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A Snapshot - 2012 Update. Sanitation and Hygiene in East Asia and the Pacific
A Snapshot - 2012 Update. Sanitation and Hygiene in East Asia and the Pacific
A Snapshot - 2012 Update. Sanitation and Hygiene in East Asia and the Pacific
A Snapshot - 2012 Update. Sanitation and Hygiene in East Asia and the Pacific
A Snapshot - 2012 Update. Sanitation and Hygiene in East Asia and the Pacific
A Snapshot - 2012 Update. Sanitation and Hygiene in East Asia and the Pacific
A Snapshot - 2012 Update. Sanitation and Hygiene in East Asia and the Pacific
A Snapshot - 2012 Update. Sanitation and Hygiene in East Asia and the Pacific
A Snapshot - 2012 Update. Sanitation and Hygiene in East Asia and the Pacific
A Snapshot - 2012 Update. Sanitation and Hygiene in East Asia and the Pacific
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A Snapshot - 2012 Update. Sanitation and Hygiene in East Asia and the Pacific

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this document is produced by the UNICEF Regional Office for East Asia and the Pacific

this document is produced by the UNICEF Regional Office for East Asia and the Pacific

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  • 1. A SNAPSHOT – 2012 UPDATESANITATION AND HYGIENEIN EAST ASIA AND THE PACIFIC
  • 2. OverviewThe East Asia and Pacific Region has made gains over the last 20 years: The proportion of people using improved sanitation increased by 35 percentage points between 1990 and 2010 (more than double the rate of the world as a whole) East Asia and the Pacific is the only UNICEF region* already to have met the MDG sanitation target The proportion of people who Regional and World Sanitation Coverage Trends practice open defecation has dropped to just 5 percent in 13 5 Open the region 15 Defecation 12 25 823 million more people use Unimproved improved sanitation than Facilities 11 20 years ago, the majority of 16 Shared them in China 20 Facilities 48 11However, significant challenges 6remain: Coverage (%) Coverage (%) Six countries in the region are 7 Improved not on track to meet the MDG Facilities sanitation target 67 63 671 million people are still 49 without access to improved sanitation in the region, more 32 than in sub-Saharan Africa Progress in the Pacific sub- region has stalled: the 1990 2010 1990 2010 proportion of people using East Asia World Total improved sanitation has not and the Pacific Open defecation Open defecation changed in 20 years (51%) Unimproved Unimproved Coverage disparities are pronounced, with national improved sanitation rates ranging from Shared Shared less than one-third of the population (Cambodia) to more than 95 per cent in 7 countries Improved Coverage is also highly inequitable within countries: richerImproved households and urban dwellers are much more likely to use improved sanitation than poorer and rural households New data indicates that handwashing-with-soap rates are lower in rural areas and much lower in poor households in some countries Institutional monitoring data indicates that many primary schools still lack adequate sanitation facilities for school children Information about this Snapshot  This snapshot is produced by the UNICEF Regional Office for East Asia and the Pacific  Unless otherwise indicated, data in this snapshot is from the WHO/UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme for Water Supply and Sanitation 2010 dataset, the latest available (see page 8 for full citations and credits)  The UNICEF East Asia and Pacific Region encompasses 27 countries; 12 in East Asia and 15 in the Pacific (*UNICEF regions differ slightly from JMP and MDG regions: see last page for listing)A Snapshot of Sanitation and Hygiene in East Asia and the Pacific – 2012 Update 1
  • 3. Progress and ChallengesOf the 823 million new sanitation users, Seven countries in the region are not onmost live in China track to meet the MDG sanitation target Sanitation Gap in Off-Track* Countries Papua New Guinea 23 Indonesia, 71 Mongolia 16 Viet Nam, 42 Nauru 15 China, 593 Cambodia 14 Philippines, 34 Rest of region, Timor-Leste 11 83 Millions of people Indonesia 5 gaining access, 1990 to 2010 Samoa 1Number of people who gained access to improved Gap between the required coverage in 2010 if countrysanitation from 1990 to 2010, millions were on-track and actual 2010 coverage (%). * Includes countries in the ‘progress but insufficient JMP category.Sanitation coverage varies significantly from country to country 100 100 100 100 98 96 96 96 93 85 80 83 80 76 76 75 Region 74 67 64 65 60 63 63Coverage (%) 57 54 51 47 40 45 31 20 East Asia Pacific 0Improved sanitation coverage in East Asia and Pacific countries, 2010, national, per cent, with Region and Worldcomparators (no data available for Kiribati, Micronesia and the Solomon Islands)A Snapshot of Sanitation and Hygiene in East Asia and the Pacific – 2012 Update 2
  • 4. Sanitation InequitiesUrban-rural coverage gaps are shrinking Despite progress there continues to bein East Asia and the Pacific substantial disparity in some countries 6 2 8 Open Defecation  The rural-urban sanitation gap in the 1 16 East Asia and Pacific Region has shrunk 24 20 21 Unimproved from 36 percentage points in 1990 (57% urban, 21% rural) to 19 points in 2010 13 (77% urban, 58% rural), far smaller than Shared the global gap of 32 points 59 13  China, Philippines, Thailand, Palau and Fiji have made the best progress Coverage (%) reducing the urban-rural sanitation gap; 77 Improved while limited or no progress has been Facilities made in Cambodia, Indonesia and 57 4 58 several Pacific countries  In 2010 the degree of disparity varies 21 greatly from country to country (see graph below) 1990 2010 1990 2010 Urban Rural Open defecation Open defecation Unimproved UnimprovedThe degree of urban-rural disparity varies significantly Shared Shared Improved Improved 96 96 96 89 94 95 96 86 83 80 79 74 76 76 76 73 73 73 74 73 71 69 68 66 64 63 64 57 54 56 51 50 47 39 37 Urban % 31 29 20 National % Rural %Use of improved sanitation facilities: urban-rural range in East Asia and the Pacific Countries, 2010(in Thailand, urban coverage at 95% is slightly lower than rural coverage at 96%) A Snapshot of Sanitation and Hygiene in East Asia and the Pacific – 2012 Update 3
  • 5. 100Economic inequities are pronounced in 100East Asia and the Pacific 80 98 8060 The poorest households have much lower access to 60 improved sanitation facilities than richer households in 65 40 many countries in the region (such as in Lao PDR where 40 20 coverage is only 7% in the poorest quintile but 98% in the 36 20 richest) 21 0 Open defecation levels are generally much higher for 0 7 Poorest 2nd 3rd 4th Richest Poorest 2nd 3rd 4th Richest poorer households, such as in Indonesia and Lao PDR Lao PDR MICS 2006 Improved Unimproved Open Defecation 100 100 100 98 100 100 95 96 80 85 80 80 76 60 66 60 60 64 56 57 40 40 40 45 42 31 20 20 20 11 0 0 0 Poorest 2nd 3rd 4th Richest Poorest 2nd 3rd 4th Richest Poorest 2nd 3rd 4th Richest Viet Nam MICS 2011 Indonesia DHS 2007 Mongolia MICS 2010Use of improved sanitation facilities, unimproved facilities, and open defecation by wealth quintiles, with improved figureshighlighted (%). Data sources as shown. The shared facilities category is not included for multi-study comparison. In theMongolia chart, unimproved includes both open defecation and other unimproved. Wealth quintiles are based on the assetindices used by the household surveys, divided into five categories.Regional and country averages mask large disparities within countries This ‘equity tree’ example from the Philippines shows that the poorest households in rural areas have much lower coverage levels than many national, regional and global averages 100 Richest 20% 100 Richest 20% 98 Samoa Urban Rural 96 Malaysia 93 Tokelu 85 CEE/CIS 79 Urban 75 Poorest 20% 74 Philippines Urban 69 Rural 67 East Asia & the Pacific 64 China 63 World 57 Vanuatu 51 Mongolia 47 Timor-Leste 45 Papua New Guinea 39 Poorest 20% 38 South Asia Rural 30 Sub S Africa 31 CambodiaUse of Improved sanitation in the Philippines, per cent. Sources: JMP 2012 and Philippines DHS, 2008;CEE/CIS is Central, Eastern Europe and the Commonwealth of Independent StatesA Snapshot of Sanitation and Hygiene in East Asia and the Pacific – 2012 Update 4
  • 6. Focus on the Pacific Sub-RegionProgress has stalled in the Pacific Sub-Region* overall In 1990 the Pacific sub-region had much higher national sanitation coverage levels than the East Asia sub-region and many other parts of the world By 2010 the Pacific had been passed by East Asia and by other regions of the world for national and rural coverage All regions have made much better progress than the Pacific sub-regionThe East Asia sub- Urban Improved Rural Improved National Improvedregion has passed the East AsiaPacific sub-region 1990 54 20 29 2000 65 39 48 2010 76 57 66 Pacific 1990 82 44 51Use of improved sanitation 2000 81 43 50facilities, per cent 2010 81 45 51Gains have beenmade in all East Asia sub-region 37UNICEF regions, South Asia 16but not in the Middle East & North Africa 12Pacific Americas and Caribbean 12Percentage point gain Sub-Saharan Africa 5in national improvedsanitation facility use, CEE/CIS 41990 to 2010. Pacific Pacific sub-region 0and East Asia sub-regions compared to 0 10 20 30 40UNICEF regions. % point change 1990-2010However, some Pacific countries have made good progress Six Pacific countries have achieved over 90 per cent sanitation coverage by 2010 (Tokelau, Tonga, Samoa, Cook Islands, Niue and Palau) Nine Pacific countries are either on track to meet the MDG sanitation target, or have already achieved it The urban-rural sanitation coverage gap was significantly reduced in Fiji (from a gap of 50 percentage points in 1990 to just 23 points in 2010) and Palau (from a 42 point gap in 1990 to parity in 2010) * In this snapshot, Papua New Guinea is in the Pacific sub-region in conformance with MDG classification practices (the MDG Oceania region). This means that coverage levels and progress rates in that country heavily influence sub-regional averages due to its large population relative to Pacific Island Nations. A Snapshot of Sanitation and Hygiene in East Asia and the Pacific – 2012 Update 5
  • 7. Handwashing with Soap and WaterNew standardized hygiene indicators Results from Cambodia and Mongolia A standardized set of proxy indicators for  In both countries urban dwellers are handwashing with soap is now included in about twice as likely as rural dwellers to some DHS and MICS surveys have handwashing facilities with soap Surveyors use observation to establish and water available whether or not households have a specific  In Mongolia there is a pronounced place for handwashing and whether or not difference across household wealth water and soap is available at that place quintiles, especially between the This methodology is more robust than past poorest households (with only 10 per hygiene surveys that relied mainly on self- cent having a handwashing place with reported behaviour water, soap and other cleansing agents) As more surveys are carried out, regional and other households and global datasets on handwashing will  In Cambodia there is a major difference become available: currently two national between the richest households and all surveys in East Asia have incorporated the the other households indicatorsCambodia, DHS 2010 100 100Handwashing withwater, soap or other 80 85 80 83cleansing agents Percent Households 60 60Proportion of households 55 40 46 40where a place for 41 44handwashing was observed 30 20 20with water and soap orother cleansing agent (e.g., 0 0ash) present, by household Poorest 2nd 3rd 4th Richest Urban Ruralwealth quintile and Water and soapurban/ruralMongolia,Summary MICS 2010 100 100Handwashing with 96water, soap or other 80 86 80 Percent Householdscleansing agents 70 77 60 60Proportion of households 40 48 40where a place for 37handwashing was observed 20 20with water and soap orother cleansing agent 0 10 0present, by household Poorest 2nd 3rd 4th Richest Urban Ruralwealth quintile and Water and soapurban/ruralA Snapshot of Sanitation and Hygiene in East Asia and the Pacific – 2012 Update 6
  • 8. Sanitation in SchoolsA large proportion of schools do not have adequate sanitation in many countries inthe region (estimated figures) 100 100 100 100 80 78 60 65 65 63 62 40 45 35 30 20 25 23 0Estimated proportion of primary schools with adequate sanitation facilities, nationally. Data* gatheredby UNICEF Country Offices from institutional sources in 13 countries. Poor Sanitation in schools is a Sanitation coverage in schools may be cause for concern lower than at home  Available data* shows that sanitation coverage is low in 100 100 Population using sanitation at home, % Schools with adequate sanitation, % primary schools in the region  In some countries fewer than half 80 80 of schools have adequate facilities  Evidence shows that functioning 72 60 60 sanitation facilities are necessary 63 for education achievement, health and gender equality 40 40 20 20 *Data on water and sanitation in schools presented here is from a variety of government institutional reporting systems 0 0 (compiled by UNICEF country offices), and Sanitation in Sanitation in generally not from surveys. School coverage Schools Households data is based on national standards, which vary from country to country. Criteria defining Adequate facilities in primary schools, non-weighted the adequacy of facilities in schools can average of 13 countries (1st graph); national include the ratio of boys and of girls to toilets coverage average in the same countries (2nd graph). available, whether or not girls and boys toilets (These datasets are not directly comparable: one is are separate and private, the existence of from household surveys the other from institutional toilets for teachers, the type of toilet/latrine, sources.) and others.A Snapshot of Sanitation and Hygiene in East Asia and the Pacific – 2012 Update 7
  • 9. Sanitation Coverage in East Asia and the Pacific Mongolia DPR Korea China Marshall Micronesia Islands Myanmar Lao PDR Viet Nam Thailand Philippines Kiribati Nauru Cambodia Malaysia Palau Tuvalu Tokelau Solomon Indonesia Islands Samoa Less than 50% Cook Timor- Islands 50% to 75% Leste Papua Vanuatu Fiji New 76% to 90% Guinea Tonga Niue 91% to 100% Insufficient dataImproved sanitation coverage in East Asia and Pacific countries, 2010, national. Only countries in theUNICEF East Asia and Pacific region are shown. This map does not reflect a position by UNICEF on thelegal status of any country or territory or the delimitation of any frontiers. Data Sources and Notes Main sanitation dataset: from Progress on Drinking Water and Sanitation: 2012 Update (with supplemental data from wssinfo.org), from WHO/UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme for Water Supply and Sanitation (JMP) Country-specific DHS data: from published Demographic and Household Surveys available at measuredhs.com, from USAID and national statistics bureaus Country-specific MICS data: from published Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys available at childinfo.org, from UNICEF, other UN agencies and national statistics bureaus Cover photo credits, clockwise from top right: © UNICEF CBDA2008-00026/Noorani, NYHQ2009-2063/Estey, NYHQ2004-1269/Pirozzi, NYHQ2008-1274/Estey, MGLA2007-00886/Holmes. UNICEF does not warrant that the information contained in this publication is complete and correct and shall not be liable for any damages incurred as a result of its use. Acknowledgements UNICEF thanks Greg Keast, who developed and produced this snapshot under the guidance of Chander Badloe, UNICEF East Asia and the Pacific Regional Office. Special appreciation also to the following reviewers for their valuable inputs: Almud Weitz from the Water and Sanitation Program; James Wicken from WaterAid; Hilda Winartasaputra from Plan International; and Ramesh Bhusal, Therese Dooley, Nguyen Thanh Hien, Libbet Horn- Phathanothai, Dara Johnston, Janine Kandel, Rolf Luyendijk, Nadarajah Moorthy, Henk van Norden, Marjolein Oijevaar, Michael Emerson P. Gnilo and David Parker from UNICEF.A Snapshot of Sanitation and Hygiene in East Asia and the Pacific – 2012 Update 8
  • 10. Sanitation Coverage by CountryCountry estimates by type of sanitation practice, 1990, 2010 Urban Rural National TotalCountry Year Population Open Open Open Improv- Other Un- Improv- Other Un- Improv- Other Un- Shared Defec- Shared Defec- Shared Defec- (x 1,000) ed improved ed improved ed improved ation ation ation 1990 9,532 36 5 10 49 5 1 5 89 9 2 5 84Cambodia 2010 14,138 73 10 2 15 20 4 4 72 31 5 3 61 1990 1,145,195 48 15 34 3 15 4 72 9 24 7 62 7China 2010 1,341,335 74 24 2 0 56 14 28 2 64 19 16 1 1990 18 100 - 0 0 91 - 9 - 96 - 4 -Cook Islands 2010 20 100 - 0 0 100 - 0 0 100 - 0 0 1990 20,143 - - - - - - - - - - - -DPR Korea 2010 24,346 86 6 8 - 71 3 26 - 80 5 15 - 1990 728 90 - 10 0 40 - 52 8 61 - 35 5Fiji 2010 861 94 - 6 0 71 - 28 1 83 - 17 0 1990 184,346 56 8 17 19 21 6 25 48 32 7 22 39Indonesia 2010 239,871 73 10 3 14 39 12 13 36 54 11 9 26 1990 72 36 7 16 41 21 2 12 65 26 4 13 57Kiribati 2010 100 - - - - - - - - - - - - 1990 4,192 - - - - - - - - - - - -Lao PDR 2010 6,201 89 5 3 3 50 1 8 41 63 2 7 28 1990 18,209 88 4 7 1 81 3 7 9 84 3 8 5Malaysia 2010 28,401 96 4 0 - 95 4 1 - 96 4 0 -Marshall 1990 47 77 11 12 - 41 9 50 - 64 10 25 -Islands 2010 54 83 12 1 4 53 12 0 35 75 12 0 13 1990 96 55 - 45 - 20 - 80 - 29 - 71 -Micronesia 2010 111 - - - - - - - - - - - - 1990 2,193 - - - - - - - - - - - -Mongolia 2010 2,756 64 31 2 3 29 22 23 26 51 28 9 12 1990 39,268 - - - - - - - - - - - -Myanmar 2010 47,963 83 12 4 1 73 14 5 8 76 13 5 6 1990 9 66 31 3 - - - - - 66 31 3 -Nauru 2010 10 65 31 4 0 - - - - 65 31 4 0 1990 2 100 - 0 0 100 - 0 0 100 - 0 0Niue 2010 1 100 - 0 0 100 - 0 0 100 - 0 0 1990 15 78 - 22 - 36 - 64 - 65 - 35 -Palau 2010 20 100 - 0 0 100 - 0 0 100 - 0 0Papua New 1990 4,158 78 - 19 3 42 - 42 16 47 - 39 14Guinea 2010 6,858 71 - 24 5 41 - 41 18 45 - 39 16 1990 61,629 69 15 8 8 45 10 22 23 57 12 15 16Philippines 2010 93,261 79 17 1 3 69 16 3 12 74 16 2 8 1990 161 100 - 0 0 99 - 1 - 99 - 1 -Samoa 2010 183 98 - 2 0 98 - 2 0 98 - 2 0Solomon 1990 310 98 - 2 - - - - - - - - -Islands 2010 538 98 - 2 - - - - - - - - - 1990 57,072 94 5 0 1 80 3 0 17 84 4 0 12Thailand 2010 69,122 95 5 0 0 96 4 0 0 96 4 0 0 1990 743 - - - - - - - - - - - -Timor-Leste 2010 1,124 73 11 3 13 37 4 16 43 47 6 12 35 1990 2 - - - - 41 - 59 - 41 - 59 -Tokelau 2010 1 - - - - 93 - 7 - 93 - 7 - 1990 95 98 - 2 - 96 - 4 - 96 - 4 -Tonga 2010 104 98 - 2 - 96 - 4 - 96 - 4 - 1990 9 86 - 14 - 76 - 24 - 80 - 20 -Tuvalu 2010 10 88 - 10 2 81 - 12 7 85 - 11 4 1990 147 - - - - - - - - - - - -Vanuatu 2010 240 64 33 3 0 54 15 29 2 57 20 22 1 1990 67,102 63 4 10 23 30 2 25 43 37 2 22 39Viet Nam 2010 87,848 94 5 1 0 68 4 22 6 76 4 16 4 1990 1,615,493 57 13 24 6 21 4 59 16 32 7 48 13Region 2010 1,965,479 77 20 1 2 58 13 21 8 67 16 12 5 August 2012UNICEF East Asia and Pacific Regional Office (EAPRO)19 Phra Atit Road, Bangkok, 10200ThailandWebsite: http://www.unicef.org/eapro/Email: asiapacificinfo@unicef.orgTwitter: twitter.com/unicefasiapacA Snapshot of Sanitation and Hygiene in East Asia and the Pacific – 2012 Update 9

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