 Collection of interrelated data
 Set of programs to access the data
 DBMS contains information about a particular ente...
What is SQL?
– When a user wants to get some
information from a database file, he
can issue a query.
1
– A query is a user...
Concept of SQL
– The user specifies a certain condition.
1
– The result of the query will then be
stored in form of a tabl...
Both an ANSI and ISO standard
Types of commands:
1. Data Definition Language (DDL) : Create, Alter, Drop,
Rename, Truncate...
5
A simplified schematic of a typical SQL
environment, as described by the SQL-2003
standard
6
 Catalog
 A set of schemas that constitute the description of a database
 Schema (or Database)
 The structure that c...
CREATE TABLE {table}
( {column datatype [DEFAULT expr]
[column_constraint] ... | table_constraint}
[, { column datatype [D...
INSERT INTO {table | view} [ (column [, column] ...) ]
VALUES (expr,expr ...)
UPDATE {table | view }
SET { (column [, colu...
Data Retrieval:
SELECT [DISTINCT | ALL] {table|view}
FROM {table | view}
[WHERE condition ]
[GROUP BY expr [, expr]]
[ORDE...
Transaction Control:
COMMIT
ROLLBACK [ to {savepoint}]
SAVEPOINT {name}
commit;
savepoint point1;
rollback to point1;
Data Control Language:
GRANT [privileges]
ON object TO user|public
[WITH GRANT OPTION]
REVOKE [privileges]
ON object TO us...
SelectionProjection
Table 1 Table 2
Table 1Table 1
Join
 SELECT identifies the columns to be displayed.
 FROM identifies the table containing those columns.
SELECT *|{[DISTINCT...
SELECT *
FROM departments;
SELECT department_id, location_id
FROM departments;
 SQL statements are not case-sensitive.
 SQL statements can be entered on one or more lines.
 Keywords cannot be abbrev...
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  1. 1.  Collection of interrelated data  Set of programs to access the data  DBMS contains information about a particular enterprise  DBMS provides an environment that is both convenient and efficient to use.  Database Applications:  Banking: all transactions  Airlines: reservations, schedules  Universities: registration, grades  Sales: customers, products, purchases  Manufacturing: production, inventory, orders, supply chain  Human resources: employee records, salaries, tax deductions  Databases touch all aspects of our lives
  2. 2. What is SQL? – When a user wants to get some information from a database file, he can issue a query. 1 – A query is a user–request to retrieve data or information with a certain condition. – SQL is a query language that allows user to specify the conditions. (instead of algorithms)
  3. 3. Concept of SQL – The user specifies a certain condition. 1 – The result of the query will then be stored in form of a table. – Statistical information of the data. – The program will go through all the records in the database file and select those records that satisfy the condition.(searching).
  4. 4. Both an ANSI and ISO standard Types of commands: 1. Data Definition Language (DDL) : Create, Alter, Drop, Rename, Truncate 2. Data Manipulation Language (DML): Insert, Delete, Update 1. Data Retrieval: Select 2. Transaction Control: Commit, Rollback, Savepoint 3. Data Control Language (DCL): Grant, Revoke
  5. 5. 5 A simplified schematic of a typical SQL environment, as described by the SQL-2003 standard
  6. 6. 6  Catalog  A set of schemas that constitute the description of a database  Schema (or Database)  The structure that contains descriptions of objects created by a user (base tables, views, constraints)  Data Definition Language (DDL)  Commands that define a database, including creating, altering, and dropping tables and establishing constraints  Data Manipulation Language (DML)  Commands that maintain and query a database  Data Control Language (DCL)  Commands that control a database, including administering privileges and committing data
  7. 7. CREATE TABLE {table} ( {column datatype [DEFAULT expr] [column_constraint] ... | table_constraint} [, { column datatype [DEFAULT expr] [column_constraint] ... ) ALTER TABLE {table} [ADD|MODIFY {column datatype [DEFAULT expr] [column_constraint]} [DROP drop_clause] DROP TABLE {table} [cascade constraints] DESC {table}
  8. 8. INSERT INTO {table | view} [ (column [, column] ...) ] VALUES (expr,expr ...) UPDATE {table | view } SET { (column [, column] = { expr | } [WHERE condition] DELETE [FROM] {table | view} [WHERE condition]
  9. 9. Data Retrieval: SELECT [DISTINCT | ALL] {table|view} FROM {table | view} [WHERE condition ] [GROUP BY expr [, expr]] [ORDER BY {expr} [ASC | DESC]] select * from dept; select deptname from dept where deptid='10'; select lname,fname from emp order by lname desc; select max(salary) from emp group by positionid; select deptname from dept,emp where dept.deptid=emp.deptid and emp.empid='111';
  10. 10. Transaction Control: COMMIT ROLLBACK [ to {savepoint}] SAVEPOINT {name} commit; savepoint point1; rollback to point1;
  11. 11. Data Control Language: GRANT [privileges] ON object TO user|public [WITH GRANT OPTION] REVOKE [privileges] ON object TO user|public [CASCADE CONSTRAINTS] grant select,update on emp to XYZ ; revoke update on emp to XYZ;
  12. 12. SelectionProjection Table 1 Table 2 Table 1Table 1 Join
  13. 13.  SELECT identifies the columns to be displayed.  FROM identifies the table containing those columns. SELECT *|{[DISTINCT] column|expression [alias],...} FROM table;
  14. 14. SELECT * FROM departments;
  15. 15. SELECT department_id, location_id FROM departments;
  16. 16.  SQL statements are not case-sensitive.  SQL statements can be entered on one or more lines.  Keywords cannot be abbreviated or split across lines.  Clauses are usually placed on separate lines.  Indents are used to enhance readability.  In SQL Developer, SQL statements can optionally be terminated by a semicolon (;). Semicolons are required when you execute multiple SQL statements.  In SQL*Plus, you are required to end each SQL statement with a semicolon (;).

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