Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
0
Parasitogy: The introduction with details
Parasitogy: The introduction with details
Parasitogy: The introduction with details
Parasitogy: The introduction with details
Parasitogy: The introduction with details
Parasitogy: The introduction with details
Parasitogy: The introduction with details
Parasitogy: The introduction with details
Parasitogy: The introduction with details
Parasitogy: The introduction with details
Parasitogy: The introduction with details
Parasitogy: The introduction with details
Parasitogy: The introduction with details
Parasitogy: The introduction with details
Parasitogy: The introduction with details
Parasitogy: The introduction with details
Parasitogy: The introduction with details
Parasitogy: The introduction with details
Parasitogy: The introduction with details
Parasitogy: The introduction with details
Parasitogy: The introduction with details
Parasitogy: The introduction with details
Parasitogy: The introduction with details
Parasitogy: The introduction with details
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×
Saving this for later? Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime – even offline.
Text the download link to your phone
Standard text messaging rates apply

Parasitogy: The introduction with details

501

Published on

Introduction and details on few parasites

Introduction and details on few parasites

Published in: Technology, Health & Medicine
0 Comments
1 Like
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
501
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
12
Comments
0
Likes
1
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. By ORIBA DAN LANGOYAMBchB II
  • 2.  An organism that lives in a more or less closeassociation with another organism of adifferent species (the host), derivessustenance from it and is pathogenic to thehost, although this potential is not alwaysexpress ed. protozoa (unicellular organisms and metazoa,including helminths (parasitic ―worms,‖) Numerous diseases (parasitoses) in human,e.g. malaria
  • 3.  eukaryotic, single-celled microorganisms 1–150 lm in size. enclosed by a trilaminated cell membrane. They possess one, rarely two nuclei (andmultinuclear reproductive forms). Reproduction is asexual by binary or multiplefission of the cell, or sexual
  • 4.  Parasite of the small intestine of humans thatcan cause enteritis. Infection occurs by peroral ingestion ofGiardia cysts. Various species of mammaliananimals are reservoir hosts.
  • 5.  Giardia exists in two morphological forms: amotile vegetative stage, the trophozoites, anda cyst stage. The trophozoites live on the small intestinemucosa. Pear split lengthwise, are 9–21 lm long and5–12 lm wide and possess eight flagella, twonuclei one on each side. Reproduction is by means of longitudinalbinary fission of the trophozoites
  • 6.  G. intestinalis produces oval cysts (8 –18 ! 7–10 lm) with four nuclei, flagella, and Has claw-shaped median bodies. The cysts (and, less frequently, trophozoites)are excreted in stool
  • 7.  In the small intestine, G. intestinalis cancause inflammation as well as othermorphological changes and malabsorption. Gallbladder infections. Patients with symptomatic infectionsexperience chronic and recurrent diarrhea, steatorrhea, and signs of malabsorption aswell as upper abdominal pains, vomiting,occasionally fever, and weight loss.
  • 8.  The standard diagnostic method is stool. Examination using the SAFC technique to detectcysts ELISA kits are now also available to detectGiardia-specific structural and soluble antigensin stool samples. Nitroimidazole compounds are used forchemotherapy of infections, For instance Metronidazole, Ornidazole, andtinidazole as well as the Benzimidazolecompound Albendazole The recently introduced nitazoxanide(nitrothiazole compound).
  • 9.  Transmitted mainly by sexual intercourse. It causes vaginitis in women and urethritis inmen.
  • 10.  Pear-shaped protozoon about 10–20lm longand 2–14 lm wide. Trichomonads are anaerobic protozoa that possess hydrogenosomes, which arespecialized organelles producing Hydrogen asa metabolite. T. vaginalis colonizes the mucosa of theurogenital tract and reproduces bylongitudinal binary fission. Trichomonads donot encyst
  • 11.  Humans are the sole reservoir of T. vaginalis.The parasites are transmitted Mainly during sexual intercourse. About 2–17% of female neonates born of infectedmothers contract a perinatal infection.
  • 12.  T. vaginalis primarily colonizes the vaginalmucosa, more rarely that of the cervix. The infection results in production of apurulent, thin, yellowish discharge in whichTrichomonads, pus cells, and bacteria arefound. The parasites also enter the urethra in about75–90% of cases, where they can also causean inflammation, but only rarely infect theurinary bladder or uterus.
  • 13.  A fresh specimen of vaginal or urethral secretionis mixed with physiological saline solution andexamined under a microscope for trichomonads,recognized by their typical tumbling movements. Also identified in smear preparations followingGiemsa staining or in an immunofluorescencetest with Monoclonal antibodies. The most reliable diagnostic results are obtainedBy culturing specimens in special liquid media. Other special methods are based on detection ofantigen (ELISA ) or DNA (PCR)
  • 14.  It is always necessary for both sexualpartners to receive treatment. EffectiveNitroimidazole In women vaginal application—includemetronidazole, tinidazole and ornidazole. These substances are contraindicated in earlypregnancy.
  • 15.  Trypanosoma brucei gambiense andTrypanosoma brucei rhodesiense causeAfrican trypanosomosis (sleeping sickness) In humans, which presents interalia as feverand meningoencephalitis The trypanosomes are transmitted by thebites of tsetse flies (Glossina). Trypanosomatidae multiply by longitudinalbinary fission
  • 16.  Giemsa staining of a blood smearpreparation.
  • 17.  Important diagnostic tools include directdetection of the trypanosomes in the blood,lymph node aspirate and, in cerebral forms, inthe cerebrospinal fluid. Trypanosomes can be detected in native bloodpreparations, in Giemsa-stained Since low level parasitemias are often present,concentration methods may be required, e.g.,micro-hematocrit centrifugation, anion exchange chromatograph y, or the QBC techniques, Othermethods are cultivation and mouse inoculationtests
  • 18.  Sleeping sickness in initial stage one isafebrile glandular condition withlymphadenopathy and hemolymphatic stage Meningoencephalitic condition follows assecond stage of infection. In stage one trypanosomes multiply in tissuefluids and at inoculation sites. Second stage involves invasion of centralnervous system.
  • 19.  The activation of kallikrein, kinin, complement,and the coagulation system by circulatingimmune complexes. This resulting in increased vascular permeability,edema, hemostasis, tissue hypoxia, tissuedamage, disseminated intravasal coagulation The trypanosomes cause CD8+ T cells andmacrophages to produce IFN c and TNF. IFN c stimulates trypanosomes to multiply. TNF contributes to immunosuppression and mayinitiate tissue damage.
  • 20.  In stage one, T. gambiense infections aremainly treated with pentamidine, T. rhodesiense infections are treated withsuramin. This drugs are no effective in the secondstage prompting the use of arsenic cpdmelarsoprol, a relatively toxic substance. Eflornithine is used for treating the late stageof the T. gambiense infection.
  • 21.  Causative agent of leishmanosis. Leishmania parasitize in mononuclearphagocytic cells (macrophages, monocytes,Langerhans cells) in the amastigote form.

×