2006 100 100 100 6 73 37 47 22 82 65 93 81 36 80 80 57 80 Coverage (%) Coverage (%)Coverage (%) 72 62 76 65 60 60 58 60 63 56 48 49 40 40 40 20 25 20 28 20 27 13 15 4 10 9 8 0 0 3 0 Poorest 2nd 3rd 4th Richest Poorest 2nd 3rd 4th Richest Poorest 2nd 3rd 4th Richest Viet Nam MICS 2011 Indonesia DHS 2007 Philippines DHS 2008 Use of piped water on premises and other improved drinking water facilities by wealth quintiles (%). Regional and country averages mask large disparities within countries  This ‘equity tree’ example from Timor-Leste shows that the poorest households in rural areas have much lower coverage levels even than in sub-Saharan Africa 99 Richest 20% 98 Fiji Urban 96 Thailand 94 Americas & Caribbean 91 China 91 Urban 90 East Asia 89 World & the Pacific 83 Myanmar 82 Indonesia 77 Richest 20% Rural 69 Timor-Leste 69 Poorest 20% Urban 64 Cambodia 61 Sub S Africa 60 Rural 43 Poorest 20% Rural 40 Papua New Guinea Improved water coverage in Timor-Leste, per cent. Sources: JMP 2012 and Timor-Leste DHS, 2009 A Snapshot of Water Supply in East Asia and the Pacific – 2012 Update 3
  5. 5. Water Quality and Household Water TreatmentWater Quality Comprehensive data on drinking water quality is not available, however individual studies suggest that both bacteriological and chemical contamination of drinking water supplies is a serious problem in the region Substantial levels of arsenic contamination of water supplies has been found in Cambodia, China, Myanmar and Viet Nam, while in other countries less widespread occurrences have been documented or are probable (see Statistical modeling of global geogenic arsenic contamination in groundwater. Amini et al. 2008. Environmental Science and Technology 42(10), 3669-3675)Household water treatment is widespread in the region In the seven countries where data is available, the majority of households use appropriate household water treatment methods to improve their drinking water; treatment levels are relatively constant across wealth quintiles, and among rural and urban householdsHousehold Water Treatment in 100 100East AsiaPopulation in households reporting 80 80the use of appropriate* watertreatment methods, per cent (non- 69 70 69 Adequate HWT (%)weighted average from 7 countries). 60 62 65 60 63 65 62* Appropriate treatment methods includeboiling, bleaching/chlorinating, filtering, 40 40and solar disinfectingSources:MICS and DHS from Indonesia 2007, 20 20Thailand 2005-2006, Cambodia 2005,Mongolia 2005, Philippines 2003, Viet 0Nam 2006, Lao PDR 2006. No data Poorest 2nd 3rd 4th Richest 0 Total Urban Ruralavailable from Pacific countries.Filter Use Trends Example 40 Treatment Method Houesholds practicing treatment method (%) 34 Trends in Cambodia Boiling is still the most common method for treating water in the 30 region, but an increasing number 25 of households are opting for ceramic, sand or other 20 appropriate filters The number of households using 12 11 non-appropriate methods (such 10 as just allowing water to settle) 4 or not using any treatment 2 method at all is falling in some 0 countries 2005 2010 The example from Cambodia Ceramic, sand or other filter Stand & settle No treatment illustrates this trend, which is due Trends in selected household water treatment methods in in part to national filter use Cambodia (boiling–not shown–remains the most common promotional programmes method). Sources: DHS 2005 and 2010.A Snapshot of Water Supply in East Asia and the Pacific – 2012 Update 4
  6. 6. Focus on the Pacific Sub-RegionThe East Asia sub-region has progressed much more than the Pacific sub-region Urban Improved Rural Improved National ImprovedEast Asia 1990 95 58 68 2000 96 71 80 2010 97 84 90Pacific 1990 91 41 51 2000 92 42 52 2010 92 41 50Use of improved water facilities, Pacific sub-region compared to East Asia sub-region, per centGains have been made in all UNICEF regions, but not in the Pacific sub-region East Asia sub-region 22 South Asia 19 Sub-Saharan Africa 12 Americas and Caribbean 9 CEE/CIS 5 Middle East & North Africa 1 Pacific sub-region -1 -5 0 5 10 15 20 25 % point change 1990-2010Percentage point gain in national improved water source use, 1990 to 2010. Pacific and East Asia sub-regionscompared to other regions;CEE/CIS is Central, Eastern Europe and the Commonwealth of Independent States * In this snapshot, Papua New Guinea is in the Pacific sub-region in conformance with MDG classification practices (the MDG Oceania region). This means that coverage levels and progress rates in that country heavily influence sub-regional averages due to its large population relative to Pacific Island Nations.A Snapshot of Water Supply in East Asia and the Pacific – 2012 Update 5
  7. 7. Drinking Water Coverage in East Asia and the Pacific Mongolia DPR Korea China Marshall Micronesia Islands Myanmar Lao PDR Viet Nam Thailand Philippines Kiribati Nauru Cambodia Malaysia Palau Tuvalu Tokelau Solomon Indonesia Islands Samoa Less than 50% Cook Timor- Islands 50% to 75% Leste Papua Vanuatu Fiji New 76% to 90% Guinea Tonga Niue 91% to 100% Insufficient dataImproved water supply coverage in East Asia and Pacific countries, 2010, national. Only countries in theUNICEF East Asia and Pacific region are shown. This map does not reflect a position by UNICEF on thelegal status of any country or territory or the delimitation of any frontiers. Data Sources and Notes Main water supply dataset: from Progress on Drinking Water and Sanitation: 2012 Update (with supplemental data from wssinfo.org), from WHO/UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme for Water Supply and Sanitation Country-specific DHS data: from published Demographic and Household Surveys available at measuredhs.com, from USAID and national statistics bureaus Country-specific MICS data: from published Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys available at childinfo.org, from UNICEF, other UN agencies and national statistics bureaus Cover photo credits, clockwise from top right: © UNICEF/NYHQ2004-1370/Noorani, UNICEF/LAOA2008- 5596/Holmes, UNICEF/NYHQ2006-1850/Estey, UNICEF/MGLA2007-00433/Holmes UNICEF does not warrant that the information contained in this publication is complete and correct and shall not be liable for any damages incurred as a result of its use. Acknowledgements UNICEF thanks Greg Keast, who developed and produced this snapshot under the guidance of Chander Badloe, UNICEF East Asia and the Pacific Regional Office. Special appreciation also to the following reviewers for their valuable inputs: Almud Weitz from the Water and Sanitation Program; James Wicken from WaterAid; Hilda Winartasaputra from Plan International; and Ramesh Bhusal, Therese Dooley, Nguyen Thanh Hien, Libbet Horn- Phathanothai, Dara Johnston, Janine Kandel, Rolf Luyendijk, Nadarajah Moorthy, Henk van Norden, Marjolein Oijevaar, Michael Emerson P. Gnilo and David Parker from UNICEF..A Snapshot of Water Supply in East Asia and the Pacific – 2012 Update 6
  8. 8. Drinking Water Coverage by CountryCountry estimates by type of drinking water source 1990, 2010 Urban Rural National Total Improved (%) Unimproved (%) Improved (%) Unimproved (%) Improved (%) Unimproved (%) Surface Water Surface Water Surface Water Popul- Unimproved Unimproved Unimproved Country Year ation Improved Improved Improved Improved Improved Improved Premises Premises Premises Piped on Piped on Piped on (x 1000) Other Other Other Other Other Other Total Total Total 1990 9,532 48 15 33 22 30 29 0 29 35 36 31 2 30 33 35Cambodia 2010 14,138 87 63 24 4 9 58 5 53 20 22 64 17 47 17 19 1990 1,145,195 97 92 5 1 2 56 12 44 10 34 67 33 34 8 25China 2010 1,341,335 98 95 3 0 2 85 45 40 2 13 91 68 23 1 8 1990 18 99 - - - 1 87 - - - 13 94 - - - 6Cook Islands 2010 20 98 - - - 2 - - - - - - - - - - 1990 20,143 100 - - 0 0 100 - - 0 0 100 - - 0 0DPR Korea 2010 24,346 99 93 6 1 0 97 80 17 3 0 98 88 10 2 0 1990 728 94 92 2 0 6 77 38 39 5 18 84 60 24 3 13Fiji 2010 861 100 97 3 0 0 95 66 29 3 2 98 82 16 1 1 1990 184,346 91 25 66 1 8 61 2 59 7 32 70 9 61 5 25Indonesia 2010 239,871 92 36 56 0 8 74 8 66 4 22 82 20 62 2 16 1990 72 76 46 30 - 24 33 13 20 - 67 48 25 23 - 52Kiribati 2010 100 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1990 4,192 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -Lao PDR 2010 6,201 77 55 22 3 20 62 3 59 17 21 67 20 47 12 21 1990 18,209 94 86 8 - 6 82 59 23 - 18 88 72 16 - 12Malaysia 2010 28,401 100 99 1 0 0 99 - - - 1 100 - - - 0 1990 47 94 1 93 - 6 97 0 97 - 3 95 1 94 - 5Marshall Islands 2010 54 92 1 91 - 8 99 0 99 - 1 94 1 93 - 6Micronesia (Fed. 1990 96 93 - - - 7 87 - - - 13 89 - - - 11States of) 2010 111 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1990 2,193 74 53 21 6 20 27 0 27 55 18 54 30 24 27 19Mongolia 2010 2,756 100 26 74 0 0 53 2 51 24 23 82 17 65 9 9 1990 39,268 80 17 63 - 20 48 1 47 - 52 56 5 51 - 44Myanmar 2010 47,963 93 19 74 2 5 78 3 75 8 14 83 8 75 6 11 1990 9 98 - - - 2 - - - - - 98 - - - 2Nauru 2010 10 88 - - - 12 - - - - - 88 - - - 12 1990 2 100 - - 0 0 100 - - 0 0 100 - - 0 0Niue 2010 1 100 - - 0 0 100 - - 0 0 100 - - 0 0 1990 15 73 38 35 - 27 96 40 56 - 4 80 39 41 - 20Palau 2010 20 83 43 40 - 17 96 40 56 - 4 85 43 43 - 15 1990 4,158 89 61 28 7 4 32 4 28 51 17 41 13 28 44 15Papua New Guinea 2010 6,858 87 57 30 2 11 33 3 30 45 22 40 10 30 40 20 1990 61,629 93 40 53 1 6 77 9 68 2 21 85 24 61 2 13Philippines 2010 93,261 93 61 32 0 7 92 25 67 1 7 92 43 50 1 6 1990 161 97 85 12 - 3 87 72 15 - 13 89 75 14 - 11Samoa 2010 183 96 84 12 1 3 96 80 16 1 3 96 81 15 1 3 1990 310 - 76 - - - - 1 - - - - 11 - - -Solomon Islands 2010 538 - - - - - - 1 - - - - - - - - 1990 57,072 96 74 22 0 4 82 10 72 2 16 86 29 57 1 13Thailand 2010 69,122 97 80 17 0 3 95 31 64 0 5 96 48 48 0 4 1990 743 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -Timor-Leste 2010 1,124 91 45 46 0 9 60 12 48 2 38 69 21 47 1 31 1990 2 - - - - - 90 - - - 10 90 - - - 10Tokelau 2010 1 - - - - - 97 - - - 3 97 - - - 3 1990 95 100 - - 0 0 100 - - 0 0 100 - - 0 0Tonga 2010 104 100 - - 0 0 100 - - 0 0 100 - - 0 0 1990 9 92 92 0 - 8 89 89 0 - 11 90 90 0 - 10Tuvalu 2010 10 98 97 1 - 2 97 97 0 - 3 98 97 1 - 2 1990 147 94 79 15 - 6 55 27 28 - 45 62 37 26 - 38Vanuatu 2010 240 98 52 46 0 2 87 17 70 8 5 90 26 64 6 4 1990 67,102 88 44 44 7 5 49 0 49 19 32 57 9 48 17 26Viet Nam 2010 87,848 99 59 40 0 1 93 8 85 5 2 95 23 71 3 3 1990 1,615,493 95 77 18 1 4 58 10 48 10 32 69 30 39 7 24Total 2010 1,965,479 97 84 13 0 3 84 35 49 3 13 90 58 32 2 8 August 2012UNICEF East Asia and Pacific Regional Office (EAPRO)19 Phra Atit Road, Bangkok, 10200ThailandWebsite: http://www.unicef.org/eapro/Email: asiapacificinfo@unicef.orgTwitter: twitter.com/unicefasiapacA Snapshot of Water Supply in East Asia and the Pacific – 2012 Update 7

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