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Consumer Behaviour
MKT 410
Individual Assignment
Analysis of Ben & Jerry’s Consumers ...
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Table of content
Executive	
  Summary	
  ...............................................
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Executive Summary
This report focuses on segmentation and targeting critera to determ...
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Ben & Jerry’s Homemade, Inc. was founded in 1978 by Ben Cohen and Jerry Greenfield. I...
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more than ten consumers are ice cream buyers. Ice cream sticks and tubs/pots are the ...
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interesting niche market to tap. Actions were taken by The Unilever Group. More detai...
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b. Segmentation	
  by	
  Consumer-­‐Based	
  Variables	
  	
  
	
  
Market	
  Segment...
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The Baby Boomers segment (Schiffman, Kanuk, 2010) would match the likely target
custo...
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c. Ben	
  &	
  Jerry’s	
  Target	
  Segment	
  	
  
 Core target: 20 to 35 year-old ...
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The brand tries to reach consumers though emotional appeal too, by giving informatio...
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a framework of the key elements that are suggested to explain consumers’ behaviour. ...
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mass media, retailers, etc.). Information goes through five stages: exposure, attent...
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Evaluate	
  the	
  Decision	
  /	
  Outcome	
  	
  
The post-purchase evaluation of ...
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A strategy should be built up to win this new target group. In order to meet this go...
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Appendix A
SWOT Analysis
Strenghts Weaknesses
♣ Reputation of the brand and for qual...
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new Food Information Regulation (FIR). Each
product packaging will have to give
desc...
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natural consumption.
 Distant target: All ice-cream consumers in search of great ta...
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Appendix E
	
  
	
  
	
  
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Bibliography
Books
Blackwell, R.D., P.W. Miniard & J.F. Engel (2001),Consumer Behavi...
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Unilever Global (2013) Ben & Jerry’s (cited 13 July 2012) Available from:
http://www...
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Consumer Behaviour Report - Ben & Jerry's

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  1. 1. LIEGE Oriane Year 2013   1/21   Consumer Behaviour MKT 410 Individual Assignment Analysis of Ben & Jerry’s Consumers Decision-Making Process
  2. 2. LIEGE Oriane Year 2013   2/21   Table of content Executive  Summary  ........................................................................................................................  3   Introduction  ......................................................................................................................................  3   a.   Company  Background  ..........................................................................................................................  3   Methodology  .....................................................................................................................................  4   Findings  ..............................................................................................................................................  4   a.   Macro-­‐Environment:  PEST  Analysis  ..................................................................................................  4   Political  &  Legal  Factors  ........................................................................................................................................  5   Economic  Factors  ......................................................................................................................................................  5   Social  Factors  ..............................................................................................................................................................  5   Technological  Factors  .............................................................................................................................................  6   b.   Segmentation  by  Consumer-­‐Based  Variables  ...................................................................................  7   Market  Segmentation  Strategy  ...........................................................................................................................  7   Usage  Situation  Aspects  .........................................................................................................................................  8   c.   Ben  &  Jerry’s  Target  Segment  ..............................................................................................................  9   d.   Advertising  .............................................................................................................................................  9   e.   Consumer  Behaviour  Analysis:  Decision-­‐Making  Process  &  Influencing  Factors  ....................  10   Awareness  of  a  Need  ............................................................................................................................................  11   Research  of  Information  .....................................................................................................................................  11   The  Evaluation  of  Alternatives  ........................................................................................................................  12   Make  the  Purchase  ................................................................................................................................................  12   Evaluate  the  Decision  /  Outcome  ...................................................................................................................  13   Evaluation  of  Ben  &  Jerry’s’  Marketing  Mix  and  Recommendations  ..........................  13   Appendix  A  ......................................................................................................................................  15   Appendix  B  ......................................................................................................................................  15   Appendix  C  ......................................................................................................................................  16   Appendix  D  .....................................................................................................................................  17   Appendix  E  ......................................................................................................................................  18   Bibliography  ...................................................................................................................................  19  
  3. 3. LIEGE Oriane Year 2013   3/21   Executive Summary This report focuses on segmentation and targeting critera to determine a consumer decision process in relation to purchase a Ben & Jerry’s ice cream. Ben & Jerry’s own a large share of the ice cream market but their positioning is clearly identifiable. It was found that the likely core target customer is between the age of 20 to 38, a young professional or a student living in a cosmopolitan city. The customer has a fashionable style, an active lifestyle and is concerned with responsible consumption. The customers are likely to belong to the age cohort of Baby Boomers. Purchasing Ben & Jerry’s ice cream falls under the category of habitual decision- making and the company is using their four marketing Ps to influence consumers. The process consists in ”covering characteristics that influence consumers’ decisions and behaviour, such as demographics, lifestyles, personality, values, culture, and family” (Blackwell et al., 2001). Socio-cultural influences such as recent health and environmental issues might have a positive effect on consumers’ decision. In the future, B&J’s should be building up marketing and communication strategies in order to reach as many consumers as possible while preserving the values of hedonism that remain at the heart of the consumer. Indeed, in order to enlarge profits, they could focus on new segments such as non-users looking for a lighter version. They should also extend their distribution network and finally, keep putting effort in health- driven innovation to retain consumer interest. Introduction The aim of this report is to determine a market segmentation in order to profile customers for Ben & Jerry’s product. Taking in consideration the PEST analysis, we will suggest a market segment. Thereafter, we will put a consumers decision-making process forward and comment the current Ben & Jerry’s marketing mix, making recommendations. a. Company  Background    
  4. 4. LIEGE Oriane Year 2013   4/21   Ben & Jerry’s Homemade, Inc. was founded in 1978 by Ben Cohen and Jerry Greenfield. Its headquarter is located in South Burlington, Vermont, United States. They quickly became known for their flavours, made from fresh Vermont milk and cream (Unilever Global, 2013). In 2000, Unilever, the British-Dutch conglomerate and ice cream market leader with 30% value share in 2012 (Mintel Report July 2012 UK), purchased the company. Nevertheless, the brand did their best to keep their artisan spirit. In 1994, Ben & Jerry’s started distributing their products in the UK and fast begun a worldwide famous brand. The brand enjoys a high level of trust and differentiation, on the one hand through its classic and innovative range, its eccentric marketing operations and on the other hand, via its unusual social mission (Unilever Global, 2013). See also, SWOT analysis in Appendix B. Methodology In order to complete this report, secondary sources, literatures and databases have been collected, using Regent’s College Library. The report was conducted using theorical bases for segmentation and models such as the Consumer Decision Model framework, keeping in mind that models can have limitations and represent a cleaned up version of reality. Theoretical approaches to the study of consumer behaviour are subject to an ongoing dynamic environment and such models should be adapted in order to consider new technology for example. Thus, some reports were not up-to-date, such as the Mintel source used for geographic segmentation. Findings a. Macro-­‐Environment:  PEST  Analysis     Given the large size of the UK market, the existing opportunities in the food and beverage sector are very attractive to exporters worldwide. The UK ice cream market is a mature one:
  5. 5. LIEGE Oriane Year 2013   5/21   more than ten consumers are ice cream buyers. Ice cream sticks and tubs/pots are the favoured formats. The market has grown tremendously (+19% in value terms) since 2007. Ben & Jerry’s faces a fierce competition, with mainly Häagen-Dazs, Mars and Fab (Euromonitor International, 2013). Political  &  Legal  Factors   Some initiatives have been taken by the UK government about nutritional labelling, in order to raise awareness on the nutritional value of products eaten by consumers. The aim is to sway consumers towards healthier food choices. For more details, see Appendix B. Economic  Factors     The British economy has fallen into a double-dip recession, which impacts consumer expenditures in the short term. Consumers are more and more price-sensitive and looking for discounts when buying goods (MINTEL, 2012). Since 2007, the UK ice cream market has grown in value terms. Impulse products experience growth, as consumers are willing to pay more for the occasional treat. Much of these results were fuelled by inflation, with volume sales experiencing a decline over this period. And volume sales are expected to decline, over the 2012-17 period (GMI/MINTEL, 2012, DATAMONITOR 2013). For numbers, see Appendix B. As a consequence, high or rising prices could be damaging for a brand and lead consumers to switch to cheaper brands or snacks. Social  Factors     • Health  Consciousness   The media, government campaigns and societal pressures have affected the consumption behaviour of the British. One in four consumers is worried about health when eating ice cream and one in fifth, particularly the 16-24s segment and people with young children, says that they like the taste of light version products (GMI/MINTEL, 2012). Appealing to health- conscious consumers could be an opportunity for companies though, because there is an
  6. 6. LIEGE Oriane Year 2013   6/21   interesting niche market to tap. Actions were taken by The Unilever Group. More details in Appendix B. More and more locally produced goods are purchased (Euromonitor, 2011). B&J’s could still take advantage by offering natural and good quality products that are cheaper than locally produced food. • “Premiumization”   The ice cream market is moving towards premium products. Brands are extending their product ranges by creating new sophisticated flavours. (Dairy Industries International, 2010) In response, the consumption of B&J’s premium ice cream is expected to grow. • The  Importance  of  Fair  Trade   British consumers are much more receptive to the concept of fair trade than organic foods, they have demonstrated a strong desire for sustainable living. As a result, consumers are more likely to buy products that benefit the environment. The competition among manufacturers and retailers to be involved in environmental issues and improve their products in this way will be stronger and stronger, especially in mature markets like the ice cream one. B&J’s is the first ice cream company in the world to use fair trade certified ingredients. Their environmentally friendly products and ethical commitment are strategically relevant at this time though. Awareness of the importance of environmental and ethical products consumption will encourage sales of premium goods when recession will end. Technological  Factors     An opportunity to take regarding this market is innovation. As a general trend, manufacturers have been increasingly experimenting ice cream flavours and consumers have had an enhanced choice in terms of packaging, flavours and textures (Mintel, 2012, Dairy Industries International, 2010)).
  7. 7. LIEGE Oriane Year 2013   7/21   b. Segmentation  by  Consumer-­‐Based  Variables       Market  Segmentation  Strategy     Segmentation is used to create a group of likely target customer segments for a service or a product. The first step in developing a segmentation strategy is to select the most appropriate base(s) on which to segment the market. Nine major categories of consumer characteristics provide the most popular bases for market segmentation: geographical; demographical; psychological; lifestyle characteristics; sociocultural variables; use-related characteristics; use situation factors; benefits sought and hybrid segmentation approaches (Schiffman, Kanuk, 2007). B&J’s tries to target everyone who likes ice creams. But regarding the product they are selling and the brand positioning, which falls into the premium ice cream market, there are some specific segments that are more relevant than others to use. The brand has a fairly complex brand message; they want to combine the ideas of quality products, fun and friendliness, with social and environmental engagement. Geographic  Segment     B&J’s is bought by consumers located everywhere in the country, but cosmopolitan cities such as London, are likely to be where the majority of B&J’s consumers are located. Indeed, ice cream consumers are more concentrated in agglomerations. Furthermore, touristic seaside resorts such as Brighton are likely locations for ice cream consumption (Mintel, 2002). Demographic  Segment     The likely consumers of B&J’s are young people aged from 20 to 35. Indeed, the market growth is driven by young consumers, with adults aged 55-64 being less likely than average to have eaten ice cream, sorbet and frozen yogurt and begging more likely to agree that they are limiting the amount they eat because of health reasons (Mintel, Ice Cream, Issues in the Market). Further research (Mintel, 2012) shows that The projected rises in the number of 25- 34s, families and those in the AB socio-economic group bode well for the future of the market, these groups being more likely than the average to have bought ice cream.
  8. 8. LIEGE Oriane Year 2013   8/21   The Baby Boomers segment (Schiffman, Kanuk, 2010) would match the likely target customer. The segment name is “confident and living well”, with the following characteristics: high income, first consumers to buy a new product, stylish and trendy and looking for luxury and premium goods and services. People belonging to this segment will definitely be consumers of premium ice cream with appealing, funny and trendy packaging. Psychographic Segment The customers targeted by B&J’s pursue active lifestyles and follow the trends. Typical consumers also are mainly concerned with sustainable issues and responsible consumption. Other characteristics are organic food or health-consciousness and active social life. They are open to marketers who will entertain them and meet their personal definition of trendiness. In order to target these customers, B&J’s have launched frozen yogurt versions and re- introduced single portion pots (Euromonitor, 2013). 64% of consumers are adventurous when it comes to trying a new range of products (Mintel, 2012). Thus it is an interesting segment. Socio-­‐Cultural  Segment     This segment is not relevant because it depends more on money issues than social class, even though premium ice cream companies such as B&J’s have the reputation to be the sweetmeat of high social class. Usage  Situation  Aspects   Situational factors such as the time of year might influence the purchase of ice cream. People are more likely to consume ice cream during summer days (Euromonitor, 2011). Furthermore, consumption of ice cream is seen as occasional rather than a frequent habit. Besides, there are two likely purchase situations for the product, either inside or outside the house. Purchase of ice cream often happens at a festival, in a shopping centre or at the cinema, when people socialise, during leisure times and when they want to treat themselves. Another common buying situation is when people are buying it for home, for instance to enjoy a dessert in front of the TV. In both cases, most of the customers are looking for an « original » product combining tasteful pleasure and innovation.
  9. 9. LIEGE Oriane Year 2013   9/21   c. Ben  &  Jerry’s  Target  Segment      Core target: 20 to 35 year-old consumers; living in a cosmopolitan city; AB social class; original and fashionable style; like organic food; concerned with responsible consumption; searching an « original » product combining tasteful pleasure and innovation to an offbeat brand image. For Secondary and Distant Targets, see Appendix C. d. Advertising     B&J’s brand is using more PR or cinema ad than advertising TV campaign to engage customers. That engagement means interacting via the 200 scoop shops in the UK where they communicate the brand messages and social mission programmes. The Ben & Jerry’s is also active in social network such as Facebook where around 58 fan club groups can discuss their favourite flavours. But B&J's had undertaken its first UK TV campaign in 2010, marking a change in strategy from the Unilever-owned ice-cream brand. By analysing B&J’s ad, we illustrate how the brand is using marketing tools to reach the target segments of the brand and how the ad is fulfilling some needs. The advertisement can be seen at: http://www.thinkbox.tv/server/show/ConCaseStudy.1724 This commercial advert appears as cool and funny, natural and clever, quick and simple (stop motion animation). In order to analyse this advert, we used the FCB Grid Model and the Maslow Hierarchy of Needs (see Appendix D). From this model, one can see that the decision of buying a B&J’s ice cream is based on a feeling or emotional basis. Indeed, the decision is based on taste and look (sensory effects).
  10. 10. LIEGE Oriane Year 2013   10/21   The brand tries to reach consumers though emotional appeal too, by giving information about the product. We can also see that B&J’s is answering the physiological need that is, in this case, hunger. Thus, by buying a B&J’s ice cream, the consumers are doing something good for the planet and satisfying their physiological needs. Besides emotional appeal, B&J’s is using humour, featuring a story telling around the subject of fair-trade. Indeed, they use the word “fair” in the literal sense. Using humour for a serious issue is relevant to target B&J’s fair-trade segment, and appropriate because an ice cream is considered as a low involvement product. As we have seen above, the motivation to buy B&J’s is also due to a social need: in the ad, the video tackles a serious issue in a funny way and shows the product benefits. It shows that people consuming B&J’s are responsible. This is a social need. But there is more to this. Indeed, the quality and the price of the product ares suggested by the long history and tradition of the brand which answers ego needs (prestige, status, self-esteem). With this advert, B&J’s has identified a bespoke audience that goes beyond demographics and geographics, targeting those who may be concerned with the environment and fair trade, and reaching its objectives by improving the perception of B&J’s environmental credentials. e. Consumer  Behaviour  Analysis:  Decision-­‐Making  Process  &  Influencing  Factors     You didn’t suddenly wake up and find yourself in front of a TV with a B&J’s pot in your hands. You went through several steps between the time you felt the need for an ice cream and when you actually bought one and savoured it at home. Indeed, the purchase of an ice cream applies to the concept of habitual decision-making. Different approaches were implemented in the study of decision-making. The cognitive approach including the cognitive model “Consumer Decision Model”, developed by Engel, Kollat and Blackwell in 1968, is one of the most widely cited analytical models and provides
  11. 11. LIEGE Oriane Year 2013   11/21   a framework of the key elements that are suggested to explain consumers’ behaviour. The latest publication of the model is illustrated in Appendix D. The model is designed around seven points: need recognition; search of information (both internally and externally); evaluation of alternatives; make the purchase; post purchase reflection and divestment. These decisions are influenced by two factors, which are produced and received stimuli by the consumer in conjunction with memories of past experiences and external factors in the form of environmental influences and individual differences. Culture, social class, personal influence, family and situation are part of environmental influences, while consumer resource, motivation and involvement, knowledge, attitudes, personality, values and lifestyle are part of individual influences (Blackwell, Miniard et al. 2001). Awareness  of  a  Need   Entry to the model is through need recognition when the consumer acknowledges a discrepancy between their current state and some desirable alternative. (Bray, 2008) The need recognised by a consumer in the case of B&J’s is the need of sweet food. Consumers with a sweet tooth, organic food lovers, price-conscious and concerned with responsible consumption are all likely to face this need situation. The factors that may stimulate the recognition of a need for an ice cream are either advertisement (external stimuli) or strong desire (physiological need). Most of the needs for ice cream are impulsive needs, triggered by a sudden desire. This type of decision differs in the amount of involvement the consumer has in the process (David R. Stokes, Wendy Lomax, Marketing: a brief introduction). In the case of ice cream, the amount of involvement is mostly low. Ice cream could be described as effortless food that people eat when they want to satisfy a physiological need (Schiffman, Kanuk, 2010). This means that there will not be much information to evaluate and that it will quickly lead the consumer to the decisional step. Research  of  Information     Once the consumer has acknowledged the need, they look for some information, both internally (own memories and previous experiences) and externally (interpersonal channels,
  12. 12. LIEGE Oriane Year 2013   12/21   mass media, retailers, etc.). Information goes through five stages: exposure, attention, comprehension, acceptance and retention (Blackwell, Miniard et al. 2001). Consumers are aware of the B&J’s brand thanks to advertising and especially direct marketing such as promotional operations by the brand during public events and festivals (exposure). The consumer will probably look for brand recognition, price and contain (ingredients in the product). B&J’s have a famous mascot and customers will probably recognise the brand directly by seeing the packaging (attention). People who are more likely to love the brand and buy it (acceptance) would be consumers paying attention to the design of the packaging or for instance eco-friendly consumers, who support brands with ethical involvement. On the contrary, people with low resources will probably go for another brand, even if the quality is lower (retention). The  Evaluation  of  Alternatives   At this point, most of the time, price is the most important factor as for ice cream consumers, brand loyalty is less important than saving money (Mintel, 2012). Nevertheless and regarding the core target, the social-cultural environment is determinant. As explained above, a discussed issue regarding ice cream is health. As most of the core target is health-conscious, low level of sugar, fair-trade and good quality products have resulted in benefits to the B&J’s brand image. These factors will surely determine the consumer’s choose of alternatives. Make  the  Purchase     Ice cream products are mostly sold in grocery stores. Once in the store, consumers have the possibility to compare products. There might be offers on any other ice cream that might affect the final decision. Thus, many consumer decisions are made on impulse (Wilkie, 1994). As a consequence, marketers put in a lot of efforts to influence decisions made at this stage. B&J’s are using few promotional displays in store and this might be improved. Nevertheless, the packaging is really showy and attractive, which is good for brand image and impulse buying.
  13. 13. LIEGE Oriane Year 2013   13/21   Evaluate  the  Decision  /  Outcome     The post-purchase evaluation of a B&J’s ice cream is certainly low as the level of involvement is low. The main factors that consumers will look at are the taste and if the product is worth the high price. Evaluation of Ben & Jerry’s’ Marketing Mix and Recommendations B&J’s are positioned on the premium and naturalness ice cream market. They stand up from competitors thanks to a fun and light-hearted approach in naming and packaging. The brand uses a niche marketing strategy by focusing its marketing mix on product quality leadership. Moreover, the brand is converting all of its products to be fair trade certified by the end of 2013 (Unilever Global, 2013). According to the company’s home page, Product Mission statement of Ben & Jerry’s has committed itself to make, distribute, and sell the finest quality products “with a continued commitment to incorporating wholesome, natural ingredients.” (Unilever Global, 2013). The strategy of positioning, the choice of a niche marketing mix and the acquisition of the brand by Unilever have propelled B&J’s on the ice cream market. However, competition is fierce and there seems to be a real « ice cream war » between the different market players (Euromonitor 2012). As we noticed, British consumers are more concerned about environmental issues, which is why B&J's should be able to give direction and enthusiasm to its commitments affecting as many consumers as possible while preserving the values of hedonism that remain at the heart of the consumer. First of all, B&J’s should enlarge their market by focusing on non-users looking for light version. According to Mintel Report (GMI/Mintel, 2012), 55-64 year-olds and retired are a potential target because they are the most likely to pay for high-quality ingredients when buying ice cream. Besides, this segment is the most health-conscious.
  14. 14. LIEGE Oriane Year 2013   14/21   A strategy should be built up to win this new target group. In order to meet this goal, they can create a new less and zero-sugar B&J’s ice cream which currently does not exist, and market it through advertising campaigns. This segment could be really interesting because consumers will buy ice cream as a treat for themselves, but they could also buy it for their children or grandchildren too. Besides, B&J’s should extend their distribution network too, because people living in North England and Scotland and people from villages and rural locations are the most likely to look for high quality ingredients when buying ice cream (GMI/Mintel, 2012). Indeed, B&J’s aren’t that present within these regions. Finally, B&J’s should maintain their target interest by always putting effort in R&D and creating limited editions. For instance, they can create ice creams with unusual ingredients such as really good varieties of cacao. Indeed, the key role it plays in maintaining consumer interest, as two thirds of users report liking to try new flavours when talking about food and beverage market (MINTEL, 2012). For a brand like Ben & Jerry’s, health-driven innovation will surely be the road to follow for future profitability.
  15. 15. LIEGE Oriane Year 2013   15/21   Appendix A SWOT Analysis Strenghts Weaknesses ♣ Reputation of the brand and for quality ♣ the UK's market leading super premium ice cream. ♣ Widely recognized for its social responsibility actions and its social marketing ♣ Funny brand image that combines great taste, originality and humor ♣ Great limited edition varieties and the expansion of core ranges. ♣ Product relatively expensive when usually ice cream is seen as an affordable treat (4,49£ for 100ml in grocery stores). ♣ Target market is limited due to their product being niche ♣ Profits decline in recent years ♣ Social responsibility actions may add costs and reduce focus on core business. Opportunities Threats ♣ UK consumers increasingly trade up to premium variants and seek higher-quality ingredients. Plus, the majority are adventurous on new flavours. ♣ Increasing UK demand for low-fat desserts and frozen yogurt. ♣ Success of many global firms in extending successful brand in one product range to others. ♣ Stagnation as resulted from the maturation of the sector ♣ Forecast : the ice cream, sorbet and frozen yogurt market is expected to decline in volume sales. ♣ Many competitors, in particular Nestlé,  constant innovation ♣ Health concerns and growing competition from cheaper private-label product Appendix B Macro-Environment: The Pest Analysis Pest Analysis Macro-Environment for Ben & Jerry’s Political & Legal Factors The European Commission (EC) suggested a
  16. 16. LIEGE Oriane Year 2013   16/21   new Food Information Regulation (FIR). Each product packaging will have to give descriptive information on energy, fat, sugar, fat content and other information such as country of origin. The Food Labelling Regulations (1996) says that ice cream sold in the UK market must contain at least 5% fat and 2,5% milk protein. As a result, brand creating light version might be forced to use terms such as “iced desserts” instead of ice cream. (Watson, 2010) Economic Factors The UK market has grown by more than 19% since 2007.Over this period, much of these results were fuelled by inflation, with volume sales experiencing a 7,2% decline. The market is expected to decline by 6.7% in volume sales over the 2012-17 period. (GMI/MINTEL, 2012, DATAMONITOR 2011). Social Factors Health Consciousness is really important. The Unilever Group seems to be aware of this as they have been focusing on social and environmental issues for over centuries now, promoting sustainable development, utilization of renewable resources and creating brands that are good for consumers. Appendix C Ben & Jerry’s Secondary and Distant Target Segment  Secondary target: 36 to 50 year-old consumers; living in cosmopolitan city; ABC1 social class; urban style; looking for a superior quality product; concerned with responsible and
  17. 17. LIEGE Oriane Year 2013   17/21   natural consumption.  Distant target: All ice-cream consumers in search of great taste and superior quality. Appendix D - Maslow’s hierarchy of needs There are five levels of needs in Maslow’s theory: physiological needs, safety needs, social needs, ego needs and self-actualization (Schiffman and Kanuk, 2007). - FCB Grib Model This model, suggested by Dave Berger and Richard Vaughn, combines high and low involvement, and left and right brain specialization (feeling and thinking) (Ratchford, 1987).
  18. 18. LIEGE Oriane Year 2013   18/21   Appendix E      
  19. 19. LIEGE Oriane Year 2013   19/21   Bibliography Books Blackwell, R.D., P.W. Miniard & J.F. Engel (2001),Consumer Behavior, ninth edition, Harcourt. Schiffman, L.G., Kanuk, L.L (2007), Consumer Behaviour, Saddle River: Pearson Education Journal articles Cone, E. (2005) ‘Flavor of the Month. Ben & Jerry’s beats the heat with Web feedback.’, Cio Insight, July, p. 20 Dairy Industries International (2010) ‘A natural treat’, Dairy Industries International, October, 21-22 Ratchfort, Brian T. (1987) “New insights about the FCB grid”, Journal of Advertising Research, Vol 27(4), 24-38. Watson, E. (2010) “ New ice cream definition would boost reformulation work”, FoodManufacture.co.uk [online] (cited 21 May 2010) Available from : http://www.foodmanufacture.co.uk/Regulation/New-ice-cream-definition-would-boost- reformulation-work Wills, A. (2008) “Behind Ben & Jerry’s cool brand values we find fresh environmental initiatives that work”, Travel Trade Gazette UK & Ireland, 12 September, p.22 Wilkie, W.L (1994) Consumer hebavior, 4e edition, New York: John Wiley & Sons. Websites
  20. 20. LIEGE Oriane Year 2013   20/21   Unilever Global (2013) Ben & Jerry’s (cited 13 July 2012) Available from: http://www.unilever.com/brands-in-action/detail/ben-and-jerrys/291995/ Databases “Ice Cream in the United Kingdom” 2013, Ice Cream Industry Profile: United Kingdom, pp. 1-34, Business Source Complete, EBSCOhost, viewed 7 April 2013. Mintel, Ice Cream – UK, July 2012 Date viewed: 9th March 2013 Mintel, Ice Cream Impulse – UK, February 2002 Date viewed: 9th March 2013 Euromonitor International, Ice Cream In the United Kingdom – January 2013 Date viewed 9th March 2013
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