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Sanitation Personnel. Capacity Development Strategy.
Sanitation Personnel. Capacity Development Strategy.
Sanitation Personnel. Capacity Development Strategy.
Sanitation Personnel. Capacity Development Strategy.
Sanitation Personnel. Capacity Development Strategy.
Sanitation Personnel. Capacity Development Strategy.
Sanitation Personnel. Capacity Development Strategy.
Sanitation Personnel. Capacity Development Strategy.
Sanitation Personnel. Capacity Development Strategy.
Sanitation Personnel. Capacity Development Strategy.
Sanitation Personnel. Capacity Development Strategy.
Sanitation Personnel. Capacity Development Strategy.
Sanitation Personnel. Capacity Development Strategy.
Sanitation Personnel. Capacity Development Strategy.
Sanitation Personnel. Capacity Development Strategy.
Sanitation Personnel. Capacity Development Strategy.
Sanitation Personnel. Capacity Development Strategy.
Sanitation Personnel. Capacity Development Strategy.
Sanitation Personnel. Capacity Development Strategy.
Sanitation Personnel. Capacity Development Strategy.
Sanitation Personnel. Capacity Development Strategy.
Sanitation Personnel. Capacity Development Strategy.
Sanitation Personnel. Capacity Development Strategy.
Sanitation Personnel. Capacity Development Strategy.
Sanitation Personnel. Capacity Development Strategy.
Sanitation Personnel. Capacity Development Strategy.
Sanitation Personnel. Capacity Development Strategy.
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Sanitation Personnel. Capacity Development Strategy.
Sanitation Personnel. Capacity Development Strategy.
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Sanitation Personnel. Capacity Development Strategy.
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Sanitation Personnel. Capacity Development Strategy.
Sanitation Personnel. Capacity Development Strategy.
Sanitation Personnel. Capacity Development Strategy.
Sanitation Personnel. Capacity Development Strategy.
Sanitation Personnel. Capacity Development Strategy.
Sanitation Personnel. Capacity Development Strategy.
Sanitation Personnel. Capacity Development Strategy.
Sanitation Personnel. Capacity Development Strategy.
Sanitation Personnel. Capacity Development Strategy.
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Sanitation Personnel. Capacity Development Strategy.
Sanitation Personnel. Capacity Development Strategy.
Sanitation Personnel. Capacity Development Strategy.
Sanitation Personnel. Capacity Development Strategy.
Sanitation Personnel. Capacity Development Strategy.
Sanitation Personnel. Capacity Development Strategy.
Sanitation Personnel. Capacity Development Strategy.
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Sanitation Personnel. Capacity Development Strategy.
Sanitation Personnel. Capacity Development Strategy.
Sanitation Personnel. Capacity Development Strategy.
Sanitation Personnel. Capacity Development Strategy.
Sanitation Personnel. Capacity Development Strategy.
Sanitation Personnel. Capacity Development Strategy.
Sanitation Personnel. Capacity Development Strategy.
Sanitation Personnel. Capacity Development Strategy.
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Sanitation Personnel. Capacity Development Strategy.
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Sanitation Personnel. Capacity Development Strategy.
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Sanitation Personnel. Capacity Development Strategy.
Sanitation Personnel. Capacity Development Strategy.
Sanitation Personnel. Capacity Development Strategy.
Sanitation Personnel. Capacity Development Strategy.
Sanitation Personnel. Capacity Development Strategy.
Sanitation Personnel. Capacity Development Strategy.
Sanitation Personnel. Capacity Development Strategy.
Sanitation Personnel. Capacity Development Strategy.
Sanitation Personnel. Capacity Development Strategy.
Sanitation Personnel. Capacity Development Strategy.
Sanitation Personnel. Capacity Development Strategy.
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Sanitation Personnel. Capacity Development Strategy.

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Final Report of the Sanitation Training and Capacity Study. Prepared by PT. Qipra Galang Kualita in cooperation with Water Supply and Sanitation Policy and Action Planning (WASPOLA) Facility

Final Report of the Sanitation Training and Capacity Study. Prepared by PT. Qipra Galang Kualita in cooperation with Water Supply and Sanitation Policy and Action Planning (WASPOLA) Facility

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  1. SANITATION PERSONNEL:CAPACITY DEVELOPMENT STRATEGYFinal Report of the Sanitation Training And Capacity StudyMarch 2012Prepared by: P T. Q i p ra G a l a n g Ku a l i t aWater Supply and Sanitation Policy and Action Planning (WASPOLA) FacilityJl. Lembang No. 11A, Menteng, Jakarta Pusat,Tlp./Fax: 021-31907811/021-3915416http://www.waspola.orgWaspola1@cbn.net.id
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  3. Sanitation Training and Capacity StudyContentsEXECUTIVE SUMMARY..................................................................................................... 1INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................................... 5 SCOPE OF THE REPORT ................................................................................................ 5 OVERVIEW OF THE STUDY ........................................................................................... 5SANITATION PERSONNEL ................................................................................................ 7 CLASSIFICATIONS ......................................................................................................... 7 MAIN PERSONNEL ..................................................................................................... 10QUANTITATIVE ASSESSMENT ........................................................................................ 13 LEVEL OF DEMAND .................................................................................................... 13 LEVEL OF SUPPLY ....................................................................................................... 16 Eligible ................................................................................................................... 17 Potential ................................................................................................................ 19 Prospective ............................................................................................................ 21 DISCUSSION ............................................................................................................... 21 Short-Term Demand and Supply ........................................................................... 21 Medium-Term Demand and Supply ...................................................................... 23 Reality Check ......................................................................................................... 23 Notes ..................................................................................................................... 24 CONCLUSION ............................................................................................................. 24COMPETENCE ASSESSMENT .......................................................................................... 27 DEMAND FOR COMPETENCE..................................................................................... 27 Facilitator (Policy) for Sanitation Development Planning ..................................... 28 Facilitator (Social) for Hygienic Behavior Change.................................................. 30 Facilitator (Technical) for Communal Sanitation System Implementation ........... 31 Consultant (Technical) for Wastewater System Planning ..................................... 32 CURRENT CONDITION................................................................................................ 33 General Performance ............................................................................................ 33 Working Condition................................................................................................. 34 Level of Competence ............................................................................................. 35 Facilitator (Policy) for Sanitation Development Planning ................................. 35 Facilitator (Social) for Hygienic Behavior Change Implementation................... 36 Facilitator (Technical) for Communal Sanitation System Implementation ....... 36 Consultant (Technical) for Wastewater System Planning ................................. 37 Gender Perspective ............................................................................................... 37 SUPPLY OF COMPETENCE .......................................................................................... 38 Education ............................................................................................................... 38 Capacity ............................................................................................................. 38 Knowledge Offered............................................................................................ 39 Training .................................................................................................................. 41 Orientation Training .......................................................................................... 41 Regular Training................................................................................................. 41 Providers............................................................................................................ 42 i
  4. Networking............................................................................................................ 43 Experiencing .......................................................................................................... 45 Recognition ........................................................................................................... 45 DISCUSSION............................................................................................................... 46 Gaps of Competence ............................................................................................. 46 Education and Training ......................................................................................... 47 Performance.......................................................................................................... 48 Networking, Experiencing, and Recognition ......................................................... 48 Gender Perspective ............................................................................................... 48 Notes ..................................................................................................................... 49 CONCLUSION ............................................................................................................. 49STRATEGY AND ACTION PLAN....................................................................................... 51 Closing the Gap ......................................................................................................... 51 Shortage of Personnel ........................................................................................... 51 Competence Gap................................................................................................... 52 Strategy to Develop Sanitation Capacity .................................................................. 52 Overall ................................................................................................................... 52 Strategy 1: Improve Appeal of Sanitation Jobs ..................................................... 54 Strategy 2: Institutionalize Competence Advancement ....................................... 54 Strategy 3: Revitalize Competence Programs ....................................................... 56 Strategy 4: Stimulate Knowledge Exchange.......................................................... 56 Action Plan ................................................................................................................ 57 Immediate Activities ............................................................................................. 58 Advocate the Need to Improve Capacity of Sanitation Personnel ................... 58 Communicate Jobs in Sanitation ....................................................................... 58 Sanitation Promotional Visits to Education Institutions ................................... 59 Consensus on Job Titles in Sanitation ............................................................... 59 Create Path for Competence Advancement in Sanitation ................................ 59 Create Indonesian Network for Sanitation Personnel ...................................... 60 Follow-Up Studies ..................................................................................................... 60ii
  5. Sanitation Training and Capacity StudyTablesTable 1. Generic Classification of Sanitation Activities ................................................... 9Table 2. Main Personnel in Selected Sanitation Development Activities ..................... 11Table 3. Level of Demand of Sanitation Personnel ....................................................... 14Table 4. Number of Sanitation Activities & Main Personnel ......................................... 15Table 5. Number of Eligible Individuals ......................................................................... 18Table 6. Number of Potential Individuals (Technical Personnel Only) .......................... 20Table 7. Expected Competence for a Facilitator (Policy) for Sanitation Planning ......... 29Table 8. Expected Competence for a Facilitator (Social) for Hygienic Behavior ........... 30Table 9. Expected Competence for a Facilitator (Technical) for Communal Sanitation ......................................................................................................... 31Table 10. Expected Competence for a Consultant (Technical) for Wastewater Planning ............................................................................................................ 33Table 11. Environmental Engineering Programs in Indonesia ...................................... 39Table 12. Sufficiency of Environmental Engineering Curriculum .................................. 40Table 13. Orientation Training Programs ...................................................................... 42Table 14. Strategy to Develop Capacity of Sanitation Personnel .................................. 53Table 15. Activities to Improve Appeal of Sanitation Jobs and Opportunities.............. 54Table 16. Activities to Institutionalize Competence Advancement .............................. 55Table 17. Activities to Revitalize Competence Programs .............................................. 56Table 18. Activities to Stimulate Knowledge Exchange................................................. 57Table 19. Short-Term Action Plan.................................................................................. 57Table 20. Action Plan – Advocate the Need to Improve Capacity of Sanitation Personnel .......................................................................................................... 58Table 21. Action Plan – Communicate Jobs in Sanitation ............................................. 58Table 22. Action Plan – Sanitation Promotional Visits to Education Institutions.......... 59Table 23. Action Plan – Consensus on Job Titles in Sanitation...................................... 59Table 24. Action Plan – Create Path for Competence Advancement in Sanitation ...... 59Table 25. Action Plan – Create Indonesian Network for Sanitation Personnel............. 60 iii
  6. Attachments1. Job Titles in Selected Sanitation Activities.2. Roadmap of PPSP Program (2010 – 2014).3. Projection of the Next PPSP Program (2015 – 2019).4. Level of Demand for Sanitation Personnel.5. Level of Supply of Sanitation Personnel.6. List of Core Competencies: Facilitator (Policy) for Sanitation Development Planning.7. List of Core Competencies: Facilitator (Social) for Hygienic Behavior Change.8. List of Core Competencies: Facilitator (Technical) for Communal Sanitation Implementation.9. List of Core Competencies: Consultant (Technical) for Wastewater System Planning.10. List of Universities with Environmental Engineering.11. References.iv
  7. Sanitation Training and Capacity StudyAbbreviationsAMPL : Air Minum dan Penyehatan LingkunganBAPELKES : Badan Pelatihan KesehatanBAPPENAS : Badan Perencanaan dan Pembangunan NasionalBORDA : Bremen Overseas Research & Development AssociationBTAMS : Balai Teknik Air Minum dan Sanitasi WilayahCLTS : Community-Led Total SanitationCSS : City Sanitation StrategyCWSHP : Community Water Services and Health ProjectDAK : Dana Anggaran KhususDEWATS : Decentralized Wastewater Treatment SystemsEHRA : Environmental Health Risk AssessmentsEHS : Environmental, Health, and SafetyEPCM : Environmental Pollution Control ManagerFORKALIM : Forum Komunikasi Pengelola Air Limbah PermukimanGoI : Government of IndonesiaHAKLI : Himpunan Ahli Kesehatan Lingkungan IndonesiaIATPI : Ikatan Ahli Teknik Penyehatan dan Teknik Lingkungan IndonesiaINDII : Indonesia Infrastructure InitiativeINTAKINDO : Ikatan Tenaga Ahli Konsultan IndonesiaIPB : Institut Pertanian BogorITB : Institut Teknik BandungKMP : Konsultan Manajemen ProvinsiLPJK : Lembaga Pengembangan Jasa KonstruksiMPPS : Memorandum Program of Sanitation SectorNGO : Non-Governmental OrganizationPAMSIMAS : Penyediaan Air Minum dan Sanitasi Berbasis MasyarakatPERPAMSI : Persatuan PDAM Seluruh IndonesiaPMSS : Program Memorandum Sektor SanitasiPokja AMPL : Kelompok Kerja Air Minum dan Penyehatan LingkunganPPSP : Percepatan Pembangunan Sanitasi PermukimanPUSARPEDAL : Pusat Sarana Pengendalian Dampak LingkunganPUSBINKPK : Pusat Pembinaan Kompetensi dan Pelatihan KonstruksiPUSTEKLIM : Pusat Pengembangan Teknologi Tepat Guna Pengolahan Limbah CairRDS : Real Demand SurveyRPA : Rapid Participatory AppraisalRPJMN : Rencana Pembangunan Jangka Menengah NasionalSANIMAS : Sanitasi Berbasis MasyarakatSKKNI : Standar Kompetensi Kerja Nasional IndonesiaSLBM : Sanitasi Lingkungan Berbasis MasyarakatSSK : Strategi Sanitasi KotaSTBM : Sanitasi Total Berbasis MasyarakatSTFL : Senior - Tenaga Fasilitator LapanganTFL : Tenaga Fasilitator LapanganTOT : Training Of TrainersWASPOLA : Water Supply and Sanitation Policy Formulation and Action PlanningWSLIC : Water Supply and Sanitation for Low Income CommunitiesWSP : Water and Sanitation Program v
  8. AcknowledgementsThe team would like to acknowledge guidance and inputs from the Water andSanitation Programme - East Asia and the Pacific (Ms. Almud Weitz, Ms. IsabelBlackett, Mr. Martin Albrecht, Mr. Chris Trethewey), as well as the WASPOLA Facility(Mr. Gary Swisher).The team also received invaluable direction and contributions from officials inBAPPENAS, especially Mr. Nugroho Tri Utomo, Ms. Maraita Listyasari and Mr. R. LaisaWahanudin, as well as officials from Ministry of Public Works, especially Mr. SyukrulAmin, Mr. Handy B. Legowo, and Ms. Rina Agustin Indriani.In addition, more than a hundred people spent their valuable time to share insightsand experiences, and provide information, and/or filled out the web-based survey.The team is indebted to all resource persons -- from government agencies, non-governmental organizations, professional association, universities, consulting firmsand donor-funded programs -- who contributed to this challenging task.Team members: Rudy Yuwono, Isna Marifa and Laksmi Wardhani (PT. Qipra GalangKualita).vi
  9. Sanitation Training and Capacity StudyEXECUTIVE SUMMARYA capacity development strategy was developed to close the gap of numbers andcompetence among personnel in the sanitation sector in Indonesia. The overarchingvision that guides the strategy is that all parties collaborate to ensure that sanitationpersonnel are available in sufficient numbers and with appropriate competence. Thevision is achievable if the following four strategies are implemented, i.e. (1) improveappeal of sanitation jobs, (2) institutionalize competence advancement schemes, (3)revitalize competence development programs, and (4) stimulate knowledge exchangeamong stakeholders. The strategies are further defined as actions to be taken.The first strategy, improve appeal of sanitation jobs, would address the pressing needto enhance sanitation job profiles, to adjust compensation package in the sector, andto communicate the high level of demand for sanitation personnel. To implement thestrategy, actions to be taken involve upward adjustment of compensation andbenefits, promoting sanitation jobs to professional associations, to universities andtraining institutions, to the public, as well as communicating the need to improvecapacity in the sanitation sector to decision makers in government institutions,development programs, donor agencies, and private firms.The second strategy, institutionalize a competence advancement scheme, wouldcreate a formal framework that guides competence development among sanitationpersonnel. The most immediate action is to reach consensus among key stakeholderson job titles in the sanitation sector. This is followed by creation of competenceadvancement options and development of competency standards for key personnel.Finally, institutionalization of the certification mechanism would involve commitmentand decision from government agencies and professional associations.The third strategy, revitalize competence development programs for sanitation,complements the second strategy. Once the competency standards are developedand agreed, training and educational programs can be strengthened by way ofproducing new materials as well as introducing new innovations, such as internshipand mentoring programs. Training and education institutions’ engagement isnecessary, and it is fully expected once the demand for sanitation personnel (innumbers and competence) is communicated and discussed with them.The fourth strategy, stimulate knowledge exchange among stakeholders, is aimed atenhancing the volume and quality of knowledge sharing in line with competencedevelopment needs of each category of sanitation personnel. The most immediateaction is to create an Indonesian network of sanitation personnel and strengtheningexisting knowledge management systems in the sector.The capacity development strategy addresses the competence of individuals and thequantity of individuals in the sector. However, the study recognizes that many otherfactors affect whether sanitation can become an attractive sector to build one’scareer. Two additional recommendations are proposed to complement the fourstrategies above. The first is to revise policies governing the sanitation sector as awhole, with the aim to modernize the sector and engage private sector, which isexpected to create a more professional atmosphere. The second is to revamp the 1
  10. Executive Summarysector’s image, accordingly, and aim to reintroduce a technologically-appealing sectorwith modern career opportunities.The sanitation capacity development strategy was developed from findings of a gapanalysis conducted over a period of six-months. The study focused only onprofessionals (covering consultants, facilitators, and operators), and used the PPSP(Accelerated Sanitation Development) program as a basis to estimate the number ofactivities planned and, subsequently, the number of personnel needed.The main findings of the study from the quantitative side are: Major gaps are found between the demand and supply of facilitators for communal system (SANIMAS) and for hygienic behavior (STBM), both in the short- term and in the medium-term (next five-year development plan cycle); Short-term gaps can be filled by tapping potential individuals who already have the right qualification for both job titles. Environmental/sanitary engineers holding competence certification and new graduates from environmental engineering schools are sufficient to close the gap for all technical SANIMAS facilitators. In the medium-term, shortage of personnel will also emerge for operators to run and maintain the sanitation facilities across the country. In the future, graduates from environmental engineering programs are expected to fill the demand for technical personnel. Yet, the reality is that environmental engineering does not attract large number of university students. And graduates are more interested in seeking employment in the vibrant industrial sectors (including mining, oil/gas or environmental management), rather than sanitation sector. The number of students is far smaller than the intake capacity of most universities. The potential for growth of the student body still exists. To attract new graduates, the image of the sector and technological vision must be made more modern, more fitting of youth aspirations in the twenty-first century. Furthermore, job opportunities in this sector should be better disseminated.In terms of competence, the study identifies the following gaps: Minor shortcomings in knowledge, skills, and attitude among sanitation personnel relate to: o Basic understanding of sanitation technologies among non-technical facilitators for SANIMAS and city sanitation planning. o Current policies and approaches on sanitation development among technical consultants. o Proper procedure to operate wastewater, solid waste, and drainage facilities among the respective operators. o Writing and communication skills. o Poor work habits (such as attendance, compliance with deadlines). There may be a discrepancy of understanding on required competence between sanitation personnel and key stakeholders (employers/managers). A mutually agreed competence criteria can reduce this understanding gap. Using the2
  11. Sanitation Training and Capacity Study competence criteria, competence assessment of the sanitation personnel will produce more objective results. Competence is only one of many factors that influence a person’s work performance. A competent person will not be able to perform well in his/her position if the working conditions are not conducive to good performance. Among the working conditions that are often lacking in sanitation are the availability and adequacy of equipment and materials, funds and timeframe, other personnel, and data. There is a vacuum in competence development for sanitation professionals. Only limited training courses (and training providers) on sanitation subjects are available. Moreover, existing suite of training courses are not designed in a comprehensive way – one which allows a person to plan a phased training program to fit their professional interests. Sequenced training courses (e.g. basic, intermediate, advanced) are not found anywhere. The existing sanitation-related professional certification systems require certificate holders to continually improve his/her competence. However, this requirement has not been followed by a concerted effort to encourage certificate holders to improve their competence, say by participating in a structured training program. A link between certification program and training programs would create a demand for specific training courses, and would motivate training institutions to develop new training modules, cooperate with international training institutions (or sanitation institutions), and offer new courses to the public. There are a number of professional associations where sanitation personnel can build and expand their network. However, their roles are not being optimized. Their involvement in sanitation sector is still incidental, and not designed to support current sanitation capacity development.An action plan is prepared for the 2012-2014 period. Some activities arerecommended for initiation immediately, i.e. in the second quarter of 2012, due totheir urgency. These include: a) Advocate the Need to Improve Capacity of SanitationPersonnel; b) Communicate Jobs in Sanitation; c) Sanitation Promotional Visits toEducation Institutions; d) Consensus on Job Titles in Sanitation; e) Create Path forCompetence Advancement in Sanitation; f) Create Indonesian Network for SanitationPersonnel.Some of the actions above can directly build upon the products created and leftbehind by this study, namely: A concept to define job titles in sanitation sector (relates to six sanitation development activities); A list of 20 types of key personnel in sanitation sector, and their required educational background and level of experience; Definition of required competence for four sanitation job titles. This would be used as basis to develop competency requirements for other sanitation job titles. Web-based sanitation professional network, which can be used as means to conduct surveys and develop database of personnel; An analytical framework for sanitation capacity assessment that can be used for further studies covering different types of personnel. 3
  12. Executive SummaryIn addition, the study identifies a few follow-up assessments that may be warranted.The first could assess whether changes in the deployment strategies of sanitationpersonnel would reduce the level of demand for personnel, especially to support thecommunity-based and hygienic behavior programs. Another area that might bestudies is the capacity of local government officials (with decision authority insanitation) and the capacity of personnel involved in the operation of sanitationfacilities.This study should be treated as the beginning of a journey to address the issue ofcapacity in the sanitation sector. The journey may be long and, in some cases,exploratory in nature; however, what is clear is that there are already manystakeholders with common concern and aspirations. The key to a successful journey isensuring good collaboration and communication among all relevant parties, andconsensus on the future direction of the sanitation sector.4
  13. Sanitation Training and Capacity StudyINTRODUCTIONIn November 2009, the Government of Indonesia (GoI) launched a high-profilePercepatan Pembangunan Sanitasi Permukiman (PPSP) program. The PPSP cites asubstantial scaling up of investments in both urban and rural sanitation over the next5 years. The RPJMN for 2010-2014 includes investments of IDR 15 trillion (USD 1.6billion), more than seven times the amount allocated in the previous RPMJN.The augmented government focus and funding for sanitation, has dramaticallyincreased the demand for a wide range of staff, consultants and facilitators with skillsranging from community development and sanitation marketing to sanitaryengineering and project management. The Ministry of Public Works, BAPPENAS, andconsulting firms have recently remarked that they are finding it difficult to findindividuals with appropriate experience and qualifications.Anticipating a demand surge for sanitation personnel, GoI plans to prepare a strategyto fill the gap between demand and supply. The Water and Sanitation Program (WSP),through the WASPOLA facility, is supporting the Government to develop such strategythrough the Sanitation Training and Capacity Study.PT. Qipra Galang Kualita was awarded a contract by WSP to conduct the Study. TheKick-Off Meeting was held on July 19, 2011, and this report is the Final Report whichpresents the findings, conclusions and recommendations from the study.SCOPE OF THE REPORTThis report presents information used in the analysis, and findings obtained from theanalysis. Following the Introduction, this report contains four other chapters, namely: Sanitation Personnel:introduces a definition and classification of sanitation personnel, in order to ensure systematic analysis and common understanding among readers. It also defines key personnel types which are assessed in greater depth. Quantitative Assessment: presents the key findings of the quantitative assessment of sanitation personnel, from the demand and supply perspectives. A discussion is also presented which highlights where major shortages are likely to be found. Competence Assessment: presents the key findings of the qualitative assessment. This includes discussion on the competence expected of sanitation personnel, and the types of competence programs available. It also discusses other factors that build competence and that affect performance of personnel. Strategy and Action Plan: presents the strategy to improve capacity of sanitation human resources in Indonesia, as well as the short-term action plan and details of immediate activities. Suggestion for follow-up studies are presented in the end of this chapter.OVERVIEW OF THE STUDYThe objective of the Sanitation Training and Capacity Study, or the Study, is: Developing a human resource capacity development strategy (or plan) to meet the demand for qualified and competent sanitation personnel to support Indonesia’s short-term and medium-term sanitation development activities.The final output is a Sanitation Human Resource Capacity Development Strategy,which will be usedby GoI, particularly BAPPENAS, in planning and creating capacity- 5
  14. Introductionbuilding activities with the involvement of various stakeholders. The ultimate aim is toensure that availability of human resources does not become an impediment toachieving the sanitation development targets already set by the Government.The Study was divided into four stages as follows:The first stage, the Demand Assessment, assessed the future demand of sanitationpersonnel with appropriate competences needed to support the scaling up ofsanitation investments. The Assessment defined the types of sanitation personnelstudied and estimates the number for short- and medium-term demand. For fourpriority sanitation personnel, lists of required competencieswere developed: a) job(occupational) functions, b) core competencies, and c) need-to-know criteria.The second stage, the Supply Assessment, reviewed competencies developedthrough existing education (undergraduate) and training programs. Assessment wasdone only for the priority personnel identified in the Demand Assessment. Curriculumand syllabus of education and training programs were reviewed to determine whichknowledge and skills are in fact lacking. Effort was made to estimate the quantitativeside of supply, namely the number of individuals from each category with potential tofill the demand. Assessment was done also of existing professional network andassociations, and other parties which contribute to the development of competence.A web-based survey was used to understand the profile and competence of activeindividuals from the four priority personnel types.The third stage, Gap Analysis, compared the results of the Demand Assessment withthat of the Supply Assessment. Gaps identified include: adequacy and availability ofsanitation personnel, expected and actual competence, gaps in training provisions, aswell as observations on underlying factors that affect the interest in working in thesanitation sector.The fourth stage, Capacity Development Strategy, was developed based on results ofthe gap analysis. The plan includes a short-term strategy to improve the numbers andcompetence of the prioritized sanitation personnel, and a medium-term to overallenhance and maintain competence for the same group. The final report presentsrecommendations on further study and analysis to broaden the scope of analysis.NOTEThe broad coverage and the short timeframe of the study made it necessary todevelop and utilize many assumptions, especially for the quantitative assessments.Furthermore, some extrapolation was necessary to extend survey results with a smallsample size. Findings were reconfirmed against comments from various resource-persons. This study should be considered a beginning of, rather than an end to, acomplex and potentially long-term dialog on capacity in the sanitation sector.6
  15. Sanitation Training and Capacity StudySANITATION PERSONNELThe Study assesses the capacity of sanitation personnel. A definition and classification ofsanitation personnel are introduced, in order to ensure systematic analysis and commonunderstanding among readers. Not all types of sanitation personnel were studied with thesame intensity. Therefore, the Study also identifies key personnel types which are assessed ingreater depth. CLASSIFICATIONS 101. Sanitation personnel are defined as any individual involved in sanitation activities, which may comprise of any sanitation sub-sector (liquid waste management, solid waste management, drainage), any activity cycle (planning, design, implementation, construction, operation and maintenance, monitoring and evaluation), and any proficiency level (advanced, intermediate, basic). The term covers individuals working as civil servants, professionals1, academics, and volunteers. The Study will focus more on professionals, rather than the other three. 102. Types of sanitation personnel are clearly specified to allow a systematic and focused assessment2, and later to generate a sound strategy and an implementable action plan. Generic nomenclature of job titles is created for each type of sanitation personnel3. Three attributes are used in each job title, i.e. (Role) + (Field) + (Scope) Note: - Role: Role to be performed by an individual in an activity includes one of the following: facilitator, consultant, operator, supervisor, etc. - Field: Field of expertise that an individual contributes to. The attribute uses 1 Professionals may refer to individuals who possess specific skills or knowledge to undertake a specialized set of tasks and who receives compensation for his/her services. He/she may work in consulting firm, construction firm, non-governmental organization, training agency, research agency, and others. 2 Discussions with stakeholders and review of literature led to an impression that the term ‘sanitation personnel’ can be interpreted very broadly. It may include individuals involved in the technical aspects of sanitation development, individuals assisting governments with regulatory or policy work, to villagers who volunteer to organize and educate their peers. It became clear that in order to produce meaningful information and recommendations, it was important for this study to define precisely the ‘sanitation personnel’ that it addresses and analyzes. 3 There are many ways to specify types of sanitation personnel. Nomenclature used seems to vary from one activity to another, or from one organization to another. For example, some activities use the general term of sanitary engineer, while others call it more specifically as wastewater engineer, solid waste engineer, or drainage engineer. 7
  16. Sanitation Personnel terminology closely related to educational background, e.g. policy, regulation, technical, institutional, financial, management, urban planning, communication, administration, social, public health, and development. - Scope: Scope of the activity that an individual is involved in. The attribute uses terminology related to phases or components of the activity, e.g. sanitation awareness raising, sanitation development planning, communal system implementation, wastewater system planning, solid waste planning, drainage system planning, final disposal site operation, improvement of hygienic behavior implementation, sludge treatment facility construction, and sewerage system operation. Some examples are facilitator (social) for communal system implementation, consultant (urban planning) for wastewater system planning, and operator (technical) for wastewater treatment plant operation.103. A total of 90 types of sanitation personnel are identified from fifteen selected sanitation activities4. Prior to that, a genericclassification of activities is developed to allow systematic identification of types of sanitation personnel involved in each sanitation activity (see the diagram and Table 1).Generic Classifications of Sanitation Development Activities. This Study acknowledges 9 classes ofactivities. The classification is a modification of PPSP program sequence, for example, PPSP’simplementation phase is modified into six more-detailed classes of activities. It should be realized that theimplementation phase requires the largest number of sanitation personnel compared to the other fivePPSP’s phases. It should be noted that asanitation activity may cover a wide range of aspects, including technical (infrastructure), institutional, regulatory, policy, financial, social,4 The fifteen sanitation activities are assumed as priorities in the current PPSP program cycle and thefollowing years. At least until 2014, most PPSP program interventions are focused at completing CitySanitation Strategy documents, preparing Program Memorandum of Sanitation Sector, and preparingplans and design for various sanitation services. In addition, a large number of communal sanitationfacilities will be made for urban slum areas through SANIMAS scheme; while for rural communities, thefocus is implementing the STBM approach in villages. More attention on operation and maintenance ofsanitation facilities will be given in the next PPSP program cycle (2015 – 2019).8
  17. Sanitation Training and Capacity Study business, as well as communications. Therefore, it is common for a sanitation activity to require a unique set of sanitation personnel. The team composition will be determined by the specific objectives of the activity, scale of activity, and the deployment strategy (or organizational structure) of the program implementers. Full composition of personnel involved in each selected sanitation activity can be found in Attachment 1.Table 1. Generic Classification of Sanitation Activities Classification of Types of Description Activities Covered in the Study Activities personnel1. Improvement of Activities to improve the - - enabling readiness of a city/ district, i.e. to environment a) awareness and commitment of stakeholders, and b) regulatory and institutional framework.2. Preparation of Activities which formulate a 1 Preparation of City 3 5 strategy and strategic plan for sanitation Sanitation Strategy implementation development and its 2 Preparation of Program 1 plan implementation plan. Usually Memorandum of conducted by a local working Sanitation Sector 6 group, and supported by various parties.3. Implementation Activities which empower village 3 Implementation of STBM 1 7 of hygienic communities to adopt healthier Program behavior and more hygienic behavior, as improvement defined in Sanitasi Total Berbasis Masyarakat (STBM) concept.4. Implementation Activities to empower 4 Implementation of 2 8 of communal communities in high-density SANIMAS Program sanitation settlements, usually in urban system slums, in developing communal sanitation system.5. Development of Activities aiming at developing 5 Completion of master 11 domestic system to manage domestic plan for wastewater 10 wastewater wastewater. Activities may services services include planning, design, and 6 Engineering design of 9 9 implementation of the system sewerage system5 The City Sanitation Strategy (CSS) is a medium-term strategic plan developed to steer sanitationdevelopment activities in a particular city/district. The CSS, locally known as Strategi Sanitasi Kota (SSK), isexpected to help create synergy between sanitation development activities and development activities inother sectors. A CSS is generally developed by a water and sanitation working group (often known by itsIndonesian acronym Pokja AMPL or Kelompok Kerja Air Minum dan Penyehatan Lingkungan)establishedby the local government, with members consisting of representatives from relevant agencies concernedwith water and sanitation development. The PPSP requires cities/districts interested in participating tohave a CSS.6 Program Memorandum of Sanitation Sector is a document that contains commitment and plans fromvarious parties to implement sanitation programs and activities that have been outlined in the CSS. Thememorandum describes funding strategy of each program and activity, whether it comes from centralgovernment, provincial, district / city governments, foreign aids, private sector, or public.7 The STBM Program uses an approach that focuses on behavior change based on a community’s owninitiative and decision process. Communities are triggered to make changes in their daily practices, andadopting the five pillars of STBM, i.e. 1) stop open-defecation, 2) wash hands with soap, 3) safeguardinghousehold water supply, 4) wastewater management, and 5) solid waste management. This program hasbeen launched as a national strategy for sanitation development by the Ministry of Health. In the otherhand, CLTS (community-led total sanitation) is basically an approach to change sanitation behavior ofcommunity by triggering them to stop practicing open defecation (similar to first STBM pillar).8 SANIMAS (Sanitasi Berbasis Masyarakat) Program aims to improve the environmental quality of urbanslum areas, through introduction of a community-based wastewater management system. The SANIMASprogram has been made into a national program by the Ministry of Public Works. Facilities built underSANIMAS program may include shared sanitation facility (toilet), small- scale sewer system, andcommunal wastewater treatment facility. Another term often used to refer to efforts to promotecommunity-based wastewater management service is SLBM (Sanitasi Lingkungan Berbasis Masyarakat).9 Planning is the stage where general plans or master plans for sanitation services are prepared (based ona strategic plan for sanitation development). Design is the stage where detailed design of a sanitation. 9
  18. Sanitation Personnel Classification of Types of Description Activities Covered in the Study Activities personnel (service). 7 Engineering design of 7 sludge treatment facility6. Development of Activities aiming at developing a 8 Completion of master 12 solid waste city-scale system to handle solid plan for solid waste services waste, which may consist of services collection, transportation, 9 Engineering design of 11 recycling, composting, final disposal facility incineration, and final disposal. Activities may include planning, design, and implementation of the system (service).7. Development of Activities aiming at developing a 10 Completion of master 11 drainage city-scale system to handle plan for drainage services services storm-water in an urban area. 11 Engineering design of 8 Such system may consist of drainage system catchment, retention, infiltration, conveyance, pumping, and discharge. Activities may include planning, design, and implementation of the system (service).8. Operation and Activities to ensure a sustainable 12 Operation of sewer 4 maintenance of operation and maintenance of system sanitation various types of sanitation 13 Operation of sewage 4 services services, whether it is by treatment plant government (or government- 14 Operation of sludge 4 owned authority), by private treatment facility companies or community groups. 15 Operation of final 4 disposal facility9. Monitoring and Activities to gather feedback - - - evaluation information to adjust future sanitation development activities.104. A sanitation activity may cover a wide range of aspects, including technical (infrastructure), institutional, regulatory, policy, financial, social, business, as well as communications. Therefore, it is common for a sanitation activity to require a unique set of sanitation personnel. The team composition will be determined by the specific objectives of the activity, scale of activity, and the deployment strategy (or organizational structure) of the program implementers. Full composition of personnel involved in each selected activity can be found in Attachment1.MAIN PERSONNEL105. Some team members are considered central to the implementation of an activity. These individuals may have competence that is indispensable to reach the activity’s objectives, or hold a crucial coordinating role for the activity, may have the longest assignment, and/or consolidates the work of other team members. Such individuals are called, in the Study, as Main Personnel. In the 15 selected sanitation activities, there are 20 job titles associated with main personnel; 13 of which requirefacility is prepared. Detailed designs are developed based on direction set in the master plans.Implementation is the stage where the sanitation development plans are realized, including constructionand commissioning of physical facilities, preparation of management organization (units).10 Wastewater system, as it is described in the Ministerial Decree of Public Works no. 16/2008, shouldinclude areas of (1) technology interventions, (2) community participation, (3) legal and regulatorydevelopment, (4) institutional and capacity development, and (v) financing mechanisms. Therefore, amaster plan of wastewater services at least should cover those five areas.10
  19. Sanitation Training and Capacity Study an environmental/sanitary engineering11 background. The following table presents the main personnel in the selected sanitation activities, along with the required educational background and level of experiencewhich classified into entry-level (straight out of tertiary education), junior (1 – 5 years of experience), mid-level (5 – 10 years of experience), senior (over 10 years of experience).Table 2.Main Personnel in Selected Sanitation Development Activities Required Education Level of Main Personnel in Sanitation Activities Ri,i Background Experience 121. Preparation of City Sanitation Strategy Facilitator (Policy) for Sanitation 1 S-1 in urban planning, public Mid-level Development Planning health, public administration, engineering. Facilitator (Technical) for Sanitation 1 S-1 in environmental/sanitary Mid-level Development Planning engineering, civil engineering. 132. Preparation of Program Memorandum of Sanitation Sector Facilitator (Policy) for Sanitation 0.1 S-1 in urban planning, public Mid-level Development Planning health, public administration, engineering. 143. Implementation of the STBM program Facilitator (Social) for Community Hygienic 1 S-1 in social sciences, public Mid-level Behavior Change health. 154. Implementation of SANIMAS Program Facilitator (Social) for Communal 1 D-3 in social sciences, public Entry-level Sanitation System Implementation health. Facilitator (Technical) for Communal 1 D-3 in environmental/sanitary Entry-level Sanitation System Implementation engineering, civil engineering. 165. Completion of master plan for wastewater services Consultant (Technical) for Wastewater 1 S-2 in environmental/sanitary Senior System Planning engineering, civil engineering. 176. Engineering design of sewerage system11 Sanitary engineering is an engineering field aiming to improve sanitation condition of humancommunities and prevent disease, mostly by assuring a supply of clean water, removing wastes (liquidand solid) from inhabited areas. Later this engineering field was expanded to cover larger environmentalissues, including those of industrial sectors. Therefore, the term sanitary engineering is rarely used thesedays and most universities use the term environmental engineering.12 The CSS preparation involves assignment of two facilitators to work with the city/district’s Pokja AMPLto prepare the CSS. One facilitator serves as coordinator, and is expected to have a good knowledge ofPPSP process, has experience with strategic-level work, and experience in water and sanitation planning.The second facilitator is expected to have a stronger technical background related to planning anddevelopment of sanitation infrastructure.13 The preparation of program memorandum requires one facilitator to work with the city/district’s PokjaAMPL. The facilitator is expected to have a good knowledge of development planning process, andexperience in water and sanitation planning.14 Implementation of STBM program involves a number of village facilitators (Tenaga Fasilitator Desa)which are recruited from among the village community. The village facilitators receive support from asenior facilitator, commonly called Sub-District Level Facilitator (Fasilitator Kecamatan). The Study refersthe senior facilitator as Facilitator (Social) for Hygienic Behavior Change.15 Implementation of SANIMAS program requires a community-level facilitation team to organize,mobilize, empower, and advise the community. The standard team composition consists of twocommunity-level field facilitators (Tenaga Fasilitator Lapangan, TFL), i.e. social facilitator and technicalfacilitator. Both are involved since the awareness raising stage until the commissioning stages of thefacility. BORDA (Bremen Overseas Research & Development Association), which is a major executor of theSANIMAS program, has slightly modified this arrangement. In BORDA-supported areas, only one TFL(social) is assigned to the target community. He/she receives support and guidance from a Senior TFL(STFL) who covers five locations at once.16 The completion of master plan of sanitation services (wastewater, solid waste, drainage) involves ateam of consultants with sound planning and technical knowledge and experience in the various aspectsof sanitation services system. A typical team includes personnel with expertise in system planning,engineering, financial analysis and planning, socio-economics, institution development, legal/regulatorymatters. One of the team members, usually the senior technical expert, serves as a team leader.17 Engineering design of sanitation facilities (sewer network, sewage treatment plant, sludge treatmentfacility, final disposal site, drainage system) involve a team of consultants with sound technical knowledge 11
  20. Sanitation Personnel Required Education Level of Main Personnel in Sanitation Activities Ri,i Background Experience Consultant (Technical) for Sewerage 1 S-1 in environmental/sanitary Senior 18 Engineering Design engineering, civil engineering.7. Engineering design of sludge treatment facility Consultant (Technical) for Sludge 1 S-1 in environmental/sanitary Senior Treatment Engineering Design engineering8. Completion of master plan for solid waste services Consultant (Technical) for Solid Waste 1 S-2 in environmental/sanitary Senior System Planning engineering.9. Engineering design of final disposal facility Consultant (Technical) for Sanitary Landfill 1 S-1 in environmental/sanitary Senior Engineering Design engineering.10. Completion of master plan for drainage services Consultant (Technical) for Drainage 1 S-2 in environmental/sanitary Senior System Planning engineering, civil engineering.11. Engineering design of drainage system Consultant (Technical) for Drainage 1 S-1 in environmental/sanitary Senior Engineering Design engineering, civil engineering. 1912. Operation of sewer system Operator (Technical) for Sewer Operation 3 S-1 in environmental/sanitary Mid-level eng., mechanical eng. Operator (Management) for Sewer 1 D-3 in management, or Mid-level Operation administration.13. Operation of sewage treatment plant Operator (Technical) for Sewage 3 S-1 in environmental/sanitary Mid-level Treatment Operation eng., mechanical eng. Operator (Management) for Sewage 1 D-3 in management, or Mid-level Treatment Operation administration.14. Operation of sludge treatment facility Operator (Technical) for Sludge Treatment 3 S-1 in environmental/sanitary Mid-level Operation eng., mechanical eng Operator (Management) for Sludge 1 D-3 in management, or Mid-level Treatment Operation administration.15. Operation of final disposal facility Operator (Technical) for Sanitary Landfill 4 S-1 in environmental/sanitary Mid-level Operation eng., mechanical eng. Operator (Management) for Sanitary 1 D-3 in management, or Mid-level Landfill Operation administration.Note: Ri,i= Involvement ratio, or ratio of the number of individual(s) involved in an activity per location. For a type of sanitation personnel, some activities require one personnel per location while some require one personnel for more than one location.and experience in designing the facilities as well as the operational plans. A typical team includespersonnel with expertise in technical aspect of each facility, civil works, mechanical works, electricalworks, project management, financial, and environmental management. One of the team members,usually the senior engineer related to the type of facility, serves as a team leader.18 A sewerage system may consist of sewer network and sewage treatment plant(s). The design of eachrequires individual with specific expertise.19 The activity involves a team of operators, ranging from management level to field workers. Their dutiesinclude operating and maintaining all sewer facilities which may include pumping stations.12
  21. Sanitation Training and Capacity StudyQUANTITATIVE ASSESSMENTThe Study assesses the level of demand and supply of sanitation personnel associated with 15activities. The demand is estimated from the projected number of activities. While the supply isestimated from known groups who can immediately be involved or be prepared for sanitationactivities. Shortages of personnel in the short- and medium-terms are discussed. LEVEL OF DEMAND 201. The level of demand indicates the number of individuals required to fill job opportunities in the 15 selected sanitation activities (see Table 1), for short-term (2012 – 2014) and medium-term (2015 – 2019). It should be noted that the number of jobs opportunities may not be the same with the number of individuals required. There is a big chance that an individual is involved in an activity for more than one period, therefore he/she will fill more than one job opportunity. 202. The number of job opportunities for a particular job title is estimated by factoring the frequency of activity (requiring a particular job title) and the number of individuals needed in an activity. Frequencies of activities are projected using the following basis:  Short-term: Based on the current PPSP program roadmap (see Attachment 2) and other targets mentioned in the national mid-term development plan. It is targeted that by end of 2014, 340 cities/districts complete their CSS, 240 cities/districts complete their Program Memorandum by end of 2014, and 240 cities/districts initiate the implementation phase. SANIMAS programs will be implemented in 2,000 areas per year.  Medium-term: Based on preliminary projections of the next PPSP program cycle (see Attachment 3)20. It is assumed that 500 cities/districts in Indonesia will complete their CSS by end of 2017, complete their Program Memorandum by end of 2018, and initiate the implementation phase by end of 2019. STBM and SANIMAS programs will continue into the next development cycle with the same rate of implementation. The number of individuals required to fill sanitation jobs, or the quantitative demand of sanitation personnel, is a function of the number of job opportunities and a continuity factor, i.e. the proportion of individuals expected to continue working in the same job in the subsequent period. 20 No official data is available for targets beyond 2014. 13
  22. Quantitative Assessment203. Sanitation development in Indonesia will need sanitation personnel of more than 15,000 individuals in the short-term) and and addition of 18,000 individuals in the medium-term). For the main personnel, it will need almost 11,000 individuals in the short-term and an addition of 12,400 in the medium-term. Most of them are facilitators (for the preparation of CSS, STBM implementation, and SANIMAS implementation). A significant number of individuals with environmental/ sanitary engineering background will be needed. The estimates also show that more than 60% of the individuals will be those with entry-level and junior experience (see Table 3 for summary of the estimates and Attachment 4 for the complete estimates).Table 3.Level of Demand of Sanitation Personnel Short Term Medium-Term Category Amount % Amount % Total All Personnel 15,140 18,290 Main Personnel 10,845 72 12,400 68 Role All Personnel Facilitator 9,780 65 9,950 54 Consultant 4,310 28 5,140 28 Operator 1,050 7 3,200 17 Main Personnel Facilitator 9,710 89 9,890 80 Consultant 500 5 590 5 Operator 630 6 1,920 15 Field / All Personnel Education Technical 21 5,240 35 6,190 34 Facilitator 3,950 26 3,960 22 Consultant 870 6 950 5 Operator 420 3 1,280 7 Non-Technical 9,900 65 12,100 66 Main Personnel Technical 4,870 45 5,830 47 Facilitator 3,950 36 3,960 32 Consultant 500 5 590 5 Operator 420 4 1,289 10 Non-Technical 5,975 55 6,570 55 Experience All Personnel Senior 500 3 590 3 Mid-Level 5,020 33 7,175 39 Junior 5,870 39 6,780 37 Entry-Level 3,750 25 3,750 21 Main Personnel Senior 500 5 590 5 Mid-Level 1,145 11 2,560 21 Junior 5,450 50 5,500 44 Entry-Level 3,750 35 3,750 30 Note: Percentages of categories under the all personnel are proportional to the total number of all personnel. While, percentages of categories under the main personnel are proportional to the total number of main personnel. The following table presents a more detail estimates of the demand for main personnel.21 Technical personnel, in this Study, represent those with knowledge considered central to the mainsubjects of the activity, e.g. wastewater management, solid waste management, and drainage. Suchknowledge are usually possessed by individuals with environmental/ sanitary engineering background.14
  23. Sanitation Training and Capacity StudyTable 4.Number of Sanitation Activities &Main Personnel Number of Number of Job Number of Individuals Activity Activities Main Personnel22 Opportunities Required Short- Medium- Short- Medium- Fc,i Short- Medium- Term Term Term Term Term Term 1 Preparation of 210 500 Facilitator (Policy) for 270 715 0.7 210 275 City Sanitation Sanitation Planning Strategies Facilitator (Technical) 290 665 0.7 200 210 for Sanitation Planning 2 Preparation of 190 550 Facilitator (Policy) for 190 550 0.7 110 160 PMSS Sanitation Planning 3 Implementation 20,000 35,000 Facilitator (Social) for 2,000 3,500 0.5 1,700 1,750 of STBM program Hygienic Behavior 4 Implementation 4,500 7,500 Facilitator (Social) for 4,500 7,500 0.5 3,750 3,750 of SANIMAS Communal Sanitation program Facilitator (Technical) 4,500 7,500 0.5 3,750 3,750 for Communal Sanitation 5 Completion of 140 340 Consultant (Technical) 140 340 0.8 110 110 master plans for for Wastewater wastewater Planning services 6 Engineering 15 50 Consultant (Technical) 15 50 0.8 10 15 design of for Sewerage Design sewerage system 7 Engineering 80 400 Consultant (Technical) 80 400 0.8 50 115 design of sludge for Sludge Treatment treatment facility Design 8 Completion of 140 340 Consultant (Technical) 140 340 0.8 110 110 master plan for for Solid Waste Planning solid waste services 9 Engineering 150 250 Consultant (Technical) 150 250 0.8 70 50 design of final for Sanitary Landfill disposal facility Design 10 Completion of 140 340 Consultant (Technical) 140 340 0.8 110 110 master plan for for Drainage Planning drainage system 11 Engineering 90 320 Consultant (Technical) 90 320 0.8 50 90 design of drainage for Drainage Design system 12 Operation of 10 45 Operator (Technical) for 20 90 1.0 30 135 sewer system Sewer Operation Operator (Manage- 10 45 1.0 10 45 ment) for Sewer Operation 13 Operation of 10 80 Operator (Technical) for 20 90 1.0 30 135 sewage treatment Sewage Treatment plant Operation Operator (Manage- 10 45 1.0 10 45 ment) for Sewage Treatment Operation 14 Operation of 40 300 Operator (Technical) for 80 600 1.0 120 900 sludge treatment Sludge Treatment facility Operation Operator (Manage- 40 300 1.0 40 300 ment) for Sludge Treatment Operation 15 Operation of final 150 250 Operator (Technical) for 300 500 1.0 600 1,000 disposal facility Final Disposal Operation Operator (Manage- 150 250 1.0 150 250 ment) for Final Disposal Operation Total Number 13,135 24,390 - 10,845 12,400 Proportion to all personnel (%) 63 56 - 72 68 22 Names of some job titles are shortened for practicality. 15
  24. Quantitative Assessment204. Types of main personnel mostly needed to support the current and next PPSP program cycles are (ranked based on the highest number of individuals required in both terms): Facilitators & Consultants 1. Facilitator (Technical) for Communal Sanitation 7,500 2. Facilitator (Social) for Communal Sanitation 7,500 3. Facilitator (Social) for Hygienic Behavior 3,450 4. Facilitator (Policy) for Sanitation Planning 745 5. Facilitator (Technical) for Sanitation Planning 410 6. Consultant (Technical) Wastewater Planning 215 Operators 1. Operator (Technical) for Final Disposal Operation 800 2. Operator (Technical) for Sludge Treatment Operation 680 3. Operator (Management) for Final Disposal Operation 400 4. Operator (Management) for Sludge Treatment Operation 110LEVEL OF SUPPLY205. The supply of sanitation personnel consists of individuals from the following three groups (see diagram):  Eligible: Individuals who have the right qualifications (education and experience) for a particular sanitation job title. These individuals have worked in sanitation, and have received relevant training, therefore they can be immediately employed for a particular sanitation job. The eligible group is divided into a) active personnel, or eligible individuals currently involved in sanitation activities, and b) inactive personnel, or eligible individuals currently not involved in a sanitation activity.  Potentials: Individuals who have partial qualifications (education or experience), but still require additional preparation before they are ready to fill a particular sanitation job. The preparation can be as minimal as orientation training to introduce individuals to the specifics of a program23; or as elaborate as a technical training to introduce a technology or technical approach used by a program. This category includes individuals with a relevant educational degree, but has not pursued career in sanitation24, or individuals who have recently graduated.  Prospective: Individuals who may have the interest and potential to be prepared for sanitation jobs. These individuals are currently still students in a relevant educational program, i.e. environmental engineering, public health, social science, etc. Interventions may be needed to enhance or create the individuals’ interest in pursuing sanitation jobs.23 For example, training on basic facilitation for CSS/PMSS preparation, and training on basic facilitationfor developing SANIMAS system in urban areas.24 Example would be alumni of environmental/ sanitary engineering who works as Environmental, Health,and Safety (EHS) staff in oil/gas companies, or has built his/her career as an EIA consultant orenvironmental auditor. Also, alumni of social sciences who have not been involved in any sanitation work.16
  25. Sanitation Training and Capacity Study The three categories combined are expected to play a role in satisfying the demand for sanitation personnel in the short-term and medium-term of sanitation development in Indonesia. Groupings of Individuals for Supply Assessment.Demand for sanitation personnel will be fulfilled by the Eligible and the Potential groups. After graduating, the Prospective will become part of the Potential group.Eligible206. There are about 9,000 eligible individuals that can be immediately involved in the short-term period (see Table 5). Some of them are active personnel, while others are inactive for various reasons25. Estimates of the eligible (the main personnel) are described as follows.  Facilitator (Policy) for Sanitation Planning: There are about 320 individuals who have served as facilitators for preparation of CSS/PMSS, or have been trained for these functions by BAPPENAS/Ministry of Public Works and their development partners26. Some of the individuals are currently active, but some appear not to be employed due to changes in the employing institution (provincial level, instead of national level). In addition to the policy facilitators, there are also 130 technical facilitators available.  Facilitator (Social) for Hygienic Behavior: The eligible supply is around 1300 individuals27. These people are individuals who have participated in CLTS or STBM related programs and/or have been trained as facilitators by the Ministry of Health or its development partners.  Facilitators (Technical) for Communal System: There are 3,000 technical individuals who have been prepared and involved in previous or on-going SANIMAS programs, or been trained by Ministry of Public Works or their development partners28. In addition to the technical facilitators, there are also 3,000 individuals who have served as social facilitators.25 There is no database available to assess the number of personnel currently active or inactive in thesanitation activities. Moreover, the Study was unable to find any reasonable assumption to assess theproportion of active personnel and inactive personnel among the eligible. Therefore, the supplyassessment does not quantitatively differentiate the two categories.26 BAPPENAS/Ministry of Public Works and their partners have conducted training of basic facilitation forCSS or PMSS preparation since 2010, with the latest done in December 2010. A total of 220 individualshave been trained for CSS policy facilitators (provincial, city/district level) and 100 individuals for PMSSfacilitators. In addition, almost 130 individuals have been trained as CSS technical facilitators, and about30 individuals as CSS financial facilitators.27 Various programs have trained and prepared CLTS/STBM facilitators. The most significant one is theprogram of PAMSIMAS (Penyediaan Air Minum dan Sanitasi Berbasis Masyarakat, or Water Supply andSanitation for Low Income Communities or WSLIC 3, 2008 – 2013) which has prepared more than 1250facilitators. Another program, the CWSHP (Community Water Services and Health Project) has preparedabout 80 STBM facilitators. An NGO, Plan Indonesia, has prepared almost 50 facilitators to support itsCLTS programs in Central Java.28 It is assumed that the implementation of SANIMAS in 2010 and 2011 have prepared at least onetechnical facilitator for each SANIMAS location. The Ministry of Public Works claims that SANIMAS have 17
  26. Quantitative Assessment  Consultant (Technical) for Wastewater Planning: More than 140 individuals are eligible to be wastewater system technical consultants. They are basically the number of senior and some mid-level certified engineers29 with strong wastewater experience30. Eligible individuals are also available for solid waste and drainage system planning, as well as for the engineering design of various sanitation facilities31. Among the three sub-sectors, qualifications in drainage appear to be weakest (compared to wastewater and solid waste)32.  Operators of various sanitation facilities: The number of eligible individuals for various operator functions is assumed from the number of facilities currently operating in Indonesia. With 11 sewerage systems operating in the country, it is assumed there is at least one qualified person for each position. Similarly, it is assumed that for final disposal site operators, there are at least 200 technical operators and 200 managerial operators handling existing disposal sites. Individuals eligible as sludge treatment operators comprise of 100 operators (each) handling existing facilities33.Table 5. Number of Eligible Individuals Relative to Number of Main Personnel Short-Term Individuals Demand FACILITATORS Facilitator (Policy) for Sanitation Planning 320 Sufficient Facilitator (Technical) for Sanitation Planning 130 Insufficient Facilitator (Social) for Hygienic Behavior Change 1,380 Insufficient Facilitator (Technical) for Communal Sanitation 3,000 Insufficient Facilitator (Social) for Communal Sanitation 3,000 Insufficient CONSULTANTS Consultant (Technical) for Wastewater Planning 140 Sufficient Consultant (Technical) for Sewerage Design 115 Sufficient Consultant (Technical) for Sludge Treatment Design Consultant (Technical) for Solid Waste Planning 130 Sufficient Consultant (Technical) for Sanitary Landfill Design 105 Sufficient Consultant (Technical) for Drainage Planning 65 Insufficient Consultant (Technical) for Drainage Design 55 Sufficient OPERATORS Operator (Technical) for Sewer Operation 10 Insufficient Operator (Management) for Sewer Operation 10 Sufficientbeen conducted using the Specific-Allocated Fund (DAK, or Dana Anggaran Khusus) in 2,700 locations forthe last two years. In addition, the Ministry of Public Works has also implemented SANIMAS in 300 otherlocations using direct central government funding. Therefore, it can be assumed that there is about 3,000individuals eligible to be technical facilitators.29 The Agency for Construction Services Development (or, LPJK) has awarded certificates to more than7,400 individuals who are considered to be qualified as experts in environmental engineering field. Amongthe awarded certificates, 2% are for the senior experts (ahli utama), 18% are for mid-level experts (ahlimadya), and 76% are for junior experts (ahli muda).30 Review of data on 200 certified environmental engineers indicate that 17% have strong wastewaterexperience. The others have strong experience on solid waste (16%), drainage (8%), and water supply(59%).31 Eligible individuals are available for sewerage system and sludge treatment facility design, despiterecruitment difficulties encountered by a major program such as the Indonesia Infrastructure Initiative(INDII) program.32 Some of the certified civil engineers are equally qualified to design drainage systems. However, certifiedcivil engineers were not reviewed in the Study.33 The issue of individual competence, related to poor performance of existing sanitary landfills and sludgetreatment facilities, will be discussed in the Gap Analysis chapter.18
  27. Sanitation Training and Capacity Study Relative to Number of Main Personnel Short-Term Individuals Demand Operator (Technical) for Sewage Treatment Operation 10 Insufficient Operator (Management) for Sewage Treatment Operation 10 Sufficient Operator (Technical) for Sludge Treatment Operation 100 Sufficient Operator (Management) for Sludge Treatment Operation 100 Sufficient Operator (Technical) for Final Disposal Operation 200 Insufficient Operator (Management) for Final Disposal Operation 200 Sufficient Note:  Comparison is made to the short-term demand of main personnel as shown in Table 4.  Sufficient means the number of eligible individuals will be enough to satisfy the short- term demand. Insufficient means the number of eligible individuals will not be enough to satisfy the short-term demand.  Not enough information was obtained to completely separate consultant (technical) for sewerage design and for sludge treatment. Attachment 5 presents a more complete estimate of individuals in the eligible group.207. Asuming all active and inactive personnel will join the sector, the number of eligible individuals is generally sufficient to satisfy the short-term demand of consultants, except that for drainage planning (see Table 5). However, there are not enough eligible individuals to satisfy the demand for social and technical facilitators. Likewise, for the technical operator category, eligible individuals cannot meet the demand.Potential208. There are a high number of individuals in the second layer, who can be upgraded and recruited to fill shortage of eligible individuals (see Table 6). Estimation was made for technical personnel only, by exploring individuals holding the LPJK professional certification for environmental engineering and individuals with environmental engineering degrees. Some of these individuals may have appropriate qualifications, but may have never been employed in the sanitation sector. Estimates are made based on the level of qualification (education and experience), and matched to the most suitable job titles. The description is as follows.  Technical with senior experience:Potential candidates can be obtained from senior certified experts (Ahli Utama) with strong water supply background. The number can reach up to 100 individuals. They are expected to fill the medium- term demand for technical consultant for master plan of sanitation services. Shifting from water supply to managing master plan development for sanitation services would not require too much capacity building.  Technical with mid-level experience:Potential candidates can be obtained from two sources. The first from mid-level certified experts (Ahli Madya) with a strong water supply background, i.e. 500 individuals. A shift to sanitation sectors would relatively easy since most of them have environmental/sanitary engineer background. The second is environmental engineering alumni with 5 – 10 years of experience, i.e. 600 individuals. Some of them are not yet engaged in the water and sanitation sector. They are expected to fill the demand of technical facilitators for sanitation planning or technical operators for various sanitation facilities.  Technical with junior experience: Potential candidates can be obtained from two sources, i.e. junior-level certified environmental engineers (Ahli Muda) and environmental engineering alumni with 2 – 4 years of experience. They are 19
  28. Quantitative Assessment expected to fill the short-term demand of technical SANIMAS facilitators. A total amount of 2,600 individuals can be tapped from this group.  Technical with entry-level experience: Environmental engineers with less than 2 years of experience can fill the demand of technical SANIMAS facilitators. The number of this group may reach to 250 individuals. More than 4,000 technical individuals from the potential group can be expected to get involved in the short-term sanitation activities.Table 6. Number of Potential Individuals (Technical Personnel Only) Relative to Number of Groups & Main Personnel Short-Term Individuals Demand Senior Consultant (Technical) for Wastewater Planning 100 Sufficient Consultant (Technical) for Solid Waste Planning Sufficient Consultant (Technical) for Drainage Planning Sufficient Mid-Level Facilitator (Technical) for Sanitation Planning 400 Sufficient Consultant (Technical) for Sanitary Landfill Design Sufficient Consultant (Technical) for Drainage Design Sufficient Consultant (Technical) for Sewerage Design Sufficient Consultant (Technical) for Sludge Treatment Design Sufficient Operator (Technical) for Sewer Operation 620 Sufficient Operator (Technical) for Sewage Treatment Operation Sufficient Operator (Technical) for Sludge Treatment Operation Sufficient Operator (Technical) for Final Disposal Operation Sufficient Junior Facilitator (Technical) for Communal Sanitation 2,600 Sufficient Entry-Level 250 Note:  Comparison is made to the number of personnel needed after inclusion of the eligible group.  Sufficient means that the number of potential individuals will be enough to fill the short- term shortage of eligible individuals. Insufficient means that the number of eligible individuals will not be enough to fill the short-term shortage of eligible inidividuals. Supply of social and policy facilitators, as well as for non-technical operators, are open to individuals from diverse educational backgrounds. The pool is very large, since it crosses social sciences, public policy, public health and other technical disciplines. Therefore, it can be assumed that the supply for the demand of these types of personnel is enormous.209. The number of technical potential individuals is more than enough to cover the lack of personnel in the short-term period. However, further estimate shows that there will not be enough potential individuals to satisfy the medium-term demand34. Around 6.200 technical individuals are still required to meet the medium-term demand (see Table 4).This medium-term deficiency will likely be covered by those who are grouped as the prospective, or by inviting more individuals from other technical backgrounds.34 With additional experience, some potential individuals will have gained higher qualification, makingthem prepared to fill sanitation position with higher competence level, say a Consultant (Technical) forWastewater System Planning.20
  29. Sanitation Training and Capacity StudyProspective210. There is a significant number of university students who can be expected to become sanitation personnel in the near future35. For the supply of technical personnel, the pool of prospective individuals is estimated from the number of students majoring in environment/sanitary engineering in 47 universities across the country. For the supply of non-technical professions, the size of prospective individuals is not calculated, since it involves a large number of faculties and universities. There should be no difficulty in tapping into the supply for non- technical professionals as long as sanitation jobs can compete with other jobs in the market.211. Annually, 800 to 1,000 individuals graduate from environmental engineering schools with an S-1 degree36 (see section on Capacity of Suppliers). Assuming that 25% of the graduates end up as sanitation professionals37, the prospective individuals to become technical personnel are estimated at 250 individuals a year. In time, they become part of the potential group; in fact, a portion of them can directly join the eligible group to fill entry-level sanitation positions, such as technical SANIMAS facilitator.DISCUSSIONShort-Term Demand and Supply212. Overall;The final years of the current cycle of PPSP implementation (2012 – 2014) will need more than 15,000 individuals(see Table 3). Assuming inactive personnel can be attracted back,the supply of eligible individuals for the remaining years of the current PPSP cycle (2012-2014) may reach 9,000 individuals(see Table 5). The remaining shortage can further be covered by potential individuals invited to join the sanitation sector. Therefore, it can be assumed that the supply of individuals from the eligible and potential groups will be sufficient to meet the short-term demand for sanitation personnel.213. Facilitators;The largest portion of the short-term demand for sanitation personnel, 65% or almost 9,800 individuals (see chart), consists of facilitators for CSS and PMSS preparation, as well as SANIMAS and STBM implementation. This high demand for facilitators is commensurate with the accelerated pace of the four activities throughout Indonesia38. Assuming all inactive facilitators can be mobilized, the number of eligible is sufficient only to satisfy the demand for CSS policy facilitators, but not for CSS Composition of the Short-Term Demand35 A web-based survey targeting environmental engineering students was conducted in the Study. Aquestionnaire is made to check their current status, possession of knowledge, attractiveness to thesanitation sector, and issues of joining the sanitation sector. Survey results indicate that there is still highinterests for the students to join the sanitation sector.36 Source: Ministry of Education, as shown in www.evaluasi.or.id where all data of Indonesian universitiesare completely presented, including those having environmental engineering department.37 Based on records of the environmental engineering alumni of the University of Trisakti which identifiesabout 25 percent of the alumni works as consultant/contractor. If 60 percent among them are engaged insanitation, then it is safe to assume that 15 percent of graduates are available for sanitation positions.38 For example, SANIMAS program is implemented with an annual rate of 1,500 locations, while STBMprogram has an annual rate of 7,000 locations. 21
  30. Quantitative Assessment technical facilitators or SANIMAS and STBM facilitators, where demand is very high. Supply of individuals from the potential groupmay be sufficient to fix the facilitator shortage.214. Consultants;The number of eligible individuals is generally sufficient to satisfy the short-term demand of main consultants involved in the planning and design stages of urban sanitation services.There will be more than 600 main consultants(see Table 5), with sanitary/environmental engineering background, available to satisfy the short-term demand for 500 main consultants (see Table 3). Minor shortage for drainage planning consultants will be easily covered by those with civil engineering background.215. Operators;There will be enough individuals from the eligible group to be involved in the operation of most sanitation facilities. Minor shortage of operators for sewer, sewage treatment, and solid waste final disposal facilities can easily be covered by individuals from the potential group.216. Technical personnel;Of all the main personnel needed in the remaining PPSP years, 45% or about 4,900 individuals require technical qualifications in environmental/sanitary engineering39(see Table 3). The rest requires various backgrounds, ranging from other engineering, social science, urban planning, and others. Assuming all of those individuals are interested in joining the sanitation sector, there will be more than 4,000 potential individuals available to fill the short- term demand for technical personnel(see Table 6).In addition to those from the eligible group, the short-term demand for technical personnel can be satistified.217. Inactive Personnel;The eligible group consists of active and inactive personnel. Mathematically, the individuals from this group will be able to satisfy the short-term demand for various types of sanitation personnel. However, that supply will not be sufficient if inactive personnel are reluctant to return to the sanitation sector. This situation is made worse if active personnel decide to stop working in the sanitation sector, which may occur if (a) other sectors offer more attractive benefits, (b) work opportunities are limited, (c) information on work opportunities do not reach the eligible individuals, and (d) challenges and opportunities for competence advancement are limited.If the eligible group cannot be fully mobilized, more individuals from the potential group must be recuitted to fill in the gaps.218. Young Personnel;The final two years of PPSP will require, mainly, individuals with entry-level and junior level experience. About 3,750 entry-level individuals (or 25% of the total) are needed to serve as technical SANIMAS facilitators (see Table 3). Another 40% of the total required will be junior level individuals to serve as facilitators or operators of sanitation facilities. These numbers are high compared to 500 senior individuals needed to serve as team leaders for various planning and design activities. Individuals with junior-level certificate of environmental engineering and new Composition of the Short-Term Demand for Main Personnel graduates may be sufficient to satisfy the demand for technical personnel with entry-level and junior-level experience.39 The high demand of environmental/ sanitary engineers is understandable considering the types ofservices (or facilities) to be developed are those closely related to the knowledge offered in the school ofenvironmental/ sanitary engineering.22
  31. Sanitation Training and Capacity StudyMedium-Term Demand and Supply219. Overall;The next PPSP program cycle of 2015 – 2019, if any, will need an addition of over 18,000 individuals (see Table 3). The highest demand in the medium-term is still facilitators, since the implementation rate of SANIMAS and STBM programs are expected to be the same (see chart). An additional 9,950 facilitators must be available in that period, of which 7,500 facilitators would be SANIMAS-related. The demand for operators of sanitation facilities will see a significant increase. Over 3,200 additional operators will have to be available in that period, compared to 1,050 operators in the current PPSP cycle.220. The Prospective;Major shortages of sanitation personnel will be experienced in the next PPSP cycle (2015 – 2019). At least, 10,000 entry-level and junior personnel will be required. Estimates indicate that even by utilizing all technical individuals from the potential group, the shortage still can reach more than 2,000 individuals. This medium-term deficiency may be covered partly by a group of new university graduates from environmental engineering schools. Almost fifty universities throughout Indonesia offer D-3, S-1 and S-2 degrees in environmental engineering. These universities combined generate almost 1,000 new S-1 graduates a year. With the low interest in employment in the sanitation sector (15%), the supply of new graduates will not meet the medium-term demand of 3,750 level- entry individuals. Inviting more new graduates with other technical backgrounds may quickly solve this shortage. Those with civil engineering backgrounds can qualify to fill the shortage.221. Conditions;Current environmental engineering students are generally still interested in becoming professionals in the sanitation sector. However, the appeal of other sectors is very high, such as from the manufacturing and oil/ gas industries. Several issues that seem to work against the sanitation sector are40 a) unclear career path, b) lack of prestige, c) limited work opportunities, d) limited technological breakthroughs and progress, and e) low compensation and benefits.Reality Check222. The estimate indicates that there are a large number of qualified individuals available to fill the job opportunities in the sanitation sector41. However, the fact seems to show otherwise. Many program managers experience difficulty in finding and recruiting qualified individuals, while many qualified individuals experience difficulty in finding work in sanitation. This gap between reality and the estimates may be caused by the following:  Sanitation jobs are less attractive. Not all inactive and qualified personnel, as well as students, are attracted to sanitation jobs. Compared to other sectors, sanitation sector offers lower compensation and benefits. The jobs rarely offer40 Based on results of the student’s web-based survey.41 The estimate should be considered as an approximation, since many assumptions were used in thecalculations. One of the assumptions implies that most individuals will join the sanitation sector, meaningall fully and partly qualified individuals, as well as students, will somehow get involved in the sector. Thismight be a very optimistic view. 23
  32. Quantitative Assessment long-term security and clear professional advancement path. Furthermore, the unpopular and unexciting image of work in sanitation sector makes many individuals reluctant to join the sector.  Sanitation jobs are ‘invisible’. Not all qualified individuals know how and where to access job opportunities.While jobs in other sectors are advertised quiet extensively, opportunities on sanitation jobs are not well exposed. There are very few employers in the sanitation sector, besides government and international agencies. The sanitation sector does not yet have an ‘industry’, where private (or semi-private) firms offer full-time employment and professional advancement opportunities.  Sanitation jobs are not well-defined. Competence requirements for most sanitation work have not been well-defined, making it difficult for employers to articulate the precise type of person they need, and the qualification and competence requirements. Consequently, employers also have difficulty in finding the right group(s) of professions to approach when looking for candidates. Individuals will only consider employment opportunities in the sanitation sector if the sector becomes more appealing and competitive. Otherwise, the lure of better paying jobs, more exciting careers, and a clearer career path will always be too powerful for most individuals to resist.Notes223. Assumptions; The level of demand of sanitation personnel is estimated by using various assumptions. The demand may change if deployment strategies are modified, as represented by the involvement ratio. The experience with changes in SANIMAS deployment strategy provides a clear example of how the number of personnel needed may change very quickly. Moreover, the level of demand may also change if the number of individuals who stay in their positions change, as represented by the continuity factor.224. The level of demand estimated in the Study does not cover all types of personnel related to PPSP program activities42. If extrapolated to include all possible job titles, the numbers may increase by 25%. Additional positions may relate to PPSP activities under improvement of enabling environment, and monitoring and evaluation (see Table 1). There may also be other types of activities that will create additional demand of personnel, e.g. preparation of feasibility studies for different sanitation facilities, and engineering design of other auxiliary facilities.CONCLUSION225. Major gaps are found between the demand and supply of facilitators for communal system (SANIMAS) and for hygienic behavior (STBM). The existing facilitators will not be enough to satisfy the demand for SANIMAS and STBM activities in the remaining years of the current PPSP cycle. However, these short- term gaps can be filled by tapping potential individuals who already have the right qualification for both job titles. LPJK-certified environmental/sanitary engineers and new graduates from environmental engineering schools are sufficient to close the gap for all technical SANIMAS facilitators. Reserves from the same groups can also be used to satisfy the demand for other technical personnel, i.e. technical personnel42 This demand assessment is also still deficient regarding geographic spread of the demand. Geographyadds another level of complexity to the analysis, and was not attempted in the Study. Furthermore, sincethe supply assessment cannot cover geographic location of available individuals or students, it wasdecided that the demand assessment would also not pursue this line of analysis.24
  33. Sanitation Training and Capacity Study for facilitating CSS formulation, planning drainage, and operating facilities. On the other hand, gaps of non-technical personnel will have to be filled by attracting individuals from other disciplines and providing sufficient orientation training.226. In the medium-term (2015-2019), assuming the accelerated pace of sanitation development continues, gaps of sanitation personnel will be quite serious. Personnel recruited before 2014 are assumed to continue employment in sanitation activities. Additional personnel will have to be recruited and trained to meet the medium-term demand. The highest deficiencies will be for SANIMAS and STBM facilitators, followed by operators for the various sanitation facilities constructed. A group of new university graduates can be expected to cover this deficiency.227. In the future, graduates from environmental engineering programs are expected to fill the demand for technical personnel. Yet, the reality is that environmental engineering does not attract large number of university students. The number of students is far smaller than the intake capacity of most universities. Furthermore, the percentage of graduates who enter the sanitation field is small, and the numbers are much lower than the annual demand for technical personnel. The sanitation field lacks the appeal of other sectors, such as mining, oil/gas or environmental management. Projected into the future, the shortage of technical individuals to sanitation will continue unless the sector is made more attractive.228. Any scenario to close the gap can succeed only if the sanitation sector is made more appealing for professionals, especially those who are already pursuing work in other sectors. This requires some policy and institutional changes in the sector, as well as proactive image-building. To attract new graduates, the image of the sector and technological vision must be made more modern, more fitting of youth aspirations in the twenty-first century. Furthermore, job opportunities in this sector should be better disseminated.229. Alternatively, the gaps can also be reduced by ensuring that deployment strategies for sanitation programs utilize available personnel in the most efficient and effective manner. For example, a pair of SANIMAS facilitators might be able to work for three locations instead of one, as currently applied. 25
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  35. Sanitation Training and Capacity StudyCOMPETENCEASSESSMENTThe Study assesses the competence of sanitation personnelby using four key personnel assamples. The required competenceis used as reference to evaluate their level of competenceand knowledge, and to assess availablecompetence development programs. The study alsodiscusses other factors that affect a person’s competence outside of education and training.Gaps in competence development are identified. DEMAND FOR COMPETENCE 301. The demand for competence describes sets of competencies (knowledge, skills, and attitudes)requiredfor sanitation personnel to perform their respective occupational functions properly. From the level of personnel demand (par. 204), four types of sanitation personnel with the highest demand are selected for the competence demand assessment43, namely:  Facilitator (Policy) for Sanitation Development Planning,  Facilitator (Social) for Hygienic Behavior Change,  Facilitator (Technical) for CommunalSanitation System Implementation, and  Consultant (Technical) for Wastewater System Planning. 302. Assessment of competence demand starts with the evaluation of occupational functions of existing personnel (see the diagram). It involves gathering and analyzing information about the roles, tasks, and responsibilities of each type of personnel44. List of Core Competencies45 then is developed for each type of personnel. Following 43 The short duration of the Study pushed for a prioritization effort, i.e. analyzing a handful of key sanitation personnel where a shortage is already being felt by practitioners and stakeholders active in sanitation in Indonesia. The prioritized sanitation personnel would be the object of analysis in the demand and supply assessments. After careful consideration of various inputs from resource persons and discussions at the Sanitation Donor Group, the four types of sanitation personnel were chosen for qualitative analysis in this study. Consequently, this study should be treated as an effort to create and test an analytical framework to assess the demand and supply of certain professions. This framework can be utilized to expand the study to a broader spectrum of sanitation personnel. 44 A number of interviews were conducted to users of the personnel, program managers, and active personnel, in addition to desk studies using local and international references. Direct observations were also conducted to a number of individuals in their day-to-day activities. 45 Core competencies are defined as group of fundamental knowledge, ability, or expertise in a specific subject area in sanitation-related fields. One type of sanitation personnel possesses a unique set of core competencies, which makes them differs from other type of personnel. Another group of competencies, called key competencies, consists of generic knowledge, skills, attitudes and values needed by all types of personnel. These competencies are considered transferable and adaptive to different types of personnel. Following the Meyer scheme, the Key Competencies are a) collecting, analyzing and organizing information, b) communicating ideas and information, c) planning and organizing activities, d) working 27
  36. Competence Assessment the Indonesian National Competency Standard’s format46, the list consists of a number of Units of Competency47, which are further elaborated into Elements of Competency and required knowledge (or, need-to-know criteria). The Lists later will be used as the basis for evaluating performance of existing personnel, assessing sufficiency of knowledge, and analyzing gaps between the demand and supply of competence. It is also expected that the Lists of Core Competency produced in this Study will be further developed as the draft for Indonesian National Competency Standard in the near future.Facilitator (Policy) for Sanitation Development Planning303. A Facilitator (Policy) for Sanitation Development Planning is an individual assigned to facilitate a city/district’s Pokja AMPL in preparing the City Sanitation Strategies (CSS or, Strategi Sanitasi Kota), or the Program Memorandum of Sanitation Sector (PMSS). In addition to facilitation skills, a CSS/ PMSS facilitator is expected to have a good knowledge of sanitation development process (especially under PPSP framework), has experience with strategic-level work, and experience in water and sanitation planning. He/she works together with a technical facilitator who possesses stronger technical knowledge related to sanitation infrastructure. Although assigned to facilitate the city/district Pokja AMPL, a facilitator (policy) for sanitation development planning is expected to understand most of the issues covered in a CSS and PMSS.304. Qualification of a Facilitator (Policy) for Sanitation Development Planning48are:with others in teams, e) solving problems, f) using mathematical ideas and techniques, and g) usingtechnology.46 The full Indonesian National Competency Standard (SKKNI, or Standar Kompetensi Kerja NasionalIndonesia) format contains description of Performance Criteria (Kriteria Unjuk Kerja) and Range ofVariables (Batasan Variabel). This report does not present the two descriptions; however, performancecriteria and range of variables were considered in developing the Need-to-Know Criteria, described in thisreport.47 Unit of competency is a short statement of a key function or role in a particular job or occupation,usually expressed as an outcome.48 Adapted from the selection criteria of CSS City/ District Facilitators (for the Coordinator position) by theDirectorate General of Human Settlements, Ministry of Public Works, Republic of Indonesia.28
  37. Sanitation Training and Capacity Study  Educational background: Undergraduate (S-1) degree (minimum) from school of urban planning, public health, public administration, communication, or engineering.  Work experience: Five years (minimum) in the fields of infrastructure development planning, public health, or public policy, and development strategic planning.  Training:Formulation of City Sanitation Strategy or Preparation of Program Memorandum of Sanitation Sector (see Table 14). The trainingsare prerequisites for becoming CSS/ PMSS facilitator.305. The following table presents the occupational function and the condensed list of core competencies, and need-to-know criteria required from a Facilitator (Policy) for Sanitation Development Planning (see Attachment6 for the complete version). A CSS facilitator requires 10 competency units with a total of 50 competency elements.Table 7. Expected Competence for a Facilitator (Policy) for Sanitation Planning Core Competencies Occupational Function Need-to-Know Criteria (units &number of elements) Provide information about Comprehend general 5  Basic sanitation and public healthPPSP scheme and approaches characteristics of the issues, 49to the city/district Pokja AMPL area .  Government policies on sanitationand other sanitation Assess sanitation 5 development, especially on PPSP,development stakeholders, conditions of the  National, provincial, and city/ Provide technical inputs to communities. district strategic development plans,Pokja AMPL during community Prepare sanitation 6  Relations between area’s generalassessment, mapping of 54 profile of the area. characteristics with sanitationsanitation profile, CSS condition , 50 Comprehend projections 5formulation or PMSS  Sanitation profile mapping, on future characteristicspreparation of the area.  Type and characteristics of Organize and facilitate sanitation services,discussion, meetings, and Formulate basic 4 framework for sanitation  Community sanitation survey,workshops involving Pokja development in the area. including data collection and analysis,AMPL and other stakeholders, 51 Formulate direction for 4  Format and relations of EHRA , Maintain relationship with 52 sanitation development. White Book , CSS, and MPPSprovincial Pokja AMPL and Prepare general proposal 6 documents,other stakeholders, for sanitation  Components of city/ district Monitor and evaluate CSS development programs. sanitation strategic plans,formulation or PMSSpreparation process, Prepare implementation 5  Principles of program 53 implementation planning , Ensure the quality of concept for sanitationdocuments developed by Pokja development.  Content and format of a generalAMPL, e.g. Environmental proposal for sanitation programs, Develop strategic 5Health Risk Assessment (EHRA) partnerships.  Decision making and funding49 In the context of a CSS facilitator or PMSS facilitator, area means city, or urban communities.50 Especially the characteristics of physical conditions (topography, climate, water bodies, geomorphology,geology, hydrology), demography (population density, growth rate, gender distribution), land-use (land-use types, composition, development trends), socio-economic (average income, jobs and livelihoods),existing infrastructure (road network, electricity, water supply).51 Environmental Health Risk Assessment (EHRA) is a participatory survey to determine the condition ofsanitation facilities, health / hygiene, as well as peoples behavior at the community and city level. EHRAcan also be used to categorize areas according to the level of environmental health risks.52 Sanitation White Book is a document which provides an overview of the sanitation conditions of acity/district. The document is prepared to serve as foundation for the preparation of a City SanitationStrategy. It contains information on the city/district’s existing sanitation services, obstacles to furtherdevelop the services, identification of city wards or sub-districts that need priority attention, and providesdirection for a sanitation development plan.53 Planning should cover infrastructure, institutional capacity, regulation and policy, public participation,private sector, and funding issues.54 Sanitation profile covers information on infrastructure (services), institutional, regulation and policy,public participation, private sector involvement, and funding. 29
  38. Competence Assessment Core Competencies Occupational Function Need-to-Know Criteria (units &number of elements)report, the Sanitation White Facilitate participatory 5 mechanism of proposals,Book, the CSS document, and process.  Principles, methods, andPMSS document. techniques of participatory process, Prepare and manage facilitation, training, and coaching,documentation on the CSS  Monitoring and evaluationformulation and PMSS process. techniques of the process,  Managing group dynamics, and  Effective communication and presentation skills.Facilitator (Social) for Hygienic Behavior Change306. A Facilitator (Social) for Hygienic Behavior Change is an individual assigned to provide inputs to village facilitators in facilitating rural communities to implement STBM pillars. A social facilitator is expected to have good knowledge on STBM principles, in addition to management, facilitation, and coaching skills. In a common composition, he/she usually works in a sub-district level to assist STBM implementation in a number of villages.307. Qualification of a Facilitator (Social) for Hygienic Behavior Change are:  Educational background: Undergraduate (S-1) degree (minimum) from school of environmental engineering, public health, or social sciences.  Work experience: Three years (minimum) in community-based sanitation, preferably working directly with communities.  Training: STBM Facilitations (see Table 14).  Other: Knowledge of local language or dialect.308. The following table presents the occupational function and condensed version of the list of core competencies, and need-to-know criteria required from a Facilitator (Social) for Hygienic Behavior Change (see Attachment 7 for the complete version). A social STBM facilitator requires 7 competency units with a total of 31 competency elements.Table 8. Expected Competence for a Facilitator (Social) for Hygienic Behavior Core Competencies Occupational Function Need-to-Know Criteria (units & number of elements) Appraise potential of a rural Assess general 5  Basic sanitation and public healthcommunity to implement characteristics of the issues, 55STBM approach, community .  Relation between area’s general Develop work plan and Assess sanitation 5 characteristics with sanitationschedule, conditions of the condition, Introduce information community.  Principles of STBM and CLTSabout sanitation and hygiene Coordinate community 4 approaches, 56issues, STBM, participatory empowerment activities.  Community sanitation survey ,process, choices of facilities, Introduce hygienic 3 including data collection and analysis, Prepare and train village behavior/ practices.  Principles of communityfacilitators and community empowerment and development, Conduct triggering process 4members, participatory planning process, for behavior change. Coordinate village  Gender empowerment, Develop strategic 5facilitators,  Basic organizational and program partnerships. Provide inputs and management, including monitoringguidance during participatory Facilitate participatory 5 and evaluation techniques, process.55 In the context of STBM facilitator, community means rural villages, or smaller units of settlement.56 Types of community sanitation condition survey include Health Impact Assessment for Community-Based System, Rapid Participatory Appraisal (RPA), or simplified Environmental Health Risk Assessment.30
  39. Sanitation Training and Capacity Study Core Competencies Occupational Function Need-to-Know Criteria (units & number of elements)process, including condition  Principles, procedures, andassessment, triggering, techniques of community mapping,planning, and documentation. social mapping, transect walk, and Maintain relationship with other triggering techniques,community leaders, sub-  Principles, methods, anddistrict officials, and other techniques of participatory process,stakeholders, facilitation, training, and coaching, Monitor and evaluate  Managing group dynamic, andprocess,  Effective communication and Prepare and manage presentation skills.documentation on the STBMactivity.Facilitator (Technical) for Communal Sanitation System Implementation309. A Facilitator (Technical) for Communal Sanitation System Implementation is an individual assigned to facilitate and provide technical inputs to urban poor communities in developing communal sanitation facilities, or better known as SANIMAS facilities. A SANIMAS technical facilitator is expected to have good knowledge on the technical aspects of various types of SANIMAS facilities, in addition to facilitation and coaching skills. In a commonly practiced composition, a technical facilitator is expected to work together with a social facilitator. Both facilitators are expected to be involved from the awareness-raising stage until the construction and commissioning stages, albeit with different roles.310. Qualification of a Facilitator (Technical) for Communal Sanitation System Implementation57are:  Educational background:D-3 (minimum) from a technical school, preferably environmental engineering school.  Work experience: Two years (minimum) in SANIMAS facilitation.  Training: SANIMAS Field Facilitation (see Table 14). The facilitation training is a prerequisite for becoming a technical SANIMAS facilitator.311. The following table presents the occupational function and condensed version of the list of core competencies, and need-to-know criteria required from a Facilitator (Technical) for Communal Sanitation System Implementation (see Attachment 8 for the complete version). A SANIMAS technical facilitator requires 8 competency units with a total of 44 competency elements.Table 9. Expected Competence for a Facilitator (Technical) for Communal Sanitation Core Competencies Occupational Function Need-to-Know Criteria (units & number of elements) Appraise the potential of an Assess general 5  Basic sanitation and public healtharea for communal system, characteristics of the issues, Develop workplan and community58.  Government policies on sanitationschedule, Assess sanitation 5 development, especially on PPSP Introduce information conditions of the program,about sanitation issues, community.  Relation between area’s general57 Adapted from the the requirements of personnel applying to be a community-level field facilitator(selection criteria of Tenaga Fasilitator Lapangan) by BORDA Indonesia. A technical facilitator is expectedto be result-oriented and flexible. He/ she should have good communication, facilitation, and conflictmanagement skills.58 In the context of technical SANIMAS facilitator, community means urban poor community, or a smallunit of urban settlement, 31
  40. Competence Assessment Core Competencies Occupational Function Need-to-Know Criteria (units & number of elements)participatory process, Develop conceptual 4 characteristics with sanitationtechnology options of design for communal condition,communal system, sanitation system.  Community sanitation survey, Prepare and train Develop design for shared 6 including data collection and analysis,community group, sanitation facility.  Basic wastewater management Organize and facilitate Develop design for small- 6 system, including wastewatercommunity discussions and scale sewer system. characteristics and estimation,meetings, Develop design for 6  Components of communal 59 Provide technical inputs and communal wastewater sanitation system , its type andprocess guidance during treatment facility. characteristics,participatory condition  Basic engineering design andassessment, technical design, Develop strategic 7 drawings of communal facilities,construction, commissioning, partnerships.  Operation and maintenance ofand document preparation, Facilitate participatory 5 communal facilities, Maintain relationship with process.  Construction and O&M costother facilitators, community estimation,leaders, and other  Content and format oftechnicalstakeholders, proposal, and operating procedure Monitor and evaluate documents,process,  Principles, methods, and Ensure the quality of techniques of participatory process,technical documents facilitation, training, and coaching,developed by community  Monitoring and evaluationgroup, techniques of the process, Prepare and manage  Managing group dynamics,documentation on the  Effective communication anddevelopment process. presentation skills.Consultant (Technical) for Wastewater System Planning312. A Consultant (Technical) for Wastewater System Planning is an individual assigned to provide technical expertise to develop a masterplan for domestic wastewater management of a city or large communities. He/she must have sound technical knowledge and experience in the technical aspects of wastewater management system. A technical consultant is expected to serve as a coordinator of a team (team leader) consisting of other consultants with expertise in wastewater engineering, financial analysis, socio-economics, institution development, legal/regulatory matters.313. Qualification of a Consultant (Technical) for Wastewater System Planning60 are:  Educational background: University graduate (S-2, at minimum) from the school of environmental engineering.  Work experience: Twelve years (minimum) in the field of wastewater management planning.  Others: Certification for Senior Expert in Environmental Engineering61.59 Communal sanitation facilities may include shared sanitation facility, sewer network, and communaltreatment facility.60 Adapted from the requirements of personnel involved in wastewater management system master plan(for Team Leader position) by the Directorate General of Human Settlements, Ministry of Public Works,Republic of Indonesia.61 Certificate of Senior Expert in Environmental Engineering is awarded by the Agency for ConstructionService Development (LPJK, or Lembaga Pengembangan Jasa Konstruksi) to an individual with extensiveexperience in planning, design, and supervision of the construction of any facility related to environmental/ sanitary engineering field.32
  41. Sanitation Training and Capacity Study314. The following table presents the occupational function and condensed version of the list of core competencies, and need-to-know criteria required from a Consultant (Technical) for Wastewater System Planning(see Attachment9 for the complete version). A wastewater technical consultant requires 12 competency units with a total of 57 competency elements.Table 10. Expected Competence for a Consultant (Technical) for Wastewater Planning Core Competencies Occupational Function Need-to-Know Criteria (units & number of elements) Coordinate and manage Comprehend general 5  Basic wastewater managementcommencement of characteristics of the system, including types and 62assignments, area . characteristics of services, Provide guidance to team Prepare wastewater 7  Government policies on sanitationmembers on direction of plans, system profile of the area. and wastewater management Conduct assignments with Assess demand for 5 development, including PPSPregard to his/ her area of wastewater system program,expertise, improvement.  Regulations on wastewater and Assess general Comprehend projections 5 sludge, e.g. location restrictions,characteristics and sanitation on future characteristics environmental standards,condition of the target area, of the area.  Wastewater and sludge Review and consolidate Formulate basic 4 characteristics,results from other team framework for  Principles of wastewater system 63members, wastewater system planning , Supervise work of other development.  Wastewater profile mapping,team members, Formulate direction for 5  Types and nature of strategic issues Finalize master plans of wastewater system in wastewater development,wastewater management development.  Relation between area’s generalsystem, characteristics with sanitation Determine the most 4 Lead technical discussion, appropriate wastewater condition,meetings, and workshops, system.  Principles, methods, and Maintain relationship with techniques of a demand assessment, Develop conceptual 4stakeholders, e.g. the Real Demand Survey (RDS), design for wastewater Ensure the quality of work treatment facility. willingness-to-pay,results and deliverables, and  Components of spatial plan, Prepare and manage Develop conceptual 4  Prediction methodologies fordocumentation on the master design for sewer network. demography and land-use,plan development process. Develop conceptual 5  City/ district strategic development design for sludge handling planning, as well as the CSS, component.  Estimation of wastewater and Develop conceptual 4 sludge generation, design for communal  Components, types, and sanitation facility. 64 characteristics of facilities , Prepare implementation 5  Principles of design, construction, concept for wastewater and operation of facilities, system development  Construction and O&M cost programs. estimation,  Program planning, at city/ district level.CURRENT CONDITIONGeneral Performance315. Many share the opinion that performance of sanitation personnel in Indonesiatends to beweak. This opinion is formed from observations of different62 In the context of a wastewater system technical consultant, area means city.63 Components of wastewater management profile are infrastructure (services), institutional, regulationand policy, public participation, private sector involvement, and funding.64 Wastewater facilities include treatment plant, sludge management (collection, treatment, anddisposal), sewer system, and communal facility. 33
  42. Competence Assessment factors, such as quality of their work results, ability to analyze and solve problems, communication style, presentation techniques, and work habits. Some of the shared opinions are as follows65:  Results: The quality of outputs of planning and design consultants is considered sub-standard, in terms of substance and/or presentation. Very poor results are also produced by operators of final disposal facilities or sewage treatment plants, which have not, to date, met the desired performance standards.  Knowledge: Many feel that technical SANIMAS facilitators do not have sufficient engineering knowledge to help communities determine appropriate communal sanitation facilities. Similarly, technical consultants are not knowledgeable about new technologies or updated methodologies in their respective sectors.  Communication skills: Verbal communication skills are considered poor. Some facilitators and consultants are unable to deliver good presentations. Likewise, operators often have difficulty expressing their views.  Reporting skills: Report writing skills are also weak. Reports in this sector generally are poorly structured, and not well-written (weak style) and not presented well (poor formatting).  Work habits: A common complaint relates to ability of personnel to meet work deadlines. In addition, some feel facilitators are not persuasive enough, especially in convincing communities or government officials to engage in participatory planning. Attendance has also received attention, especially related to consultants not attending project discussions or meetings. However, many parties show appreciation towards the high dedication among sanitation personnel, particularly facilitators.Working Condition316. Performance of sanitation personnel is strongly influenced by their level of competence as much as by the situations and settings of the professional environment in which their competencies are exercised. Although not studied in- depth66, these factors are presented here with the intention that future plans and strategies acknowledge their significance, i.e.  Availability of equipment and materials. Most wastewater, solid waste, and drainage facilities do not have enough equipment and materials to allow their operators to work properly. It is a common knowledge that existing equipment are usually old and/or in bad condition. Limited equipment, such as analytic equipment, computers, and software, may also prevent the consultants from producing good quality results.  Availability of funds. Insufficient amount and late disbursement of funds force sanitation personnel to complete their assignment with smaller budget than anticipated. This condition may prevent facilitators from visiting sites, prevent consultants from collecting enough data and information, and prevent operators from running facilities with proper equipment and materials.  Availability of personnel. Many consulting projects do not involve as many personnel as they need, or do not involve qualified personnel as they should. A competent individual might not able to do quality work if he/she does not get good support from qualified team members. Or worse, if he/she does not have65 Summarized from interviews conducted to the users of sanitation personnel, including governmentofficers in charge of sanitation-related projects, program managers, team leaders and supervisors ofprojects.66 The basis for this discussion is largely observations, and results of conversations with various personnelactive in sanitation programs.34
  43. Sanitation Training and Capacity Study any other team members to work with altogether. Similarly, an operator’s performance is weakened if he/she does not have enough qualified personnel in the team.  Timeframe. In many cases, the late government bidding process and disbursement of funds force consulting teams to complete assignments within a shorter timeframe. As a result, results expected from the consultants are much higher than their competence can deliver.  Availability of data. Generally, data management is very poor in most Indonesian institutions. Reliance on data collection and storage by individuals is still high. As a result, an individual may spend a lot of time to track down data, and when data is not complete, he/she is forced to make analysis and draw conclusions based on insufficient information. The net result is poor outputs (reports, plans, designs, etc). The effect over time is significant, since data and information presented in reports are used by subsequent assignments (projects); compounding the poor reliability of information. These factors might not be unique to sanitation. However, unless future sanitation activities begin to overcome these obstacles, delivery of outputs will remain sub- standard, and competency improvement efforts will prove futile.317. Another factor that may influence an individual’s performance, especially on his/her motivation, is the compensation and benefits. Relative to other (competing sectors), sanitation jobs provide lower compensation and minimal benefits. A rough comparison shows that entry-level engineers (S1) in industry (private sector) can receive a monthly base salary of IDR 6 – 10 million, plus full medical and other benefits. As a consultant in sanitation work, a junior engineer (S1) with 1 to 4 years of experience can only get approximately IDR 4.5 - 6 million , and often with only minimum benefits. Similarly, a mid-level engineer in the private sector can get a monthly base salary of IDR 11 – 20 million, while as a consultant the base salary would only be in the range of IDR 6 – 8.5 million. Compared to various types of environmental engineering jobs67, sanitation personnel can be considered to get the lowest compensation. Low compensation reduces the financial ability of an individual to participate in activities that may improve his/her competence, e.g. trainings, seminar, workshops, and networkings (see section on Networking).Level of Competence318. An individual’s level of competence, i.e. knowledge, skills, and attitude, will influence his/her work performance. Lack of competence adversely affects performance, while sufficient competence supports good performance. Levelof competence of sanitation personnel, represented by the same four types assessed in the demand assessment, is evaluated relative to the lists of core competencies68. Competencyshortcomings will be used as important inputs in preparing recommendations for future capacity-building activities(see the followings).Facilitator (Policy) for Sanitation Development Planning319. Policy facilitators for sanitation planning have various education backgrounds which are still meeting the qualification required (par. 304). Most of them, about 36%, have a degree in civil engineering. Among the rest have background in social67 When compared to billing rates of environmental auditors, there is also a significant gap. Public Works’rates for mid-level consultant for government contracts are in the range of IDR 10 to 14 million permonth, or approximately IDR 500,000 to 700,000 per day. A mid-level environmental auditor conductingaudits for private companies can bill around USD 600 to 800 (or IDR 5 to 7 million) per day.68 Web-based surveys targeting the four types of sanitation personnel was conducted to assess theirbackground, status, level of competence, and willingness to retain in the sanitation sector. 35
  44. Competence Assessment sciences (19%), environmental/sanitary engineering (2.4%), and law, management, public health, communications, and economic. Most of the facilitators hold S-1 degree (76%), while 21.6% hold S-2 degree and 2.7% hold S-3 degree.320. Policy facilitators for sanitation planning are generally confident about their level of competencies, as listed in respective competency units and elements (see Table 7 and Attachment6). These CSS facilitators indicate a high level of confidence on their functional competencies, related to participation process and strategic partnerships. On the substantive competencies, the facilitators are confident mostly in comprehending the current and future condition of the area, as well as in formulating basic framework for sanitation development in the area. Lack of confidence is indicated in determining timeframe, targets, and zoning of sanitation development, as well as selecting criteria of sanitation services to be developed. This lack of competence may be partly attributed to the lack of their knowledge on technical aspects.Facilitator (Social) for Hygienic Behavior Change Implementation321. Social facilitators for hygienic behavior have various education backgrounds which meet the qualification required (par. 307). Most of these STBM facilitators, about 50%, have a degree in public health, while the rest have background in civil engineering (16.6%), economics (1.7%), and remainder is other disciplines. Most of the facilitators hold S-1 degree (80%), while 20% hold S-2 degree.322. Social facilitators for hygienic behavior show a high level of confidence in their competencies. In relation to their list of competencies (see Table 8 and Attachment7), these STBM facilitators are particularly confident about their substantive competencies in assessing sanitation conditions of the community, coordinating community empowerment activities, conducting triggering process for behavior change, and others. They are also confident on their functional competencies as facilitators. Lack of confidence is indicated only in competency related to assessing the general characteristics of the community. The high confidence on their competencies may indicate that the on-the-job training they have undergone is very effective, and/or reflects the fact that district-level facilitators have had field experience (for STBM), where their knowledge and skills are directly put into practice and sharpened.Facilitator (Technical) for Communal Sanitation System Implementation323. Technical facilitators for communal system have various education backgrounds. Not all of them meet the qualification required (par. 310). Most of these SANIMAS facilitators have a degree in civil engineering. Only a small number of SANIMAS facilitators have a degree in environmental engineering. Most of the facilitators hold S-1 degree (60%), while 40% hold D-3 degree.324. Technical facilitators for communal system show confidence in describing an area’s physical and socio-economic characteristics, in assessing the sanitation conditions, and in designing simple sewer network, as well as managing the participatory process of developing a communal system. Where this group appears less confident is in developing the conceptual design for the sanitation system, especially related to the sewage treatment system, in estimating construction and operational costs, as well as in preparing the operational guidelines for the units (see Table 9 and Attachment 8). This seems consistent with the fact that most of the facilitators have a degree in civil engineering, where the technical aspects of liquid waste management are not part of the curriculum.36
  45. Sanitation Training and Capacity StudyConsultant (Technical) for Wastewater System Planning325. Technical consultants for wastewater planning have various education backgrounds which are still meeting the qualification required (par. 313). All of these consultants have a degree in environmental/sanitary engineering69, of which 75% are environmental engineering, and 25% are sanitary engineering. Most of the facilitators hold S-1 degree (75%), while 25% hold S-2 degree.326. Technical consultants for wastewater planning show high proficiency in many competency elements, in fact is the highest compared to the other three groups assessed. In relation to their list of competencies (see Table 10 and Attachment9), the technical consultants only indicate slight confidence in competencies related to funding, private sector involvement, and public participation. Those non-engineering subjects seem to be areas where future capacity building programs can place additional attention.Gender Perspective327. The gender distribution among sanitation personnel seems to vary. Among the CSS/PMSS facilitators, there are 14 women in a group of 147 facilitators, or approximately 11%. The survey for CSS/PMSS facilitator group indicates similar pattern with a 9% women.Other results of the survey indicate that more than 60% of STBM facilitators are women,while less than 10% of SANIMAS facilitators are women. Among the technical consultants70, there are 23.5 % women. The survey also captured a more balanced gender ratio among university students studying environmental engineering, i.e. 47% women and 53% men.The figures here only give a rough estimation on the gender balance among sanitation personnel. Further analysis would have to be conducted to determine the actual percentage of women in sanitation jobs across the country.328. Asuming the results above are considered valid, then the following observations are made:  Currently, the percentage of women active as sanitation personnel is small, i.e. less than 25%, despite the fact there are no gender limitations attached to job opportunities in sanitation.  The high proportion of women involved in STBM activities (as facilitators) may be due to a fact that more womenare interested with the subject, i.e. hygienic behaviour change in rural communities. Most men are interested with a more technical subject, as it is shown in a higher proportion of men to fill the technical consultants or facilitators positions.  The small proportion of womeninvolved as CSS/PMSS and SANIMAS facilitators may due to the fact that both positions require extended assignments outside of hometowns (residence).  In the future, with a good percentage of women in the environmental engineering student body, more women can be expected to work in sanitation. However, what factors will ensure their interest in taking sanitation positions needs to be studied further.69 Sanitary engineering degree indicates that respondent is a very senior expert, when most universitiesoffered only sanitary engineering programs (not environmental engineering).70 The number of technical consultants is represented by the LPJK certified engineers registered underIATPI (200 individuals). 37
  46. Competence AssessmentSUPPLY OF COMPETENCE329. An individual’s competence is formed by a combination of at least five factors (see diagram). In the forefront, formal education and trainings establish a person’s foundation of knowledge and skills. On top of that, an individual’s work experience, self-discovery and personal trial-and-error serve to polish knowledge and skills, as well as shape one’s professional attitude. Through networking, a person gains access to new ideas and new information, further encouraging them to grow professionally. Finally, recognition serves as a motivator for one to continue improving competence. The different factors above are described in the Study, although more analysis is given on the education and training factors. While explanation of other factors are limited to a description of conditions or opportunities that currently exist in Indonesia.Education330. Undergraduate education, for D-3 and S-1 degrees71, establishes a foundation of knowledge in a particular discipline. This foundation serves as the basis from which an individual develops further knowledge and skills. In most cases, the knowledge obtained is general and theoretical (explicit knowledge), providing the individual with an analytical tool or viewpoint to utilize when addressing an issue. The minimum qualification for many of the technical positions related to sanitation is S-1 degree in environmental/sanitary engineering. The S-1 degree is called Sarjana Teknik (Bachelors in Engineering), which is seen as a prerequisite for one to have a profession as engineer.331. Other sanitation positions can be filled by individuals with a wide range of educational backgrounds. No special assessment was done to review universities offering social science, urban planning, public health degrees. The numbers are expected to be high, especially for social sciences.Capacity332. Currently in Indonesia, there are a total of 47 universities offering a S-1 degree in environmental/ sanitary engineering, with a maximum capacity of 2,800 students/year and a maximum graduation of 1000 individuals/year. These institutions are spread across the country, with 17 universities located outside of Java, i.e. Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam, Kalimantan, Sulawesi, and Papua (see Attachment 10 for the list of the universities).Besides S-1 degree, there are five universities offering a D-3 diploma in environmental engineering and four universities offering an S-2 degree (see Table 11).333. Currently, almost all universities show that actual student intake in environmental engineering program is less than the maximum capacity (see Table 11). In STTL Yogyakarta, the average intake per year is 90 students – half of the school’s capacity. In Sekolah Tinggi Teknologi Sapta Taruna, the actual intake per year is 20 – less than 20% of its capacity. Furthermore, with a maximum capacity of71 D-3 is a six-semester professional education with 110 – 120 semester credit units (credits), while S-1 isan eight-semester academic education with 140 – 160 credits.38
  47. Sanitation Training and Capacity Study 65 D-3 students annually, Akademi Teknik Tirta Wiyarta has only actual intake of 40 students per year. In Politeknik Muhammadiyah, the actual intake is less than 10 per year. This shows interest in environmental engineering education is quite low, and it is getting worse by years.Table 11. Environmental Engineering Programs in Indonesia Degree Item D-3 S-1 S-2Number Unit 5 47 4Acceptance Person/year 49 1,500 81 72Graduate Person/year 31 800 – 1,000 51Capacity Person/year 158 2,800 103Universities  Akademi Teknik Tirta  Sekolah Tinggi  Institut Teknologiwith largest Wiyarta, Magelang Teknik Lingkungan Sepuluh November,acceptance (65), Yogyakarta, STTL (182 Surabaya.capacity  Politeknik Muham- students),  Institut Teknologi madiyah, Magelang  Sekolah Tinggi Bandung. (53), Teknologi Sapta  Universitas Katolik  Univ. Pandanaran, Taruna, Jakarta (150), Soegijapranata, Semarang (40  Institut Teknologi Semarang. students), Sepuluh Nopember,  Institut Teknologi  Sekolah Tinggi Surabaya (110), Adhi Tama, Surabaya. Teknologi Sapta  Institut Teknologi Taruna, Jakarta, Bandung (100).  Universitas Mula- warman, Samarinda.Source: Portal Informasi Pendidikan(http://evaluasi.or.id) and websites of Sekolah Teknologi Sapta Taruna(http//:sttsaptataruna.ac.id) and Universitas Mulawarman (http//:unmul.ac.id).Knowledge Offered334. Comparisons of the courses and the need-to-know criteria of the SANIMAS technical facilitator and technical consultant for wastewater planning (see Table 9 and Table 10) indicate that the S-1 curriculum of environmental engineering is relatively sufficient in introducing basic science and knowledge for both types of personnel (see Table 12). However, the curriculum does not offer knowledge on current development policies, update technologies, participatory planning process, and facilitation techniques. These program-specific and functional subjects are areas where orientation trainings play a more significant role (see section on Trainings).335. During sanitary engineering era, undergraduate programs have been geared to producing graduates for the water supply and sanitation sectors. The subjects cover the basics of water supply (transmission, treatment, distribution, and plumbing), wastewater management (treatment and sewer), solid waste management (collection and disposal), drainage, and public health. After it is changed to environmental engineering73, the undergraduate programs have broadened their offerings to meet demand from the industrial sector (manufacturing, oil/gas, mining, plantations). Additional courses include air pollution, hazardous waste, pollution control, occupational health and safety. Most environmental engineering programs now lean towards preparing students for jobs in the private sectorto manage their Environmental, Health, and Safety (EHS) activities (including environmental assessments, wastewater treatment, solid waste management, hazardous waste management, air quality management, etc.).In fact, lecturers also have developed specializations in a wider range of fields than the72 The portal data is not current; some schools show zero graduating students indicating that the schoolsare relatively new. The portal shows a number of 827 graduating per year. But likely the number is higher.73 Institut Teknologi Bandung (ITB) is the first university to shift its program from sanitary engineering toenvironmental engineering, it was done in 1984. 39
  48. Competence Assessment traditional water and sanitation field. As a result, current graduates may have good overview knowledge of the engineering aspects of all three sub-sectors, but they do not have enough in-depth and practical knowledge to immediately work in a technical capacity. At least, compared to the graduates during sanitary engineering era74.Table 12. Sufficiency of Environmental Engineering Curriculum Facilitator (Technical) for Consultant (Technical) for Communal System Wastewater System Planning Need-to-Know Criteria Curriculum Need-to-Know Criteria Curriculum Basic sanitation and public health ++ Basic wastewater system ++ Government policies on sanitation - Government policies on sanitation - development and wastewater development Relation between area’s charac- + Relation between area’s charac- + teristics with sanitation condition teristics with sanitation condition Community sanitation survey + Regulations on wastewater ++ Basic wastewater management ++ Principles of wastewater planning ++ Components of communal system ++ Wastewater profile mapping + Basic engineering design and ++ Wastewater and sludge ++ drawings of communal facilities characteristics Operation and maintenance of - Types and nature of strategic + communal facilities issues in wastewater development Construction and O&M cost + Principles, methods, and tech- + estimation niques of a demand assessment Content and format oftechnical and - Prediction methodologies for + operating procedure documents demography and land-use Principles, methods, and techniques - Estimation of wastewater and ++ of participatory process, etc. sludge generation Monitoring &evaluation techniques - City/ district strategic planning - Managing group dynamics - Components, types, and ++ characteristics of facilities Effective communication and + Principles of design, construction, ++ presentation skills and operation of facilities Construction and O&M cost + estimation Note: (++) = introduced strongly, (+) = introduced mildly, (-) = not introducedTraining336. Training courses generally cover a specific topic, and either increase knowledge on a technology, program, approach, and/or improve a set of skills needed for a particular task. In the Study, training programs are differentiated into:  Orientation training; Courses that must be attended by individuals as a prerequisite to begin work as a certain type of sanitation personnel. The courses are tailored specifically to meet the needs for a job title in a program, firm, or project.  Continuation training; Courses that must be attended by individuals to continue working as sanitation personnel, with the aim to maintain ori mprovetheir professionalstatus. Participation in the course is part of their requirements as employee/staff, certification holder, and hired professionals.74 However, there are strong intentions of some universities to modify their S-1 curriculum to put moreattention on water supply and sanitation sector. In fact, ITB is in the final preparation stage to open aWater and Sanitation Infrastructure department where the curriculum will more materials on watersupply, wastewater, solid waste, and drainage engineering. If approved, it is expected that the S-1program will be officially opened in 2013.40
  49. Sanitation Training and Capacity Study  Regular training; Courses which are not tied to any work requirement and open to the public on a scheduled basis.Orientation Training337. There are a number of orientation trainings available in the sanitation sector, i.e. those related to CSS/PMSS policy facilitator, SANIMAS technical facilitator, and STBM facilitator (see Table 13).The trainings are conducted as part of the recruitment process with an objective to provide program- and job-specific knowledge, skills, and motivation to the candidates. Comparisons to the need-to- know criteria (see Table 5, Table 6, and Table 7) show that most of the orientation training programs have fulfilled almost all requirements. However, there is a need to add more technical materials in the training for technical SANIMAS facilitators, e.g. design engineering and O&M principles of small-scale sewer system.Regular Training338. Regular trainings are offered by a number of universities, private firms, and non-governmental organizations (NGOs). The courses include community-based solid waste management, integrated solid waste management, and wastewater treatment plant operations. However, the courses are not offered consistently each year. In fact many classes end up being cancelled due to insufficient participants. This indicates the low demand among the public for sanitation-related courses. A Yogyakarta-based organization, PUSTEKLIM (Pusat Pengembangan Teknologi Tepat Guna Pengolahan Limbah Cair) is known to be active in conducting wastewater- related courses.Table 13. Orientation Training Programs Programs Target Group Duration Coverage 76Formulation of Candidates of 10 days PPSP principles, sanitation policies and institutions, 75CSS city/provincial White Book and CSS, sanitation mapping and CSS facilitators assessment, monitoring-evaluation, adult-learning methods, facilitation, documents’ quality control.Preparation of Candidates of 4 days Sanitation policies and institutions, prioritizing and 77PMSS PMSS internalizing programs, programing and budgeting, facilitators formulating PMSS, studies and technical design, monitoring-evaluation, implementation plan.STBM STBM district 6 days STBM national strategy and implementation, facilitation 78Facilitations facilitators techniques, communication, pillars of STBM.SANIMAS Field Candidates of 7 days SANIMAS principles and stages, rapid community self- 79Facilitation SANIMAS field assessment, facilitation principles and techniques, facilitators participatory planning, community action plan, options of technologies.75 Based on the latest CSS facilitation training conducted by the Ministry of Public Works in 5 – 14December 2011 at Bogor (West Java). The training was attended by 220 candidates of city and provincialfacilitators.76 The Formulation CSS training for facilitators was recently reduced to 10 days duration, from theprevious duration of three weeks.77 Based on the PMSS facilitation training conducted by the Ministry of Public Works on 18-21 July 2011 inJakarta. The training was attended by 68 candidates of provincial management consultant (KonsultanManajemen Provinsi, or KMP).78 Based on TOT for STBM facilitators conducted by the Ministry of Health on 29 November – 4 December2010 in Lembang, Bandung (West Java).79 Based on description of training module for SANIMAS facilitators, developed by Badan SertifikasiDEWATS, Borda Indonesia. 41
  50. Competence AssessmentProviders339. A number of ministries and government agencies possess training centers which offer sanitation-related courses. Among them are:  Ministry of Public Works: Balai Teknik Air Minum dan Sanitasi Wilayah (BTAMS, or Center for Water and Sanitation Engineering). There are two of such centers, located in Surabaya (East Java) and Bekasi (West Java). The centers offer mainly short-courses, with duration of approximately 3 to 4 days, covering various topics on wastewater, solid waste, drainage, and water supply80. Besides the two centers, Ministry of Public Works has nine other training centers (Balai Pendidikan dan Pelatihan Pekerjaan Umum) and one competence development unit (PUSBINKPK, or Pusat Pembinaan Kompetensi dan Pelatihan Konstruksi) which occasionally conduct sanitation-related trainings. BTAMS is considered as the most established training institutions for sanitation among the other centers.  Ministry of Health: Balai Pelatihan Kesehatan (BAPELKES, or Center for Health Trainings) in Lemah abang (Karawang, West Java) offers courses on basic sanitation technology, public health, and sanitation assessment.  Ministry of Environment: Pusat Sarana Pengendalian Dampak Lingkungan (PUSARPEDAL, or Center for Environmental Impact Management) in Serpong (Banten) offers courses on wastewater, solid waste, and impact assessment. Most training programs offered by the centers are specifically designed for government officials, especially from local government agencies. However, they are open to cooperate with other institutions, programs, or firms. One example is the cooperation between Pokja AMPL and BTAMS Bekasi to conduct CSS facilitator training courses. In such cases, the centers provide the training venue and staff, while the partner institutions supply trainers, organize participants and prepare training materials. The centers are equipped with full training facilities, laboratory and training equipment, and accommodation. They are allowed to receive payment for services provided to outside parties, known as PNBP (Penerimaan Negara Bukan Pajak).340. A number of universities offer sanitation-related courses. Amongthe universities are Institut Teknologi Bandung (ITB), Universitas Indonesia, Institut Pertanian Bogor (IPB), Universitas Islam Indonesia (Yogyakarta), and Universitas Gajah Mada (Yogyakarta). A number of NGOs also offer such courses. One of them is a Yogyakarta-based organization, PUSTEKLIM (Pusat Pengembangan Teknologi Tepat Guna Pengolahan Limbah Cair) which is known to be active in conducting wastewater-related courses.Networking341. Being part of a professional peer group -- exchanging information and ideas, sharing enthusiasm and aspirations -- also contributes to development of a person’s competence. For active sanitation personnel, being part of a network plays a very significant role in building competence, considering they have limited time to attend training courses. Such knowledge networking can be done through professional associations, groups of peers, business associations, and alumnae groups. Another form is internet-based networking, which has become more and more popular these days.80 Courses offered by BTAMS Bekasi include Management of Domestic Liquid Waste, Solid WasteManagement, Technical Preparations and Management of Drainage Facilities, On-site Management ofSolid Waste, Transmission and Distribution Pipe Network, Clean Water Production, Mechanical andElectrical, Project Supervision, and Water-Loss Mitigation.42
  51. Sanitation Training and Capacity Study342. There are a number of professional associations currently involved in developing competence of sanitation personnel in Indonesia, i.e.  IATPI (Ikatan Ahli Teknik Penyehatan dan Teknik Lingkungan Indonesia, or Indonesian Society for Sanitary and Environmental Engineers):Its members comprise of those who are directly or indirectly involved in the sectors of water, wastewater, solid waste, drainage, industrial pollution control, environmental remediation, environmental assessment, and industrial hygiene. Most of them are graduates of sanitary and environmental engineers. IATPI was founded in 1977, therefore it is considered as the most established sanitation-related professional association in Indonesia. Their activities include a) providing technical inputs to government and other stakeholders, b) conducting trainings, seminars, workshops, conferences, and exhibitions, on various environmental subjects81, c) publishing journals, d) developtechnologies and prototypes,e) promoting competence and capacity of its members,f) developing and awarding formal recognition for various type of environmental professionals, g) providing experts. Its members reach 1,500 individuals, of which 600 are certified engineers82.  HAKLI (Himpunan Ahli Kesehatan Lingkungan Indonesia, or Indonesian Association forEnvironmental Health Experts):Its members comprise of environmental health professionals with various educational backgrounds, positions, role, and specialization. HAKLI aims to enhance capabilities and roles of its members, as well as to provide assistance to the government on environmental and public health issues. HAKLI was established on 1980, as an improvement to the Association of Indonesian Health Controllers (IKKI), founded in 1955. In the public health sector, many HAKLI members are sanitarians, either as implementers, assessors, or instructors.  INTAKINDO (Ikatan Tenaga Ahli Konsultan Indonesia, or Indonesian Society for Consultants): Its members comprise of individuals who are involved as experts in a wide range of consultancy work, including sanitation-related work. INTAKINDO is very active in the certification process, including for engineers involved in construction activities, and experts of environmental impact assessment (AMDAL). It now has almost 2,500 members, most of which are certificate holders. INTAKINDO was established in 2004 by INKINDO (Ikatan Konsultan Indonesia, or Indonesian Society for Consulting Firms)83. Although one of their missions is to develop and promote competence of their members, all of the above professional associations do not have a comprehensive implementation plan to do so. Most of their activities are responsive to requests or needs from other parties. Lack of manpower and funding is a common obstacle faced by most professional associations.81 IATPI has supported BAPPENAS and Pokja AMPL in organizing the national conferences on sanitation(KSN 2009 and KASN 2011), supported ITB in conducting international seminar on water and sanitation,and supported environmental agencies by providing resource persons for various trainings. IATPI bi-annually conducts scientific forum for environmental research, namely Forum Ilmiah Lingkungan Tropis. InOctober 2012, IATPI will conduct an international conference on sanitary landfill.82 More information are provided in IATPI’s website, www.iatpi.org.83 More information are provided in INTAKINDOs website, www.intakindo.org. 43
  52. Competence Assessment343. There are not many groups currently active in providing and maintaining networks in sanitation sector in Indonesia. Two groups which are quite active:  FORKALIM (Forum Komunikasi Pengelola Air Limbah Permukiman, or Communication Forum for Domestic Wastewater Management):The forum was founded by PERPAMSI84in 2004. Its members are cities with wastewater services, i.e. Medan, Palembang, Banjarmasin, DKI Jakarta, Bandung, Denpasar, Makassar, Surakarta, and Surabaya. FORKALIM has conducted a number of capacity-building activities for its members including seminars, trainings, and workshops on wastewater management.  Jejaring AMPL (Jejaring Air Minum dan Penyehatan Lingkungan, or Network for Drinking Water and Sanitation):The forum was founded in 2002 to improve communications, coordination, and synergy among sanitation stakeholders. The network allows its members to share information, transfer knowledge, create collective ideas, strengthen relationships, and manage shared resources. Jejaring AMPL was founded in 2007, and now has more than 50 members comprising of donor agencies, institutions, programs, universities, professional associations, private firms, NGOs, and others. Jejaring AMPL can be considered as a network with the most diverse membership in the sanitation sector85. In terms of knowledge management, the two networks have not maximized their full potential. Combining knowledge and other resources of their members, both organizations can contribute more to competency development of sanitation personnel.344. An increasing number of professions and professional circles in Indonesia are using web-based networks or mailing lists as a means to activate or mobilize a group to contribute to the growth of a sector or discipline. Such networks have a powerful advantage of reducing geographic distances, allowing individuals from all parts of the country to participate. Even passive participants can learn from or be inspired by discussions posted in the network. Currently active mailing lists related to sanitation sector are:  Milis AMPL: Established in May 2005, the AMPL (Air Minum Dan Penyehatan Lingkungan) mailing listallows its members to post new information, promote events and observe common goals and approaches. The mailing list, in fact, serves as a media to forge new partnerships. It provides a forum for individual members to share information and personal opinions, and to debate ideas. Per December 2011, its membership reached more than 1,500 individuals. The AMPL mailing list is managed by the Secretariat of Pokja AMPL.  Milis STBM: Established in May 2010, the STBM (Sanitasi Total Berbasis Masyarakat) mailing list allows its members to share information and knowledge. It contains information on STBM best practices, event announcements, methodologies and tools, etc. The STBM mailing list is managed by the STBM Secretariat. Per December 2011, its membership reached more than 200 individuals. The potential to expand such a network to become a means for better knowledge management and dissemination is immense, especially for a country as large as Indonesia.84 PERPAMSI (Persatuan PDAM Seluruh Indonesia) is an association of water supply companies inIndonesia. Wastewater services in many Indonesian cities are still under the management of water supplycompanies.85 More information are provided in Jejaring’s website, www.jejaring-ampl.org44
  53. Sanitation Training and Capacity StudyExperiencing345. Once an individual enters the workforce, a very important competence- building process happens. By performing tasks, doing required research and observations, and by making mistakes, an individual experiences a more profound learning process. Such experience validates personal knowledge, molds professional attitude, and establishes a person’s professional credibility. Building competence through experience and self-learning is difficult to plot, track and design, especially since an individual’s propensity to learn and grow is a major factor, and yet differs from one individual to another. This study does not pursue this factor further, although it recognizes the importance and may recommend some actions in the strategy.346. Over the past decades, sanitation personnel in Indonesia has had limited opportunities to experience work in this field, due to the low level of sanitation investments, which resulted in the relatively small number of projects. The most extreme example is sewerage. With only eleven cities equipped with a sewerage network (with a small coverage), Indonesia has not developed a substantial professional corps with proven competence in designing, constructing and operating sewerage systems. Compared to water supply, where investments have been relatively high and personnel seem sufficient, sewerage is lagging behind. This is also the case with septage management (septic tank sludge), which has continued to use low technology approaches. Consequently, there is generally low competence in this field. Similarly, the fact that no solid waste disposal site is functioning as a proper sanitary landfill, has hindered development of competent operators for sanitary landfills in the country.Recognition347. Recognition of professional competence comes in the form of certification from an accredited certifying organization. The Government has also made certification a prerequisite for various jobs and/or tender proceedings, partly as a means to ensure quality but also to anticipate influx of foreign workers when free- trade agreements become effective. In the sanitation-related fields, professional certification is still limited to a handful of positions, i.e.  Certification for Experts in Environmental Engineering: The certification scheme is run by LPJK (Lembaga Pengembangan Jasa Konstruksi, or the Agency for Construction Service Development)86, which includes a classification for environmental/sanitary engineers. This covers individuals who are involved in the planning, design, and construction of sanitation facilities. More than ten professional associations87 are given the right by LPJK to certify its members with the environmental/sanitary engineering background. Currently, more than 7,400 individuals are listed as senior, mid-level, junior, and entry-level certified engineers under the environmental/sanitary engineering classification.  Certification for Environmental Pollution Control Manager (EPCM): The professional certification scheme is launched by the Ministry of Industry and Ministry of Environment, targeting individual-in-charge of managing wastewater in their facilities. Although it is officially aimed at industries, there are certificate holders from municipal wastewater treatment facilities, commercial buildings86 LPJK is an independent organization that issues professional certification for a wide range ofengineering professions related to construction. This scheme is recognized by the Ministry of PublicWorks, and is used as pre-requisite for all government construction tenders since 2009.87 Among them are IATPI, INTAKINDO, Himpunan Profesi Tenaga Konstruksi Indonesia (HIPTASI),Persatuan Insinyur Indonesia (PII), Ikatan Ahli Perencanaan Indonesia (IAP), Perhimpunan Ahli TeknikIndonesia (PATI), Asosiasi Tenaga Teknik Indonesia (ASTTI), Asosiasi Tenaga Ahli Konstruksi Indonesia(ATAKI), Ikatan Ahli Konstruksi Indonesia (IAKI). 45
  54. Competence Assessment and housing estates (with effluent characteristics similar to municipal). The certification program is managed by IATPI, since the association was involved in the development of this certification scheme and its standard of competencies. Currently, more than 300 individuals are awarded EPCM certificate. Recognition so far does not exist for facilitators related to CSS, SANIMAS88, or STBM. If facilitators (in this context) are not considered suitable for professional certification programs, then other forms of recognition must be explored.348. The two schemes requires a certificate holder to continually improve competence by (a) practicing their competence in relevant activities, (b) participating in training courses, seminar, and workshops. Those who do not comply will not be able to renew their certificates. However, to date, none of the organizations have developed a structured competence building (or continuing education) programs to support this requirement.DISCUSSIONGaps of Competence349. Demand for competence; The assessment draws the following conclusions regarding competence demand:  City-level planning facilitators89 require inter disciplinary competence, combining not only technical and non-technical knowledge, but strong skills in communication and facilitation. The policy facilitator for sanitation planning needs to have 50 competency elements (see Attachment 6).Mid-level personnel from a wide range educational background (engineering, urban planning, public health, public administration or communication)are suitable for these functions.  Rural-level hygienic behaviour facilitators90 can be recruited from a wide range of educational backgrounds (any social sciences or public health) at a S-1 or D-3 level. About 30 competency elements must be fulfilled for this social facilitator (see Attachment 7). Junior and mid-level personnel are eligible for these functions.  Technical facilitators91 for communal sanitation require technical competence specific for these systems, which tend to be simpler than city-wide systems (required of Technical Consultants). The educational pre-requisite is not very high (D-3), so junior personnel can fill this position. The technical facilitator needs to have 44 competency elements (see Attachment 8).  Technical consultants92, especially in the main personnel category, will likely require S-1 or S-2 qualifications from environmental/sanitary engineering or civil engineering, with high level of competence in the particular sanitation facility or service that is being developed. The consultant for wastewater planning requires 57 competency elements (see Attachment 9) that certainly take time and effort to develop. Only senior-level individuals can fill this position. Operators (both technical and management) are not studied in detail in this study. Qualifications will be a mixture of technical and non-technical at D-3 or S-1 level, but development of operators’ competence will be needed.88 A number of parties, including BORDA Indonesia, have discussed the possibility of creating certificationscheme for SANIMAS facilitators. However, none has been materialized.89 Represented by the Facilitator (Policy) for Sanitation Development Planning.90 Represented by Facilitator (Social) Hygienic Behavior Change.91 Represented by the Facilitator (Technical) for Communal Sanitation System Implementation.92 Represented by the Consultant (Technical) Wastewater System Planning.46
  55. Sanitation Training and Capacity Study350. Competence shortcomings; Although there is a concern among many that existing sanitation personnel are not performing well, most active personnel are generally confident about their level of competence. However, the following are some areas where these personnel feel less confident:  Basic technical knowledge: Most CSS policy facilitator does not have enough basic knowledge on sanitation technologies and services. Although he/she is not a technical person, the capacity to describe some basic knowledge is often required in meetings or discussions with stakeholders. STBM facilitators are also often required to be able to assess sanitation conditions of a community.  Knowledge on current sanitation policy: Most technical consultants in sanitation sector are not aware there are PPSP development approaches that they should consider in their plans. They still develop the master plans of sanitations services with a ‘business-as-usual’ approach. Acknowledgement of SANIMAS and STBM approaches are rarely found in wastewater master plans. Other competency deficiencies, regarding skills and attitudes, are felt by many managers, and are not unique to sanitation personnel. This includes report writing skills, communication skills, and poor work habits (such as attendance, compliance with deadlines).Education and Training351. Education;The undergraduate program of environmental engineering offers courses that will provide an individual with basic technical knowledge in the planning and design of wastewater, solid waste, and drainage systems. However, the programs do not have enough time to cover practical knowledge required for field assignments and current approaches in sanitation development. The programs do not put enough attention on the operational aspects of sanitation facilities. A number of trainings are required to overcome this deficiency. Therefore, a combination of formal education and orientation training is sufficient to develop competence of an individual to allow him/her to start a sanitation assignment.352. Lack of training programs; Competence of sanitation personnel can be enhanced through combination of orientation, continuation, and regular training courses, covering a broad spectrum of tasks and assignments, to expand their respective educational foundation. However, the number and types of trainingcourses currently available is very limited despite the fact that there is a large demand for competent personnel. Only limited training courses (and training providers) on sanitation subjects exist. Moreover, the courses are not designed as a series (e.g. basic, intermediate, advanced) to allow an individual to improve his/her competence in phases.Performance353. Performance and competence;Confronted with weak performance in the sector, there is a general perception that there is a serious shortage of competencies among sanitation personnel in Indonesia. However, competence and performance are not synonymous. It should be recognized that competence is only one factor that forms one’s performance. Other factors that play an important role and must be considered including: availability of equipment and materials, sufficient funds and timeframe, availability of other personnel, sufficient data and stakeholders’ support. Without any effort to address these work condition issues, various capacity building programs will not significantly improve the performance of sanitation personnel. Another factor is the relatively low compensation and benefits received by sanitation personnel. 47
  56. Competence AssessmentNetworking, Experiencing, and Recognition354. Networking;Many networking opportunities exist for sanitation personnel in Indonesia. Through professional associations, peer groups, mailing lists, and other web-based networking media, an individual can receive a lot of information to increase and update his/her knowledge. Pokja AMPL is very active in providing information on sanitation development progress. However, there is much room to strengthen and optimize the activities and influence of the existing networks to support competence development in the sanitation sector.355. Experiencing; Most sanitation projects in Indonesia involve low technologies and are relatively homogeneous across the nation. Types of sanitation projects have basically been the same for the last twenty years. No advancement on technologies used for handling liquid waste, treating septage, and final disposal. This fact affects the range of competence of Indonesian sanitation personnel. There is little chance for an individual to gain new technological experiences that wouldenhance his/herknowledge and skills.356. Formal recognition;The existing certification programs provide a structure for bench-marking and advancement, and motivate individuals to improve their competence. The programs require certificate holders to participate in training courses, seminars, workshops that will improve his/her knowledge and skills. To some extent, this requirement has made certificate holders participate in various training courses. However, the positive impact of this requirement can be further optimized if the certification agency possesses a professional competence improvement scheme. Such a roadmap will guide individuals in selecting training courses to attend. If managed effectively, this requirement will create high demand for training courses, which at the moment are not available in the market.Gender Perspective357. The Study only made quick observationson gender issues related to the capacity of sanitation personnel. The results should be treated only as indicative, for further studies to elaborate. Some of them are:  Involvement of women in sanitation activities is still low, despite the fact that there is never be a gender limitiation to fill sanitation jobs for women.  Involvement of women in sanitation activities is strongly influenced by work subjects, locations, and duration.Notes358. Shared competencies; Overall, sanitation personnel share a number of common competency and knowledge requirements. For example, the competency unit of “assess general characteristics of the community” is required for social and technical facilitators, as well as technical consultants. The same applies to the competency unit of “assess sanitation conditions of the community”. Furthermore, all types of facilitators should possess competency units to “develop strategic partnerships” and “facilitate participatory process”. Such commonality makes possible the compilation of a generic set of competency units that can be used in developing (new) competency lists for other sanitation personnel types.48
  57. Sanitation Training and Capacity StudyCONCLUSION359. There are indications that minor shortcomings in knowledge, skills, and attitude among most sanitation personnel occur as follows:  Basic understanding of sanitation technologies among non-technical facilitators for SANIMAS and city sanitation planning.  Current policies and approaches on sanitation development among technical consultants.  Proper procedure to operate wastewater, solid waste, and drainage facilities among the respective operators.  Writing and communication skills.  Poor work habits (such as attendance, compliance with deadlines). Orientation and on-the-job training may easily close the knowledge and skill gaps. Improvement of work conditions may improve work habits.360. The assumption that there is a major competence deficiency among Indonesian sanitation personnel is difficult to prove or disprove. Despite managers’ expressed dissatisfaction on sanitation staff’s work performance, most sanitation personnel feel relatively confident about their competencies. This may indicate there is a discrepancy of understanding on required competence between sanitation personnel and key stakeholders (employers/managers). A mutually agreed competence criteria can reduce this understand in gap. Using the competence criteria, competence assessment of the sanitation personnel will produce more objective results.361. Competence is only one of many factors that influence a person’s work performance. A competent person will not be able to perform well in his/her position if the working conditions are not conducive to good performance. Among the working conditions that are often lacking in sanitation are the availability and adequacy of equipment and materials, funds and timeframe, other personnel, and data. Consultants, facilitators and operators all need to have supporting work conditions to enable them to make full use of their capabilities. Otherwise, their performance (often misunderstood as competence) will continue to be deemed inadequate.362. When there is a large demand for competent personnel, one expects to see the emergence of a viable industry providing competence development services. Unfortunately, that is not the case in the sanitation sector. Practically, there is a vacuum in competence development for sanitation professionals. Only limited training courses (and training providers) on sanitation subjects are available. Moreover, existing suite of training courses are not designed in a comprehensive way – one which allows a person to plan a phased training program to fit their professional interests. Sequenced training courses (e.g. basic, intermediate, advanced) are not found anywhere.363. Other means to develop competence in sanitation sector are available. There are a number of professional associations where sanitation personnel can build and expand their network. However, their roles are not being optimized. Their involvement in sanitation sector is still incidental, and not designed to support current sanitation capacity development. Optimization of their role can start by improving data collection system of members engaged in the field of sanitation, linking job opportunities to members, and managing sanitation knowledge for its member. 49
  58. Competence Assessment364. The existing sanitation-related professional certification systems require certificate holders to continually improve his/her competence. However, this requirement has not been followed by a concerted effort to encourage certificate holders to improve their competence, say by participating in a structured training program. A link between certification program and training programs would create a demand for specific training courses, and would motivate training institutions to develop new training modules, cooperate with international training institutions (or sanitation institutions), and offer new courses to the public. The side-effect of linking certification programs with training courses is that it motivates professionals to seek new knowledge, and to continue to develop their competence.50
  59. Sanitation Training and Capacity Study STRATEGYAND ACTION PLANDeveloping capacity of sanitation personnel in Indonesia requires action and decisions from keyplayers in sanitation, and will only succeed if stakeholders collaborate on a continuous basis. Thestrategy presented here includes a short-term action plan and a medium-term strategy. Somerecommendations for further analysis are also presented, especially for aspects that could not becovered in this study. The strategy is intended for consideration by the Government of Indonesiain planning future programs and activities. Closing the Gap Shortage of Personnel 401. A number of actions to be considered to reduce demand or fill the shortage of sanitation personnel are:  Optimize deployment; Adjust the personneldeployment strategy in existing programs to reduce the number of personnel neededand to optimize the use of available sanitation personnel, especially for facilitators.  Enhance job profile; Introduce breakthroughs to revampprofile of sanitation jobs, which, in turn can increase the number of people interested to work or continue in the sector.  Communicate demand; The high demand for sanitation personnel should be communicated to professional and business associations, universities, vocational and high schools toattract more qualified personnel and inspire anew generation of individuals.  Improve job security; Adjust upwards compensation and benefits for sanitation personnel, as well as improve conditions ofwork agreementsattract and retain qualified individuals.  Recognize the profession; Boost the sense of pride of sanitation personnel by formally recognizing their profession.  Create database; A sanitation personnel database will reduce difficulties in confirming the actual number of and availability of individuals with the right qualification. It would also support further assessment of personnel capacity. 51
  60. Strategy and Action PlanCompetence Gap402. A number of actions to be considered to overcome the competence gap among sanitation personnel:  Acknowledge job titles; A consensus on clearly-defined job titles will form a foundation for future sanitation competence development programs.  Formalize competency standards; A formal lists of required competencies (knowledge, skills, and attitudes)of key sanitation personnel will create a nationalreference for competence development.  Recognize the profession; A formal recognition mechanism would not only to attract more individuals into the sector, it is expected to encourage sanitation personnel to continually improve their competence.  Collaborate roles; Facilitate cooperation among education and training institutions, sanitation-related professional networks, and related government institutions, with common goals to improve competence of sanitation personnel.  Provide teaching materials; Teaching materials covering sanitation policies, approaches, programs, and technologies will overcome the lack of knowledge among university students on recent sanitation activities.  Create competency-basedcourses; Adjust existing training courses to ensure that materials are consistent with the types and levels of competencies required.  Support training providers; Supporttraining institutions to improve their capacity in creating, promoting, conducting, and managing competence-based training courses.  Innovate with competence development programs; Availability of self-learning packages, mentoring, and other innovative competence programs will add opportunities for individuals to learn in a flexible way. Internship and apprenticeship programs will allow individuals to experience working in specific type of sanitation facilities.  Facilitate knowledge sharing;Knowledge and information sharing among sanitation personnel and other stakeholders (project managers, educators, trainers, evaluators, students, investors, and policy makers) will provide opportunities for an individual to tap knowledge from his/her peers.  Provide more resources;Better availability of work resourcesare expected to allow individuals to apply his/her competence optimally and perform satisfactorilyin completing their tasks.Strategy to Develop Sanitation CapacityOverall403. The overarching vision for capacity development in sanitation is all parties collaborate to ensure that sanitation personnel are available in sufficient numbers and with appropriate competence.52
  61. Sanitation Training and Capacity Study404. The vision is achievable through four strategies (see Table 14).Each strategy is followed by a number of activities to be implemented immediately or in the near- future.Table 14.Strategy to Develop Capacity of Sanitation Personnel Strategy Closing the Gaps Activities1) Improve appeal  Enhance job profile a. Advocate the need to improve capacity ofof sanitation jobs  Communicate demand sanitation personnel  Improve job security b. Communicate jobs in sanitation  Provide more c. Sanitation promotional visits to education resources institutions d. Adjust compensation structure for sanitation personnel2) Institutionalize  Acknowledge job titles a. Consensus on job titles in sanitationcompetence  Recognize the b. Create path for competence advancement inadvancement. profession sanitation  Formalize competency c. Develop competency standards for key standards personnel in sanitation  Collaborate roles d. Institutionalize certification mechanism for key personnel in sanitation3) Revitalize  Provide teaching a. Develop competency-based training programscompetence materials to in sanitationdevelopment universities b. Produce self-learning packages in sanitationprograms  Create competency- c. Disseminate sanitation teaching materials based courses  Support training d. Establish internship programs on sanitation providers operation  Innovate competence e. Set-up mentoring programs programs4) Stimulate  Collect and share a. Create Indonesian network for sanitationknowledge knowledge personnelexchange.  Create database b. Set-up network of competence suppliers c. Enhance knowledge management systems in sanitation405. It should be noted that the above capacity-related strategies should be accompanied by larger strategies and long-term actions to:  Revise policies; In the long-term, sanitation policies need to be revised to serve as a new engine to propel interest in the field. An example would be policies that affect the structure of the sanitation sector, especially to make the sector more interesting for private investors, thus reducing the dependence on government institutions as implementers of sanitation services. Private sector involvement is expected to create a more professional atmosphere, where sanitation personnel can pursue better careers. Also necessary are policies affecting direction of the sanitation sector, especially with regard to technological advancement. Better (more advanced) technological choices are expected to attract young individuals to consider sanitation- related professions.  Revamp image; To complement changes in technology and sector players, the image of the sanitation sector as a whole needs a boost. The old image of low- technology, informal workers, and unsophisticated work needs to be changed to one where workers are proud and excited, technology is modern and effective, and institutions are credible and professionally-run. A forward-looking image will help the sector continue to appeal to younger generations in the future. 53
  62. Strategy and Action PlanStrategy 1: Improve Appeal of Sanitation Jobs406. This strategy aims to create sustained interest amongqualified individuals to join and stay in the sanitation sector. Implementation of this strategy will involve commencement of a series of advocacy and promotional activities to increase awareness of stakeholders on job profiles and opportunities in sanitation sector.407. A communication strategy should be developed to allow effective delivery of messages to decision-makers, professional communities, and students. Various means of communications should be used to communicate information on tasks and responsibilities of sanitation personnel, present an appealing image of sanitation jobs, inform about the level of demand for competent sanitation personnel, and the need to improve their capacity.408. A number of activities to be conducted under this strategy are described in the following table.Table 15. Activities to Improve Appeal of Sanitation Jobs and Opportunities Activities Decriptiona. Advocate the need to To advocate the high demand for competent sanitation personnel, a improve capacity of series of presentations and discussions should be conducted to sanitation personnel decision-makers and officers in various government institutions, professional associations, development programs, donor agencies, and private firms.b. Communicate jobs in Seminars, exhibitions, competition, and dissemination of promotional sanitation materials on sanitation jobs, supported by effective news and article placements in a number of relevant magazines, newspaper, and websites.c. Sanitation promotional Face-to-face interaction with students in relevant universities, visits to education academies, vocational schools, and high schools, supported by institutions dissemination of promotional materials to raise their awareness on sanitation jobs and opportunities.d. Adjust compensation A series of discussions with representatives of government structure of sanitation institutions, professional associations, programs, and firms to personnel determine the most appropriate fee and benefits for sanitation personnel.Strategy 2: Institutionalize Competence Advancement409. This strategy aims to make available a competence advancement path for each key sanitation personnel. The path is expected to: a) provide encouragement and incentive for sanitation personnel to continually improve their competence in a structured manner, b) create framework for competence suppliers to develop and optimize their role in achieving common objectives and goals, and c) trigger training providers to develop and deliver more relevant training courses.410. For each job title, a competence advancement path (see diagram)describes:(a) levels of professional status, (b) required competencies, (c) outline of competence improvement plans (training and other competence- maintenance activities), and (d) formal recognition system.411. A number of parties will be involved in preparing suchcompetence advancement path (see the diagram), i.e.  Sponsoring agency; a government institution that will serve as the official agency which owns and manages the scheme.  Training agencies; universities, private firms, and NGOs that will create and conduct mandatory training programs for sanitation personnel.54
  63. Sanitation Training and Capacity Study  Certification body; an independent organization, such as professional association, that will provide formal recognition to sanitation personnel. Under the path, roles of each competence supplier will be clearly defined. training agencies competency-based 4 required competencies #4 trainings 3 required competencies #3 outlines of competence formal recognition certyfying improvement mechanism body 2 required competencies #2 plans 1 required competencies #1 competency- maintenance levels of activitiesprofessional status project owners universities research agencies proffesional association Elements and Involved Parties in a Competence Advancement Path.Each job title will have its own path describing levels of professional status, required competence, and mechanism to obtain formal recognition. 412. A number of activities to be conducted under this strategy are described in following table. Table 16. Activities to Institutionalize Competence Advancement Activities Decription a. Consensus on job titles in Seminar and workshop involving government institutions, sanitation professional associations, sanitation programs, selected sanitation personnel, and academics, to generate a list of job titles in the subsectors of wastewater, solid waste, drainage, and hygienic behavior. b. Create path for Competence advancement paths for prioritized key personnel are to competence advancement be developed and approved through a series of assessments, in sanitation workshops, seminars, and consensus-building involving professional associations, training agencies, practitioners, academics, and government institutions. c. Develop competency A set of competency lists for prioritized key personnel will be standards for key personnel formalized into a national competency standard by involving in sanitation Ministry of Public Works as the sponsoring agency. Support from professional and business associations, academics, and practitioners are instrumental. d. Institutionalize certification Certification mechanism, as a form of formal recognition of mechanism for key competence, will be institutionalized following the requirements 93 personnel in sanitation from the BNSP . Such mechanism will involve a number of parties to play the roles as certifying body and accredited training agencies. 413. The institutionalization of competence path should be prioritized for a subsector and a type of personnel where the demand is largest, i.e. wastewater and facilitators for communal system. 93 BNSP (Badan Nasional Sertifikasi Profesi, or the National Agency for Professional Certification) is an independent body with the authority to formally recognize standards of competence for professionals in various fields, and carry out certification of those personnel. 55
  64. Strategy and Action PlanStrategy 3: Revitalize Competence Programs414. This strategy aims toincrease the availability and variation of competence programs to support competence advancement paths for sanitation personnel. It is expected that there will be more competency-based training courses, as well as other type competence programs available in the market. Higher capacity in the competence-building industry is a basic requirement for institutionalizing competence advancement.415. This strategy will triggertraining providers to develop and deliver more relevant training courses, as well as attract other parties to create innovative competence development programs. In addition to the competency-based trainings, a number of new variants of competence programs will be introduced, i.e. distant learning, mentoring, and internship programs.416. A number of activities to be conducted under this strategy are described in following table.Table 17. Activities to Revitalize Competence Programs Activities Decriptiona. Developcompetency-based Training agencies are supported to adjust or develop training training programs in courses based on requirements from the competence path sanitation (especially related to competency standards) for prioritized key personnel. Options are open for the training agencies to select the most appropriate delivery techniques.b. Produce self-learning Self-learning multimedia packages on various subjects will be packages in sanitation developed. It will improve access of sanitation personnel to knowledge required in competence path. Self-learning materials will be distributed in the form of compact disk, or be attached to existing sanitation web-sites.c. Disseminate sanitation Teaching materials related to current sanitation policies, teaching materials approaches, and technologies will be developed and disseminated to universities. It is expected that such materials will close or minimize the gap of required knowledge in tertiary education.d. Establish internship In the absence of properly-operated sanitation facilities, specific programs on sanitation internship and apprenticeship programs will allow individuals to operation improve his/her competence by performing tasks, observing others, and following guidance from supervisors in such facilities.e. Set-up mentoring programs Mentoring programs will provide opportunities for an individual to obtain information and guidance from his/her designated mentor. A mentoring function will be considered to be a requirement for an individual to retain his certification.Strategy 4: Stimulate Knowledge Exchange417. This strategy aims to increase access to sanitation knowledge among sanitation personnel and other stakeholders. It will also create opportunities for all parties to share knowledge, information, ideas, enthusiasm and aspirations. It is believed that such knowledge networking will contribute significantly in building competence for those already active in the field.418. This strategy will create networks for competence suppliers, as well as for individuals interested in sanitation sector (engineers, specialists, managers, educators, trainers, students, investors, and policy makers). Existing web-sites will be reviewed and adjusted to match with expected roles under the competence advancement path.419. A number of activities to be conducted under this strategy are described in following table.56
  65. Sanitation Training and Capacity StudyTable 18. Activities to Stimulate Knowledge Exchange Activities Decriptiona. Create Indonesian network An internet-based professional network will be established to for sanitation personnel provide dynamic and interactive means of communication among sanitation personnel and interested individuals. Such network will allow its member to share information, knowledge, data, and opinion. It may also serve as a database for sanitation personnel, and means to announce job opportunities and events.b. Set-up network of Selected universities, private firms, NGOs, and government-owned competence suppliers training centers are invited to form a network of competence suppliers in sanitation. Technical assistance will be provided to improve their capacity, especially on course development, competency of trainers, training management, and access of communication. It may involve commencement of a series of workshops, seminars, and training-of-trainers.c. Enhance knowledge Existing web-sites, mailing lists, and blogs will be enhanced and management systems in promoted to optimize their contribution in developing competence sanitation of sanitation personnel. Discussion with owners or managers of existing web-sites, mailing lists will be conducted to obtain consensus on their specific roles and ways to improve its knowledge management.Action Plan420. Action plan consists of activities to be initiated in the period of 2012 – 2014. Some of those activities are better to be conducted immediately, considering the urgency and the preparedness of such activities (see next section). The following table presents the proposed schedule of activities in that period.Table 19. Short-Term Action Plan 2012 2013 2014 Activities 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 41) a. Advocate the need to improve x x x capacity of sanitation personnel b. Communicate jobs in sanitation x x x x c. Sanitation promotional visits to x x x x education institutions d. Adjust compensation structure of x x x x sanitation personnel2) a. Consensus on job titles in sanitation x x b. Create path for competence x x x x x x x x advancement in sanitation c. Develop competency standards for x x x x x x key personnel in sanitation d. Institutionalize certification x x x x x x x x mechanism for key personnel in sanitation3) a. Develop competency-based training x x x x x x programs b. Produce self-learning packages x x x x c. Disseminate sanitation teaching x x materials d. Establish internship programs on x x x x sanitation operation e. Set-up mentoring programs x x x x4) a. Create Indonesian network for x x x sanitation personnel b. Set-up network of competence x x suppliers 57
  66. Strategy and Action Plan 2012 2013 2014 Activities 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 c. Enhance knowledge management x x systems in sanitationImmediate Activities421. There are at least six activities that can be initiated in the second quarter of 2012. Most of them are activities related to the effort to improve communication among stakeholders of sanitation competence.Advocate the Need to Improve Capacity of Sanitation Personnel422. The following table presents steps, output, and timeframe for this activity.Table 20. Action Plan – Advocate the Need to Improve Capacity of SanitationPersonnel Steps Output TimeframeDevelop papers and  Paper on Demand and Supply of Sanitation Q2 (2012),presentation materials on Personnel (in Bahasa Indonesia). 2 monthsdemand and supply of  Standard presentation tool on Demand &sanitation personnel Supply of Sanitation Personnel.Seminar on demand and  Seminars on 5 locations. Q2-Q3 (2012)supply of sanitationpersonnelNational workshop on  National workshop on one location. Q4 (2012)competence development  Workplans from each participating party.in sanitation423. This activity requires involvement of BAPPENAS, members of Pokja AMPL, professional association, and a work group. It is expected that GoI and donor agency can provide funding for this activity.Communicate Jobs in Sanitation424. The following table presents steps, output, and timeframe for this activity.Table 21. Action Plan – Communicate Jobs in Sanitation Steps Output TimeframeDevelop communication  Booklet and leaflets on jobs in sanitation Q3 (2012),materials jobs in  Poster on the need of sanitation 2 monthssanitation sector personnel.  Articles for media.Dissemination of  Booklets and leaflets distributed to Q3 (2012) – Q2communication materials government institutions, professional (2013) associations, development programs, donor agencies, and private firms.  Coverage in printed media.Promotional events on  Seminars. Q3 (2012) – Q2jobs in sanitation  Competition on sanitation technologies. (2013)  Participation in exhibitions.425. This activity requires involvement of BAPPENAS, Ministry of Public Works, Ministry of Health, and a work group. It is expected that GoI and donor agency can provide funding for this activity.58
  67. Sanitation Training and Capacity StudySanitation Promotional Visits to Education Institutions426. The following table presents steps, output, and timeframe for this activity.Table 22. Action Plan – Sanitation Promotional Visits to Education Institutions Steps Output TimeframeDevelop promotion  Booklet and leaflets on jobs in sanitation Q3 (2012),materials jobs in  Poster on the need of sanitation 2 monthssanitation sector personnel.Dissemination of  Booklets and leaflets distributed to Q3 (2012) – Q2promotional materials universities, academies, vocational schools, (2013) and high schools.Events in universities and  Seminars, discussions, and exhibitions on a Q3 (2012) – Q2schools number of universities, academies, (2013) vocational schools, and high schools.427. This activity requires involvement of BAPPENAS, Ministry of Health, Ministry of Education, and a work group. It is expected that GoI and donor agency can provide funding for this activity.Consensus on Job Titles in Sanitation428. The following table presents steps, output, and timeframe for this activity.Table 23. Action Plan – Consensus on Job Titles in Sanitation Steps Output TimeframeDevelop papers and  Paper on Job Titles of Sanitation Personnel Q2 (2012),presentation materials on (in Bahasa Indonesia). 2 monthsjob titles in sanitation  Standard presentation tool on Job Titles of Sanitation Personnel.Seminar on job title in  Seminars on 5 locations. Q2-Q3 (2012)sanitationNational workshop on  National workshop on one location. Q4 (2012)job title  Consensus on job titles in sanitation429. This activity requires involvement of professional association, Ministry of Public Works, Ministry of Health, and a work group. It is expected that GoI can provide funding for this activity.Create Path for Competence Advancement in Sanitation430. Competence path will be immediately created for wastewater subsector, with special attention for facilitators for communal system where the demand is largest. The following table presents steps, output, and timeframe for this activity.Table 24. Action Plan – Create Path for Competence Advancement in Sanitation Steps Output TimeframeFormation of stakeholder Stakeholder group for wastewater sub- Q3 (2012)group. sector.Clarifying job titles of Job titles in in wastewater sub-sector. Q3 (2012),personnel 2 monthsArranging levels of Levels of professional status for each job Q4 (2012),professional status for title in wastewater sub-sector, along with 2 months descriptions on the scope of works and 59
  68. Strategy and Action Plan Steps Output Timeframeeach job title degree of responsibilities.Outlining competence List of requirements to improve competence Q4 (2012),improvement plans for (mandatory training programs, additional 2 monthseach professional status experience, participation on seminars, etc.).Determining requirement Type of formal recognition for each job title Q4 (2012),for formal recognition for (e.g. certification on competence (BNSP 2 monthseach job title model), certification on training commencement, etc.).431. This activity requires involvement of Ministry of Public Works, Ministry of Health, professional association, training agencies, practitioners, academics, and a work group. It is expected that GoI and donor agency can provide funding for this activity.432. This activity should be followed by the development of competency standards and institutionalization of certification mechanism for prioritized job title in wastewater sub-sector. It is recommended that any follow-ups should targeting facilitators for communal system.Create Indonesian Network for Sanitation Personnel433. The following table presents steps, output, and timeframe for this activity94.Table 25. Action Plan – Create Indonesian Network for Sanitation Personnel Steps Output TimeframeReview of existing web-  Working group Q2 (2012)based network  Workplan to improve existing networkAppointing manager of  Manager of the network Q2 (2012)the web-based network  Supervisory groupImprovement of existing Improved network (e.g. more features, Q3-Q4 (2012)web-based network access speed, graphic user interface, mobile application, and others).Launching & promotion of  Promoting the network; Events, internet, Q4 (2012)the web-based network participation in exhibition, distributing leaflets, etc.434. This activity requires involvement of Pokja AMPL, JEJARING network, professional association, and a work group. It is expected that donor agency can provide funding for this activity.Follow-Up Studies435. This study focused on a portion of sanitation personnel, and many aspects of capacity among sanitation personnel could not be addressed. Follow-up studies may be necessary to further evaluate various aspects not covered in this study. Among them are the following:94 This activity will use the website developed for conducting survey in this Study as a starting point(www.leherangsa.com). In its development, the website has been designed using asocial networktemplate. Therefore, it does need a lot of effort to modify it into a professional network. It is expected thatthe professional network can also serve as an integrated database for sanitation personnel, performanceassessment tools, event and job promotion media, discussion forums, etc. An organization should beappointed to be in-charge in managing and improving the network. The network must be promoted toincrease its members, including by having its official launching.60
  69. Sanitation Training and Capacity Study Assess current capacity and required competence of personnel involved in operations of sanitation facilities (sewerage systems, septage treatment plants, final disposal sites, etc); Assess gender preferences related to sanitation jobs, to answer the question why not more women are involved in sanitation programs; Assess current capacity and required competence of local government staff, and identify means to develop their capacity. Assess the potential and capacity of vocational schools (secondary) to offer sanitation-related programs, to produce personnel who support operations of municipal facilities and/or who support design and construction of communal sanitation facilities. 61
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  71.      ATTACHMENTS      1. Job Titles in Selected Sanitation Activities.  2. Roadmap of PPSP Program (2010 – 2014).   3. Projection of the Next PPSP Program (2015 – 2019).  4. Level of Demand for Sanitation Personnel.  5. Level of Supply of Sanitation Personnel.  6. List of Core Competencies: Facilitator (Policy) for Sanitation Development Planning.  7. List of Core Competencies: Facilitator (Social) for Hygienic Behavior Change.   8. List of Core Competencies:  Facilitator (Technical) for Communal Sanitation  Implementation.  9. List of Core Competencies:  Consultant (Technical) for Wastewater System Planning.  10. List of Universities with Environmental Engineering.  11. References     
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  73. Sanitation Training and Capacity Study  ATTACHMENT 1 JOB TITTLES IN SELECTED SANITATION ACTIVITIES  Activity  Job Title  Background  Level  PREPARATION OF STRATEGY AND IMPLEMENTATION PLAN  Preparation of City  1   Facilitator (Policy) for Sanitation  Various  Mid‐Level  Sanitation Strategy   Development Planning ‐ Province   2   Facilitator (Policy) for Sanitation  Various  Mid‐Level  Development Planning   3   Facilitator (Technical) for Sanitation  Environmental Engineering    Mid‐Level   Development Planning ‐ Province   4   Facilitator (Technical) for Sanitation  Environmental Engineering   Mid‐Level   Development Planning   5   Facilitator (Financial) for Sanitation  Financials   Mid‐Level   Development Planning   Preparation of PMSS  6   Facilitator (Policy) for Sanitation  Various  Mid‐Level  Development Planning   IMPLEMENTATION OF HYGIENIC BEHAVIOR IMPROVEMENT  Implementation of STBM  7   Facilitator (Social) for Hygienic Behavior  Various  Junior  program   Change   IMPLEMENTATION OF COMMUNAL SANITATION SYSTEM  Implementation of  8   Facilitator (Technical) for Communal  Environmental Engineering   Entry‐Level   SANIMAS Program   Sanitation System Implementation   9   Facilitator (Social) for Communal  Various  Junior  Sanitation System Implementation   DEVELOPMENT OF DOMESTIC WASTEWATER SERVICES  Completion of master plan  10   Consultant (Technical) for Wastewater  Environmental Engineering    Senior   for wastewater services   System Planning   11   Consultant (Technical) for Sewerage System  Environmental Engineering   Mid‐Level   Engineering Design   12   Consultant (Urban Planning) for  Urban Planning    Mid‐Level   Wastewater System Planning   13   Consultant (Socio‐Economic) for  Social Sciences   Mid‐Level   Wastewater System Planning   14   Consultant (Financial) for Wastewater  Financials   Mid‐Level   System Planning   15   Consultant (Institutional) for Wastewater  Institutionals   Mid‐Level   System Planning   16   Consultant (Legal/Regulatory) for  Law    Mid‐Level   Wastewater System Planning   17   Consultant (Community Development) for  Social Sciences    Mid‐Level   Wastewater System Planning   18   Consultant (Business) for Wastewater  Business Study   Mid‐Level   System Planning   19   Consultant (Communication) for  Communications    Mid‐Level   Wastewater System Planning   20   Consultant (Environmental Management)  Environmental  Sciences    Mid‐Level   for Wastewater System Planning   Engineering design of  21   Consultant (Technical) for Sewerage  Environmental Engineering    Senior   sewerage system   System Engineering Design   1 ‐ 1  
  74. Attachment 1   22  Consultant (Technical) for Wastewater  Environmental Engineering    Mid‐Level   Treatment Plant Engineering Design   23  Consultant (Civil Works) for Sewerage  Civil Engineering    Mid‐Level   System Engineering Design   24  Consultant (Mechanical Works) for  Mechanical Engineering    Mid‐Level   Sewerage System Engineering Design   25   Consultant (Electrical Works) for Sewerage  Electrical Engineering    Mid‐Level   System Engineering Design   26  Consultant (Soil Works) for Sewerage  Soil Study    Mid‐Level   System Engineering Design   27  Consultant (Project Management) for  Management    Mid‐Level   Sewerage System Engineering Design   28  Consultant (Cost Estimation) for Sewerage  Civil Engineering    Mid‐Level   System Engineering Design   29  Consultant (Environmental Management)   Environmental  Sciences    Mid‐Level   for Sewerage System Engineering Design   Engineering design of  30  Consultant (Technical) for Sludge  Environmental Engineering    Senior   sludge treatment facility   Treatment Facility Engineering Design   31  Consultant (Civil Works) for Sludge  Civil Engineering    Mid‐Level   Treatment Facility Engineering Design   32  Consultant (Mechanical Works) for Sludge  Mechanical Engineering    Mid‐Level   Treatment Facility Engineering Design   33  Consultant (Electrical Works) for Sludge  Electrical Engineering    Mid‐Level   Treatment Facility Engineering Design   34  Consultant (Project Management) for  Management    Mid‐Level   Sludge Treatment Facility Engineering  Design   35  Consultant (Cost Estimation) for Sludge  Non specific   Mid‐Level   Treatment Facility Engineering Design   36  Consultant (Environmental Management)  Environmental Sciences    Mid‐Level   for Sludge Treatment Facility Engineering  Design    DEVELOPMENT OF SOLID WASTE SERVICES  Completion of master plan  37  Consultant (Technical) for Solid Waste  Environmental Engineering    Senior   for solid waste services   System Planning   38  Consultant (Technical) for Sanitary Landfill  Environmental Engineering    Mid‐Level   Engineering Design   39  Consultant (Urban Planning) for Solid  Urban Planning    Mid‐Level   Waste System Planning   40  Consultant (Transportation) for Solid Waste  Civil Engineering    Mid‐Level   System Planning   41  Consultant (Socio‐Economic) for Solid  Social Sciences    Mid‐Level   Waste System Planning   42  Consultant (Financial) for Solid Waste  Financials    Mid‐Level   System Planning   43  Consultant (Institutional) for Solid Waste  Institutionals    Mid‐Level   System Planning   44   Consultant (Legal/Regulatory) for Solid  Law    Mid‐Level   Waste System Planning   45   Consultant (Community Development) for  Social Sciences    Mid‐Level   Solid Waste System Planning   46    Consultant (Business) for Solid Waste  Business    Mid‐Level  1 ‐ 2  
  75. Sanitation Training and Capacity Study   System Planning  47   Consultant (Communication) for Solid  Communications    Mid‐Level   Waste System Planning   48   Consultant (Environmental Management)  Environmental Sciences    Mid‐Level   for Solid Waste System Planning   Engineering design of final  49   Consultant (Technical) for Sanitary Landfill  Environmental Engineering    Senior   disposal facility   Engineering Design   50   Consultant (Technical) for Wastewater  Environmental Engineering    Mid‐Level   Treatment Plant Engineering Design   51   Consultant (Soil Works) for Sanitary Landfill  Civil Engineering    Mid‐Level   Engineering Design   52   Consultant (Civil Works) for Sanitary Landfill  Civil Engineering    Mid‐Level   Engineering Design   53   Consultant (Mechanical Works) for Sanitary  Mechanical Engineering    Mid‐Level   Landfill Engineering Design   54   Consultant (Electrical Works) for Sanitary  Electrical Engineering    Mid‐Level   Landfill Engineering Design   55   Consultant (Transportation) for Sanitary  Civil Engineering    Mid‐Level   Landfill Engineering Design   56   Consultant (Geohydrology) for Sanitary  Geohydrology    Mid‐Level   Landfill Engineering Design   57   Consultant (Project Management) for  Project Management    Mid‐Level   Sanitary Landfill Engineering Design   58   Consultant (Cost Estimation) for Sanitary  Various    Mid‐Level   Landfill Engineering Design   59   Consultant (Environmental Management)  Environmental Sciences    Mid‐Level   for Sanitary Landfill Engineering Design   DEVELOPMENT OF DRAINAGE SERVICES  Completion of master plan  60   Consultant (Technical) for Drainage System  Environmental/ Civil   Senior   for drainage services   Planning   Engineering   61   Consultant (Soil Works) for Drainage  Environmental/ Civil   Mid‐Level   System Engineering Design   Engineering   62   Consultant (Urban Planning) for Drainage  Urban Planning    Mid‐Level   System Planning   63   Consultant (Socio‐Economic) for Drainage  Social Sciences    Mid‐Level   System Planning   64   Consultant (Financial) for Drainage System  Financials    Mid‐Level   Planning   65   Consultant (Institutional) for Drainage  Institutionals    Mid‐Level   System Planning   66   Consultant (Legal/Regulatory) for Drainage  Law    Mid‐Level   System Planning   67   Consultant (Civil Works) for Drainage  Civil Engineering    Mid‐Level   System Planning   68   Consultant (Mechanical Works) for  Mechanical Engineering    Mid‐Level   Drainage System Planning   69    Consultant (Communication) for Drainage  Communications    Mid‐Level   System Planning   70   Consultant (Environmental Management)  Environmental Sciences    Mid‐Level   for Drainage System Planning   Engineering design of  71   Consultant (Technical) for Drainage System  Environmental/ Civil   Senior   drainage system   Engineering Design   Engineering   1 ‐ 3  
  76. Attachment 1   72   Consultant (Soil Works) for Drainage  Civil Engineering    Mid‐Level   System Engineering Design   73   Consultant (Mechanical Works) for  Mechanical Engineering    Mid‐Level   Drainage System Engineering Design   74   Consultant (Civil Works) for Drainage  Civil Engineering    Mid‐Level   System Engineering Design   75   Consultant (Electrical Works) for Drainage  Electrical Engineering    Mid‐Level   System Engineering Design   76   Consultant (Project Management) for  Project Management    Mid‐Level   Drainage System Engineering Design   77   Consultant (Cost Estimation) for Drainage  Various    Mid‐Level   System Engineering Design   78   Consultant (Environmental Management)  Environmental Sciences    Mid‐Level   for Drainage System Engineering Design   OPERATION & MAINTENANCE  Operation & maintenance  79   Operator (Technical) for Sewer Network  Environmental/ Mechanical   Mid‐Level   of sewer network  Operation  Engineering   operation   80   Operator (Management) for Sewer  Management  Mid‐Level  Network Operation  81   Operator (Financial) for Sewer Network  Financials  Junior  Operation  82   Operator (Safety) for Sewer Network  Safety  Junior  Operation  Operation & maintenance  83   Operator (Technical) for Sewage  Environmental Engineering    Mid‐Level   of sewage treatment plant    Treatment plant  84   Operator (Management) for Sewage  Management  Mid‐Level  Treatment Plant  85   Operator (Financial) for Sewage Treatment  Financials  Junior  Plant  86   Operator (Safety) for Sewage Treatment  Safety  Junior  Plant  Operation of sludge  87   Operator (Technical) for Sludge Treatment  Environmental/ Mechanical   Mid‐Level   treatment facility   Facility  Engineering   88   Operator (Management) for Sludge  Management  Mid‐Level  Treatment Facility  89   Operator (Financial) for Sludge Treatment  Financials  Junior  Facility  90   Operator (Safety) for Sudge Treatment  Safety  Junior  Facility  Operation & maintenance  91   Operator (Technical) for Final Disposal Site  Environmental/ Mechanical   Mid‐Level   of final disposal site    Operation  Engineering   92   Operator (Management) for Final Disposal  Management  Mid‐Level  Site Operation  93   Operator (Financial) for Final Disposal Site  Financials  Junior  Operation  94   Operator (Safety) for Final Disposal Site  Safety  Junior  Operation  Note:   Main personnel are in bold letters.  1 ‐ 4  
  77.   Sanitation Training and Capacity Study  ATTACHMENT 2 ROADMAP OF PPSP PROGRAM (2010 – 2014) Plans  Stages  2010  2011  2012  2013  2014  A  Campaign, education, advocacy, and guidance  49  62  72  82  100  B  Institutional and regulation development  63  72  82  62  100  C  Formulation of City/District Sanitation Strategy  41  63  72  82  62  D  Preparation of Program Memorandum  21  35  45  56  65  E  Implementation  3  24  59  104  160  F  Monitoring and evaluation  41  49  62  72  82  Progress (per December 2011)  Stages  2010  2011  2012  2013  2014  A  Campaign, education, advocacy, and guidance  58  103  117  n/a  n/a  B  Institutional and regulation development  58  103  117  n/a  n/a  C  Formulation of City/District Sanitation Strategy  (29) 42  58  117  n/a  n/a  D  Preparation of Program Memorandum  13  41  67  n/a  n/a  E  Implementation  3  24  59  n/a  n/a  F  Monitoring and evaluation  n/a  n/a  n/a  n/a  n/a  Note: The number of Implementation is accumulative, while the rest is additional. The number in bracket is 2009.       2 ‐ 1  
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  79. Sanitation Training and Capacity Study  ATTACHMENT 3 PROJECTION OF THE NEXT PPSP PROGRAM (2015 – 2019)  Stages  2015  2016  2017  2018  2019  A  Campaign, education, advocacy, and guidance  100  0  0  0  0  B  Institutional and regulation development  100  40  0  0  0  C  Formulation of City/District Sanitation Strategy  130  120  140  60  50  D  Preparation of Program Memorandum  100  130  120  140  60  E  Implementation  60  60  70  70  80  F  Monitoring and evaluation  70  80  80  90  100  Assumption: • End of 2017: 500 cities/districts will have CSS, • End of 2018: 500 cities/districts will complete PMSS • End of 2019: 500 cities/districts will initiate the implementation stage. • Cities/districts must renew its CSS in 5‐year cycle, meaning the number in stage C representing the total number of  cities/districts renewing their CSS (developed in previous PPSP cycle) with new cities/district who have CSS for the  first time. Same case with the number in stage D. • The number of Implementation is accumulative, while the rest is addition.      3 ‐ 1  
  80. Attachment 3   This page is intentionally left blank  2  
  81. Sanitation Training and Capacity Study  ATTACHMENT 4 LEVEL OF DEMAND FOR SANITATION PERSONNEL The attachment contains tables of: • Estimated Number of Activities (Short‐Term and Medium‐Term) • Estimated Number of Job Opportunities (Short‐Term and Medium‐Term) • Estimated Number of Personnel Required (Short‐Term and Medium‐Term) • Summary of Main Personnel • Overall Summary  Numbers of activities are projected based on:    • Short‐term: Current PPSP program roadmap (see Attachment 2) and other targets in the RPJMN, i.e.  by  end  of  2014:  340  cities/districts  with  CSS,  240  cities/districts  with  PMSS,  and  240  cities/districts  initiate implementation.  SANIMAS programs: 2,000 areas per year.  • Medium‐term:  Preliminary  projections  of  the  next  PPSP  program  cycle  (see  Attachment  3)  with  the  targets:    500  cities/districts  with  CSS  by  end  of  2017,  with  PMSS  by  end  of  2018,  and  initiate  implementation by end of 2019.  STBM and SANIMAS programs with the same rate of implementation.    Numbers of job opportunities are estimated using this formula:  Ji = (Ai)  x (Ri,i)    Where,     ‐ Ji: Number of jobs opportunities (for a particular job title).  ‐ Ai:  Frequency of activity (requiring a particular job title).  ‐ Ri,i: Involvement ratio, i.e. number of individual (of a particular job title) required in an  activity (see Table 2).  Example, an STBM technical facilitator has an Ri,i of 0.1, which  means one facilitator is involved in ten location of STBM implementation.  Numbers of individuals required are estimated using this formula:  Pi = f(Ji, Fc,i)  Where,     ‐ Pi: Number of individuals (of a particular type of personnel) required.  ‐ Ji: Number of jobs available (for a particular type of personnel).  ‐ Fc,i: Continuity factor, i.e. proportion of individuals to continue working in the same job in  the subsequent period.  For example, a Fc,i = 0.7 of a social facilitator means that 70% of  the individuals will continue to work as a social facilitator in the program’s next period.  The smaller the factor, the fewer individuals stay in the same job.       4 ‐ 1  
  82. Attachment 4  TABLE 4‐1. Estimated Number of Activities (Short‐Term)  Number of Activities  Activity   Unit  Past  Short‐term  2010  2011  2012  2013  2014  Sum  1  Preparation of City  cities/  40  60  100  60  50   210  1 Sanitation Strategies   districts  2 2  Preparation of PMSS   cities/  10  30  60  60  70   190  districts  3  Implementation of STBM  Villages  ‐    ‐    6,000  7,000  7,000   20,000  3 program   4  Implementation of  Areas  1,500  1,500  1,500  1,500  1,500   4,500  4 SANIMAS program   5  Completion of master plans  cities/  10  10  40  40  60   140  for wastewater services 5  districts  6  Engineering design of  cities/                    ‐                      ‐    5  5  5   15  sewerage system6  districts  7  Engineering design of sludge  cities/  10  10  20  20  40   80  treatment facility7  districts  8  Completion of master plan  cities/  10  10  40  40  60   140  8 for solid waste services   districts  9  Engineering design of final  cities/  50  50  50  50  50   150   9 disposal facility   districts  10  Completion of master plan  cities/  10  10  40  40  60   140  10 for drainage system   districts  11  Engineering design of  cities/                    ‐    10  10  40  40   90                                                             1  Source: Road‐map of the PPSP (Percepatan Pembangunan Sanitasi Permukiman) program, 2010 – 2014 (see Appendix 2) and its progress. Note: The PPSP total target is 330 cities/districts have completed CSS at the end of 2014. Per 2011, around 120 cities/ districts have done so. Therefore, it is expected that 210 more cities/districts must prepare their CSSs in the next three years. The figures are presented as rounded numbers. 2  Source: Road‐map of the PPSP program, 2010 – 2014 (see Appendix 2). Note: The PPSP total target is 230 cities/districts have prepared the Program Memorandum of Sanitation Sector at the end of 2014. Per 2011, around 50 cities/ districts have done so. Therefore, it is expected that 180 cities/districts will prepare the program memorandum for the next three years. The figures are presented as rounded numbers.  3  Source: STBM Program Secretariat, Ministry of Health. Note: The upcoming STBM program is still focus on its first pillar, i.e. Stop Open Defecation. 4  Source: Directorate for Environmental Sanitation, Directorate General of Human Settlements, Ministry of Public Works. Note: The annual target until the end of 2014 is around 1,500 SANIMAS facilities constructed. There will be 2 (two) types of SANIMAS implementation programs, according to the funding source, i.e. 1) SANIMAS Reguler, funded by national government and city/ district local government, and 2) SANIMAS USRI, funded by the Asian Development Bank through Urban Sanitation and Rural Initiative (USRI) for Program Nasional Pemberdayaan Masyarakat (PNPM).  It is expected that the local governments and private sectors will also participate to implement of SANIMAS programs. 5  Source: Road‐map of PPSP program, 2010 – 2014. It is assumed that all cities/districts pursuing the Implementation phase (in PPSP program roadmap) will prepare wastewater service master plans (see Appendix 2).   Note: In 2011, the national government (Ministry of Public Works) is only able to develop wastewater management master plans for 12 cities/ district. It is expected that a number of master plans will be made directly by the local governments, in addition to those developed by the Ministry of Public Works.  6  Source: The National Medium‐Term Development Plan (RPJMN) 2010 – 2015. Note: It is planned that by 2014, Indonesia will have 16 cities with sewerage systems. The works will include improvement of existing systems in 11 cities (Balikpapan, Banjarmasin, Bandung, Cirebon, Jakarta, Medan, Prapat, Surakarta, Tangerang, Yogyakarta, and Denpasar) and development of new systems in five cities. 7  It is assumed that city/ district will prepare the engineering design of sludge treatment facility in the following year after wastewater service master plan is completed.  8  It is assumed that all cities/districts pursuing the Implementation phase (in PPSP program roadmap) will also prepare solid waste management master plans. 9  Source: The National Medium‐Term Development Plan (RPJMN) 2010 – 2015. Note: By 2014, around 240 solid waste final disposal areas in Indonesian cities must be improved to meet sanitary landfill specification and performance standards. It is assumed in the next three years, there are still 150 landfill engineering designs to be completed, or 50 designs a year. 10  Source: The National Medium‐Term Development Plan (RPJMN) 2010 – 2015. Note: By 2014, around drainage systems in 100 strategic locations must be improved to prevent them from flooding.  It is assumed then that each year 20 master plans of urban drainage systems must be produced.   4 ‐ 2  
  83. Sanitation Training and Capacity Study   drainage system11  districts 12 12  Operation of sewer system   cities/                    ‐    ‐    ‐      5     5  10  districts  13  Operation of sewage  cities/                    ‐    ‐    ‐      5     5  10  13 treatment plant    districts  14  Operation of sludge  cities/                    ‐    ‐    10  10   20  40  14 treatment facility   districts  15  Operation of final disposal  cities/                    ‐    ‐    50  50   50  150  15 facility   districts                                                                  11  It is assumed that the engineering design of drainage system must be prepared in the following year after drainage system master plan is completed.   12  The number is only for the new and improved sewer systems. It is assumed only ten sewer systems can be developed in the current PPSP out of 16 targeted.  13  Same assumption as the sewer system since the sewage treatment plant and sewer system are parts of a sewerage system.  14  At least two year time is required to construct a sludge treatment facility following the completion of its engineering design. 15  At least two year time is required to construct a final disposal facility following the completion of its engineering design.  4 ‐ 3  
  84. Attachment 4  TABLE 4‐2. Estimated Number of Activities (Medium‐Term)  Number of Activities  Activity   Unit  2015  2016  2017  2018  2019  Sum  1  Preparation of City  cities/  130  120  140  60  50  ‐‐‐  Sanitation Strategies16  districts  2  Preparation of Program  cities/  100  130  120  140  60  ‐‐  Memorandum of Sanitation  districts  Sector17  3  Implementation of STBM  Villages  7,000  7,000  7,000  7,000  7,000  35,000  program18  4  Implementation of  Areas  2,000  2,000  2,000  2,000  2,000  10,000  19 SANIMAS Program   5  Completion of master plans  cities/  60  60  70  70  80  340  20 for wastewater services   districts  6  Engineering design of  cities/  10  10  10  10  10  50  21 sewerage system   districts  7  Engineering design of sludge  cities/  80  80  80  80  80  400  22 treatment facility   districts  8  Completion of master plan  cities/  60  60  70  70  80  340  23 for solid waste services   districts  9  Engineering design of final  cities/  50  50  50  50  50  250  disposal facility24  districts  10  Completion of master plan  cities/  80  80  80  80  80  400  for drainage system25  districts  11  Engineering design of  cities/  80  80  80  80  80  400  drainage system  districts  12  Operation of sewer system  cities/  5  5  10  10  10  40  districts  13  Operation of sewage  cities/  10  10  20  20  20  80  treatment plant   districts  14  Operation of sludge  cities/  20  40  80  80  80  300  treatment facility  districts  15  Operation of final disposal  cities/  50  50  50  50  50  250  facility  districts                                                               16 Cities/districts (total of 330) which have prepared their CSS in 2010‐2014 are expected to update their CSS for the 2015‐2019 development cycle. In addition, 170 more cities/districts will prepare CSS during 2015 – 2017 period. Therefore, by end of 2017, a grand total of 500 cities/districts will have CSSs. The 2015 – 2017 figures are comprised of cities/districts preparing CSS updates plus new CSS.   17  It is targeted that by end of 2018, all 500 cities/districts will complete their PMSS. The 2015 – 2018 figures include some cities/districts from the previous PPSP program cycle, which have not finished preparing the program memorandum by end of 2014.   18  The same STBM implementation rate from the 2012‐2014 period is used. However, villages are expected to progress to the second pillar (and further) during the next development cycle. By end of 2019, it expected that 35,000 villages will be in STBM program. 19  The same SANIMAS implementation rate from the 2012‐2014 period is used,  i.e. 2,000 per year. Therefore, it expected that 10,000 SANIMAS facilities will be completed by end of 2019.   20  It is assumed that all 500 cities/districts in the end of 2019 must possess master plans for wastewater services, solid waste services, and drainage system. Prior to that Program Memorandum must be prepared.  21  It is assumed that 50 more sewerage systems will be built in medium‐to‐large cities during the 2014 – 2019 development period. 22  At the end of 2019, 400 more of sludge treatment designs are completed. Therefore, all 500 cities/districts will have the designs. 23  At the end of 2019, 340 more of solid waste master plans are completed. Therefore, all 500 cities/districts will have the master plans.  24  At the end of 2019, 250 more of final disposal designs are completed. Therefore, all 500 cities/districts will have the designs. 25  At the end of 2019, 400 more of drainage system master plans are completed. Therefore, all 500 cities/districts will have the master plans. Same assumption for the drainage engineering designs. 4 ‐ 4  
  85. Sanitation Training and Capacity Study  TABLE 4‐3. Estimated Number of Job Opportunities (Short‐Term)  Ratio  Number of Job Opportunities  Job Title  (person/  activity)  2010  2011  2012  2013  2014  Sum  1   Facilitator (Policy) for Sanitation  na   ‐   ‐  26   26   26  78  Development Planning ‐ Province   2   Facilitator (Policy) for Sanitation  1  10  30  60   60   70  190  Development Planning   3   Facilitator (Technical) for Sanitation  na   ‐   ‐  26   26   26  78  Development Planning ‐ Province   4   Facilitator (Technical) for Sanitation  1  40  60  100   60   50  210  Development Planning   5   Facilitator (Financial) for Sanitation  na   ‐   ‐  26   26   26  78  Development Planning   6   Facilitator (Policy) for Sanitation  1  10  30  60   60   70  190  Development Planning   7   Facilitator (Social) for Hygienic Behavior  0.1  ‐    ‐    600   700   700  2,000  Change   8   Facilitator (Technical) for Communal  1  1,500  1,500  1,500   1,500   1,500  4,500  Sanitation System Implementation   9   Facilitator (Social) for Communal Sanitation  1  1,500  1,500  1,500   1,500   1,500  4,500  System Implementation   10   Consultant (Technical) for Wastewater  1  10  10  40   40   60  140  System Planning   11   Consultant (Technical) for Sewerage System  1  10  10  40   40   60  140  Engineering Design   12   Consultant (Urban Planning) for Wastewater  1  10  10  40   40   60  140  System Planning   13   Consultant (Socio‐Economic) for  1  10  10  40   40   60  140  Wastewater System Planning   14   Consultant (Financial) for Wastewater  1  10  10  40   40   60  140  System Planning   15   Consultant (Institutional) for Wastewater  1  10  10  40   40   60  140  System Planning   16   Consultant (Legal/Regulatory) for  1  10  10  40   40   60  140  Wastewater System Planning   17   Consultant (Community Development) for  1  10  10  40   40   60  140  Wastewater System Planning   18   Consultant (Business) for Wastewater  1  10  10  40   40   60  140  System Planning   19   Consultant (Communication) for  1  10  10  40   40   60  140  Wastewater System Planning   20   Consultant (Environmental Management)  1  10  10  40   40   60  140  for Wastewater System Planning   21   Consultant (Technical) for Sewerage System  1  ‐    ‐    5   5   5  15  Engineering Design   22   Consultant (Technical) for Wastewater  1  ‐    ‐    5   5   5  15  Treatment Plant Engineering Design   23   Consultant (Civil Works) for Sewerage  1  ‐    ‐    5   5   5  15  System Engineering Design   24   Consultant (Mechanical Works) for  1  ‐    ‐    5   5   5  15  Sewerage System Engineering Design   25   Consultant (Electrical Works) for Sewerage  1  ‐    ‐    5   5   5  15  System Engineering Design   26   Consultant (Soil Works) for Sewerage  1  ‐    ‐    5   5   5  15  System Engineering Design   27   Consultant (Project Management) for  1  ‐    ‐    5   5   5  15  Sewerage System Engineering Design   28   Consultant (Cost Estimation) for Sewerage  1  ‐    ‐    5   5   5  15  System Engineering Design   29   Consultant (Environmental Management)   1  ‐    ‐    5   5   5  15  4 ‐ 5  
  86. Attachment 4   for Sewerage System Engineering Design   30   Consultant (Technical) for Sludge Treatment  1  10  10  20  20   40  80  Facility Engineering Design   31   Consultant (Civil Works) for Sludge  1  10  10  20  20   40  80  Treatment Facility Engineering Design   32   Consultant (Mechanical Works) for Sludge  1  10  10  20  20   40  80  Treatment Facility Engineering Design   33   Consultant (Electrical Works) for Sludge  1  10  10  20  20   40  80  Treatment Facility Engineering Design   34   Consultant (Project Management) for Sludge  1  10  10  20  20   40  80  Treatment Facility Engineering Design   35   Consultant (Cost Estimation) for Sludge  1  10  10  20  20   40  80  Treatment Facility Engineering Design   36   Consultant (Environmental Management)  1  10  10  20  20   40  80  for Sludge Treatment Facility Engineering  Design    37   Consultant (Technical) for Solid Waste  1  10  10  40  40   60  140  System Planning   38   Consultant (Technical) for Sanitary Landfill  1  10  10  40  40   60  140  Engineering Design   39   Consultant (Urban Planning) for Solid Waste  1  10  10  40  40   60  140  System Planning   40   Consultant (Transportation) for Solid Waste  1  10  10  40  40   60  140  System Planning   41   Consultant (Socio‐Economic) for Solid Waste  1  10  10  40  40   60  140  System Planning   42   Consultant (Financial) for Solid Waste  1  10  10  40  40   60  140  System Planning   43   Consultant (Institutional) for Solid Waste  1  10  10  40  40   60  140  System Planning   44   Consultant (Legal/Regulatory) for Solid  1     10  40  40   60  140  Waste System Planning   10  45   Consultant (Community Development) for  1  10  10  40  40   60  140  Solid Waste System Planning   46   Consultant (Business) for Solid Waste  1  10  10  40  40   60  140  System Planning   47   Consultant (Communication) for Solid Waste  1  10  10  40  40   60  140  System Planning   48   Consultant (Environmental Management)  1  10  10  40  40   60  140  for Solid Waste System Planning   49   Consultant (Technical) for Sanitary Landfill  1  50  50  50  50   50  150  Engineering Design   50   Consultant (Technical) for Wastewater  1  50  50  50  50   50  150  Treatment Plant Engineering Design   51   Consultant (Soil Works) for Sanitary Landfill  1  50  50  50  50   50  150  Engineering Design   52   Consultant (Civil Works) for Sanitary Landfill  1  50  50  50  50   50  150  Engineering Design   53   Consultant (Mechanical Works) for Sanitary  1  50  50  50  50   50  150  Landfill Engineering Design   54   Consultant (Electrical Works) for Sanitary  1  50  50  50  50   50  150  Landfill Engineering Design   55   Consultant (Transportation) for Sanitary  1  50  50  50      50  150  Landfill Engineering Design   50   56   Consultant (Geohydrology) for Sanitary  1  50  50  50  50   50  150  Landfill Engineering Design   57   Consultant (Project Management) for  1  50  50  50  50   50  150  Sanitary Landfill Engineering Design   58   Consultant (Cost Estimation) for Sanitary  1  50  50  50  50   50  150  Landfill Engineering Design   59   Consultant (Environmental Management)  1  50  50  50  50   50  150 4 ‐ 6  
  87. Sanitation Training and Capacity Study   for Sanitary Landfill Engineering Design  60   Consultant (Technical) for Drainage System  1  10  10  40   40   60  140  Planning   61   Consultant (Soil Works) for Drainage System  1  10  10  40   40   60  140  Engineering Design   62   Consultant (Urban Planning) for Drainage  1  10  10  40   40   60  140  System Planning   63   Consultant (Socio‐Economic) for Drainage  1  10  10  40   40   60  140  System Planning   64   Consultant (Financial) for Drainage System  1  10  10  40   40   60  140  Planning   65   Consultant (Institutional) for Drainage  1  10  10  40   40   60  140  System Planning   66   Consultant (Legal/Regulatory) for Drainage  1  10  10  40   40   60  140  System Planning   67   Consultant (Civil Works) for Drainage  1  10  10  40   40   60  140  System Planning   68   Consultant (Mechanical Works) for Drainage  1  10  10  40   40   60  140  System Planning   69   Consultant (Communication) for Drainage  1  10  10  40   40   60  140  System Planning   70   Consultant (Environmental Management)  1  10  10  40   40   60  140  for Drainage System Planning   71   Consultant (Technical) for Drainage System  1  ‐    10  10   40        40  90  Engineering Design   72   Consultant (Soil Works) for Drainage System  1  ‐    10  10   40        40  90  Engineering Design   73   Consultant (Mechanical Works) for Drainage  1  ‐    10  10   40        40  90  System Engineering Design   74   Consultant (Civil Works) for Drainage  1  ‐    10  10   40        40  90  System Engineering Design   75   Consultant (Electrical Works) for Drainage  1  ‐    10  10   40        40  90  System Engineering Design   76   Consultant (Project Management) for  1  ‐    10  10   40        40  90  Drainage System Engineering Design   77   Consultant (Cost Estimation) for Drainage  1  ‐    10  10   40        40  90  System Engineering Design   78   Consultant (Environmental Management)  1  ‐    10  10   40        40  90  for Drainage System Engineering Design   79   Operator (Technical) for Sewer Network  2  ‐    ‐    ‐    10   10    20  Operation  80   Operator (Management) for Sewer Network  1  ‐    ‐    ‐    5     5     10  Operation  81   Operator (Financial) for Sewer Network  1  ‐    ‐    ‐    5     5     10  Operation  82   Operator (Safety) for Sewer Network  1  ‐    ‐    ‐    5     5     10  Operation  83   Operator (Technical) for Sewage Treatment  2  ‐    ‐    ‐    10   10  20  plant  84   Operator (Management) for Sewage  1  ‐    ‐    ‐    5     5     10  Treatment Plant  85   Operator (Financial) for Sewage Treatment  1  ‐    ‐    ‐    5     5     10  Plant  86   Operator (Safety) for Sewage Treatment  1  ‐    ‐    ‐    5     5     10  Plant  87   Operator (Technical) for Sludge Treatment  2  ‐    ‐    20   20   40  80  Facility  88   Operator (Management) for Sludge  1  ‐    ‐    10   10   20  40  Treatment Facility  89   Operator (Financial) for Sludge Treatment  1  ‐    ‐    10   10   20  40  Facility  4 ‐ 7  
  88. Attachment 4   90   Operator (Safety) for Sudge Treatment  1  ‐    ‐    10  10   20  40  Facility  91   Operator (Technical) for Final Disposal Site  2  ‐    ‐    100  100      100    300  Operation  92   Operator (Management) for Final Disposal  1  ‐    ‐    50  50     50     150  Site Operation  93   Operator (Financial) for Final Disposal Site  1  ‐    ‐    50  50     50     150  Operation  94   Operator (Safety) for Final Disposal Site  1  ‐    ‐    50  50     50     150  Operation  TOTAL  20,699      4 ‐ 8  
  89. Sanitation Training and Capacity Study  TABLE 4‐4. Estimated Number of Job Opportunities (Medium‐Term)  Ratio  Number of Job Opportunities  Job Title  (person/  activity)  2015  2016  2017  2018  2019  Sum  1   Facilitator (Policy) for Sanitation  na  33  33  33   33   33  165  Development Planning ‐ Province   2   Facilitator (Policy) for Sanitation  1  100  130  120   140   60  550  Development Planning   3   Facilitator (Technical) for Sanitation  na  33  33  33   33   33  165  Development Planning ‐ Province   4   Facilitator (Technical) for Sanitation  1  130  120  140   60   50  500  Development Planning   5   Facilitator (Financial) for Sanitation  na  33  33  33   33   33  165  Development Planning   6   Facilitator (Policy) for Sanitation  1  100  130  120   140   60  550  Development Planning   7   Facilitator (Social) for Hygienic Behavior  0.1  700  700  700   700   700  3,500  Change   8   Facilitator (Technical) for Communal  1  1,500  1,500  1,500   1,500   1,500  7,500  Sanitation System Implementation   9   Facilitator (Social) for Communal Sanitation  1  1,500  1,500  1,500   1,500   1,500  7,500  System Implementation   10   Consultant (Technical) for Wastewater  1  60  60  70   70   80  340  System Planning   11   Consultant (Technical) for Sewerage System  1  60  60  70   70   80  340  Engineering Design   12   Consultant (Urban Planning) for Wastewater  1  60  60  70   70   80  340  System Planning   13   Consultant (Socio‐Economic) for  1  60  60  70   70   80  340  Wastewater System Planning   14   Consultant (Financial) for Wastewater  1  60  60  70   70   80  340  System Planning   15   Consultant (Institutional) for Wastewater  1  60  60  70   70   80  340  System Planning   16   Consultant (Legal/Regulatory) for  1  60  60  70   70   80  340  Wastewater System Planning   17   Consultant (Community Development) for  1  60  60  70   70   80  340  Wastewater System Planning   18   Consultant (Business) for Wastewater  1  60  60  70   70   80  340  System Planning   19   Consultant (Communication) for  1  60  60  70   70   80  340  Wastewater System Planning   20   Consultant (Environmental Management)  1  60  60  70   70   80  340  for Wastewater System Planning   21   Consultant (Technical) for Sewerage System  1  10  10  10   10   10  50  Engineering Design   22   Consultant (Technical) for Wastewater  1  10  10  10   10   10  50  Treatment Plant Engineering Design   23   Consultant (Civil Works) for Sewerage  1  10  10  10   10   10  50  System Engineering Design   24   Consultant (Mechanical Works) for  1  10  10  10   10   10  50  Sewerage System Engineering Design   25   Consultant (Electrical Works) for Sewerage  1  10  10  10   10   10  50  System Engineering Design   26   Consultant (Soil Works) for Sewerage  1  10  10  10   10   10  50  System Engineering Design   27   Consultant (Project Management) for  1  10  10  10   10   10  50  Sewerage System Engineering Design   28   Consultant (Cost Estimation) for Sewerage  1  10  10  10   10   10  50  System Engineering Design   4 ‐ 9  
  90. Attachment 4   29   Consultant (Environmental Management)   1  10  10  10  10   10  50  for Sewerage System Engineering Design   30   Consultant (Technical) for Sludge Treatment  1  80  80  80  80   80  400  Facility Engineering Design   31   Consultant (Civil Works) for Sludge  1  80  80  80  80   80  400  Treatment Facility Engineering Design   32   Consultant (Mechanical Works) for Sludge  1  80  80  80  80   80  400  Treatment Facility Engineering Design   33   Consultant (Electrical Works) for Sludge  1  80  80  80  80   80  400  Treatment Facility Engineering Design   34   Consultant (Project Management) for Sludge  1  80  80  80  80   80  400  Treatment Facility Engineering Design   35   Consultant (Cost Estimation) for Sludge  1  80  80  80  80   80  400  Treatment Facility Engineering Design   36   Consultant (Environmental Management)  1  80  80  80  80   80  400  for Sludge Treatment Facility Engineering  Design    37   Consultant (Technical) for Solid Waste  1  60  60  70  70   80  340  System Planning   38   Consultant (Technical) for Sanitary Landfill  1  60  60  70  70   80  340  Engineering Design   39   Consultant (Urban Planning) for Solid Waste  1  60  60  70  70   80  340  System Planning   40   Consultant (Transportation) for Solid Waste  1  60  60  70  70   80  340  System Planning   41   Consultant (Socio‐Economic) for Solid Waste  1  60  60  70  70   80  340  System Planning   42   Consultant (Financial) for Solid Waste  1  60  60  70  70   80  340  System Planning   43   Consultant (Institutional) for Solid Waste  1  60  60  70  70   80  340  System Planning   44   Consultant (Legal/Regulatory) for Solid  1  60  60  70  70   80  340  Waste System Planning   45   Consultant (Community Development) for  1  60  60  70  70   80  340  Solid Waste System Planning   46   Consultant (Business) for Solid Waste  1  60  60  70  70   80  340  System Planning   47   Consultant (Communication) for Solid Waste  1  60  60  70  70   80  340  System Planning   48   Consultant (Environmental Management)  1  60  60  70  70   80  340  for Solid Waste System Planning   49   Consultant (Technical) for Sanitary Landfill  1  50  50  50  50   50  250  Engineering Design   50   Consultant (Technical) for Wastewater  1  50  50  50  50   50  250  Treatment Plant Engineering Design   51   Consultant (Soil Works) for Sanitary Landfill  1  50  50  50  50   50  250  Engineering Design   52   Consultant (Civil Works) for Sanitary Landfill  1  50  50  50  50   50  250  Engineering Design   53   Consultant (Mechanical Works) for Sanitary  1  50  50  50  50   50  250  Landfill Engineering Design   54   Consultant (Electrical Works) for Sanitary  1  50  50  50  50   50  250  Landfill Engineering Design   55   Consultant (Transportation) for Sanitary  1  50  50  50  50   50  250  Landfill Engineering Design   56   Consultant (Geohydrology) for Sanitary  1  50  50  50  50   50  250  Landfill Engineering Design   57   Consultant (Project Management) for  1  50  50  50  50   50  250  Sanitary Landfill Engineering Design   58   Consultant (Cost Estimation) for Sanitary  1  50  50  50  50   50  250  Landfill Engineering Design  4 ‐ 10  
  91. Sanitation Training and Capacity Study   59   Consultant (Environmental Management)  1  50  50  50   50   50  250  for Sanitary Landfill Engineering Design   60   Consultant (Technical) for Drainage System  1  60  60  70   70   80  340  Planning   61   Consultant (Soil Works) for Drainage System  1  60  60  70   70   80  340  Engineering Design   62   Consultant (Urban Planning) for Drainage  1  60  60  70   70   80  340  System Planning   63   Consultant (Socio‐Economic) for Drainage  1  60  60  70   70   80  340  System Planning   64   Consultant (Financial) for Drainage System  1  60  60  70   70   80  340  Planning   65   Consultant (Institutional) for Drainage  1  60  60  70   70   80  340  System Planning   66   Consultant (Legal/Regulatory) for Drainage  1  60  60  70   70   80  340  System Planning   67   Consultant (Civil Works) for Drainage  1  60  60  70   70   80  340  System Planning   68   Consultant (Mechanical Works) for Drainage  1  60  60  70   70   80  340  System Planning   69   Consultant (Communication) for Drainage  1  60  60  70   70   80  340  System Planning   70   Consultant (Environmental Management)  1  60  60  70   70   80  340  for Drainage System Planning   71   Consultant (Technical) for Drainage System  1  60  60  60   70   70  320  Engineering Design   72   Consultant (Soil Works) for Drainage System  1  60  60  60   70   70  320  Engineering Design   73   Consultant (Mechanical Works) for Drainage  1  60  60  60   70   70  320  System Engineering Design   74   Consultant (Civil Works) for Drainage  1  60  60  60   70   70  320  System Engineering Design   75   Consultant (Electrical Works) for Drainage  1  60  60  60   70   70  320  System Engineering Design   76   Consultant (Project Management) for  1  60  60  60   70   70  320  Drainage System Engineering Design   77   Consultant (Cost Estimation) for Drainage  1  60  60  60   70   70  320  System Engineering Design   78   Consultant (Environmental Management)  1  60  60  60   70   70  320  for Drainage System Engineering Design   79   Operator (Technical) for Sewer Network  2  10  20  20   20   20  90  Operation  80   Operator (Management) for Sewer Network  1  5  10  10   10   10  45  Operation  81   Operator (Financial) for Sewer Network  1  5  10  10   10   10  45  Operation  82   Operator (Safety) for Sewer Network  1  5  10  10   10   10  45  Operation  83   Operator (Technical) for Sewage Treatment  2  10  20  20   20   20  90  plant  84   Operator (Management) for Sewage  1  5  10  10   10   10     Treatment Plant  45  85   Operator (Financial) for Sewage Treatment  1  5  10  10   10   10  45  Plant  86   Operator (Safety) for Sewage Treatment  1  5  10  10   10   10  45  Plant  87   Operator (Technical) for Sludge Treatment  2  40  80  160   160   160  600  Facility  88   Operator (Management) for Sludge  1  20  40  80   80   80  300  Treatment Facility  89   Operator (Financial) for Sludge Treatment  1  20  40  80   80   80  300  4 ‐ 11  
  92. Attachment 4   Facility  90   Operator (Safety) for Sudge Treatment  1  20  40  80  80   80  300  Facility  91   Operator (Technical) for Final Disposal Site  2  100  100  100  100   100  500  Operation  92   Operator (Management) for Final Disposal  1  50  50  50  50   50  250  Site Operation  93   Operator (Financial) for Final Disposal Site  1  50  50  50  50   50  250  Operation  94   Operator (Safety) for Final Disposal Site  1  50  50  50  50   50  250  Operation  TOTAL  43,915  4 ‐ 12  
  93. Sanitation Training and Capacity Study  TABLE 4‐5. Estimated Number of Individuals Required (Short‐Term)  Work  Number of Individuals  Continuity  Job Title  Duration  Ratio  2012  2013  2014  Sum  (years)  1    Facilitator (Policy) for Sanitation  2   0.7  86  86   36   208  Development Planning   2    Facilitator (Technical) for Sanitation  2   0.7  126  86    (12)  200  Development Planning   3   Facilitator (Financial) for Sanitation  2   0.7  26  26   8   60  Development Planning   4   Facilitator (Policy) for Sanitation  1   0.7  60  18   28   106  Development Planning   5   Facilitator (Social) for Hygienic  2   0.5  600  700   400   1,700  Behavior Change   6   Facilitator (Technical) for Communal  2   0.5  1,500  1,500   750   3,750  Sanitation System Implementation   7  Facilitator (Social) for Communal  2   0.5  1,500  1,500   750   3,750  Sanitation System Implementation   8  Consultant (Technical) for  2   0.8  40  40   28   108  Wastewater System Planning   9  Consultant (Technical) for Sewerage  2   0.8  40  40   28   108  System Engineering Design   10  Consultant (Urban Planning) for  1   0.8  40  8   28   76  Wastewater System Planning   11  Consultant (Socio‐Economic) for  1   0.8  40  8   28   76  Wastewater System Planning   12   Consultant (Financial) for Wastewater  1   0.8  40  8   28   76  System Planning   13   Consultant (Institutional) for  1   0.8  40  8   28   76  Wastewater System Planning   14   Consultant (Legal/Regulatory) for  1   0.8  40  8   28   76  Wastewater System Planning   15   Consultant (Community Development)  1   0.8  40  8   28   76  for Wastewater System Planning   16   Consultant (Business) for Wastewater  1   0.8  40  8   28   76  System Planning   17   Consultant (Communication) for  1   0.8  40  8   28   76  Wastewater System Planning   18   Consultant (Environmental  1   0.8  40  8   28   76  Management) for Wastewater System  Planning   19   Consultant (Technical) for Sewerage  1   0.8  5  1   1   7  System Engineering Design   20   Consultant (Technical) for Wastewater  1   0.8  5  1   1   7  Treatment Plant Engineering Design   21   Consultant (Civil Works) for Sewerage  1   0.8  5  1   1   7  System Engineering Design   22   Consultant (Mechanical Works) for  1   0.8  5  1   1   7  Sewerage System Engineering Design   23   Consultant (Electrical Works) for  1   0.8  5  1   1   7  Sewerage System Engineering Design   24   Consultant (Soil Works) for Sewerage  1   0.8  5  1   1   7  System Engineering Design   25   Consultant (Project Management) for  1   0.8  5  1   1   7  Sewerage System Engineering Design   4 ‐ 13  
  94. Attachment 4   26   Consultant (Cost Estimation) for  1   0.8  5  1  1   7  Sewerage System Engineering Design   27   Consultant (Environmental  1   0.8  5  1  1   7  Management)  for Sewerage System  Engineering Design   28   Consultant (Technical) for Sludge  1   0.8  20  4  24   48  Treatment Facility Engineering Design   29   Consultant (Civil Works) for Sludge  1   0.8  20  4  24   48  Treatment Facility Engineering Design   30   Consultant (Mechanical Works) for  1   0.8  20  4  24   48  Sludge Treatment Facility Engineering  Design   31   Consultant (Electrical Works) for  1   0.8  20  4  24   48  Sludge Treatment Facility Engineering  Design   32   Consultant (Project Management) for  1   0.8  20  4  24   48  Sludge Treatment Facility Engineering  Design   33   Consultant (Cost Estimation) for Sludge  1   0.8  20  4  24   48  Treatment Facility Engineering Design   34   Consultant (Environmental  1   0.8  20  4  24   48  Management) for Sludge Treatment  Facility Engineering Design    35   Consultant (Technical) for Solid Waste  2   0.8  40  40  28   108  System Planning   36   Consultant (Technical) for Sanitary  2   0.8  40  40  28   108  Landfill Engineering Design   37   Consultant (Urban Planning) for Solid  1   0.8  40  8  28   76  Waste System Planning   38   Consultant (Transportation) for Solid  1   0.8  40  8  28   76  Waste System Planning   39   Consultant (Socio‐Economic) for Solid  1   0.8  40  8  28   76  Waste System Planning   40   Consultant (Financial) for Solid Waste  1   0.8  40  8  28   76  System Planning   41   Consultant (Institutional) for Solid  1   0.8  40  8  28   76  Waste System Planning   42   Consultant (Legal/Regulatory) for Solid  1   0.8  40  8  28   76  Waste System Planning   43   Consultant (Community Development)  1   0.8  40  8  28   76  for Solid Waste System Planning   44   Consultant (Business) for Solid Waste  1   0.8  40  8  28   76  System Planning   45   Consultant (Communication) for Solid  1   0.8  40  8  28   76  Waste System Planning   46   Consultant (Environmental  1   0.8  40  8  28   76  Management) for Solid Waste System  Planning   47   Consultant (Technical) for Sanitary  2   0.8  50  10  10   70  Landfill Engineering Design   48   Consultant (Technical) for Wastewater  1   0.8  50  10  10   70  Treatment Plant Engineering Design   49   Consultant (Soil Works) for Sanitary  1   0.8  50  10  10   70  Landfill Engineering Design   50   Consultant (Civil Works) for Sanitary  1   0.8  50  10  10   70  Landfill Engineering Design   51   Consultant (Mechanical Works) for  1   0.8  50  10  10   70  Sanitary Landfill Engineering Design  4 ‐ 14  
  95. Sanitation Training and Capacity Study   52   Consultant (Electrical Works) for  1   0.8  50  10   10   70  Sanitary Landfill Engineering Design   53    Consultant (Transportation) for  1   0.8  50  10   10   70  Sanitary Landfill Engineering Design   54   Consultant (Geohydrology) for Sanitary  1   0.8  50  10   10   70  Landfill Engineering Design   55   Consultant (Project Management) for  1   0.8  50  10   10   70  Sanitary Landfill Engineering Design   56   Consultant (Cost Estimation) for  1   0.8  50  10   10   70  Sanitary Landfill Engineering Design   57   Consultant (Environmental  1   0.8  50  10   10   70  Management) for Sanitary Landfill  Engineering Design   58   Consultant (Technical) for Drainage  2   0.8  40  40   28   108  System Planning   59   Consultant (Soil Works) for Drainage  1   0.8  40  8   28   76  System Engineering Design   60   Consultant (Urban Planning) for  1   0.8  40  8   28   76  Drainage System Planning   61   Consultant (Socio‐Economic) for  1   0.8  40  8   28   76  Drainage System Planning   62   Consultant (Financial) for Drainage  1   0.8  40  8   28   76  System Planning   63   Consultant (Institutional) for Drainage  1   0.8  40  8   28   76  System Planning   64   Consultant (Legal/Regulatory) for  1   0.8  40  8   28   76  Drainage System Planning   65   Consultant (Civil Works) for Drainage  1   0.8  40  8   28   76  System Planning   66   Consultant (Mechanical Works) for  1   0.8  40  8   28   76  Drainage System Planning   67   Consultant (Communication) for  1   0.8  40  8   28   76  Drainage System Planning   68   Consultant (Environmental  1   0.8  40  8   28   76  Management) for Drainage System  Planning   69   Consultant (Technical) for Drainage  2   0.8  10  32   8   50  System Engineering Design   70   Consultant (Soil Works) for Drainage  1   0.8  10  32   8   50  System Engineering Design   71    Consultant (Mechanical Works) for  1   0.8  10  32   8   50  Drainage System Engineering Design   72   Consultant (Civil Works) for Drainage  1   0.8  10  32   8   50  System Engineering Design   73   Consultant (Electrical Works) for  1   0.8  10  32   8   50  Drainage System Engineering Design   74   Consultant (Project Management) for  1   0.8  10  32   8   50  Drainage System Engineering Design   75   Consultant (Cost Estimation) for  1   0.8  10  32   8   50  Drainage System Engineering Design   76   Consultant (Environmental  1   0.8  10  32   8   50  Management) for Drainage System  Engineering Design   77   Operator (Technical) for Sewer     1                  ‐    10   10   20  Network Operation   78   Operator (Management) for Sewer     1                  ‐    5   5   10  Network Operation   4 ‐ 15  
  96. Attachment 4   79   Operator (Financial) for Sewer     1                  ‐    5  5   10  Network Operation   80   Operator (Safety) for Sewer Network     1                  ‐    5  5   10  Operation   81   Operator (Technical) for Sewage     1                  ‐    10  10   20  Treatment plant   82   Operator (Management) for Sewage     1                  ‐    5  5   10  Treatment Plant   83   Operator (Financial) for Sewage     1                  ‐    5  5   10  Treatment Plant   84   Operator (Safety) for Sewage     1                  ‐    5  5   10  Treatment Plant   85   Operator (Technical) for Sludge     1  20  20  40   80  Treatment Facility   86   Operator (Management) for Sludge     1  10  10  20   40  Treatment Facility   87   Operator (Financial) for Sludge     1  10  10  20   40  Treatment Facility   88   Operator (Safety) for Sudge Treatment     1  10  10  20   40  Facility   89   Operator (Technical) for Final Disposal     1  100  100  100   300  Site Operation   90   Operator (Management) for Final     1  50  50  50   150  Disposal Site Operation   91   Operator (Financial) for Final Disposal     1  50  50  50   150  Site Operation   92   Operator (Safety) for Final Disposal     1  50  50  50   150  Site Operation   TOTAL  15,136   4 ‐ 16  
  97. Sanitation Training and Capacity Study  TABLE 4‐6. Estimated Number of Individuals Required (Medium‐Term)  Work  Number of Individuals  Continuity  Job Title  Duration  Ratio  2015  2016  2017  2018  2019  Sum  (years)  1   Facilitator (Policy) for Sanitation  2   0.7  73  96  60   59  (14)   273  Development Planning   2   Facilitator (Technical) for  2   0.7  103  100  59    (14)   (38)  209  Sanitation Development  Planning   3   Facilitator (Financial) for  2   0.7  15  15  10   10  10  59  Sanitation Development  Planning   4   Facilitator (Policy) for Sanitation  1   0.7  51  60  29   56   (38)  158  Development Planning   5   Facilitator (Social) for Hygienic  2   0.5  350  350  350   350  350  1,750  Behavior Change   6   Facilitator (Technical) for  2   0.5  750  750  750   750  750   3,750  Communal Sanitation System  Implementation   7  Facilitator (Social) for  2   0.5  750  750  750   750  750   3,750  Communal Sanitation System  Implementation   8  Consultant (Technical) for  2   0.8  28  12  22   22  24  108  Wastewater System Planning   9  Consultant (Technical) for  2   0.8  28  12  22   22  24  108  Sewerage System Engineering  Design   10  Consultant (Urban Planning) for  1   0.8  12  12  22   14  24  84  Wastewater System Planning   11  Consultant (Socio‐Economic) for  1   0.8  12  12  22   14  24  84  Wastewater System Planning   12   Consultant (Financial) for  1   0.8  12  12  22   14  24  84  Wastewater System Planning   13   Consultant (Institutional) for  1   0.8  12  12  22   14  24  84  Wastewater System Planning   14   Consultant (Legal/Regulatory)  1   0.8  12  12  22   14  24  84  for Wastewater System Planning   15   Consultant (Community  1   0.8  12  12  22   14  24  84  Development) for Wastewater  System Planning   16   Consultant (Business) for  1   0.8  12  12  22   14  24  84  Wastewater System Planning   17   Consultant (Communication) for  1   0.8  12  12  22   14  24  84  Wastewater System Planning   18   Consultant (Environmental  1   0.8  12  12  22   14  24  84  Management) for Wastewater  System Planning   19   Consultant (Technical) for  1   0.8  6  2  2   2  2  14  Sewerage System Engineering  Design   20   Consultant (Technical) for  1   0.8  6  2  2   2  2  14  Wastewater Treatment Plant  Engineering Design   21   Consultant (Civil Works) for  1   0.8  6  2  2   2  2  14  Sewerage System Engineering  Design   22   Consultant (Mechanical Works)  1   0.8  6  2  2   2  2  14  for Sewerage System  Engineering Design   4 ‐ 17  
  98. Attachment 4   23   Consultant (Electrical Works) for  1   0.8  6  2  2  2   2  14  Sewerage System Engineering  Design   24   Consultant (Soil Works) for  1   0.8  6  2  2  2   2  14  Sewerage System Engineering  Design   25   Consultant (Project  1   0.8  6  2  2  2   2  14  Management) for Sewerage  System Engineering Design   26   Consultant (Cost Estimation) for  1   0.8  6  2  2  2   2  14  Sewerage System Engineering  Design   27   Consultant (Environmental  1   0.8  6  2  2  2   2  14  Management)  for Sewerage  System Engineering Design   28   Consultant (Technical) for  1   0.8  48  16  16  16   16  112  Sludge Treatment Facility  Engineering Design   29   Consultant (Civil Works) for  1   0.8  48  16  16  16   16  112  Sludge Treatment Facility  Engineering Design   30   Consultant (Mechanical Works)  1   0.8  48  16  16  16   16  112  for Sludge Treatment Facility  Engineering Design   31   Consultant (Electrical Works) for  1   0.8  48  16  16  16   16  112  Sludge Treatment Facility  Engineering Design   32   Consultant (Project  1   0.8  48  16  16  16   16  112  Management) for Sludge  Treatment Facility Engineering  Design   33   Consultant (Cost Estimation) for  1   0.8  48  16  16  16   16  112  Sludge Treatment Facility  Engineering Design   34   Consultant (Environmental  1   0.8  48  16  16  16   16  112  Management) for Sludge  Treatment Facility Engineering  Design    35   Consultant (Technical) for Solid  2   0.8  28  12  22  22   24  108  Waste System Planning   36   Consultant (Technical) for  2   0.8  28  12  22  22   24  108  Sanitary Landfill Engineering  Design   37   Consultant (Urban Planning) for  1   0.8  12  12  22  14   24  84  Solid Waste System Planning   38   Consultant (Transportation) for  1   0.8  12  12  22  14   24  84  Solid Waste System Planning   39   Consultant (Socio‐Economic) for  1   0.8  12  12  22  14   24  84  Solid Waste System Planning   40   Consultant (Financial) for Solid  1   0.8  12  12  22  14   24  84  Waste System Planning   41   Consultant (Institutional) for  1   0.8  12  12  22  14   24  84  Solid Waste System Planning   42   Consultant (Legal/Regulatory)  1   0.8  12  12  22  14   24  84  for Solid Waste System Planning   43   Consultant (Community  1   0.8  12  12  22  14   24  84  Development) for Solid Waste  System Planning   44   Consultant (Business) for Solid  1   0.8  12  12  22  14   24  84  Waste System Planning   45   Consultant (Communication) for  1   0.8  12  12  22  14   24  84  Solid Waste System Planning  4 ‐ 18  
  99. Sanitation Training and Capacity Study   46   Consultant (Environmental  1   0.8  12  12  22   14  24  84  Management) for Solid Waste  System Planning   47   Consultant (Technical) for  2   0.8  10  10  10   10  10  50  Sanitary Landfill Engineering  Design   48   Consultant (Technical) for  1   0.8  10  10  10   10  10  50  Wastewater Treatment Plant  Engineering Design   49   Consultant (Soil Works) for  1   0.8  10  10  10   10  10  50  Sanitary Landfill Engineering  Design   50   Consultant (Civil Works) for  1   0.8  10  10  10   10  10  50  Sanitary Landfill Engineering  Design   51   Consultant (Mechanical Works)  1   0.8  10  10  10   10  10  50  for Sanitary Landfill Engineering  Design   52   Consultant (Electrical Works) for  1   0.8  10  10  10   10  10  50  Sanitary Landfill Engineering  Design   53    Consultant (Transportation) for  1   0.8  10  10  10   10  10  50  Sanitary Landfill Engineering  Design   54   Consultant (Geohydrology) for  1   0.8  10  10  10   10  10  50  Sanitary Landfill Engineering  Design   55   Consultant (Project  1   0.8  10  10  10   10  10  50  Management) for Sanitary  Landfill Engineering Design   56   Consultant (Cost Estimation) for  1   0.8  10  10  10   10  10  50  Sanitary Landfill Engineering  Design   57   Consultant (Environmental  1   0.8  10  10  10   10  10  50  Management) for Sanitary  Landfill Engineering Design   58   Consultant (Technical) for  2   0.8  28  12  22   22  24  108  Drainage System Planning   59   Consultant (Soil Works) for  1   0.8  12  12  22   14  24  84  Drainage System Engineering  Design   60   Consultant (Urban Planning) for  1   0.8  12  12  22   14  24  84  Drainage System Planning   61   Consultant (Socio‐Economic) for  1   0.8  12  12  22   14  24  84  Drainage System Planning   62   Consultant (Financial) for  1   0.8  12  12  22   14  24  84  Drainage System Planning   63   Consultant (Institutional) for  1   0.8  12  12  22   14  24  84  Drainage System Planning   64   Consultant (Legal/Regulatory)  1   0.8  12  12  22   14  24  84  for Drainage System Planning   65   Consultant (Civil Works) for  1   0.8  12  12  22   14  24  84  Drainage System Planning   66   Consultant (Mechanical Works)  1   0.8  12  12  22   14  24  84  for Drainage System Planning   67   Consultant (Communication) for  1   0.8  12  12  22   14  24  84  Drainage System Planning   68   Consultant (Environmental  1   0.8  12  12  22   14  24  84  Management) for Drainage  System Planning   4 ‐ 19  
  100. Attachment 4   69   Consultant (Technical) for  2   0.8  28  12  12  22   14  88  Drainage System Engineering  Design   70   Consultant (Soil Works) for  1   0.8  28  12  12  22   14  88  Drainage System Engineering  Design   71    Consultant (Mechanical Works)  1   0.8  28  12  12  22   14  88  for Drainage System Engineering  Design   72   Consultant (Civil Works) for  1   0.8  28  12  12  22   14  88  Drainage System Engineering  Design   73   Consultant (Electrical Works) for  1   0.8  28  12  12  22   14  88  Drainage System Engineering  Design   74   Consultant (Project  1   0.8  28  12  12  22   14  88  Management) for Drainage  System Engineering Design   75   Consultant (Cost Estimation) for  1   0.8  28  12  12  22   14  88  Drainage System Engineering  Design   76   Consultant (Environmental  1   0.8  28  12  12  22   14  88  Management) for Drainage  System Engineering Design   77   Operator (Technical) for Sewer     1  10  20  20  20   20  90  Network Operation   78   Operator (Management) for     1  5  10  10  10   10  45  Sewer Network Operation   79   Operator (Financial) for Sewer     1  5  10  10  10   10  45  Network Operation   80   Operator (Safety) for Sewer     1  5  10  10  10   10  45  Network Operation   81   Operator (Technical) for Sewage     1  10  20  20  20   20  90  Treatment plant   82   Operator (Management) for     1  5  10  10  10   10  45  Sewage Treatment Plant   83   Operator (Financial) for Sewage     1  5  10  10  10   10  45  Treatment Plant   84   Operator (Safety) for Sewage     1  5  10  10  10   10  45  Treatment Plant   85   Operator (Technical) for Sludge     1  40  80  160  160   160  600  Treatment Facility   86   Operator (Management) for     1  20  40  80  80   80  300  Sludge Treatment Facility   87   Operator (Financial) for Sludge     1  20  40  80  80   80  300  Treatment Facility   88   Operator (Safety) for Sudge     1  20  40  80  80   80  300  Treatment Facility   89   Operator (Technical) for Final     1  100  100  100  100   100  500  Disposal Site Operation   90   Operator (Management) for     1  50  50  50  50   50  250  Final Disposal Site Operation   91   Operator (Financial) for Final     1  50  50  50  50   50  250  Disposal Site Operation   92   Operator (Safety) for Final     1  50  50  50  50   50  250  Disposal Site Operation   TOTAL  18,290   4 ‐ 20  
  101. Sanitation Training and Capacity Study  TABLE 4‐7. Summary of Demand for Main Personnel   Job Opportunities  Required Individuals  Main Personnel  Medium‐ Medium‐ Short‐Term  F  Short‐Term  Term  Term  Facilitator (Policy) for Sanitation Development            268            715             0.7            208             273  Planning   Facilitator (Technical) for Sanitation            288            665             0.7            200             209  Development Planning   Facilitator (Policy) for Sanitation Development            190            550             0.7            106             158  Planning   Facilitator (Social) for Hygienic Behavior         2,000         3,500             0.5         1,700          1,750  Change   Facilitator (Technical) for Communal         4,500         7,500             0.5         3,750          3,750  Sanitation System Implementation   Facilitator (Social) for Communal Sanitation         4,500         7,500             0.5         3,750          3,750  System Implementation   Consultant (Technical) for Wastewater System            140            340             0.8            108             108  Planning   Consultant (Technical) for Sewerage System              15              50             0.8                7               14  Engineering Design   Consultant (Technical) for Sludge Treatment              80            400             0.8              48             112  Facility Engineering Design   Consultant (Technical) for Solid Waste System            140            340             0.8            108             108  Planning    Consultant (Technical) for Sanitary Landfill            150            250             0.8              70               50  Engineering Design   Consultant (Technical) for Drainage System            140            340             0.8            108             108  Planning   Consultant (Technical) for Drainage System              90            320             0.8              50               88  Engineering Design   Operator (Technical) for Sewer Network              20              90             1.0              20               90  Operation   Operator (Management) for Sewer Network              10              45             1.0              10               45  Operation   Operator (Technical) for Sewage Treatment              20              90             1.0              20               90  plant   Operator (Management) for Sewage              10              45             1.0              10               45  Treatment Plant   Operator (Technical) for Sludge Treatment              80            600             1.0              80             600  Facility   Operator (Management) for Sludge              40            300             1.0              40             300  Treatment Facility   Operator (Technical) for Final Disposal Site            300            500             1.0            300             500  Operation   Operator (Management) for Final Disposal            150            250             1.0            150             250  Site Operation   TOTAL   13,131  24,390    10,843  12,399   4 ‐ 21  
  102. Attachment 4  TABLE 4‐8. Level of Demand for Sanitary Personnel   Short Term  Medium‐Term  Category  Amount  %  Amount  %  Total  All Personnel  15,140    18,290    Main Personnel  10,845  72  12,400  68  Role  All Personnel  Facilitator  9,780                65  9,950  54  Consultant  4,310  28  5,140  28  Operator  1,050    7  3,200  17  Main Personnel  Facilitator  9,710  89  9,890  80  Consultant  500    5  590  5  Operator  630    6  1,920  15  Field /  All Personnel  Education  Technical  5,240  35  6,190  34  Facilitator  3,950  26  3,960              22  Consultant  870    6  950  5  Operator  420    3  1,280  7  Non‐Technical  9,900  65  12,100  66  Main Personnel  Technical  4,870  45  5,830  47  Facilitator  3,950  36  3,960  32  Consultant  500  5  590  5  Operator  420  4  1,289  10  Non‐Technical  5,975  55  6,570  55  Experience  All Personnel          Senior  500  3  590  3  Mid‐Level  5,020  33  7,175  39  Junior  5,870  39  6,780  37  Entry‐Level  3,750  25  3,750  21  Main Personnel          Senior  500  5  590  5  Mid‐Level  1,145  11  2,560  21  Junior  5,450  50  5,500  44  Entry‐Level  3,750  35  3,750  30  Note:  Percentages of categories under the all personnel are proportional to the total number of all  personnel. While, percentages of categories under the main personnel are proportional to the  total number of main personnel.   4 ‐ 22  
  103. Sanitation Training and Capacity Study  ATTACHMENT 5 LEVEL OF SUPPLY OF SANITATION PERSONNEL The attachment contains tables of: • Estimated Supply of Eligible Individuals • Estimated Supply of Individuals from the Potential Group   Numbers of eligible are projected from (see Table 9‐1):   • Facilitator (Policy) for Sanitation Planning: Individuals who currently are CSS/PMSS facilitators, and who have been  trained.  • Facilitator (Social) for Hygienic Behavior: Individuals who have participated in CLTS or STBM programs, and who  have been trained.  • Facilitators (Technical) for Communal System: Individuals who have been prepared and involved in previous or on‐ going SANIMAS programs.  • Consultant (Technical) for Wastewater Planning: Number of senior and some mid‐level LPJK‐certified engineers, of  which 17% are wastewater expert, 16% are solid waste expert, 8% are (drainage expert, and 59% are water supply  expert. • Operators of various sanitation facilities: Number of facilities currently operating in Indonesia.    Numbers of potential individuals (technical personnel only) are projected from (see Table 9‐2):    • Technical with senior experience: Tapped from senior certified experts (Ahli Utama) with strong water supply  background.   • Technical with mid‐level experience: Obtained from two sources, i.e. a) mid‐level certified experts (Ahli Madya)  with  a  strong  water  supply  background,  and  b)  environmental  engineering  alumni  with  5  –  10  years  of  experience.    • Technical with junior experience: Obtained from two sources, a) junior‐level certified environmental engineers  (Ahli Muda), and b) environmental engineering alumni with 2 – 4 years of experience.   • Technical  with  entry‐level  experience:  Obtain  from  environmental  engineers  with  less  than  2  years  of  experience.      5 ‐ 1  
  104. Attachment 5  TABLE 9‐1. Estimated Supply of Eligible  Supply of  Short‐Term  Job Titles  Delta  Note  Eligibles  Demand   FACILITATORS   Facilitator (Policy) for Sanitation  321  314  7   Sufficient   Development Planning   Facilitator (Technical) for Sanitation  129  200   (71)  Insufficient   Development Planning   Facilitator (Social) for Hygienic Behavior  1,378  1,700   (322)  Insufficient   Change   Facilitator (Technical) for Communal  3,000  3,750   (750)  Insufficient   Sanitation System Implementation   Facilitator (Social) for Communal  3,000  3,750   (750)  Insufficient   Sanitation System Implementation    CONSULTANTS    Consultant (Technical) for Wastewater  143  108  35   Sufficient   System Planning   Consultant (Technical) for Sewerage  115  7  60   Sufficient   System Engineering Design   Consultant (Technical) for Sludge  48  Insufficient   Treatment Facility Engineering Design   Consultant (Technical) for Solid Waste  131  108  23   Sufficient   System Planning   Consultant (Technical) for Sanitary Landfill  105  70  35   Sufficient   Engineering Design   Consultant (Technical) for Drainage  67  108   (41)  Insufficient   System Planning   Consultant (Technical) for Drainage  54  50  4   Sufficient   System Engineering Design    OPERATORS   Operator (Technical) for Sewer Network  11  20   (9)  Insufficient   Operation   Operator (Management) for Sewer  11  10  1   Sufficient   Network Operation   Operator (Technical) for Sewage  11  20  (9)  Insufficient   Treatment plant   Operator (Management) for Sewage   11  10  1   Sufficient   Treatment Plant   Operator (Technical) for Sludge Treatment  100  80  20   Sufficient   Facility   Operator (Management) for Sludge  100  40  60   Sufficient   Treatment Facility   Operator (Technical) for Final Disposal Site  200  300   (100)  Insufficient   Operation   Operator (Management) for Final Disposal   200  150  50   Sufficient   Site Operation    TOTAL   9,086  10,843    (1,756)       5 ‐ 2  
  105. Sanitation Training and Capacity Study  TABLE 9‐2. Estimated Supply of Individuals from the Potential Group  Technical   Job Titles   Potential   Medium‐Term  Note  Level    (Technical Only)  Individuals   Demand    Senior   Consultant (Technical) for Wastewater  99  324   Insufficient  System Planning   Consultant (Technical) for Solid Waste  System Planning   Consultant (Technical) for Drainage  System Planning    Mid‐Level   Facilitator (Technical) for Sanitation  402  209   Insufficient  Development Planning   Consultant (Technical) for Sewerage  264   System Engineering Design   Consultant (Technical) for Sludge  Treatment Facility Engineering Design   Consultant (Technical) for Sanitary  Landfill Engineering Design   Consultant (Technical) for Drainage  System Engineering Design   Operator (Technical) for Sewer Network  620  1,280   Insufficient  Operation   Operator (Technical) for Sewage  Treatment plant   Operator (Technical) for Sludge  Treatment Facility   Operator (Technical) for Final Disposal  Site Operation    Junior   ‐‐  2,277  3,750   Insufficient  ‐‐  372   Entry Level   Facilitator (Technical) for Communal     Sanitation System Implementation   248   TOTAL    4,018  5,827   Insufficient      5 ‐ 3  
  106. Attachment 5    This page is intentionally left blank  5 ‐ 4  
  107. Sanitation Training and Capacity Study  ATTACHMENT 6 LIST OF CORE COMPETENCIES: FACILITATOR (POLICY) FOR SANITATION DEVELOPMENT PLANNING  Units of Competency  Elements of Competency  Need‐to‐Know Criteria 1.0  Comprehend general  1.1  Evaluate information on physical  • Basic sanitation issues   characteristics of the  conditions of the area  • Relation between information on area’s  area  general characteristics with sanitation  1.2  Evaluate information on  demographic characteristics   condition, especially characteristics of:  • Physical conditions, i.e. topography,  1.3  Evaluate information on land‐use  climate, water bodies, geomorphology,  characteristic  geology, hydrology,    1.4  Evaluate information on socio‐ • Demography, i.e. population density,  economic condition   growth rate,  gender distribution,   1.5  Evaluate information on existing  • Land‐use, i.e. land‐use types,   infrastructure  composition, development trends,  • Socio‐economic condition; average  income, jobs and livelihoods,   • Existing infrastructure; road network,  electricity, water supply. 2.0  Assess sanitation  2.1  Assess community sanitation  • Basic understanding of community sanitation  conditions of the  behavior  behavior and health issues  communities  • Principles of community sanitation condition  2.2  Assess access of communities to  safe water sources  survey  • Sanitation indicators for households level  2.3  Assess access of communities to  sanitation facilities   • Survey data collection and analysis techniques   • Assessing and summarizing of community  2.4  Assess level of cleanliness of  sanitation condition   communities  • PPSP concept and approaches   2.5  Assess environmental health risks of  • Format of Environmental Health Risk  communities  Assessment (EHRA) report as guided by PPSP  • Relation of EHRA with Sanitation White Book  and CSS. 3.0  Prepare sanitation  3.1  Evaluate information on available  • Basic understanding of sanitation issues, at the  profile of the area  sanitation services   community and city levels   3.2  Evaluate information on sanitation  • Public health issues related to sanitation  institutional aspect   condition  • Components of sanitation profile   3.3  Evaluate information on sanitation  regulation and policy aspect  • Principles of sanitation profile mapping  • Type and characteristics of sanitation services  3.4  Evaluate information on  involvement of sanitation  • Data collection and analysis techniques  stakeholders   • PPSP concept and approaches   3.5  Evaluate information on sanitation  • Format of the Sanitation White Book as guided  financing  by PPSP.  3.6  Identify issues and opportunities in  • Relation between Sanitation White Book with  sanitation development  EHRA and CSS. 4.0  Comprehend  4.1  Evaluate information on future  • Basic sanitation issues   projections on future  physical conditions of the area  • Principles of prediction methodologies for  characteristics of the  demography and land‐use development   area  4.2  Evaluate information on future  demographic characteristics   • Relation between information on area’s  general characteristics with sanitation  4.3  Evaluate information on future  condition, especially characteristics of:  land‐use characteristic  • Physical conditions, i.e. topography,  4.4  Evaluate information on future  climate, water bodies, geomorphology,  6 ‐ 1  
  108. Attachment 6   socio‐economic conditions  geology, hydrology,    4.5  Evaluate information on future  • Demography, i.e. population, growth rate,   infrastructure  gender,   • Land‐use, i.e. land‐use types,   composition, trend of developments,  • Socio‐economic condition; average  income, jobs and livelihoods,   • Existing infrastructure; road network,  electricity, water supply.  • Components of city/ district spatial plan  5.0  Formulate basic  5.1  Formulate the desired state of  • Basic sanitation issues   framework for  sanitation conditions   • Government policies on sanitation  sanitation  development  development  in the  5.2  Formulate tasks and functions for  area  development of the sanitation  • Components of sanitation profile, i.e.  sector  infrastructure (services), institutional,  regulation and policy, public participation,  5.3  Identify strategic issues of sanitation  private sector involvement, funding  development in the area  • National, provincial, and city/ district medium‐  5.4  Determine scope of sanitation  and long‐term strategic development planning   development in the area  • PPSP concept and approaches   • Components of city/ district sanitation  strategic plans  • Basic principles in making vision and mission  statements  • Types and nature of strategic issues in  sanitation development   • Format of the CSS document as guided by PPSP  • Relation between CSS with Sanitation White  Book and EHRA. 6.0  Formulate direction  6.1  Determine timeframe for  • Basic sanitation issues   for sanitation  development of sanitation services  • Government policies on sanitation  development   development, including those related to the  6.2  Determine targets for access to  sanitation services  basic framework  • Components of sanitation profile, i.e.  6.3  Determine criteria for zoning of  infrastructure (services), institutional,  sanitation services   regulation and policy, public participation,  6.4  Determine criteria for selection of  private sector involvement, funding  type of sanitation services to be  • City/ district medium‐ and long‐term strategic  developed  development planning  • Types and nature of strategic issues in  sanitation development   • Type and characteristics of sanitation services  • PPSP concept and approaches   • Understanding EHRA document and Sanitation  White Book  • Zoning of sanitation services  • Access to sanitation services  • Format of the CSS document as guided by PPSP  • Relation between CSS with Sanitation White  Book, EHRA, and sanitation development  action plans 7.0  Prepare general  7.1  Prepare general proposal for  • Basic sanitation issues   proposal for  sanitation infrastructure  • Principles of program planning  sanitation  development programs   development  • Government policies on sanitation  7.2  Prepare general proposal for  development, including those related to its  programs  sanitation institutional capacity  basic framework and direction.  building programs  6 ‐ 2  
  109. Sanitation Training and Capacity Study   7.3  Prepare general proposal for  • Components of sanitation profile, i.e.  sanitation regulation and policy  infrastructure (services), institutional,  development programs  regulation and policy, public participation,  private sector involvement, funding  7.4  Prepare general proposal for public  • Understanding of  city/ district development  participation improvement  planning process  programs   • Principles of sanitation program planning,  7.5  Prepare general proposal for private  covering infrastructure, institutional capacity,  sector improvement programs  regulation and policy, public participation,  7.6  Prepare general proposal for  private sector, and funding issues  improvement of funding mechanism  • PPSP concept and approaches   • Format of the CSS document as guided by PPSP  • Content and format of a general proposal for  sanitation programs  • Relation between CSS with Sanitation White  Book, EHRA, and sanitation development  action plans 8.0  Prepare  8.1  Recommend prioritization of  • Basic sanitation issues   implementation  sanitation development programs   • PPSP concept and approaches   concept for  sanitation  8.2  Prepare implementation schedule  • Understanding of  city/ district development  development  for sanitation development  planning process  programs  • Decision making process of sanitation  8.3  Define tasks and responsibilities of  development proposals  program implementors  • Funding mechanism for sanitation  development programs  8.4  Develop concept for sanitation  development program funding  • Involvement of sanitation development  stakeholders  8.5  Develop monitoring and evaluation  • Preparation of Sanitation Development  concept for sanitation development  Program Memorandum   implementation  • Principles of monitoring and evaluation for  sanitation development  9.0  Develop strategic  9.1  Identify and assess capacity of  • Basic sanitation issues   partnerships  relevant parties  • PPSP concept and approaches   9.2  Improve awareness and knowledge  • Sanitation stakeholders at the national,  of relevant parties  provincial, and local/ district levels  9.3  Develop role and responsibilities of  • Buy‐in methods and tactics   relevant parties   • Assessment technique for institutional and  individual capacity   9.4  Consolidate workplan of relevant  parties  • Program and project management   • Managing group dynamics   9.5  Develop communication channels  among relevant parties  • Organizing workshops, meetings, trainings, and  discussions  • Training and coaching technique  • Effective communication and presentation  skills  • Information and data documentation 10.0  Facilitate  10.1  Explain participatory process and  • Basic sanitation issues   participatory  objectives  • PPSP concept and approaches   10.2  Facilitate discussions and meetings   • Principles and methods of participatory  process  10.3  Provide inputs to participatory  process  • Buy‐in methods and tactics   • Facilitation principles, methods, and  10.4  Monitor and evaluate participatory  techniques  process   6 ‐ 3  
  110. Attachment 6   10.5  Summarize results of participatory  • Adult learning principles and design   process  • Managing group dynamics   • Organizing workshops, meetings, trainings, and  discussions  • Training and coaching technique  • Effective communication and presentation  skills  • Monitoring and evaluation techniques of the  process  • Information and data documentation  6 ‐ 4  
  111. Sanitation Training and Capacity Study  ATTACHMENT 7 LIST OF CORE COMPETENCIES: FACILITATOR (POLICY) FOR SANITATION DEVELOPMENT PLANNING  Units of Competency  Elements of Competency  Need‐to‐Know Criteria 1.0  Comprehend general  1.1  Evaluate information on physical  • Basic sanitation issues   characteristics of the  conditions of the area  • Relation between information on area’s  area  general characteristics with sanitation  1.2  Evaluate information on  demographic characteristics   condition, especially characteristics of:  • Physical conditions, i.e. topography,  1.3  Evaluate information on land‐use  climate, water bodies, geomorphology,  characteristic  geology, hydrology,    1.4  Evaluate information on socio‐ • Demography, i.e. population density,  economic condition   growth rate,  gender distribution,   1.5  Evaluate information on existing  • Land‐use, i.e. land‐use types,   infrastructure  composition, development trends,  • Socio‐economic condition; average  income, jobs and livelihoods,   • Existing infrastructure; road network,  electricity, water supply. 2.0  Assess sanitation  2.1  Assess community sanitation  • Basic understanding of community sanitation  conditions of the  behavior  behavior and health issues  communities  • Principles of community sanitation condition  2.2  Assess access of communities to  safe water sources  survey  • Sanitation indicators for households level  2.3  Assess access of communities to  sanitation facilities   • Survey data collection and analysis techniques  • Assessing and summarizing of community  2.4  Assess level of cleanliness of  sanitation condition   communities  • PPSP concept and approaches   2.5  Assess environmental health risks of  • Format of Environmental Health Risk  communities  Assessment (EHRA) report as guided by PPSP  • Relation of EHRA with Sanitation White Book  and CSS. 3.0  Prepare sanitation  3.1  Evaluate information on available  • Basic understanding of sanitation issues, at  profile of the area  sanitation services   the community and city levels   3.2  Evaluate information on sanitation  • Public health issues related to sanitation  institutional aspect   condition  • Components of sanitation profile   3.3  Evaluate information on sanitation  regulation and policy aspect  • Principles of sanitation profile mapping  • Type and characteristics of sanitation services  3.4  Evaluate information on  involvement of sanitation  • Data collection and analysis techniques  stakeholders   • PPSP concept and approaches   3.5  Evaluate information on sanitation  • Format of the Sanitation White Book as  financing  guided by PPSP.  3.6  Identify issues and opportunities in  • Relation between Sanitation White Book with  sanitation development  EHRA and CSS. 4.0  Comprehend  4.1  Evaluate information on future  • Basic sanitation issues   projections on future  physical conditions of the area  • Principles of prediction methodologies for  characteristics of the  demography and land‐use development   area  4.2  Evaluate information on future  demographic characteristics   • Relation between information on area’s  general characteristics with sanitation  4.3  Evaluate information on future  condition, especially characteristics of:  land‐use characteristic  • Physical conditions, i.e. topography,  4.4  Evaluate information on future  climate, water bodies, geomorphology,  7 ‐ 1  
  112. Attachment 7   socio‐economic conditions  geology, hydrology,    4.5  Evaluate information on future  • Demography, i.e. population, growth  infrastructure  rate,  gender,   • Land‐use, i.e. land‐use types,   composition, trend of developments,  • Socio‐economic condition; average  income, jobs and livelihoods,   • Existing infrastructure; road network,  electricity, water supply.  • Components of city/ district spatial plan  5.0  Formulate basic  5.1  Formulate the desired state of  • Basic sanitation issues   framework for  sanitation conditions   • Government policies on sanitation  sanitation  development  development  in the  5.2  Formulate tasks and functions for  area  development of the sanitation  • Components of sanitation profile, i.e.  sector  infrastructure (services), institutional,  regulation and policy, public participation,  5.3  Identify strategic issues of sanitation  private sector involvement, funding  development in the area  • National, provincial, and city/ district  5.4  Determine scope of sanitation  medium‐ and long‐term strategic  development in the area  development planning   • PPSP concept and approaches   • Components of city/ district sanitation  strategic plans  • Basic principles in making vision and mission  statements  • Types and nature of strategic issues in  sanitation development   • Format of the CSS document as guided by  PPSP  • Relation between CSS with Sanitation White  Book and EHRA. 6.0  Formulate direction  6.1  Determine timeframe for  • Basic sanitation issues   for sanitation  development of sanitation services  • Government policies on sanitation  development   development, including those related to the  6.2  Determine targets for access to  sanitation services  basic framework  • Components of sanitation profile, i.e.  6.3  Determine criteria for zoning of  infrastructure (services), institutional,  sanitation services   regulation and policy, public participation,  6.4  Determine criteria for selection of  private sector involvement, funding  type of sanitation services to be  • City/ district medium‐ and long‐term strategic  developed  development planning  • Types and nature of strategic issues in  sanitation development   • Type and characteristics of sanitation services  • PPSP concept and approaches   • Understanding EHRA document and  Sanitation White Book  • Zoning of sanitation services  • Access to sanitation services  • Format of the CSS document as guided by  PPSP  • Relation between CSS with Sanitation White  Book, EHRA, and sanitation development  action plans 7.0  Prepare general  7.1  Prepare general proposal for  • Basic sanitation issues   proposal for  sanitation infrastructure  • Principles of program planning  sanitation  development programs   development  • Government policies on sanitation  7.2  Prepare general proposal for  development, including those related to its 7 ‐ 2  
  113. Sanitation Training and Capacity Study   programs  sanitation institutional capacity  basic framework and direction.  building programs   • Components of sanitation profile, i.e.  7.3  Prepare general proposal for  infrastructure (services), institutional,  sanitation regulation and policy  regulation and policy, public participation,  development programs  private sector involvement, funding  • Understanding of  city/ district development  7.4  Prepare general proposal for public  planning process  participation improvement  programs   • Principles of sanitation program planning,  covering infrastructure, institutional capacity,  7.5  Prepare general proposal for private  regulation and policy, public participation,  sector improvement programs  private sector, and funding issues  7.6  Prepare general proposal for  • PPSP concept and approaches   improvement of funding mechanism  • Format of the CSS document as guided by  PPSP  • Content and format of a general proposal for  sanitation programs  • Relation between CSS with Sanitation White  Book, EHRA, and sanitation development  action plans 8.0  Prepare  8.1  Recommend prioritization of  • Basic sanitation issues   implementation  sanitation development programs   • PPSP concept and approaches   concept for  sanitation  8.2  Prepare implementation schedule  • Understanding of  city/ district development  for sanitation development  planning process  development  programs  • Decision making process of sanitation  8.3  Define tasks and responsibilities of  development proposals  program implementors  • Funding mechanism for sanitation  development programs  8.4  Develop concept for sanitation  development program funding  • Involvement of sanitation development  stakeholders  8.5  Develop monitoring and evaluation  • Preparation of Sanitation Development  concept for sanitation development  Program Memorandum   implementation  • Principles of monitoring and evaluation for  sanitation development  9.0  Develop strategic  9.1  Identify and assess capacity of  • Basic sanitation issues   partnerships  relevant parties  • PPSP concept and approaches   9.2  Improve awareness and knowledge  • Sanitation stakeholders at the national,  of relevant parties  provincial, and local/ district levels  9.3  Develop role and responsibilities of  • Buy‐in methods and tactics   relevant parties   • Assessment technique for institutional and  individual capacity   9.4  Consolidate workplan of relevant  parties  • Program and project management   • Managing group dynamics   9.5  Develop communication channels  among relevant parties  • Organizing workshops, meetings, trainings,  and discussions  • Training and coaching technique  • Effective communication and presentation  skills  • Information and data documentation 10.0  Facilitate  10.1  Explain participatory process and  • Basic sanitation issues   participatory  objectives  • PPSP concept and approaches   10.2  Facilitate discussions and meetings   • Principles and methods of participatory  process  10.3  Provide inputs to participatory  process  • Buy‐in methods and tactics   • Facilitation principles, methods, and  10.4  Monitor and evaluate participatory  techniques  process   7 ‐ 3  
  114. Attachment 7   10.5  Summarize results of participatory  • Adult learning principles and design   process  • Managing group dynamics   • Organizing workshops, meetings, trainings,  and discussions  • Training and coaching technique  • Effective communication and presentation  skills  • Monitoring and evaluation techniques of the  process  • Information and data documentation  7 ‐ 4  
  115. Sanitation Training and Capacity Study  ATTACHMENT 8 LIST OF CORE COMPETENCIES: FACILITATOR (TECHNICAL) FOR COMMUNAL SANITATION IMPLEMENTATION  Units of Competency  Elements of Competency  Need‐to‐Know Criteria 1.0  Assess general  1.1  Assess the physical conditions of the  • Basic sanitation issues   characteristics of the  area  • Relation between information on area’s  community  general characteristics with sanitation  1.2  Assess demographic characteristics   condition, especially characteristics of:  1.3  Assess land‐use characteristic  • Physical conditions, i.e. topography,  climate, water bodies, geomorphology,  geology, hydrology,    1.4  Assess socio‐economic condition   • Demography, i.e. population density,  growth rate,  gender distribution,   1.5  Assess  availability and condition of  existing infrastructure  • Land‐use, i.e. land‐use types,   composition, development trends,  • Socio‐economic condition; average  income, jobs and livelihoods,   • Existing infrastructure; road network,  electricity, water supply. 2.0  Assess sanitation  2.1  Assess community sanitation  • Basic sanitation behavior and health issues  conditions of the  behavior  • Principles of community sanitation condition  community  survey  2.2  Assess access of communities to  safe water sources  • Sanitation indicators for households level  2.3  Assess access of communities to  • Survey data collection and analysis techniques  sanitation facilities   • Analysis techniques to determine community  sanitation condition   2.4  Assess level of cleanliness of  communities  • Format of the report   2.5  Assess environmental health risks of  communities 3.0  Develop conceptual  3.1  Determine type and capacity of  • Basic wastewater management system and  design for communal  communal sanitation system  sanitation  sanitation system  • Basic understanding of community sanitation  3.2  Determine location for communal  behavior and health issues  sanitation system  • Government policies and regulation on  3.3  Prepare basic design for communal  sanitation and wastewater management   sanitation system  • Components of communal sanitation system,  its type and characteristics   3.4  Prepare strategy to manage  communal sanitation system  • Wastewater characteristics  • Estimation of wastewater generation loads  • Criteria for location selection of communal  sanitation facilities  • Selection criteria for types of communal  sanitation facilities  • Basic engineering of communal sanitation  facilities  • Operation of communal sanitation facilities 4.0  Develop design for  4.1  Select types and model of shared  • Types and model of shared sanitation facility  shared sanitation  sanitation facility  • Design engineering of shared sanitation  facility  facility  4.2  Calculate dimensions of shared  sanitation facility  • Plumbing and pumping  4.3  Prepare layout and technical  • Basic technical drawings of shared sanitation  8 ‐ 1  
  116. Attachment  8   drawings of the shared sanitation  facility  facility  • Operation and maintenance of shared  4.4  Prepare technical description and  sanitation facility  specifications for the shared  • Construction and O&M cost estimation  sanitation facility  4.5  Prepare operating procedures for  small‐scale sewer system  4.6  Estimate construction and  operational costs for the shared  sanitation facility 5.0  Develop design for  5.1  Select types and model of small‐ • Basic wastewater management system  small‐scale sewer  scale sewer system  • Government policies and regulation on  system   wastewater management, construction, and   5.2  Calculate dimensions for small‐scale  sewer system  environmental  • Wastewater characteristics  5.3  Prepare layout and technical  drawings for small‐scale sewer  • Basic hydraulics   system  • Plumbing and pumping  5.4  Prepare technical description and  • Components of sewer system  specifications for small‐scale sewer  • Types and characteristics of sewer system  system  • Design engineering of sewer system   5.5  Prepare operating procedures for  • Basic technical drawings of sewer system  small‐scale sewer system  • Operation and maintenance of shared  5.6  Estimate construction and  sanitation facility  operations cost for the small‐scale  • Operation and maintenance of sewer system   sewer system  • Construction and O&M cost estimation 6.0  Develop design for  6.1  Determine type and model for  • Basic wastewater management system  communal  communal wastewater treatment  • Government policies and regulation on  wastewater  facility   wastewater management, construction, and   treatment facility  environmental management  6.2  Calculate dimensions for communal  treatment facility  • Wastewater characteristics   6.3  Prepare layout and technical  • Regulations on wastewater treatment, e.g.  drawings for communal wastewater  location restrictions and effluent standards   treatment facility  • Components of simple wastewater treatment  facility   6.4  Prepare technical description and  specifications for communal  • Basic engineering of simple wastewater  wastewater treatment facility  treatment facility   • Types and characteristics of wastewater  6.5  Prepare operating procedures for  treatment units  communal wastewater treatment  facility  • Determination of treatment plant efficiency  and capacity   6.6  Estimate construction and  operations cost for communal  • Principles of simple wastewater treatment  wastewater treatment facility  facility design  • Basic operation and maintenance of simple  wastewater treatment facility  • Construction and O&M cost estimation 7.0  Develop strategic   7.1  Identify and assess capacity of  • Basic sanitation issues   relevant parties  • Sanitation stakeholders at the local/ district  7.2  Improve awareness and knowledge  levels  of relevant parties  • Buy‐in methods and tactics   7.3  Develop role and responsibilities of  • Assessment technique for institutional and  relevant parties   individual capacity   • Program and project management   7.4  Consolidate workplan of relevant  parties  • Managing group dynamics  8 ‐ 2  
  117. Sanitation Training and Capacity Study   7.5  Develop communication channels  • Organizing workshops, meetings, trainings,  among relevant parties  and discussions  • Training and coaching techniques  • Effective communication and presentation  skills  • Information and data documentation  8.0  Facilitate  8.1  Explain participatory process and  • Basic sanitation issues   participatory process  objectives  • Principles and methods of participatory    8.2  Facilitate discussions and meetings   process  • Buy‐in methods and tactics   8.3  Provide inputs to participatory  process  • Facilitation principles, methods, and  techniques  8.4  Monitor and evaluate participatory  • Adult learning principles and design   process   • Managing group dynamics   8.5  Summarize results of participatory  • Organizing workshops, meetings, trainings,  process  and discussions  • Training and coaching techniques  • Effective communication and presentation  skills  • Monitoring and evaluation techniques of the  process  • Information and data documentation      8 ‐ 3  
  118. Attachment  8   This page is intentionally left blank  8 ‐ 4  
  119. Sanitation Training and Capacity Study  ATTACHMENT 9 LIST OF CORE COMPETENCIES: CONSULTANT (TECHNICAL) FOR WASTEWATER SYSTEM PLANNING  Units of Competency  Elements of Competency  Need‐to‐Know Criteria 1.0  Comprehend general  1.1  Evaluate information on physical  • Basic wastewater management system  characteristics of the  conditions of the area  • Relation between information on area’s  area  general characteristics with sanitation  1.2  Evaluate information on  demographic characteristics   condition, especially characteristics of:  • Physical conditions, i.e. topography,  1.3  Evaluate information on land‐use  climate, water bodies, geomorphology,  characteristic  geology, hydrology,    1.4  Evaluate information on socio‐ • Demography, i.e. population density,  economic condition   growth rate,  gender distribution,   1.5  Evaluate information on existing  • Land‐use, i.e. land‐use types,   infrastructure  composition, development trends,  • Socio‐economic condition; average  income, jobs and livelihoods,   • Existing infrastructure; road network,  electricity, water supply. 2.0  Prepare wastewater  2.1  Evaluate information on community  • Basic wastewater management system  management system  access to wastewater management  • Public health issues related to sanitation  profile of the area  facilities  condition  2.2  Evaluate information on available  • Components of wastewater management  wastewater management services   profile   2.3  Evaluate information on wastewater  • Principles of wastewater management profile  management institutional aspect   mapping  • Type and characteristics of wastewater  2.4  Evaluate information on wastewater  management services  management regulation and policy  aspect  • Data collection and analysis techniques  2.5  Evaluate information on stakeholder  involvement in wastewater  management   2.6  Evaluate information on wastewater  management financing  2.7  Identify issues and opportunities in  wastewater management system  improvement 3.0  Assess demand for  3.1  Identify target for demand  • Basic wastewater management system and  wastewater  assessment   sanitation  management system  • Basic understanding of community sanitation  3.2  Define scope and prepare the  improvement  behavior and health issues  demand assessment  • Type and characteristics of wastewater  3.3  Assess the condition and access to  management services  basic health and wastewater  services  • Principles, methods, and techniques of a  demand assessment survey, e.g. the Real  3.4  Assess the level of demand and  Demand Survey (RDS) for sanitation services  priority of the community towards  • Sanitation indicators for households level  wastewater management service  • Survey data collection and analysis techniques   3.5  Assess the willingness‐to‐pay of the  • Analysis techniques for level‐of‐demand and  community for wastewater  willingness‐to‐pay, for sanitation services.   management service  4.0  Comprehend  4.1  Evaluate information on future  • Basic wastewater management system  projections on future  physical conditions of the area  9 ‐ 1  
  120. Attachment  9   characteristics of the  4.2  Evaluate information on future  • Principles of prediction methodologies for  area  demographic characteristics   demography and land‐use development   • Relation between information on area’s  4.3  Evaluate information on future  general characteristics with sanitation  land‐use characteristic  condition, especially characteristics of:  4.4  Evaluate information on future  • Physical conditions, i.e. topography,  socio‐economic conditions  climate, water bodies, geomorphology,  4.5  Evaluate information on future  geology, hydrology,    infrastructure  • Demography, i.e. population, growth rate,   gender,   • Land‐use, i.e. land‐use types,   composition, trend of developments,  • Socio‐economic condition; average  income, jobs and livelihoods,   • Existing infrastructure; road network,  electricity, water supply.  • Components of city/ district spatial plan  5.0  Formulate basic  5.1  Formulate desired state of  • Basic wastewater management system  framework for  wastewater management  • Government policies on sanitation and  wastewater system  conditions   wastewater management development  development    5.2  Formulate tasks and functions for  • PPSP concept and approaches   development of wastewater  • National, provincial, and city/ district medium‐  management system  and long‐term strategic development planning,  5.3  Identify strategic issues of  as well as the City/ District Sanitation Strategy  wastewater management  • Components of wastewater management  development in the area  profile, i.e. infrastructure (services),  institutional, regulation and policy, public  5.4  Determine scope of wastewater  participation, private sector involvement,  management development in the  funding  area  • Basic principles of developing vision and  mission statements  • Types and nature of strategic issues in  wastewater management development   6.0  Formulate direction  6.1  Determine timeframe for  • Basic wastewater management system  for wastewater  development of wastewater  • Government policies on sanitation and  system development   management system  wastewater management development  6.2  Determine targets for access to  • Components of wastewater management  wastewater management services  system, i.e. infrastructure (services),  institutional, regulation and policy, public  6.3  Determine criteria for zoning of  participation, private sector involvement,  wastewater management services   funding  6.4  Determine criteria to selection  • City/ district medium‐ and long‐term strategic  appropriate type of wastewater  development planning  management services   • Spatial plans/ zoning regulations  6.5  Estimate quality and quantity of  • Types and nature of strategic issues in  wastewater to be managed by  wastewater management  system  • Type and characteristics of wastewater  management services  • Principles and techniques of zoning for  wastewater management services  • Wastewater management indicators  • Access to wastewater management services  • Wastewater characteristics  • Estimation of wastewater generation loads  7.0  Determine the most  7.1  Create zonation for wastewater  • Basic wastewater management system  appropriate  management services  • Government policies on sanitation and  wastewater system  wastewater management development  7.2  Select most appropriate type of  wastewater management service   • Components of wastewater management 9 ‐ 2  
  121. Sanitation Training and Capacity Study   7.3  Prepare design criteria for each  system, i.e. infrastructure (services),  component of wastewater  institutional, regulation and policy, public  management service  participation, private sector involvement,  funding  7.4  Define supporting aspects that need  • Types and nature of strategic issues in  to be developed   wastewater management  • Type and characteristics of wastewater  management services  • Principles and techniques of zoning for  wastewater management services  • Selection criteria for types of wastewater  management services  • Basic engineering of wastewater management  services  8.0  Develop conceptual  8.1  Determine treatment plant capacity  • Basic wastewater management system  design for  and performance  • Government policies on wastewater  wastewater  management   treatment facility   8.2  Determine treatment plant location  • Wastewater characteristics  8.3  Prepare basic design for treatment  plant  • Regulations on wastewater treatment, e.g.  location restrictions and effluent standards  8.4  Prepare operation strategy for  • Components of wastewater treatment system  treatment plant  • Basic engineering of wastewater treatment  facility   • Types and characteristics of wastewater  treatment units  • Determination of treatment plant efficiency  and capacity   • Principles of wastewater treatment facility  design  • Basic operation and maintenance of  wastewater treatment facility  • Construction and operational cost estimation  9.0  Develop conceptual  9.1  Determine sewer capacity and  • Basic wastewater management system  design for sewer  criteria  • Government policies on wastewater  network  management   9.2  Prepare basic design for the sewer  network  • Wastewater characteristics  9.3  Determine location for sewer  • Spatial plans/ zoning regulations  network  • Basic hydraulics   9.4  Prepare operation strategy for  • Components of sewer system  sewer network   • Types and characteristics of sewer system  • Basic engineering of sewer system   • Principles of sewer system design  • Basic operation and maintenance of sewer  system   • Construction and operational cost estimation 10.0  Develop conceptual  10.1  Determine sludge handling capacity  • Basic wastewater management system  design for sludge  and performance  • Government policies on wastewater  handling component  management   10.2  Determine location for sludge  handling facility  • Regulations on sludge handling   10.3  Calculate number of sludge  • Wastewater and sludge characteristics  collection vehicles needed  • Components of sludge management  10.4  Prepare basic design for the sludge  • Sludge collection system  treatment facility  • Types and characteristics of sludge collection  trucks  10.5  Prepare operation strategy for  sludge treatment facility  • Basic engineering of sludge treatment facility   • Types and characteristics of sludge treatment  9 ‐ 3  
  122. Attachment  9   units  • Determination of sludge treatment plant  efficiency and capacity   • Principles of sludge  treatment facility design  • Basic operation and maintenance of sludge  treatment facility  • Construction and operational cost estimation 11.0  Develop conceptual  11.1  Determine type and capacity of  • Basic wastewater management system  design for communal  communal sanitation facility  • Government policies on wastewater  sanitation facility  management   11.2  Determine location for communal  sanitation facility  • Wastewater characteristics  11.3  Prepare basic design for communal  • Regulations on communal sanitation facility,  sanitation facility  e.g. location restriction and effluent standards  • Principles of participatory planning process  11.4  Prepare strategy to manage  communal sanitation facility  • Components of communal sanitation facility  • Basic engineering of wastewater treatment  facility   • Types and characteristics of communal  sanitation facility  • Determination of treatment plant efficiency  and capacity   • Principles of communal sanitation facility  design  • Basic operation and maintenance of communal  sanitation facility  • Construction and operational cost estimation 12.0  Prepare  12.1  Prepare general proposal for  • Basic wastewater management system  implementation  wastewater infrastructure  • Principles of program planning  concept for  development programs   wastewater  • Government policies on wastewater  12.2  Prepare general proposal for  management system development, including  management system  wastewater management  those related to the basic framework and  development  programs  institutional capacity building  direction.  programs   • Components of wastewater management  12.3  Prepare general proposal for  system, i.e. infrastructure (services),  wastewater regulation and policy  institutional, regulation and policy, public  development programs  participation, private sector involvement,  funding  12.4  Prepare general proposal for public  • Understanding of  city/ district development  participation improvement  planning process  programs in wastewater  management sector  • Principles of wastewater management system  planning, covering infrastructure, institutional  12.5  Prepare general proposal for private  capacity, regulation and policy, public  sector improvement programs in  participation, private sector, and funding issues  wastewater management sector  • PPSP concept and approaches, especially  regarding to CSS  • Content and format of a general proposal for  wastewater development programs  9 ‐ 4  
  123.  Sanitation Training and Capacity Study  ATTACHMENT 10 LIST OF UNIVERSITIES WITH ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING No.  University  City  Degree  Acceptance  Graduate  Capacity  Faculty S‐2 PROGRAM 1.  Institut Teknologi  Bandung  S‐2  37  25  37  Environmental  Bandung  Engineering 2.  Institut Teknologi Sepuluh  Surabaya  S‐2  39  22  39  Environmental  November  Engineering 3.  Institut Teknologi Adhi  Surabaya  S‐2  5  4  5  Environmental  Tama   Engineering Total  103  81  51   S‐1 PROGRAM 1.  Universitas Indonesia  Jakarta  S‐1  50  26  50  Civil Engineering 2.  Institut Teknologi  Bandung  S‐1  65  15  100  Civil and  Bandung  Environmental  Engineering 3.  Institut Teknologi Sepuluh  Surabaya  S‐1  110  60  110  Civil Engineering  Nopember  and Planning 4.  Universitas Diponegoro  Semarang  S‐1  66  63  75  Engineering 5.  Universitas Gajah Mada  Yogyakarta  S‐1  87  0  93  Faculty of  Geography and  Environmental  Science 6.  Universitas Mulawarman  Samarinda  S‐1  55  0  76  Engineering 7.  Universitas Andalas  Padang  S‐1  36  42  40  Engineering 8.  Universitas Lambung  Banjarmasin  S‐1  53  0  60  Engineering  Mangkurat 9.  Universitas Sriwijaya  Palembang  S‐1  25  25  25  Civil Engineering 10.  Universitas Islam  Yogyakarta  S‐1  55  49  150  Civil Engineering  Indonesia   and Planning 11.  Institut Sains & Teknologi  Yogyakarta  S‐1  10  5  45  Applied Science  AKPRIND 12.  Universitas Pembangunan  Yogyakarta  S‐1  93  10  92  Mineral Technology  Nasional ‘Veteran’ 13.  Sekolah Tinggi Teknik  Yogyakarta  S‐1  90  150  182  Environmental  Lingkungan Yayasan  Engineering  Lingkungan Hidup  14.  Universitas Islam Sultan  Semarang  S‐1  5  1  65  Engineering  Agung  15.  Universitas Kristen  Surakarta  S‐1  4  6  40  Environmental  Surakarta  Engineering 16.  Universitas Winaya Mukti  Sumedang  S‐1  24  16  50  Fakultas Teknik 17.  Institut Teknologi  Bandung  S‐1  41  27  60  Civil Engineering  Nasional   and Planning 18.  Universitas Kebangsaan  Bandung  S‐1  21  9  46  Civil Engineering  and Planning  10 ‐ 1  
  124. Attachment 10  19.  Universitas Pasundan  Bandung  S‐1  33  19  52  Engineering 20.  Universitas Trisakti  Jakarta  S‐1  29  28  75  Landscape  Architecture and  Environmental  Engineering 21.  Universitas Batanghari  Jambi  S‐1  20  11  51  Engineering 22.  Universitas Malahayati  Bandar  S‐1  24  7  57  Engineering  Lampung 23.  Universitas Satya Negara  Jakarta  S‐1  9  14  66  Engineering 24.  Universitas Sahid  Jakarta  S‐1  14  95  27  Engineering 25.  Sekolah Tinggi Teknologi  Jakarta  S‐1  20  5  150  Civil Engineering  Sapta Taruna  and Environmental  Engineering 26.  Institut Teknologi  Malang  S‐1  29  23  64  Civil Engineering  Nasional   and Planning 27.  Universitas Airlangga  Surabaya  S‐1  46  0  40  Environmental  Science and  Technology 28.  Universitas Riau  Pekanbaru  S‐1  0  0  0  Environmental  Engineering 29.  Universitas Tanjungpura,   Pontianak  S‐1  50  0  45  Environmental  Engineering 30.  Universitas Serambi  Banda Aceh  S‐1  16  1  73  Environmental  Mekah   Engineering 31.  Institut Teknologi Sains   Bandung  S‐1  3  1  32  Environmental  Engineering 32.  Sekolah Tinggi Teknologi  Serang  S‐1  12  2  96  Environmental  Banten Jaya   Engineering 33.  Sekolah Tinggi Teknologi  Bandung  S‐1  7  3  60  Environmental  Nasional   Engineering 34.  Sekolah Tinggi Teknik  Bekasi  S‐1  15  0  60  Environmental  Pelita Bangsa   Engineering 35.  Universitas PGRI Adi  Surabaya  S‐1  39  58  55  Environmental  Buana  Engineering 36.  Universitas Pembangunan  Surabaya  S‐1  54  23  93  Environmental  Nasional Veteran Jatim   Engineering 37.  Universitas Cakrawala  Madiun  S‐1  0  0  0  Environmental  Engineering 38.  Institut Teknologi  Surabaya  S‐1  0  0  0  Environmental  Pembangunan  Engineering &  Studies 39.  Institut Teknologi Adhi  Surabaya  S‐1  4  4  25  Environmental  Tama   Engineering 40.  Sekolah Tinggi Teknik  Mataram  S‐1  47  7  70  Environmental  Lingkungan   Engineering 41.  Sekolah Tinggi Teknik  Bima  S‐1  0  0  0  Environmental  Engineering 42.  Universitas  Kendari  S‐1  25  12  41  Environmental  Muhammadiyah  Engineering 43.  Universitas Teknologi  Makassar  S‐1  9  0  15  Environmental  Sulawesi  Engineering 10 ‐ 2  
  125.  Sanitation Training and Capacity Study  44.  Universitas Teknologi  Manado  S‐1  0  0  0  Environmental  Sulawesi Utara  Engineering 45.  Sekolah Tinggi Teknologi  Makassar  S‐1  21  0  93  Environmental  Nusantara Indonesia  Engineering 46.  Sekolah Tinggi Teknologi  Padang  S‐1  19  6  88  Environmental  Industri  Engineering 47.  Universitas Sains &  Jayapura  S‐1  59  4  66  Environmental  Teknologi   Engineering Total  2,853  1,494  827   D‐3 PROGRAM 1.  Universitas Pandanaran   Semarang  D‐3  2  4  40  Engineering 2.  Akademi Teknik Tirta  Magelang  D‐3  40  22  65  Engineering  Wiyarta 3.  Politeknik  Magelang  D‐3  7  5  53  Environmental  Muhammadiyah   Engineering Total  158  49  31          10 ‐ 3  
  126. Attachment 10    This page is intentionally left blank  10 ‐ 4  
  127.  Sanitation Training and Capacity Study  ATTACHMENT 11 REFERENCES Asian Development Bank. 2010. Republic of Indonesia: Urban sanitation and Rural Infrastructure Support to PNPM  Mandiri Project. Asian Development Bank. Association of Boards of Certification (ABC). 2008. ABC Need‐to‐Know Criteria for Wastewater Treatment Operators.  Association of Boards of Certification (ABC), Iowa. Association of Boards of Certification (ABC). 2003. Water Treatment Operator “Need‐to‐Know” Criteria. Association of  Boards of Certification (ABC). Australia Indonesia Partnership. 2011. Prakarsa Compendium : Highlights from the Journal of the Indonesia  Infrastructure Initiative, 2010‐2011. Indonesia Infrastructure Initiative, Jakarta. Australia Indonesia Partnership. 2010. Dokumen Desain Program Komponen Penyediaan Air Minum Dan Sanitasi  Perkotaan, Prakarsa Air Minum Dan Sanitasi ‐ Indonesia. Indonesia Infrastructure Initiative, Jakarta. Bond, Matthew., Paul Tyndale‐Biscoe and Michelle Whalen. 2009. Human Resources Capacity in the Water, Sanitation  and Hygiene Sector in East Timor. FHD Designs.Timor Lorosae. Cities Development Initiative for Asia. 2010. CDIA Capacity Development Strategy and Action Plan 2010 – 2012. Cities  Development Initiative for Asia. Philippines. Florian Bemmerlein‐Lux. 2006.Capacity Development Strategy: Guidelines for Awareness Building and Skills Training  Programmes.A Publication Of The Indo‐German Bilateral Project “Strengthening Local Administration For Rural  Water Supply And Minor Irrigation In Himachal Pradesh”. WASH AND GTZ. India.  GEO.1996. Capacity Building Strategy.GEO. Human Development Sector Unit and Regional Water & Sanitation Group. 2011. Implementation Completion And  Results Report On A Specific Investment Loan In The Amount Of Ida Credit Xdr 57.8 Million And Aud 11.13 Million To  The Government Of Indonesia For A Second Water & Sanitation For Low Income Communities Project. World Bank. Indonesian Infrastructure Initiative (INDII).Term of Reference for Wastewater Investment Master Plans Package I:  Surabaya and Bogor. Indonesian Infrastructure Initiative (INDII). Indonesian Infrastructure Initiative (INDII).Term of Reference for Wastewater Investment Master Plans Package II:  Palembang, Bandar Lampung and Batam. Indonesian Infrastructure Initiative (INDII). Morgan, Peter. 1998. Capacity And Capacity Development ‐ Some Strategies. CIDA. National Community Water and Sanitation Training Institute (NCWSTI). 2002. Development Of Generic And Sectoral  Competencies In The Water Supply And Sanitation Training Sector Report To Water Research Commission. National  Community Water and Sanitation Training Institute (NCWSTI).Sovenga. Office of Drinking Water Virginia Department of Health. 2008. The Efficacy of Virginia’s Capacity Development  Strategy.Office of Drinking Water Virginia Department of Health. Virginia. Standar Kompetensi Kerja Nasional Indonesia (SKKNI). 2009. Ahli Perencana Pengelolaan Sampah. Departemen  Pekerjaan Umum. Jakarta Standar Kompetensi Kerja Nasional Indonesia (SKKNI). Ahli Perencana Sistem Sanitasi Lingkungan: Air Limbah  Permukiman (draft). Departemen Pekerjaan Umum. Jakarta Standar Kompetensi Keahlian (SKK). Perencanaan Sistem Drainase Perkotaan Klasifikasi Tingkat Muda. Standar Kompetensi Kerja Nasional Indonesia (SKKNI). Pelaksana Konstruksi Bangunan Unit SPAM(draft). Departemen  Pekerjaan Umum. Jakarta  11 ‐ 1  
  128. Attachment 11  Standar Kompetensi Kerja Nasional Indonesia (SKKNI).Tim Leader Konsultan Supervisi Skala Besar Pada Pekerjaan  Konstruksi. Departemen Pekerjaan Umum. Jakarta Tim Teknis Pembangunan Sanitasi. 2009. Percepatan Pembangunan Sanitasi Perkotaan (PPSP): Upaya Mengejar  Ketertinggalan. Tim Teknis Pembangunan Sanitasi. Jakarta. Tim Teknis Pembangunan Sanitasi. 2010. Pedoman Penyiapan Kegiatan Kelembagaan dan Indikasi Kegiatan Percepatan Pembangunan Sanitasi Permukiman di Daerah. Tim Teknis Pembangunan Sanitasi. Jakarta. Ulleberg, Inger. 2009. Incentive Structures as a Capacity Development Strategy in Public Service Delivery. International Instituted for Educational Planning. Paris. Water and Sanitation Program (WSP). 2010. Gender in Water and Sanitation.World Bank.Kenya  Second Water & Sanitation for Low Income Communities Project. Borrower’s Completion Report(Draft). Government of Indonesia Ministry of Health Directorate General for Disease Control & Environmental Health. Jakarta Water and Sanitation Program (WSP), 2011. Lessons in Urban Sanitation Development: Indonesia Sanitation Sector Development Program 2006‐2010. World Bank.Indonesia www.ampl.or.id www.jejaring‐ampl.or.id www.sanitasi.or.id www.sanitasibersih.blogspot.com www.sanitasipermukiman.blogspot.com   11 ‐ 2  

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