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Fundamentalsof Crime Mapping 7
Fundamentalsof Crime Mapping 7
Fundamentalsof Crime Mapping 7
Fundamentalsof Crime Mapping 7
Fundamentalsof Crime Mapping 7
Fundamentalsof Crime Mapping 7
Fundamentalsof Crime Mapping 7
Fundamentalsof Crime Mapping 7
Fundamentalsof Crime Mapping 7
Fundamentalsof Crime Mapping 7
Fundamentalsof Crime Mapping 7
Fundamentalsof Crime Mapping 7
Fundamentalsof Crime Mapping 7
Fundamentalsof Crime Mapping 7
Fundamentalsof Crime Mapping 7
Fundamentalsof Crime Mapping 7
Fundamentalsof Crime Mapping 7
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Fundamentalsof Crime Mapping 7

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Fundamentals of crime mapping chapter 7

Fundamentals of crime mapping chapter 7

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  • 1. Victims  ◦ Probability suggests you will be a victim of an offender who has the same age and ethnicity as you do Offenders  Witnesses, Reporting Parties, etc  ◦ Help us make sense of an describe what happened to police
  • 2. Motivations  Ease of opportunity ◦ Thrill or excitement ◦ Money and property rewards ◦ Difficulty and challenge ◦ Anger, frustration, and rage ◦ Power and control ◦ Sexual relief and/or satisfaction ◦ Revenge/hatred/payback ◦ Sudden impulse or whim ◦ Unintentional/accident ◦ Offender was on drugs ◦ Respect and admiration of others ◦ To buy or steal drugs or alcohol ◦ Need money for food, rent, or bills ◦ Peer pressure or group behavior ◦
  • 3. 52% of victimizations were committed by  persons who were strangers to their victims The nature of victim and offender  relationships varies by crime type ◦ Rape – 35% were strangers ◦ Robbery – 80% were strangers ◦ 40% of victims are acquainted to the offenders
  • 4. In 2005, for all crimes of violence,  approximately 79% of incidents involved only one offender When multiple offenders were present,  offenders aged 12–20 years accounted for 41% of these crimes ◦ Black 40% of the time ◦ White 29% of the time
  • 5. 67% of all violent incidents (excluding  murder) were committed without the use of a weapon ◦ In 9% of these incidents, the presence of a firearm was indicated Handguns are the most frequently  mentioned firearm when used
  • 6. Gang related  ◦ A crime committed by gang members to further their gang activities or to otherwise promote the gang or gang membership Gang member involved  ◦ A crime committed by a person who may be a gang member, but the crime cannot be directly linked to promoting a gang or gang membership
  • 7. According to NCVS data, between 1998 and  2003 approximately 6% of violent victimizations were perpetrated by persons believed to be gang members
  • 8. 50% of crime is actually reported to police  The BJS estimates that  ◦ Only 49% of violent crimes ◦ Only 38% of property crime were reported to the police during 2006 Female victims of violence were more likely to report  their victimizations than were males (54.6% versus 42.4%) Victims of violent crimes aged 65 years and older were  most likely to report their victimizations (66.1%) Victims aged 12–19 years were least likely to report  their victimizations of violent crimes (34.5%). Lower income families less likely to report property  crime than higher income families
  • 9. Reasons for non-reporting  ◦ Suspect unsuccessful ◦ Item already recovered ◦ Private or personal matter
  • 10. 9.4% of violent crime victims reported being  the first to use or threaten physical force during the incident Self-protective measures vary  ◦ Resisting or capturing offender # 1  Males more than females ◦ Running away, getting help, or giving an alarm #2 & #3  Females more running away or getting help 42% of violent crime victims reported that their  self-protective measures helped them to avoid injury or avoid greater injury
  • 11. When Self-protective actions hurt the victim  ◦ Behavior made the offender angrier and/or more aggressive Knowing how these factors affect  victimization can aide the analysis
  • 12. 27.5% of victims perceived their offenders to be  under the influence of drugs or alcohol during the commission of the crime (2005) 35.5% for rape and sexual assault  22.5% for robbery (lowest)  Karberg & James, 2005, p. 1  ◦ 68% of jail inmates abusers ◦ 16% committed crimes for money for drugs ◦ 50% self-reporting under the influence when committing crime ◦ Females slightly more than males ◦ White more than other races as well
  • 13. Urban ◦ More likely than Suburban Suburban ◦ More likely than Rural, Less than Urban Rural is a difference There
  • 14. ”Causes” of crime  Population density and degree of urbanization ◦ Variations in composition of the population, particularly youth ◦ concentration ◦ Stability of the population with respect to residents’ mobility, commuting ◦ patterns, and transient factors Modes of transportation and highway system ◦ Economic conditions, including median income, poverty level, and job ◦ availability Cultural factors and educational, recreational, and religious characteristics ◦ Family conditions with respect to divorce and family cohesiveness ◦ Climate ◦ Effective strength of law enforcement agencies ◦ Administrative and investigative emphases of law enforcement ◦ Policies of other components of the criminal justice system ◦ (i.e., prosecution, judicial, corrections, and probation) Citizens’ attitudes toward crime ◦ Crime reporting practices of the citizenry ◦
  • 15. Location Types  ◦ Violent Crime  15% of victimizations occurred at or in the victim’s home.  18.6% on street near home ◦ Schools  12.3% ◦ Own or Rent?  Owners less likely to be victims of property crime than renters ◦ Residential mobility  The more transient, higher incidence of crime
  • 16. Knowing characteristics of victims and  offenders helps the analyst do useful analysis and target the correct populations The ability to predict crime provides us with  an opportunity to prevent crime—the ultimate goal of law enforcement

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