Module 3 assignment: Describing a Learning Process


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Module 3 assignment: Describing a Learning Process

  1. 1. Describing a Learning Process: Constructivism Oscar A. Bernal ITD-546 Learning Theories and Instructional Technologies Dr. Weaver February 13, 2014
  2. 2. Constructivism Defined A new learning theory that attempts to explain how adult learners learn by constructing knowledge for themselves. A synthesis of multiple theories diffused into one form. The assimilation of both behaviorialist and cognitive ideals. “Learning is a process of constructing meaning; it is how people make sense of their experience” (Merriam
  3. 3. How does learning occur? Learning occur by creating meaning from experience. Learning does not transfer knowledge from the external world into memory. Learning is built through personal interpretations of the world based on individual experiences and interactions. Learning is a process in which the learner is able to build on present and previous information.
  4. 4. Which factors influence learning? Learning occurs when there is interaction between the learner and the environment. Content knowledge must be embedded in the situation in which it is used. Learning is based on the interpretation of a current event as it relates to its history of previous interactions. Learning is constantly changing as concepts continually evolve with each new use. Learning occur in realistic settings. Learning tasks must be relevant to the student’s lived experience.
  5. 5. What is the role of memory? Learning particular facts is not important, what is important is to elaborate on and interpret information. Memory is always under construction as a cumulative history of interactions. Information is not stored in memory as a single piece of knowledge. Memory is used to understand a specific situation based on prior knowledge from different sources related with the problem at hand. Learning must include activity, concept and culture to be successful, meaningful, and lasting.
  6. 6. How does transfer occur? By being involved in unique tasks hold in place by meaningful contexts. The learning experience has to be authentic to be meaningful to the learner’s ability to use ideas. Learning always takes place in a context always linked with the knowledge link in it. Learning is decontextualized Learning is measured on the effectiveness of facilitating thinking.
  7. 7. What types of learning are best explained by this position? There is no specific type of learning independent from content and context of learning. It is impossible to isolate units of information. There is no hierarchical analysis of relationships with regards to the division of knowledge domains. Much of what needs to be learned involves advanced knowledge in ill-structured domains. Learning environments are most effective for the stage of advanced knowledge acquition.
  8. 8. References Ertmer, P. A., & Newby, T. J., (1993). Behaviorism, cognitivism, constructivism: critical features from an instructional design perspective. Performance Improvement Quarterly, 6(4), 50- 72. Wikibooks. (2006). Learning Theories. http://en.wikibooksorg/wiki/Learning_Theories.
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