SANITATION PERSONNEL:CAPACITY DEVELOPMENT STRATEGYFinal Report of the Sanitation Training And Capacity StudyMarch 2012Prep...
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Sanitation Training and Capacity StudyContentsEXECUTIVE SUMMARY..............................................................
Networking............................................................................................................ 43 ...
Sanitation Training and Capacity StudyTablesTable 1. Generic Classification of Sanitation Activities ........................
Attachments1. Job Titles in Selected Sanitation Activities.2. Roadmap of PPSP Program (2010 – 2014).3. Projection of the N...
Sanitation Training and Capacity StudyAbbreviationsAMPL         : Air Minum dan Penyehatan LingkunganBAPELKES     : Badan ...
AcknowledgementsThe team would like to acknowledge guidance and inputs from the Water andSanitation Programme - East Asia ...
Sanitation Training and Capacity StudyEXECUTIVE SUMMARYA capacity development strategy was developed to close the gap of n...
Executive Summarysector’s image, accordingly, and aim to reintroduce a technologically-appealing sectorwith modern career ...
Sanitation Training and Capacity Study    competence criteria, competence assessment of the sanitation personnel will    p...
Executive SummaryIn addition, the study identifies a few follow-up assessments that may be warranted.The first could asses...
Sanitation Training and Capacity StudyINTRODUCTIONIn November 2009, the Government of Indonesia (GoI) launched a high-prof...
Introductionbuilding activities with the involvement of various stakeholders. The ultimate aim is toensure that availabili...
Sanitation Training and Capacity StudySANITATION PERSONNELThe Study assesses the capacity of sanitation personnel. A defin...
Sanitation Personnel                 terminology closely related to educational background, e.g. policy,                 r...
Sanitation Training and Capacity Study     business, as well as communications. Therefore, it is common for a sanitation  ...
Sanitation Personnel     Classification of                                                                            Type...
Sanitation Training and Capacity Study     an environmental/sanitary engineering11 background. The following table present...
Sanitation Personnel                                                                      Required Education            Le...
Sanitation Training and Capacity StudyQUANTITATIVE ASSESSMENTThe Study assesses the level of demand and supply of sanitati...
Quantitative Assessment203. Sanitation development in Indonesia will need sanitation personnel of more than 15,000 individ...
Sanitation Training and Capacity StudyTable 4.Number of Sanitation Activities &Main Personnel                             ...
Quantitative Assessment204. Types of main personnel mostly needed to support the current and next PPSP program cycles are ...
Sanitation Training and Capacity Study     The three categories combined are expected to play a role in satisfying the dem...
Quantitative Assessment   Consultant (Technical) for Wastewater Planning: More than 140 individuals are    eligible to be...
Sanitation Training and Capacity Study                                                                                    ...
Quantitative Assessment        expected to fill the short-term demand of technical SANIMAS facilitators. A total        am...
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Final Report of the Sanitation Training and Capacity Study. Prepared by PT. Qipra Galang Kualita in cooperation with Water Supply and Sanitation Policy and Action Planning (WASPOLA) Facility

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Sanitation Personnel. Capacity Development Strategy.

  1. 1. SANITATION PERSONNEL:CAPACITY DEVELOPMENT STRATEGYFinal Report of the Sanitation Training And Capacity StudyMarch 2012Prepared by: P T. Q i p ra G a l a n g Ku a l i t aWater Supply and Sanitation Policy and Action Planning (WASPOLA) FacilityJl. Lembang No. 11A, Menteng, Jakarta Pusat,Tlp./Fax: 021-31907811/021-3915416http://www.waspola.orgWaspola1@cbn.net.id
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  3. 3. Sanitation Training and Capacity StudyContentsEXECUTIVE SUMMARY..................................................................................................... 1INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................................... 5 SCOPE OF THE REPORT ................................................................................................ 5 OVERVIEW OF THE STUDY ........................................................................................... 5SANITATION PERSONNEL ................................................................................................ 7 CLASSIFICATIONS ......................................................................................................... 7 MAIN PERSONNEL ..................................................................................................... 10QUANTITATIVE ASSESSMENT ........................................................................................ 13 LEVEL OF DEMAND .................................................................................................... 13 LEVEL OF SUPPLY ....................................................................................................... 16 Eligible ................................................................................................................... 17 Potential ................................................................................................................ 19 Prospective ............................................................................................................ 21 DISCUSSION ............................................................................................................... 21 Short-Term Demand and Supply ........................................................................... 21 Medium-Term Demand and Supply ...................................................................... 23 Reality Check ......................................................................................................... 23 Notes ..................................................................................................................... 24 CONCLUSION ............................................................................................................. 24COMPETENCE ASSESSMENT .......................................................................................... 27 DEMAND FOR COMPETENCE..................................................................................... 27 Facilitator (Policy) for Sanitation Development Planning ..................................... 28 Facilitator (Social) for Hygienic Behavior Change.................................................. 30 Facilitator (Technical) for Communal Sanitation System Implementation ........... 31 Consultant (Technical) for Wastewater System Planning ..................................... 32 CURRENT CONDITION................................................................................................ 33 General Performance ............................................................................................ 33 Working Condition................................................................................................. 34 Level of Competence ............................................................................................. 35 Facilitator (Policy) for Sanitation Development Planning ................................. 35 Facilitator (Social) for Hygienic Behavior Change Implementation................... 36 Facilitator (Technical) for Communal Sanitation System Implementation ....... 36 Consultant (Technical) for Wastewater System Planning ................................. 37 Gender Perspective ............................................................................................... 37 SUPPLY OF COMPETENCE .......................................................................................... 38 Education ............................................................................................................... 38 Capacity ............................................................................................................. 38 Knowledge Offered............................................................................................ 39 Training .................................................................................................................. 41 Orientation Training .......................................................................................... 41 Regular Training................................................................................................. 41 Providers............................................................................................................ 42 i
  4. 4. Networking............................................................................................................ 43 Experiencing .......................................................................................................... 45 Recognition ........................................................................................................... 45 DISCUSSION............................................................................................................... 46 Gaps of Competence ............................................................................................. 46 Education and Training ......................................................................................... 47 Performance.......................................................................................................... 48 Networking, Experiencing, and Recognition ......................................................... 48 Gender Perspective ............................................................................................... 48 Notes ..................................................................................................................... 49 CONCLUSION ............................................................................................................. 49STRATEGY AND ACTION PLAN....................................................................................... 51 Closing the Gap ......................................................................................................... 51 Shortage of Personnel ........................................................................................... 51 Competence Gap................................................................................................... 52 Strategy to Develop Sanitation Capacity .................................................................. 52 Overall ................................................................................................................... 52 Strategy 1: Improve Appeal of Sanitation Jobs ..................................................... 54 Strategy 2: Institutionalize Competence Advancement ....................................... 54 Strategy 3: Revitalize Competence Programs ....................................................... 56 Strategy 4: Stimulate Knowledge Exchange.......................................................... 56 Action Plan ................................................................................................................ 57 Immediate Activities ............................................................................................. 58 Advocate the Need to Improve Capacity of Sanitation Personnel ................... 58 Communicate Jobs in Sanitation ....................................................................... 58 Sanitation Promotional Visits to Education Institutions ................................... 59 Consensus on Job Titles in Sanitation ............................................................... 59 Create Path for Competence Advancement in Sanitation ................................ 59 Create Indonesian Network for Sanitation Personnel ...................................... 60 Follow-Up Studies ..................................................................................................... 60ii
  5. 5. Sanitation Training and Capacity StudyTablesTable 1. Generic Classification of Sanitation Activities ................................................... 9Table 2. Main Personnel in Selected Sanitation Development Activities ..................... 11Table 3. Level of Demand of Sanitation Personnel ....................................................... 14Table 4. Number of Sanitation Activities & Main Personnel ......................................... 15Table 5. Number of Eligible Individuals ......................................................................... 18Table 6. Number of Potential Individuals (Technical Personnel Only) .......................... 20Table 7. Expected Competence for a Facilitator (Policy) for Sanitation Planning ......... 29Table 8. Expected Competence for a Facilitator (Social) for Hygienic Behavior ........... 30Table 9. Expected Competence for a Facilitator (Technical) for Communal Sanitation ......................................................................................................... 31Table 10. Expected Competence for a Consultant (Technical) for Wastewater Planning ............................................................................................................ 33Table 11. Environmental Engineering Programs in Indonesia ...................................... 39Table 12. Sufficiency of Environmental Engineering Curriculum .................................. 40Table 13. Orientation Training Programs ...................................................................... 42Table 14. Strategy to Develop Capacity of Sanitation Personnel .................................. 53Table 15. Activities to Improve Appeal of Sanitation Jobs and Opportunities.............. 54Table 16. Activities to Institutionalize Competence Advancement .............................. 55Table 17. Activities to Revitalize Competence Programs .............................................. 56Table 18. Activities to Stimulate Knowledge Exchange................................................. 57Table 19. Short-Term Action Plan.................................................................................. 57Table 20. Action Plan – Advocate the Need to Improve Capacity of Sanitation Personnel .......................................................................................................... 58Table 21. Action Plan – Communicate Jobs in Sanitation ............................................. 58Table 22. Action Plan – Sanitation Promotional Visits to Education Institutions.......... 59Table 23. Action Plan – Consensus on Job Titles in Sanitation...................................... 59Table 24. Action Plan – Create Path for Competence Advancement in Sanitation ...... 59Table 25. Action Plan – Create Indonesian Network for Sanitation Personnel............. 60 iii
  6. 6. Attachments1. Job Titles in Selected Sanitation Activities.2. Roadmap of PPSP Program (2010 – 2014).3. Projection of the Next PPSP Program (2015 – 2019).4. Level of Demand for Sanitation Personnel.5. Level of Supply of Sanitation Personnel.6. List of Core Competencies: Facilitator (Policy) for Sanitation Development Planning.7. List of Core Competencies: Facilitator (Social) for Hygienic Behavior Change.8. List of Core Competencies: Facilitator (Technical) for Communal Sanitation Implementation.9. List of Core Competencies: Consultant (Technical) for Wastewater System Planning.10. List of Universities with Environmental Engineering.11. References.iv
  7. 7. Sanitation Training and Capacity StudyAbbreviationsAMPL : Air Minum dan Penyehatan LingkunganBAPELKES : Badan Pelatihan KesehatanBAPPENAS : Badan Perencanaan dan Pembangunan NasionalBORDA : Bremen Overseas Research & Development AssociationBTAMS : Balai Teknik Air Minum dan Sanitasi WilayahCLTS : Community-Led Total SanitationCSS : City Sanitation StrategyCWSHP : Community Water Services and Health ProjectDAK : Dana Anggaran KhususDEWATS : Decentralized Wastewater Treatment SystemsEHRA : Environmental Health Risk AssessmentsEHS : Environmental, Health, and SafetyEPCM : Environmental Pollution Control ManagerFORKALIM : Forum Komunikasi Pengelola Air Limbah PermukimanGoI : Government of IndonesiaHAKLI : Himpunan Ahli Kesehatan Lingkungan IndonesiaIATPI : Ikatan Ahli Teknik Penyehatan dan Teknik Lingkungan IndonesiaINDII : Indonesia Infrastructure InitiativeINTAKINDO : Ikatan Tenaga Ahli Konsultan IndonesiaIPB : Institut Pertanian BogorITB : Institut Teknik BandungKMP : Konsultan Manajemen ProvinsiLPJK : Lembaga Pengembangan Jasa KonstruksiMPPS : Memorandum Program of Sanitation SectorNGO : Non-Governmental OrganizationPAMSIMAS : Penyediaan Air Minum dan Sanitasi Berbasis MasyarakatPERPAMSI : Persatuan PDAM Seluruh IndonesiaPMSS : Program Memorandum Sektor SanitasiPokja AMPL : Kelompok Kerja Air Minum dan Penyehatan LingkunganPPSP : Percepatan Pembangunan Sanitasi PermukimanPUSARPEDAL : Pusat Sarana Pengendalian Dampak LingkunganPUSBINKPK : Pusat Pembinaan Kompetensi dan Pelatihan KonstruksiPUSTEKLIM : Pusat Pengembangan Teknologi Tepat Guna Pengolahan Limbah CairRDS : Real Demand SurveyRPA : Rapid Participatory AppraisalRPJMN : Rencana Pembangunan Jangka Menengah NasionalSANIMAS : Sanitasi Berbasis MasyarakatSKKNI : Standar Kompetensi Kerja Nasional IndonesiaSLBM : Sanitasi Lingkungan Berbasis MasyarakatSSK : Strategi Sanitasi KotaSTBM : Sanitasi Total Berbasis MasyarakatSTFL : Senior - Tenaga Fasilitator LapanganTFL : Tenaga Fasilitator LapanganTOT : Training Of TrainersWASPOLA : Water Supply and Sanitation Policy Formulation and Action PlanningWSLIC : Water Supply and Sanitation for Low Income CommunitiesWSP : Water and Sanitation Program v
  8. 8. AcknowledgementsThe team would like to acknowledge guidance and inputs from the Water andSanitation Programme - East Asia and the Pacific (Ms. Almud Weitz, Ms. IsabelBlackett, Mr. Martin Albrecht, Mr. Chris Trethewey), as well as the WASPOLA Facility(Mr. Gary Swisher).The team also received invaluable direction and contributions from officials inBAPPENAS, especially Mr. Nugroho Tri Utomo, Ms. Maraita Listyasari and Mr. R. LaisaWahanudin, as well as officials from Ministry of Public Works, especially Mr. SyukrulAmin, Mr. Handy B. Legowo, and Ms. Rina Agustin Indriani.In addition, more than a hundred people spent their valuable time to share insightsand experiences, and provide information, and/or filled out the web-based survey.The team is indebted to all resource persons -- from government agencies, non-governmental organizations, professional association, universities, consulting firmsand donor-funded programs -- who contributed to this challenging task.Team members: Rudy Yuwono, Isna Marifa and Laksmi Wardhani (PT. Qipra GalangKualita).vi
  9. 9. Sanitation Training and Capacity StudyEXECUTIVE SUMMARYA capacity development strategy was developed to close the gap of numbers andcompetence among personnel in the sanitation sector in Indonesia. The overarchingvision that guides the strategy is that all parties collaborate to ensure that sanitationpersonnel are available in sufficient numbers and with appropriate competence. Thevision is achievable if the following four strategies are implemented, i.e. (1) improveappeal of sanitation jobs, (2) institutionalize competence advancement schemes, (3)revitalize competence development programs, and (4) stimulate knowledge exchangeamong stakeholders. The strategies are further defined as actions to be taken.The first strategy, improve appeal of sanitation jobs, would address the pressing needto enhance sanitation job profiles, to adjust compensation package in the sector, andto communicate the high level of demand for sanitation personnel. To implement thestrategy, actions to be taken involve upward adjustment of compensation andbenefits, promoting sanitation jobs to professional associations, to universities andtraining institutions, to the public, as well as communicating the need to improvecapacity in the sanitation sector to decision makers in government institutions,development programs, donor agencies, and private firms.The second strategy, institutionalize a competence advancement scheme, wouldcreate a formal framework that guides competence development among sanitationpersonnel. The most immediate action is to reach consensus among key stakeholderson job titles in the sanitation sector. This is followed by creation of competenceadvancement options and development of competency standards for key personnel.Finally, institutionalization of the certification mechanism would involve commitmentand decision from government agencies and professional associations.The third strategy, revitalize competence development programs for sanitation,complements the second strategy. Once the competency standards are developedand agreed, training and educational programs can be strengthened by way ofproducing new materials as well as introducing new innovations, such as internshipand mentoring programs. Training and education institutions’ engagement isnecessary, and it is fully expected once the demand for sanitation personnel (innumbers and competence) is communicated and discussed with them.The fourth strategy, stimulate knowledge exchange among stakeholders, is aimed atenhancing the volume and quality of knowledge sharing in line with competencedevelopment needs of each category of sanitation personnel. The most immediateaction is to create an Indonesian network of sanitation personnel and strengtheningexisting knowledge management systems in the sector.The capacity development strategy addresses the competence of individuals and thequantity of individuals in the sector. However, the study recognizes that many otherfactors affect whether sanitation can become an attractive sector to build one’scareer. Two additional recommendations are proposed to complement the fourstrategies above. The first is to revise policies governing the sanitation sector as awhole, with the aim to modernize the sector and engage private sector, which isexpected to create a more professional atmosphere. The second is to revamp the 1
  10. 10. Executive Summarysector’s image, accordingly, and aim to reintroduce a technologically-appealing sectorwith modern career opportunities.The sanitation capacity development strategy was developed from findings of a gapanalysis conducted over a period of six-months. The study focused only onprofessionals (covering consultants, facilitators, and operators), and used the PPSP(Accelerated Sanitation Development) program as a basis to estimate the number ofactivities planned and, subsequently, the number of personnel needed.The main findings of the study from the quantitative side are: Major gaps are found between the demand and supply of facilitators for communal system (SANIMAS) and for hygienic behavior (STBM), both in the short- term and in the medium-term (next five-year development plan cycle); Short-term gaps can be filled by tapping potential individuals who already have the right qualification for both job titles. Environmental/sanitary engineers holding competence certification and new graduates from environmental engineering schools are sufficient to close the gap for all technical SANIMAS facilitators. In the medium-term, shortage of personnel will also emerge for operators to run and maintain the sanitation facilities across the country. In the future, graduates from environmental engineering programs are expected to fill the demand for technical personnel. Yet, the reality is that environmental engineering does not attract large number of university students. And graduates are more interested in seeking employment in the vibrant industrial sectors (including mining, oil/gas or environmental management), rather than sanitation sector. The number of students is far smaller than the intake capacity of most universities. The potential for growth of the student body still exists. To attract new graduates, the image of the sector and technological vision must be made more modern, more fitting of youth aspirations in the twenty-first century. Furthermore, job opportunities in this sector should be better disseminated.In terms of competence, the study identifies the following gaps: Minor shortcomings in knowledge, skills, and attitude among sanitation personnel relate to: o Basic understanding of sanitation technologies among non-technical facilitators for SANIMAS and city sanitation planning. o Current policies and approaches on sanitation development among technical consultants. o Proper procedure to operate wastewater, solid waste, and drainage facilities among the respective operators. o Writing and communication skills. o Poor work habits (such as attendance, compliance with deadlines). There may be a discrepancy of understanding on required competence between sanitation personnel and key stakeholders (employers/managers). A mutually agreed competence criteria can reduce this understanding gap. Using the2
  11. 11. Sanitation Training and Capacity Study competence criteria, competence assessment of the sanitation personnel will produce more objective results. Competence is only one of many factors that influence a person’s work performance. A competent person will not be able to perform well in his/her position if the working conditions are not conducive to good performance. Among the working conditions that are often lacking in sanitation are the availability and adequacy of equipment and materials, funds and timeframe, other personnel, and data. There is a vacuum in competence development for sanitation professionals. Only limited training courses (and training providers) on sanitation subjects are available. Moreover, existing suite of training courses are not designed in a comprehensive way – one which allows a person to plan a phased training program to fit their professional interests. Sequenced training courses (e.g. basic, intermediate, advanced) are not found anywhere. The existing sanitation-related professional certification systems require certificate holders to continually improve his/her competence. However, this requirement has not been followed by a concerted effort to encourage certificate holders to improve their competence, say by participating in a structured training program. A link between certification program and training programs would create a demand for specific training courses, and would motivate training institutions to develop new training modules, cooperate with international training institutions (or sanitation institutions), and offer new courses to the public. There are a number of professional associations where sanitation personnel can build and expand their network. However, their roles are not being optimized. Their involvement in sanitation sector is still incidental, and not designed to support current sanitation capacity development.An action plan is prepared for the 2012-2014 period. Some activities arerecommended for initiation immediately, i.e. in the second quarter of 2012, due totheir urgency. These include: a) Advocate the Need to Improve Capacity of SanitationPersonnel; b) Communicate Jobs in Sanitation; c) Sanitation Promotional Visits toEducation Institutions; d) Consensus on Job Titles in Sanitation; e) Create Path forCompetence Advancement in Sanitation; f) Create Indonesian Network for SanitationPersonnel.Some of the actions above can directly build upon the products created and leftbehind by this study, namely: A concept to define job titles in sanitation sector (relates to six sanitation development activities); A list of 20 types of key personnel in sanitation sector, and their required educational background and level of experience; Definition of required competence for four sanitation job titles. This would be used as basis to develop competency requirements for other sanitation job titles. Web-based sanitation professional network, which can be used as means to conduct surveys and develop database of personnel; An analytical framework for sanitation capacity assessment that can be used for further studies covering different types of personnel. 3
  12. 12. Executive SummaryIn addition, the study identifies a few follow-up assessments that may be warranted.The first could assess whether changes in the deployment strategies of sanitationpersonnel would reduce the level of demand for personnel, especially to support thecommunity-based and hygienic behavior programs. Another area that might bestudies is the capacity of local government officials (with decision authority insanitation) and the capacity of personnel involved in the operation of sanitationfacilities.This study should be treated as the beginning of a journey to address the issue ofcapacity in the sanitation sector. The journey may be long and, in some cases,exploratory in nature; however, what is clear is that there are already manystakeholders with common concern and aspirations. The key to a successful journey isensuring good collaboration and communication among all relevant parties, andconsensus on the future direction of the sanitation sector.4
  13. 13. Sanitation Training and Capacity StudyINTRODUCTIONIn November 2009, the Government of Indonesia (GoI) launched a high-profilePercepatan Pembangunan Sanitasi Permukiman (PPSP) program. The PPSP cites asubstantial scaling up of investments in both urban and rural sanitation over the next5 years. The RPJMN for 2010-2014 includes investments of IDR 15 trillion (USD 1.6billion), more than seven times the amount allocated in the previous RPMJN.The augmented government focus and funding for sanitation, has dramaticallyincreased the demand for a wide range of staff, consultants and facilitators with skillsranging from community development and sanitation marketing to sanitaryengineering and project management. The Ministry of Public Works, BAPPENAS, andconsulting firms have recently remarked that they are finding it difficult to findindividuals with appropriate experience and qualifications.Anticipating a demand surge for sanitation personnel, GoI plans to prepare a strategyto fill the gap between demand and supply. The Water and Sanitation Program (WSP),through the WASPOLA facility, is supporting the Government to develop such strategythrough the Sanitation Training and Capacity Study.PT. Qipra Galang Kualita was awarded a contract by WSP to conduct the Study. TheKick-Off Meeting was held on July 19, 2011, and this report is the Final Report whichpresents the findings, conclusions and recommendations from the study.SCOPE OF THE REPORTThis report presents information used in the analysis, and findings obtained from theanalysis. Following the Introduction, this report contains four other chapters, namely: Sanitation Personnel:introduces a definition and classification of sanitation personnel, in order to ensure systematic analysis and common understanding among readers. It also defines key personnel types which are assessed in greater depth. Quantitative Assessment: presents the key findings of the quantitative assessment of sanitation personnel, from the demand and supply perspectives. A discussion is also presented which highlights where major shortages are likely to be found. Competence Assessment: presents the key findings of the qualitative assessment. This includes discussion on the competence expected of sanitation personnel, and the types of competence programs available. It also discusses other factors that build competence and that affect performance of personnel. Strategy and Action Plan: presents the strategy to improve capacity of sanitation human resources in Indonesia, as well as the short-term action plan and details of immediate activities. Suggestion for follow-up studies are presented in the end of this chapter.OVERVIEW OF THE STUDYThe objective of the Sanitation Training and Capacity Study, or the Study, is: Developing a human resource capacity development strategy (or plan) to meet the demand for qualified and competent sanitation personnel to support Indonesia’s short-term and medium-term sanitation development activities.The final output is a Sanitation Human Resource Capacity Development Strategy,which will be usedby GoI, particularly BAPPENAS, in planning and creating capacity- 5
  14. 14. Introductionbuilding activities with the involvement of various stakeholders. The ultimate aim is toensure that availability of human resources does not become an impediment toachieving the sanitation development targets already set by the Government.The Study was divided into four stages as follows:The first stage, the Demand Assessment, assessed the future demand of sanitationpersonnel with appropriate competences needed to support the scaling up ofsanitation investments. The Assessment defined the types of sanitation personnelstudied and estimates the number for short- and medium-term demand. For fourpriority sanitation personnel, lists of required competencieswere developed: a) job(occupational) functions, b) core competencies, and c) need-to-know criteria.The second stage, the Supply Assessment, reviewed competencies developedthrough existing education (undergraduate) and training programs. Assessment wasdone only for the priority personnel identified in the Demand Assessment. Curriculumand syllabus of education and training programs were reviewed to determine whichknowledge and skills are in fact lacking. Effort was made to estimate the quantitativeside of supply, namely the number of individuals from each category with potential tofill the demand. Assessment was done also of existing professional network andassociations, and other parties which contribute to the development of competence.A web-based survey was used to understand the profile and competence of activeindividuals from the four priority personnel types.The third stage, Gap Analysis, compared the results of the Demand Assessment withthat of the Supply Assessment. Gaps identified include: adequacy and availability ofsanitation personnel, expected and actual competence, gaps in training provisions, aswell as observations on underlying factors that affect the interest in working in thesanitation sector.The fourth stage, Capacity Development Strategy, was developed based on results ofthe gap analysis. The plan includes a short-term strategy to improve the numbers andcompetence of the prioritized sanitation personnel, and a medium-term to overallenhance and maintain competence for the same group. The final report presentsrecommendations on further study and analysis to broaden the scope of analysis.NOTEThe broad coverage and the short timeframe of the study made it necessary todevelop and utilize many assumptions, especially for the quantitative assessments.Furthermore, some extrapolation was necessary to extend survey results with a smallsample size. Findings were reconfirmed against comments from various resource-persons. This study should be considered a beginning of, rather than an end to, acomplex and potentially long-term dialog on capacity in the sanitation sector.6
  15. 15. Sanitation Training and Capacity StudySANITATION PERSONNELThe Study assesses the capacity of sanitation personnel. A definition and classification ofsanitation personnel are introduced, in order to ensure systematic analysis and commonunderstanding among readers. Not all types of sanitation personnel were studied with thesame intensity. Therefore, the Study also identifies key personnel types which are assessed ingreater depth. CLASSIFICATIONS 101. Sanitation personnel are defined as any individual involved in sanitation activities, which may comprise of any sanitation sub-sector (liquid waste management, solid waste management, drainage), any activity cycle (planning, design, implementation, construction, operation and maintenance, monitoring and evaluation), and any proficiency level (advanced, intermediate, basic). The term covers individuals working as civil servants, professionals1, academics, and volunteers. The Study will focus more on professionals, rather than the other three. 102. Types of sanitation personnel are clearly specified to allow a systematic and focused assessment2, and later to generate a sound strategy and an implementable action plan. Generic nomenclature of job titles is created for each type of sanitation personnel3. Three attributes are used in each job title, i.e. (Role) + (Field) + (Scope) Note: - Role: Role to be performed by an individual in an activity includes one of the following: facilitator, consultant, operator, supervisor, etc. - Field: Field of expertise that an individual contributes to. The attribute uses 1 Professionals may refer to individuals who possess specific skills or knowledge to undertake a specialized set of tasks and who receives compensation for his/her services. He/she may work in consulting firm, construction firm, non-governmental organization, training agency, research agency, and others. 2 Discussions with stakeholders and review of literature led to an impression that the term ‘sanitation personnel’ can be interpreted very broadly. It may include individuals involved in the technical aspects of sanitation development, individuals assisting governments with regulatory or policy work, to villagers who volunteer to organize and educate their peers. It became clear that in order to produce meaningful information and recommendations, it was important for this study to define precisely the ‘sanitation personnel’ that it addresses and analyzes. 3 There are many ways to specify types of sanitation personnel. Nomenclature used seems to vary from one activity to another, or from one organization to another. For example, some activities use the general term of sanitary engineer, while others call it more specifically as wastewater engineer, solid waste engineer, or drainage engineer. 7
  16. 16. Sanitation Personnel terminology closely related to educational background, e.g. policy, regulation, technical, institutional, financial, management, urban planning, communication, administration, social, public health, and development. - Scope: Scope of the activity that an individual is involved in. The attribute uses terminology related to phases or components of the activity, e.g. sanitation awareness raising, sanitation development planning, communal system implementation, wastewater system planning, solid waste planning, drainage system planning, final disposal site operation, improvement of hygienic behavior implementation, sludge treatment facility construction, and sewerage system operation. Some examples are facilitator (social) for communal system implementation, consultant (urban planning) for wastewater system planning, and operator (technical) for wastewater treatment plant operation.103. A total of 90 types of sanitation personnel are identified from fifteen selected sanitation activities4. Prior to that, a genericclassification of activities is developed to allow systematic identification of types of sanitation personnel involved in each sanitation activity (see the diagram and Table 1).Generic Classifications of Sanitation Development Activities. This Study acknowledges 9 classes ofactivities. The classification is a modification of PPSP program sequence, for example, PPSP’simplementation phase is modified into six more-detailed classes of activities. It should be realized that theimplementation phase requires the largest number of sanitation personnel compared to the other fivePPSP’s phases. It should be noted that asanitation activity may cover a wide range of aspects, including technical (infrastructure), institutional, regulatory, policy, financial, social,4 The fifteen sanitation activities are assumed as priorities in the current PPSP program cycle and thefollowing years. At least until 2014, most PPSP program interventions are focused at completing CitySanitation Strategy documents, preparing Program Memorandum of Sanitation Sector, and preparingplans and design for various sanitation services. In addition, a large number of communal sanitationfacilities will be made for urban slum areas through SANIMAS scheme; while for rural communities, thefocus is implementing the STBM approach in villages. More attention on operation and maintenance ofsanitation facilities will be given in the next PPSP program cycle (2015 – 2019).8
  17. 17. Sanitation Training and Capacity Study business, as well as communications. Therefore, it is common for a sanitation activity to require a unique set of sanitation personnel. The team composition will be determined by the specific objectives of the activity, scale of activity, and the deployment strategy (or organizational structure) of the program implementers. Full composition of personnel involved in each selected sanitation activity can be found in Attachment 1.Table 1. Generic Classification of Sanitation Activities Classification of Types of Description Activities Covered in the Study Activities personnel1. Improvement of Activities to improve the - - enabling readiness of a city/ district, i.e. to environment a) awareness and commitment of stakeholders, and b) regulatory and institutional framework.2. Preparation of Activities which formulate a 1 Preparation of City 3 5 strategy and strategic plan for sanitation Sanitation Strategy implementation development and its 2 Preparation of Program 1 plan implementation plan. Usually Memorandum of conducted by a local working Sanitation Sector 6 group, and supported by various parties.3. Implementation Activities which empower village 3 Implementation of STBM 1 7 of hygienic communities to adopt healthier Program behavior and more hygienic behavior, as improvement defined in Sanitasi Total Berbasis Masyarakat (STBM) concept.4. Implementation Activities to empower 4 Implementation of 2 8 of communal communities in high-density SANIMAS Program sanitation settlements, usually in urban system slums, in developing communal sanitation system.5. Development of Activities aiming at developing 5 Completion of master 11 domestic system to manage domestic plan for wastewater 10 wastewater wastewater. Activities may services services include planning, design, and 6 Engineering design of 9 9 implementation of the system sewerage system5 The City Sanitation Strategy (CSS) is a medium-term strategic plan developed to steer sanitationdevelopment activities in a particular city/district. The CSS, locally known as Strategi Sanitasi Kota (SSK), isexpected to help create synergy between sanitation development activities and development activities inother sectors. A CSS is generally developed by a water and sanitation working group (often known by itsIndonesian acronym Pokja AMPL or Kelompok Kerja Air Minum dan Penyehatan Lingkungan)establishedby the local government, with members consisting of representatives from relevant agencies concernedwith water and sanitation development. The PPSP requires cities/districts interested in participating tohave a CSS.6 Program Memorandum of Sanitation Sector is a document that contains commitment and plans fromvarious parties to implement sanitation programs and activities that have been outlined in the CSS. Thememorandum describes funding strategy of each program and activity, whether it comes from centralgovernment, provincial, district / city governments, foreign aids, private sector, or public.7 The STBM Program uses an approach that focuses on behavior change based on a community’s owninitiative and decision process. Communities are triggered to make changes in their daily practices, andadopting the five pillars of STBM, i.e. 1) stop open-defecation, 2) wash hands with soap, 3) safeguardinghousehold water supply, 4) wastewater management, and 5) solid waste management. This program hasbeen launched as a national strategy for sanitation development by the Ministry of Health. In the otherhand, CLTS (community-led total sanitation) is basically an approach to change sanitation behavior ofcommunity by triggering them to stop practicing open defecation (similar to first STBM pillar).8 SANIMAS (Sanitasi Berbasis Masyarakat) Program aims to improve the environmental quality of urbanslum areas, through introduction of a community-based wastewater management system. The SANIMASprogram has been made into a national program by the Ministry of Public Works. Facilities built underSANIMAS program may include shared sanitation facility (toilet), small- scale sewer system, andcommunal wastewater treatment facility. Another term often used to refer to efforts to promotecommunity-based wastewater management service is SLBM (Sanitasi Lingkungan Berbasis Masyarakat).9 Planning is the stage where general plans or master plans for sanitation services are prepared (based ona strategic plan for sanitation development). Design is the stage where detailed design of a sanitation. 9
  18. 18. Sanitation Personnel Classification of Types of Description Activities Covered in the Study Activities personnel (service). 7 Engineering design of 7 sludge treatment facility6. Development of Activities aiming at developing a 8 Completion of master 12 solid waste city-scale system to handle solid plan for solid waste services waste, which may consist of services collection, transportation, 9 Engineering design of 11 recycling, composting, final disposal facility incineration, and final disposal. Activities may include planning, design, and implementation of the system (service).7. Development of Activities aiming at developing a 10 Completion of master 11 drainage city-scale system to handle plan for drainage services services storm-water in an urban area. 11 Engineering design of 8 Such system may consist of drainage system catchment, retention, infiltration, conveyance, pumping, and discharge. Activities may include planning, design, and implementation of the system (service).8. Operation and Activities to ensure a sustainable 12 Operation of sewer 4 maintenance of operation and maintenance of system sanitation various types of sanitation 13 Operation of sewage 4 services services, whether it is by treatment plant government (or government- 14 Operation of sludge 4 owned authority), by private treatment facility companies or community groups. 15 Operation of final 4 disposal facility9. Monitoring and Activities to gather feedback - - - evaluation information to adjust future sanitation development activities.104. A sanitation activity may cover a wide range of aspects, including technical (infrastructure), institutional, regulatory, policy, financial, social, business, as well as communications. Therefore, it is common for a sanitation activity to require a unique set of sanitation personnel. The team composition will be determined by the specific objectives of the activity, scale of activity, and the deployment strategy (or organizational structure) of the program implementers. Full composition of personnel involved in each selected activity can be found in Attachment1.MAIN PERSONNEL105. Some team members are considered central to the implementation of an activity. These individuals may have competence that is indispensable to reach the activity’s objectives, or hold a crucial coordinating role for the activity, may have the longest assignment, and/or consolidates the work of other team members. Such individuals are called, in the Study, as Main Personnel. In the 15 selected sanitation activities, there are 20 job titles associated with main personnel; 13 of which requirefacility is prepared. Detailed designs are developed based on direction set in the master plans.Implementation is the stage where the sanitation development plans are realized, including constructionand commissioning of physical facilities, preparation of management organization (units).10 Wastewater system, as it is described in the Ministerial Decree of Public Works no. 16/2008, shouldinclude areas of (1) technology interventions, (2) community participation, (3) legal and regulatorydevelopment, (4) institutional and capacity development, and (v) financing mechanisms. Therefore, amaster plan of wastewater services at least should cover those five areas.10
  19. 19. Sanitation Training and Capacity Study an environmental/sanitary engineering11 background. The following table presents the main personnel in the selected sanitation activities, along with the required educational background and level of experiencewhich classified into entry-level (straight out of tertiary education), junior (1 – 5 years of experience), mid-level (5 – 10 years of experience), senior (over 10 years of experience).Table 2.Main Personnel in Selected Sanitation Development Activities Required Education Level of Main Personnel in Sanitation Activities Ri,i Background Experience 121. Preparation of City Sanitation Strategy Facilitator (Policy) for Sanitation 1 S-1 in urban planning, public Mid-level Development Planning health, public administration, engineering. Facilitator (Technical) for Sanitation 1 S-1 in environmental/sanitary Mid-level Development Planning engineering, civil engineering. 132. Preparation of Program Memorandum of Sanitation Sector Facilitator (Policy) for Sanitation 0.1 S-1 in urban planning, public Mid-level Development Planning health, public administration, engineering. 143. Implementation of the STBM program Facilitator (Social) for Community Hygienic 1 S-1 in social sciences, public Mid-level Behavior Change health. 154. Implementation of SANIMAS Program Facilitator (Social) for Communal 1 D-3 in social sciences, public Entry-level Sanitation System Implementation health. Facilitator (Technical) for Communal 1 D-3 in environmental/sanitary Entry-level Sanitation System Implementation engineering, civil engineering. 165. Completion of master plan for wastewater services Consultant (Technical) for Wastewater 1 S-2 in environmental/sanitary Senior System Planning engineering, civil engineering. 176. Engineering design of sewerage system11 Sanitary engineering is an engineering field aiming to improve sanitation condition of humancommunities and prevent disease, mostly by assuring a supply of clean water, removing wastes (liquidand solid) from inhabited areas. Later this engineering field was expanded to cover larger environmentalissues, including those of industrial sectors. Therefore, the term sanitary engineering is rarely used thesedays and most universities use the term environmental engineering.12 The CSS preparation involves assignment of two facilitators to work with the city/district’s Pokja AMPLto prepare the CSS. One facilitator serves as coordinator, and is expected to have a good knowledge ofPPSP process, has experience with strategic-level work, and experience in water and sanitation planning.The second facilitator is expected to have a stronger technical background related to planning anddevelopment of sanitation infrastructure.13 The preparation of program memorandum requires one facilitator to work with the city/district’s PokjaAMPL. The facilitator is expected to have a good knowledge of development planning process, andexperience in water and sanitation planning.14 Implementation of STBM program involves a number of village facilitators (Tenaga Fasilitator Desa)which are recruited from among the village community. The village facilitators receive support from asenior facilitator, commonly called Sub-District Level Facilitator (Fasilitator Kecamatan). The Study refersthe senior facilitator as Facilitator (Social) for Hygienic Behavior Change.15 Implementation of SANIMAS program requires a community-level facilitation team to organize,mobilize, empower, and advise the community. The standard team composition consists of twocommunity-level field facilitators (Tenaga Fasilitator Lapangan, TFL), i.e. social facilitator and technicalfacilitator. Both are involved since the awareness raising stage until the commissioning stages of thefacility. BORDA (Bremen Overseas Research & Development Association), which is a major executor of theSANIMAS program, has slightly modified this arrangement. In BORDA-supported areas, only one TFL(social) is assigned to the target community. He/she receives support and guidance from a Senior TFL(STFL) who covers five locations at once.16 The completion of master plan of sanitation services (wastewater, solid waste, drainage) involves ateam of consultants with sound planning and technical knowledge and experience in the various aspectsof sanitation services system. A typical team includes personnel with expertise in system planning,engineering, financial analysis and planning, socio-economics, institution development, legal/regulatorymatters. One of the team members, usually the senior technical expert, serves as a team leader.17 Engineering design of sanitation facilities (sewer network, sewage treatment plant, sludge treatmentfacility, final disposal site, drainage system) involve a team of consultants with sound technical knowledge 11
  20. 20. Sanitation Personnel Required Education Level of Main Personnel in Sanitation Activities Ri,i Background Experience Consultant (Technical) for Sewerage 1 S-1 in environmental/sanitary Senior 18 Engineering Design engineering, civil engineering.7. Engineering design of sludge treatment facility Consultant (Technical) for Sludge 1 S-1 in environmental/sanitary Senior Treatment Engineering Design engineering8. Completion of master plan for solid waste services Consultant (Technical) for Solid Waste 1 S-2 in environmental/sanitary Senior System Planning engineering.9. Engineering design of final disposal facility Consultant (Technical) for Sanitary Landfill 1 S-1 in environmental/sanitary Senior Engineering Design engineering.10. Completion of master plan for drainage services Consultant (Technical) for Drainage 1 S-2 in environmental/sanitary Senior System Planning engineering, civil engineering.11. Engineering design of drainage system Consultant (Technical) for Drainage 1 S-1 in environmental/sanitary Senior Engineering Design engineering, civil engineering. 1912. Operation of sewer system Operator (Technical) for Sewer Operation 3 S-1 in environmental/sanitary Mid-level eng., mechanical eng. Operator (Management) for Sewer 1 D-3 in management, or Mid-level Operation administration.13. Operation of sewage treatment plant Operator (Technical) for Sewage 3 S-1 in environmental/sanitary Mid-level Treatment Operation eng., mechanical eng. Operator (Management) for Sewage 1 D-3 in management, or Mid-level Treatment Operation administration.14. Operation of sludge treatment facility Operator (Technical) for Sludge Treatment 3 S-1 in environmental/sanitary Mid-level Operation eng., mechanical eng Operator (Management) for Sludge 1 D-3 in management, or Mid-level Treatment Operation administration.15. Operation of final disposal facility Operator (Technical) for Sanitary Landfill 4 S-1 in environmental/sanitary Mid-level Operation eng., mechanical eng. Operator (Management) for Sanitary 1 D-3 in management, or Mid-level Landfill Operation administration.Note: Ri,i= Involvement ratio, or ratio of the number of individual(s) involved in an activity per location. For a type of sanitation personnel, some activities require one personnel per location while some require one personnel for more than one location.and experience in designing the facilities as well as the operational plans. A typical team includespersonnel with expertise in technical aspect of each facility, civil works, mechanical works, electricalworks, project management, financial, and environmental management. One of the team members,usually the senior engineer related to the type of facility, serves as a team leader.18 A sewerage system may consist of sewer network and sewage treatment plant(s). The design of eachrequires individual with specific expertise.19 The activity involves a team of operators, ranging from management level to field workers. Their dutiesinclude operating and maintaining all sewer facilities which may include pumping stations.12
  21. 21. Sanitation Training and Capacity StudyQUANTITATIVE ASSESSMENTThe Study assesses the level of demand and supply of sanitation personnel associated with 15activities. The demand is estimated from the projected number of activities. While the supply isestimated from known groups who can immediately be involved or be prepared for sanitationactivities. Shortages of personnel in the short- and medium-terms are discussed. LEVEL OF DEMAND 201. The level of demand indicates the number of individuals required to fill job opportunities in the 15 selected sanitation activities (see Table 1), for short-term (2012 – 2014) and medium-term (2015 – 2019). It should be noted that the number of jobs opportunities may not be the same with the number of individuals required. There is a big chance that an individual is involved in an activity for more than one period, therefore he/she will fill more than one job opportunity. 202. The number of job opportunities for a particular job title is estimated by factoring the frequency of activity (requiring a particular job title) and the number of individuals needed in an activity. Frequencies of activities are projected using the following basis:  Short-term: Based on the current PPSP program roadmap (see Attachment 2) and other targets mentioned in the national mid-term development plan. It is targeted that by end of 2014, 340 cities/districts complete their CSS, 240 cities/districts complete their Program Memorandum by end of 2014, and 240 cities/districts initiate the implementation phase. SANIMAS programs will be implemented in 2,000 areas per year.  Medium-term: Based on preliminary projections of the next PPSP program cycle (see Attachment 3)20. It is assumed that 500 cities/districts in Indonesia will complete their CSS by end of 2017, complete their Program Memorandum by end of 2018, and initiate the implementation phase by end of 2019. STBM and SANIMAS programs will continue into the next development cycle with the same rate of implementation. The number of individuals required to fill sanitation jobs, or the quantitative demand of sanitation personnel, is a function of the number of job opportunities and a continuity factor, i.e. the proportion of individuals expected to continue working in the same job in the subsequent period. 20 No official data is available for targets beyond 2014. 13
  22. 22. Quantitative Assessment203. Sanitation development in Indonesia will need sanitation personnel of more than 15,000 individuals in the short-term) and and addition of 18,000 individuals in the medium-term). For the main personnel, it will need almost 11,000 individuals in the short-term and an addition of 12,400 in the medium-term. Most of them are facilitators (for the preparation of CSS, STBM implementation, and SANIMAS implementation). A significant number of individuals with environmental/ sanitary engineering background will be needed. The estimates also show that more than 60% of the individuals will be those with entry-level and junior experience (see Table 3 for summary of the estimates and Attachment 4 for the complete estimates).Table 3.Level of Demand of Sanitation Personnel Short Term Medium-Term Category Amount % Amount % Total All Personnel 15,140 18,290 Main Personnel 10,845 72 12,400 68 Role All Personnel Facilitator 9,780 65 9,950 54 Consultant 4,310 28 5,140 28 Operator 1,050 7 3,200 17 Main Personnel Facilitator 9,710 89 9,890 80 Consultant 500 5 590 5 Operator 630 6 1,920 15 Field / All Personnel Education Technical 21 5,240 35 6,190 34 Facilitator 3,950 26 3,960 22 Consultant 870 6 950 5 Operator 420 3 1,280 7 Non-Technical 9,900 65 12,100 66 Main Personnel Technical 4,870 45 5,830 47 Facilitator 3,950 36 3,960 32 Consultant 500 5 590 5 Operator 420 4 1,289 10 Non-Technical 5,975 55 6,570 55 Experience All Personnel Senior 500 3 590 3 Mid-Level 5,020 33 7,175 39 Junior 5,870 39 6,780 37 Entry-Level 3,750 25 3,750 21 Main Personnel Senior 500 5 590 5 Mid-Level 1,145 11 2,560 21 Junior 5,450 50 5,500 44 Entry-Level 3,750 35 3,750 30 Note: Percentages of categories under the all personnel are proportional to the total number of all personnel. While, percentages of categories under the main personnel are proportional to the total number of main personnel. The following table presents a more detail estimates of the demand for main personnel.21 Technical personnel, in this Study, represent those with knowledge considered central to the mainsubjects of the activity, e.g. wastewater management, solid waste management, and drainage. Suchknowledge are usually possessed by individuals with environmental/ sanitary engineering background.14
  23. 23. Sanitation Training and Capacity StudyTable 4.Number of Sanitation Activities &Main Personnel Number of Number of Job Number of Individuals Activity Activities Main Personnel22 Opportunities Required Short- Medium- Short- Medium- Fc,i Short- Medium- Term Term Term Term Term Term 1 Preparation of 210 500 Facilitator (Policy) for 270 715 0.7 210 275 City Sanitation Sanitation Planning Strategies Facilitator (Technical) 290 665 0.7 200 210 for Sanitation Planning 2 Preparation of 190 550 Facilitator (Policy) for 190 550 0.7 110 160 PMSS Sanitation Planning 3 Implementation 20,000 35,000 Facilitator (Social) for 2,000 3,500 0.5 1,700 1,750 of STBM program Hygienic Behavior 4 Implementation 4,500 7,500 Facilitator (Social) for 4,500 7,500 0.5 3,750 3,750 of SANIMAS Communal Sanitation program Facilitator (Technical) 4,500 7,500 0.5 3,750 3,750 for Communal Sanitation 5 Completion of 140 340 Consultant (Technical) 140 340 0.8 110 110 master plans for for Wastewater wastewater Planning services 6 Engineering 15 50 Consultant (Technical) 15 50 0.8 10 15 design of for Sewerage Design sewerage system 7 Engineering 80 400 Consultant (Technical) 80 400 0.8 50 115 design of sludge for Sludge Treatment treatment facility Design 8 Completion of 140 340 Consultant (Technical) 140 340 0.8 110 110 master plan for for Solid Waste Planning solid waste services 9 Engineering 150 250 Consultant (Technical) 150 250 0.8 70 50 design of final for Sanitary Landfill disposal facility Design 10 Completion of 140 340 Consultant (Technical) 140 340 0.8 110 110 master plan for for Drainage Planning drainage system 11 Engineering 90 320 Consultant (Technical) 90 320 0.8 50 90 design of drainage for Drainage Design system 12 Operation of 10 45 Operator (Technical) for 20 90 1.0 30 135 sewer system Sewer Operation Operator (Manage- 10 45 1.0 10 45 ment) for Sewer Operation 13 Operation of 10 80 Operator (Technical) for 20 90 1.0 30 135 sewage treatment Sewage Treatment plant Operation Operator (Manage- 10 45 1.0 10 45 ment) for Sewage Treatment Operation 14 Operation of 40 300 Operator (Technical) for 80 600 1.0 120 900 sludge treatment Sludge Treatment facility Operation Operator (Manage- 40 300 1.0 40 300 ment) for Sludge Treatment Operation 15 Operation of final 150 250 Operator (Technical) for 300 500 1.0 600 1,000 disposal facility Final Disposal Operation Operator (Manage- 150 250 1.0 150 250 ment) for Final Disposal Operation Total Number 13,135 24,390 - 10,845 12,400 Proportion to all personnel (%) 63 56 - 72 68 22 Names of some job titles are shortened for practicality. 15
  24. 24. Quantitative Assessment204. Types of main personnel mostly needed to support the current and next PPSP program cycles are (ranked based on the highest number of individuals required in both terms): Facilitators & Consultants 1. Facilitator (Technical) for Communal Sanitation 7,500 2. Facilitator (Social) for Communal Sanitation 7,500 3. Facilitator (Social) for Hygienic Behavior 3,450 4. Facilitator (Policy) for Sanitation Planning 745 5. Facilitator (Technical) for Sanitation Planning 410 6. Consultant (Technical) Wastewater Planning 215 Operators 1. Operator (Technical) for Final Disposal Operation 800 2. Operator (Technical) for Sludge Treatment Operation 680 3. Operator (Management) for Final Disposal Operation 400 4. Operator (Management) for Sludge Treatment Operation 110LEVEL OF SUPPLY205. The supply of sanitation personnel consists of individuals from the following three groups (see diagram):  Eligible: Individuals who have the right qualifications (education and experience) for a particular sanitation job title. These individuals have worked in sanitation, and have received relevant training, therefore they can be immediately employed for a particular sanitation job. The eligible group is divided into a) active personnel, or eligible individuals currently involved in sanitation activities, and b) inactive personnel, or eligible individuals currently not involved in a sanitation activity.  Potentials: Individuals who have partial qualifications (education or experience), but still require additional preparation before they are ready to fill a particular sanitation job. The preparation can be as minimal as orientation training to introduce individuals to the specifics of a program23; or as elaborate as a technical training to introduce a technology or technical approach used by a program. This category includes individuals with a relevant educational degree, but has not pursued career in sanitation24, or individuals who have recently graduated.  Prospective: Individuals who may have the interest and potential to be prepared for sanitation jobs. These individuals are currently still students in a relevant educational program, i.e. environmental engineering, public health, social science, etc. Interventions may be needed to enhance or create the individuals’ interest in pursuing sanitation jobs.23 For example, training on basic facilitation for CSS/PMSS preparation, and training on basic facilitationfor developing SANIMAS system in urban areas.24 Example would be alumni of environmental/ sanitary engineering who works as Environmental, Health,and Safety (EHS) staff in oil/gas companies, or has built his/her career as an EIA consultant orenvironmental auditor. Also, alumni of social sciences who have not been involved in any sanitation work.16
  25. 25. Sanitation Training and Capacity Study The three categories combined are expected to play a role in satisfying the demand for sanitation personnel in the short-term and medium-term of sanitation development in Indonesia. Groupings of Individuals for Supply Assessment.Demand for sanitation personnel will be fulfilled by the Eligible and the Potential groups. After graduating, the Prospective will become part of the Potential group.Eligible206. There are about 9,000 eligible individuals that can be immediately involved in the short-term period (see Table 5). Some of them are active personnel, while others are inactive for various reasons25. Estimates of the eligible (the main personnel) are described as follows.  Facilitator (Policy) for Sanitation Planning: There are about 320 individuals who have served as facilitators for preparation of CSS/PMSS, or have been trained for these functions by BAPPENAS/Ministry of Public Works and their development partners26. Some of the individuals are currently active, but some appear not to be employed due to changes in the employing institution (provincial level, instead of national level). In addition to the policy facilitators, there are also 130 technical facilitators available.  Facilitator (Social) for Hygienic Behavior: The eligible supply is around 1300 individuals27. These people are individuals who have participated in CLTS or STBM related programs and/or have been trained as facilitators by the Ministry of Health or its development partners.  Facilitators (Technical) for Communal System: There are 3,000 technical individuals who have been prepared and involved in previous or on-going SANIMAS programs, or been trained by Ministry of Public Works or their development partners28. In addition to the technical facilitators, there are also 3,000 individuals who have served as social facilitators.25 There is no database available to assess the number of personnel currently active or inactive in thesanitation activities. Moreover, the Study was unable to find any reasonable assumption to assess theproportion of active personnel and inactive personnel among the eligible. Therefore, the supplyassessment does not quantitatively differentiate the two categories.26 BAPPENAS/Ministry of Public Works and their partners have conducted training of basic facilitation forCSS or PMSS preparation since 2010, with the latest done in December 2010. A total of 220 individualshave been trained for CSS policy facilitators (provincial, city/district level) and 100 individuals for PMSSfacilitators. In addition, almost 130 individuals have been trained as CSS technical facilitators, and about30 individuals as CSS financial facilitators.27 Various programs have trained and prepared CLTS/STBM facilitators. The most significant one is theprogram of PAMSIMAS (Penyediaan Air Minum dan Sanitasi Berbasis Masyarakat, or Water Supply andSanitation for Low Income Communities or WSLIC 3, 2008 – 2013) which has prepared more than 1250facilitators. Another program, the CWSHP (Community Water Services and Health Project) has preparedabout 80 STBM facilitators. An NGO, Plan Indonesia, has prepared almost 50 facilitators to support itsCLTS programs in Central Java.28 It is assumed that the implementation of SANIMAS in 2010 and 2011 have prepared at least onetechnical facilitator for each SANIMAS location. The Ministry of Public Works claims that SANIMAS have 17
  26. 26. Quantitative Assessment  Consultant (Technical) for Wastewater Planning: More than 140 individuals are eligible to be wastewater system technical consultants. They are basically the number of senior and some mid-level certified engineers29 with strong wastewater experience30. Eligible individuals are also available for solid waste and drainage system planning, as well as for the engineering design of various sanitation facilities31. Among the three sub-sectors, qualifications in drainage appear to be weakest (compared to wastewater and solid waste)32.  Operators of various sanitation facilities: The number of eligible individuals for various operator functions is assumed from the number of facilities currently operating in Indonesia. With 11 sewerage systems operating in the country, it is assumed there is at least one qualified person for each position. Similarly, it is assumed that for final disposal site operators, there are at least 200 technical operators and 200 managerial operators handling existing disposal sites. Individuals eligible as sludge treatment operators comprise of 100 operators (each) handling existing facilities33.Table 5. Number of Eligible Individuals Relative to Number of Main Personnel Short-Term Individuals Demand FACILITATORS Facilitator (Policy) for Sanitation Planning 320 Sufficient Facilitator (Technical) for Sanitation Planning 130 Insufficient Facilitator (Social) for Hygienic Behavior Change 1,380 Insufficient Facilitator (Technical) for Communal Sanitation 3,000 Insufficient Facilitator (Social) for Communal Sanitation 3,000 Insufficient CONSULTANTS Consultant (Technical) for Wastewater Planning 140 Sufficient Consultant (Technical) for Sewerage Design 115 Sufficient Consultant (Technical) for Sludge Treatment Design Consultant (Technical) for Solid Waste Planning 130 Sufficient Consultant (Technical) for Sanitary Landfill Design 105 Sufficient Consultant (Technical) for Drainage Planning 65 Insufficient Consultant (Technical) for Drainage Design 55 Sufficient OPERATORS Operator (Technical) for Sewer Operation 10 Insufficient Operator (Management) for Sewer Operation 10 Sufficientbeen conducted using the Specific-Allocated Fund (DAK, or Dana Anggaran Khusus) in 2,700 locations forthe last two years. In addition, the Ministry of Public Works has also implemented SANIMAS in 300 otherlocations using direct central government funding. Therefore, it can be assumed that there is about 3,000individuals eligible to be technical facilitators.29 The Agency for Construction Services Development (or, LPJK) has awarded certificates to more than7,400 individuals who are considered to be qualified as experts in environmental engineering field. Amongthe awarded certificates, 2% are for the senior experts (ahli utama), 18% are for mid-level experts (ahlimadya), and 76% are for junior experts (ahli muda).30 Review of data on 200 certified environmental engineers indicate that 17% have strong wastewaterexperience. The others have strong experience on solid waste (16%), drainage (8%), and water supply(59%).31 Eligible individuals are available for sewerage system and sludge treatment facility design, despiterecruitment difficulties encountered by a major program such as the Indonesia Infrastructure Initiative(INDII) program.32 Some of the certified civil engineers are equally qualified to design drainage systems. However, certifiedcivil engineers were not reviewed in the Study.33 The issue of individual competence, related to poor performance of existing sanitary landfills and sludgetreatment facilities, will be discussed in the Gap Analysis chapter.18
  27. 27. Sanitation Training and Capacity Study Relative to Number of Main Personnel Short-Term Individuals Demand Operator (Technical) for Sewage Treatment Operation 10 Insufficient Operator (Management) for Sewage Treatment Operation 10 Sufficient Operator (Technical) for Sludge Treatment Operation 100 Sufficient Operator (Management) for Sludge Treatment Operation 100 Sufficient Operator (Technical) for Final Disposal Operation 200 Insufficient Operator (Management) for Final Disposal Operation 200 Sufficient Note:  Comparison is made to the short-term demand of main personnel as shown in Table 4.  Sufficient means the number of eligible individuals will be enough to satisfy the short- term demand. Insufficient means the number of eligible individuals will not be enough to satisfy the short-term demand.  Not enough information was obtained to completely separate consultant (technical) for sewerage design and for sludge treatment. Attachment 5 presents a more complete estimate of individuals in the eligible group.207. Asuming all active and inactive personnel will join the sector, the number of eligible individuals is generally sufficient to satisfy the short-term demand of consultants, except that for drainage planning (see Table 5). However, there are not enough eligible individuals to satisfy the demand for social and technical facilitators. Likewise, for the technical operator category, eligible individuals cannot meet the demand.Potential208. There are a high number of individuals in the second layer, who can be upgraded and recruited to fill shortage of eligible individuals (see Table 6). Estimation was made for technical personnel only, by exploring individuals holding the LPJK professional certification for environmental engineering and individuals with environmental engineering degrees. Some of these individuals may have appropriate qualifications, but may have never been employed in the sanitation sector. Estimates are made based on the level of qualification (education and experience), and matched to the most suitable job titles. The description is as follows.  Technical with senior experience:Potential candidates can be obtained from senior certified experts (Ahli Utama) with strong water supply background. The number can reach up to 100 individuals. They are expected to fill the medium- term demand for technical consultant for master plan of sanitation services. Shifting from water supply to managing master plan development for sanitation services would not require too much capacity building.  Technical with mid-level experience:Potential candidates can be obtained from two sources. The first from mid-level certified experts (Ahli Madya) with a strong water supply background, i.e. 500 individuals. A shift to sanitation sectors would relatively easy since most of them have environmental/sanitary engineer background. The second is environmental engineering alumni with 5 – 10 years of experience, i.e. 600 individuals. Some of them are not yet engaged in the water and sanitation sector. They are expected to fill the demand of technical facilitators for sanitation planning or technical operators for various sanitation facilities.  Technical with junior experience: Potential candidates can be obtained from two sources, i.e. junior-level certified environmental engineers (Ahli Muda) and environmental engineering alumni with 2 – 4 years of experience. They are 19
  28. 28. Quantitative Assessment expected to fill the short-term demand of technical SANIMAS facilitators. A total amount of 2,600 individuals can be tapped from this group.  Technical with entry-level experience: Environmental engineers with less than 2 years of experience can fill the demand of technical SANIMAS facilitators. The number of this group may reach to 250 individuals. More than 4,000 technical individuals from the potential group can be expected to get involved in the short-term sanitation activities.Table 6. Number of Potential Individuals (Technical Personnel Only) Relative to Number of Groups & Main Personnel Short-Term Individuals Demand Senior Consultant (Technical) for Wastewater Planning 100 Sufficient Consultant (Technical) for Solid Waste Planning Sufficient Consultant (Technical) for Drainage Planning Sufficient Mid-Level Facilitator (Technical) for Sanitation Planning 400 Sufficient Consultant (Technical) for Sanitary Landfill Design Sufficient Consultant (Technical) for Drainage Design Sufficient Consultant (Technical) for Sewerage Design Sufficient Consultant (Technical) for Sludge Treatment Design Sufficient Operator (Technical) for Sewer Operation 620 Sufficient Operator (Technical) for Sewage Treatment Operation Sufficient Operator (Technical) for Sludge Treatment Operation Sufficient Operator (Technical) for Final Disposal Operation Sufficient Junior Facilitator (Technical) for Communal Sanitation 2,600 Sufficient Entry-Level 250 Note:  Comparison is made to the number of personnel needed after inclusion of the eligible group.  Sufficient means that the number of potential individuals will be enough to fill the short- term shortage of eligible individuals. Insufficient means that the number of eligible individuals will not be enough to fill the short-term shortage of eligible inidividuals. Supply of social and policy facilitators, as well as for non-technical operators, are open to individuals from diverse educational backgrounds. The pool is very large, since it crosses social sciences, public policy, public health and other technical disciplines. Therefore, it can be assumed that the supply for the demand of these types of personnel is enormous.209. The number of technical potential individuals is more than enough to cover the lack of personnel in the short-term period. However, further estimate shows that there will not be enough potential individuals to satisfy the medium-term demand34. Around 6.200 technical individuals are still required to meet the medium-term demand (see Table 4).This medium-term deficiency will likely be covered by those who are grouped as the prospective, or by inviting more individuals from other technical backgrounds.34 With additional experience, some potential individuals will have gained higher qualification, makingthem prepared to fill sanitation position with higher competence level, say a Consultant (Technical) forWastewater System Planning.20

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