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Morfologia del ingles por carlos orozco tello

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Morphology is a branch of Linguistic

Morphology is a branch of Linguistic

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  • 1. MORFOLOGIA DEL INGLES POR CARLOS OROZCO TELLO UNIVERSIDAD CENTRAL DEL ECUADOR FACULTAD DE FILOSOFÍA, LETRAS Y CIENCIAS DE LA EDUCACIÓN QUINTO SEMESTRE DE INGLES QUITO-ECUADOR
  • 2. MORPHOLOGY It is the identification, analysis, and description of the structure of a given language's morphemes and other linguistic units, such as root words, affixes, parts of speech, intonations and stresses, or implied context. In contrast, morphological typology is the classification of languages according to their use of morphemes, while lexicology is the study of those words forming a language's wordstock. While words, along with clitics are generally accepted as being the smallest units of syntax, it is clear that in most languages, if not all, words can be related to other words by rules that collectively describe the grammar for that language. For example, English speakers recognize that the words dog and dogs are closely related, differentiated only by the plurality morpheme "-s", only found bound to nouns. Speakers of English, a fusional language, recognize these relations from their tacit knowledge of English's rules of word formation. They infer intuitively that dog is to dogs as cat is to cats; and, in similar fashion, dog is to dog catcher as dish is to dishwasher.
  • 3. Lexemes and word forms The distinction between these two senses of "word" is arguably the most important one in morphology. The first sense of "word", the one in which dog and dogs are "the same word", is called a lexeme. Inflection vs. word formation Given the notion of a lexeme, it is possible to distinguish two kinds of morphological rules. Some morphological rules relate to different forms of the same lexeme; while other rules relate to different lexemes. Rules of the first kind are inflectional rules, while those of the second kind are rules of word formation. The generation of the English plural dogs from dog is an inflectional rule, while compound phrases and words like dog catcher or dishwasher are examples of word formation. Informally, word formation rules form "new" words (more accurately, new lexemes), while inflection rules yield variant forms of the "same" word (lexeme). FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPTS
  • 4. TYPES OF WORD FORMATION There is a further distinction between 2 kinds of morphological word formation: derivation and compounding. Compounding is a process of word formation that involves combining complete word forms into a single compound form. Dog catcher, therefore, is a compound, as both dog and catcher are complete word forms in their own right but are subsequently treated as parts of one form. Derivation involves affixing bound (i.e. non-independent) forms to existing lexemes, whereby the addition of the affix derives a new lexeme. The word independent, for example, is derived from the word dependent by using the prefix in-, while dependent itself is derived from the verb depend.
  • 5. WHAT IS AN AFFIX Affix is a morpheme that is attached to a word stem to form a new word. Affixes may be derivational, like English -ness and pre-, or inflectional, like English plural -s and past tense -ed. They are bound morphemes by definition; prefixes and suffixes may be separable affixes. Affixation is, thus, the linguistic process speakers use to form different words by adding morphemes (affixes) at the beginning (prefixation), the middle (infixation) or the end (suffixation) of words EXAMPLES OF AFFIXES Prefix un-do Suffix Look-ing
  • 6. WHAT IS A SUFFIX A suffix is a group of letters placed at the end of a word to make a new word. A suffix can make a new word in one of two ways: INFLECTIONAL (grammatical): for example, changing singular to plural (dog > dogs), or changing present tense to past tense (walk > walked). In this case, the basic meaning of the word does not change. DERIVATIONAL (the new word has a new meaning, "derived" from the original word): for example, teach > teacher or care > careful
  • 7. INFLECTIONAL SUFFIXES suffix grammatical change example original word example suffixed word -s plural dog dogs -en plural (irregular) ox oxen -s 3rd person singular present like he likes -ed past tense past participle work he worked he has worked -en past participle (irregular) eat he has eaten -ing continuous/progressiv e sleep he is sleeping -er comparative big bigger -est superlative big the biggest
  • 8. DERIVATIONAL SUFFIXES suffix making example original word example suffixed word -ation nouns explore hesitate exploration hesitation -sion persuade divide persuasion division -er teach teacher -cian music musician -ess god goddess -ness sad sadness -al arrive arrival -ary diction dictionary