The Role of Nuclear Power in Sustainable     Development : Indian Context                   K.Balu,  Former Director, Nucl...
   Our dream to realise a quality of life for people commensurate    with other developed countries -      Needs generat...
3
   Highly Concentrated Source of Energy       1 kg wood      : 1 Kw·h       1 kg coal      : 3 Kw·h       1 kg oil    ...
Operation of a 1000 MW(e) plant will require each year:Coal     : 2,600,000 Te coal (2000 train cars of 1300 teach)Oil    ...
   Typical Fossil and Nuclear sites        : 1–4 km²   Solar thermal or photovoltaic (PV) parks : 20–50 km² (a small tow...
   No Obnoxious Gases causing:       Global Warming & Climate Change       Acid Rain       Hole in Ozone Layer       ...
Environmental ImpactsFossil Fuels       •Global climate change       •Air quality degradation (coal, oil)       •Lake acid...
Environmental Impacts (Contd…)Renewables (Solar, wind, geothermal, biomass)     •Air quality degradation (geothermal, biom...
•   A country of the size of India cannot afford to plan its    economy on the basis of large scale import of energy    re...
   Uranium-235 is the only naturally occurring fissile isotope.   Plutonium-239 and Uranium-233 are man-made fissile iso...
   To facilitate long term use of nuclear power, a sustainable    nuclear fuel strategy, closed nuclear fuel cycle & thor...
Classification of Reactor Systems      Thermal Reactors                          Fast ReactorsFission is sustained primar...
ENERGY   REFINING(U & Th CONCT.)        U 235                   FRESH                  ENRICHMENT                   FUEL  ...
    Current:    4560 MW from 19 Nuclear reactors    Future Goals    64,000 MW by year 2032      −   14,000 from 700 MW P...
Kbalu presentation on fft nuclear power to be or not to be   28 jan 2011
Kbalu presentation on fft nuclear power to be or not to be   28 jan 2011
Kbalu presentation on fft nuclear power to be or not to be   28 jan 2011
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Kbalu presentation on fft nuclear power to be or not to be 28 jan 2011

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  • In thermal reactors, the fission is caused by thermal neutrons having energy less than 0.025 eV. This type of reactor uses natural uranium as fuel. The neutrons generated during fission posses very high energy which are slowed down with the help of a moderators to reduce the energy of neutrons less than 0.025 eV. In fast reactors, fission is basically caused by neutron possessing energy more than 1 MeV. Another important process that is taking place in the fast reactor is breeding of fissile material.
  • Kbalu presentation on fft nuclear power to be or not to be 28 jan 2011

    1. 1. The Role of Nuclear Power in Sustainable Development : Indian Context K.Balu, Former Director, Nuclear Recycle Group,BARC
    2. 2.  Our dream to realise a quality of life for people commensurate with other developed countries -  Needs generation of 5000 kWh /year per capita,  Demands a total capacity of 7500 billion kWh /year for a population of 1.5 billion by 2050,  Calls for a strategic growth in electricity generation considering:  Energy resources, self sufficiency,  Effect on local, regional & global environment,  Health externalities,  Demand profile & energy import scenario. Our study indicates a necessity to meet more than 1/4th of electricity generation by nuclear. Nuclear energy to play a progressively increasing role for non- grid-based-electricity applications (Hydrogen generation, Desalination, Compact power packs). 2
    3. 3. 3
    4. 4.  Highly Concentrated Source of Energy  1 kg wood : 1 Kw·h  1 kg coal : 3 Kw·h  1 kg oil : 4 Kw·h  1 kg uranium : 50,000 Kw·h (3,500,000 Kw·h with reprocessing)
    5. 5. Operation of a 1000 MW(e) plant will require each year:Coal : 2,600,000 Te coal (2000 train cars of 1300 teach)Oil : 2 000 000 Te oil (10 supertankers)Uranium : 30 Te uranium (One Truck Load)
    6. 6.  Typical Fossil and Nuclear sites : 1–4 km² Solar thermal or photovoltaic (PV) parks : 20–50 km² (a small town) Wind fields : 50–150 km² Biomass plantations : 4000–6000 km² (a province)
    7. 7.  No Obnoxious Gases causing:  Global Warming & Climate Change  Acid Rain  Hole in Ozone Layer  Air Quality Degradation
    8. 8. Environmental ImpactsFossil Fuels •Global climate change •Air quality degradation (coal, oil) •Lake acidification and forest damage (coal, oil) •Toxic waste contamination (coal, ash and slag, abatement residues) •Groundwater contamination •Marine and coastal pollution (oil) •Resource depletionHydroelectric •Population displacement •Land loss and change in use •Ecosystem changes and health effects •Loss of biodiversity •Dam failure
    9. 9. Environmental Impacts (Contd…)Renewables (Solar, wind, geothermal, biomass) •Air quality degradation (geothermal, biomass) •Extensive land use •Ecosystem changes •Fabrication impact (solar photovoltaic cells) •Noise pollution (wind)Nuclear (full energy chain) •Severe reactor accident release •Waste repository release
    10. 10. • A country of the size of India cannot afford to plan its economy on the basis of large scale import of energy resources or energy technology• Indigenous development of energy technologies based on domestic fuel resources should be a priority for us.• Nuclear power must contribute about a quarter of the total electric power required 50 yrs from Now
    11. 11.  Uranium-235 is the only naturally occurring fissile isotope. Plutonium-239 and Uranium-233 are man-made fissile isotopes which can be produced in a reactor. Uranium 238 (99.3% of natural uranium) on absorbing neutrons in a nuclear reactor, gets converted to Plutonium-239. Thorium-232, another naturally occurring element, on absorbing neutrons in a nuclear reactor, gets converted to Uranium-233. The converted fissile materials (Pu-239 & U-233) can be recovered by reprocessing the spent fuel from a reactor.- Closed Nuclear Fuel Cycle In breeder reactors (practically, Fast Breeder Reactors) it is possible to produce more fissile material than that gets consumed. 14
    12. 12.  To facilitate long term use of nuclear power, a sustainable nuclear fuel strategy, closed nuclear fuel cycle & thorium utilisation is essential. The Indian nuclear power programme has three major stages:  Nat. U in PHWRs  Pu in FBRs  U-233, Th in advanced reactors [a possibility of synergy with Accelerator Driven Systems (ADS)]. 15
    13. 13. Classification of Reactor Systems Thermal Reactors Fast ReactorsFission is sustained primarily by Fission is sustained primarily by thermal neutrons ( E ~ 0.025 eV). fast neutrons (E ~ 1 MeV)Moderator (Ordinary water, heavy No moderator used. Compact core. water, graphite, beryllium) is High core power density – liquid required to slow down the high metal or helium gas as coolant. energy fission neutrons. Large core. Higher number of neutronsVery high fission cross-section for available for capture in fertile thermal neutrons, less fuel material. Breeding possible. inventory. 16
    14. 14. ENERGY REFINING(U & Th CONCT.) U 235 FRESH ENRICHMENT FUEL NUCLEAR RECYCLED POWER FUEL PLANT FABRICATION Th232, U238 U233, Pu239 SPENT MINING U & Th FUEL ORES REPROCESSING CLOSED FISSION CYCLE PRODUCTS OPEN WASTE CYCLE CONDITIONING WASTE DISPOSAL 17
    15. 15.  Current: 4560 MW from 19 Nuclear reactors Future Goals 64,000 MW by year 2032 − 14,000 from 700 MW PHWRs − 40,000 from a mix of LWRs & PHWRs

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