Fundamentalsof Crime Mapping 3


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Fundamentals of crime mapping chapter 3

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Fundamentalsof Crime Mapping 3

  1. 1. Casinos  Stores and that gallon of milk  The notion of physical design to control  behavior, particularly criminal behavior, is also not new
  2. 2. Environmental design is to  guide, manipulate, and/or encourage people to behave in a desirable manner in a given situation Encourages informal social control efforts  Physical properties of a space should allow  for maximum visibility Signs (physical and psychological) that committing  crimes in this place would be risky and unprofitable
  3. 3. Crime prevention through environmental design  Newman’s defensible space model argues that  physical space can be structured in a way that fosters and reinforces a social structure that defends itself ◦ Territoriality  Legitimate users protect space ◦ Natural surveillance  Legitimate users can observe because of design ◦ Image  “Image” that neighborhood is well-cared for ◦ Milieu  Your neighborhood and nearby neighborhoods have territoriality, natural surveillance and image and are crime free as well
  4. 4. Public spaces  ◦ These are areas that are open to the general public and serve a variety of uses, such as a public street. Semipublic spaces  ◦ These are areas, such as an apartment lobby, that are limited in their use but are still open to everyone. They are used more often by residents and their friends or families. Semiprivate spaces   These include areas that are more restricted in use, such as an apartment hallway or stairwell, which are open to nonresidents but are most often used by residents and their friends or families. Private spaces   Most notably the apartments themselves, these are areas that are not open to the public and are restricted to the use of residents and their friends or families.
  5. 5. All human space has some designated purpose.  All human space has social, cultural, legal, or  physical definitions that prescribe the desired and accepted behaviors. All human space is designed to support and  control the desired behaviors Kaplan et al. (1978) propose that  opportunity, target, risk, effort, and payoff (OTREP) explain variations in crime across people and places ◦ This model assumes that offenders are rational and that if physical design changes limit opportunities by increasing the risk and effort and reducing the payoff, crime will decrease Target hardening 
  6. 6. Rational Choice Theory  ◦ perceived risk and effort of crime is low ◦ perceived payout is high Routine Activities Theory  ◦ Offenders and victims play a role in the criminal event Crime Pattern Theory (Combines rational  choice, routine actvities, and environmental criminology) ◦ Awareness space ◦ Activity space ◦ Nodes ◦ Paths
  7. 7. School Home Friends Work Entertainment
  8. 8. Victims often place themselves in situations that  increase their risk of victimization Dimensions of victimization risk  ◦ Attractiveness  Risk vs Reward potential ◦ Proximity  Victim with same rewards closer to suspect more likely victimized ◦ Defiant place  Location can increase risk (topless bar, larger group events, etc.) ◦ Vulnerability  Can victim resist an attack?
  9. 9. Victim facilitation  ◦ behavior was negligent in making themselves a more attractive or vulnerable target Victim precipitation  ◦ burglar getting assaulted by an awakened home owner Victim provocation  ◦ the crime would not have occurred if it was not for the victim’s behavior  Victim dressed “sexy” and goes to strip club for “the excitement”
  10. 10. Risk heterogeneity  ◦ What made them attractive the first time, made them attractive the second time Event dependency  ◦ Location was successful the last time, so offender goes there again Virtual repeats  ◦ Other targets chosen because they were similar to locations or victims where success was gained in the past
  11. 11. Types of Displacement  ◦ Spatial  Crime moves from an area (typically outward) ◦ Temporal  Same area – different times ◦ Target  Target hardening and chooses new target or type ◦ Tactical  New methods to commit same crime (Video on TV) ◦ Functional  Forced to commit a different crime  Benign – commits lesser offenses  Malign – commits more serious offenses ◦ Perpretrator  Traded one criminal for another (drug dealers and markets)
  12. 12. The spread of the beneficial influence of an intervention beyond the  places which are directly targeted, the individuals who are the subject of control, the crimes which are the focus of intervention or the time periods in which an intervention is bought Deterrence  ◦ Avoidance of targets due to increased enforcement at similar locations or times Discouragement  ◦ Perceived higher risk of being caught