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New Water or NEWater
 

presented by Moh Tiing Ling in Asia Water Week 2013, manila 11-13 March 2013

presented by Moh Tiing Ling in Asia Water Week 2013, manila 11-13 March 2013

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    New Water or NEWater New Water or NEWater Presentation Transcript

    • New Water or NEWater:New Water or NEWater:Which is More Costly?Moh Tiing Liang1Moh Tiing LiangSenior Manager, Industry DevelopmentPUB Singapore
    • Biodata of SingaporeSmall Island StateHigh populationdensity5.3M population / 710 km2land areaHigh annual rainfall 2400 mmAverage waterdemand1.73 million m3/d (380 mgd) 100% of population served by potablewater at the tap & 100% modernsanitationsanitation Lack of aquifers and groundwater2
    • Singapore in our early daysTypical Developing Country“Singapore … at the 170th position among a list of 190countries in terms of freshwater availability.”- United Nations World Water Development ReportUnited Nations World Water Development Report Population Growth – Population was1.65million in 1960 Rapid Economic Growth – Per capital GDPfrom USD 428 in 1960 Not all homes are sewered (bucket system)( y ) Unaccounted for water is high Our disadvantage is a source ofmotivationmotivation Common understanding thatwater sustainability is core to our3future as a nation
    • Singapore’s Water ResourcesOnly conventional sources before 2002Imported Water• had 2 agreements with MalaysiaReservoirs• 14 reservoirs in 2002 from bothg• only 1 left, expires in 206114 reservoirs in 2002, from bothprotected and unprotected catchmentsPunggolPunggolProtectedCatchmentUnprotectedC t h tUrbanLegendCatchment StormwaterCollectionSystem4Unprotected WaterCatchmentProtected WaterCatchmentUrbanized WaterCatchment
    • Singapore’s Water ResourcesNEWater introduced in 2002; Major Paradigm Shift19741998 2000 2002PUB embarked on theNEWater initiativeBirth of reclaimingused watertreatmenttreatmentofofused waterused water1998 2000 2002More affordable cost ofmembrane technologyCompletion of 1st twoNEWater factoriesseaseaNEW tNEW tNEWater factories1974-2002, ~30 yearsNEWaterNEWatercollectioncollectionof used waterof used waterin sewersin sewerssupply of water to thepopulation & industries5p p
    • Singapore’s Water ResourcesA Systems Approach to Water Managementworks with limitations and opportunities of Singapore’s situation – limited land, littleground water, separate rainwater and used water system, abundant rainfall andabundant seawaterseasearainrainstormwaterstormwatermanagementmanagementreclamationreclamationof used waterof used waterNEWaterNEWaterCollecting everydrop of rainfallUsing every dropmore than oncecollectioncollectionof rainfallof rainfallin drains &in drains &collectioncollectionof used waterof used waterin sewersin sewerssupply ofsupply ofdesalinationdesalinationreservoirsreservoirs treatment oftreatment ofraw to potableraw to potablewaterwaterse e sse e ssupply ofsupply ofwater to thewater to thepopulation &population &industriesindustriesCollecting everyused drop6industriesindustries p
    • NEWater as an integral part of our Supply SystemCan meet up to 30% of our water needs todayNWoodlandsNEWater SRKranjiNFKranji 17 mgdBedok 18 mgdTampinesNEWater SRUluPandanNFJurong Hill 65 SRUlu Pandan32 mgdBedokNFChangi NFJIWWJIWW NF32 mgdLEGENDPulauBukom PROPOSED NEWater SERVICERESERVOIR AT MANDAI HILL 68EXISTING NEWater PIPELINESPROPOSED NEWater PIPELINESPROPOSED NIP LINESKent RidgeNEWater SR• Total NEWater network ~ 360 kmChangi 50 mgd7RESERVOIR AT MANDAI HILL 68EXISTING NEWater SERVICE RESERVOIREXISTING NEWater FACTORYINDUSTRIAL WATER PIPELINES• NEWater Infrastructure Plan (NIP) ~ 87km of transmission pipelines (2200 mm dia)• Managing NEWater demand as a whole, increasing reliability of supply
    • Uses of NEWaterMostly Direct Non-Potable Use (DNPU)Non-potable water(primarily NEWater)• NEWater is safe forhuman consumption but isnot piped for potable usenot piped for potable useDomestic45% Non-domestic%(Residential)%(Commercial &Industries)55%8
    • Is NEWater New?Concept of Water recycling as a source of water is not new• It has been practised in several parts of the United States as an indirectsource for more than 20 years.– Orange County, South California (1976)– Upper Occoquan Sewage Authority, North Virginia (1978)• Rivers a source of sewage treatment plant effluent and a source ofpotable waterRivers9
    • Merits of NEWaterBuilding a more Sustainable Water Supply• Independent of rainfall fluctuations• Enhances Singapore’s resilience against prolonged periods of droughtand climate change• Frees up large amount of water for potable use• Multiplier Effect of Water Recycling– If 50% of each water drop is recycled, the theoretical limit isdoubling the water supply• Cheaper than DesalinationBut Needs …• Mindset change – “Used water is a resource”• Infrastructure in place to collect used water10
    • The NEWater TechnologyMultiple Barrier ProcessMICROFILTRATION / UV DISINFECTIONREVERSEOSMOSISMICROFILTRATION /ULTRAFILTRATIONUV DISINFECTIONSemi-permeablemembranesHighHollow fibresTreatedUsedNEWaterNEWaterHighPressureWaterSuspended solids andb t i f th0.0004micronsbWater isfurtherdisinfectedwith ultravioletUnwanted solidstrapped on the outsideof the fibrebacteria of more than0.2 microns are filteredout. Filtered water isconducted through theiddl f th h llmembranes with ultravioletlight.11of the fibremiddle of the hollowfibres.
    • The NEWater TechnologySampling and Monitoring Programme (SAMP) & Health Effects Study• 295 water quality parameters, over and above the 100specified by USEPA and 122 specified by WHOS USEPA d WHO t d d• Surpasses USEPA and WHO standards• Categories of parameters:h i l i O i t– Physical, Inorganic, Organic etc..• To date, more than 133,000 tests have been conducted onsamples from treated used water and NEWatersamples from treated used water and NEWater• Health Effects Study carried out on mice and fish to testshort and long term effects no long term carcinogenicshort and long term effects – no long term carcinogeniceffect• Internal Audit and External Audit Panels audit test results12Internal Audit and External Audit Panels audit test resultsand operations
    • The NEWater TechnologyComparison of Water Quality13
    • The NEWater TechnologyComparison of Water QualityWater Quality ParametersLocalReservoirWaterPUBTapwaterNEWater USEPA / WHOStandardsTurbidity [NTU]Total Dissolved Solids [mg/l]Lead [mg/l]Water0.5 - 11117 - 154< 0.013water< 0.1149.50.002< 0.148.5< 0.0005 toStandards55000.01[ g ]Mercury [mg/l]Hormones (Synthetic & Natural) [μg/l]0.013<0.00003ND0.002<0.00003ND0.002<0.00003ND0.001Not SpecifiedPCBs [μg/l]Dioxin [pg/l]Total Organic Carbon [mg/l]NDND2.6 – 6.2NDND1.9 – 3.5NDND<0.10.530Not SpecifiedTotal Coliform [cfu/100 ml]Enterovirus3 - 967NDNDNDNDNDNDNDND – Not Detected14
    • Gaining Public AcceptanceCommunicating EffectivelyThe Straits Times, 18 July 2002• Good Branding– “NEWater”• Choice of words– “Used Water” vs “Wastewater”;– “Water Reclamation” vs “Sewage Treatment”• Engaging the Media– Briefings and visits to NEWater demo plant– Media familiarisation trip to USA– Documentary ‘Thirsting for new sources’ on15y gnational TV
    • Gaining Public AcceptanceSpreading the Message• Political Leaders Lead by Example• Endorsement by water experts • Branding and Providing Samples• Public Education16
    • So NEWater or New Water?• Cost-recovery principle• Started at S$1.30/m3 in 2003– Includes cost of production + transmission• Important to consider relative cost, rather than just lookingb lat absolute cost– Vs desalination– Vs tapping groundwaterCIMEN– Vs massive water diversion projects• The option of PPPSPEC• Looking forward, membranes will become moreadvanced, cost will come down17
    • Concluding RemarksKey Takeaways“… the elixir of life and in thiscase, Singapore’s ownspecial brand: NEWater” –Ban Ki Moon United NationsBan Ki-Moon, United NationsSecretary-General• NEWater as a concept is not new, and can be replicated• NEWater is a safe, sustainable and viable source of waterNEWater is a safe, sustainable and viable source of water• NEWater future-proofs Singapore’s water needs• NEWater’s energy needs are less than that of desalination• NEWater requires political leadership and public acceptance18NEWater requires political leadership and public acceptance
    • Thank YouBringing the world together toshare and co create innovativeshare and co-create innovativewater solutionsLearn more about Water Recycling at SIWW!191-5 June 2014
    • Thank you20