Class 2 vowel harmony-sentence structure


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Class 2 vowel harmony-sentence structure

  1. 1. TURKISH LANGUAGE HOMETURKISH LANGUAGE COURSE Class 2 •Vowel Harmony•Sentence Structure
  2. 2. VOCABULARYEV HOUSEBir ev a houseKİTAP BOOKBir kitap a bookADAM MANBir adam a manSEPET BASKETBir sepet a basketÖĞRENCİ STUDENTBir öğrenci a student
  3. 3. VOCABULARYDEFTER NOTEBOOKBir defter a notebookBİR A , ANBir çocuk A childBU THISBu okul This schoolŞU THATŞu adam That manO THATO masa That table
  4. 4. VOCABULARYGÖZ EYEBir göz an eyeSÖZLÜK DICTIONARYBir sözlük a dictionaryGÜL ROSEBir gül a rose-- DIR (-dır, -dir, -dur, -dür) ISO bir okuldur That is a schoolKALEM PENCILBir kalem a pencil
  5. 5. VOWEL HARMONYTurkish is a suffix based language. The root doesnot change but takes suffixes.The suffixes indicate things like ;•Verb Tenses•Personal Pronouns•Plurals•Negatives
  6. 6. VOWEL HARMONYIn this lesson we will look at the ‘ be-suffix ‘. The English verb ‘ to be ‘canbe translated by the Turkish ‘ olmak ‘.
  7. 7. VOWEL HARMONYIn the third-person singular, the be-suffixmay be –d(t)ir, --d(t)ır, --d(t)ur, --d(t)ür.Which of these is used follows certainrules “ The Vowel Harmony”.
  8. 8. VOWEL HARMONYVowel harmony is one of the most imporantfeatures of Turkish, unlike anything inEnglish. It is the character of the eightvowels which establishes the rules, theseeight vowels being divided into two basicgroups:•The back vowels : a , ı , o , u•The front vowels : e , i , ö , ü
  9. 9. VOWEL HARMONYWhen adding suffixes to roots thevowels used in the suffixes aredetermined by the last vowel of theroot.If the last vowel of the root is a frontvowel, then all suffix vowels will also befront vowels , and vice versa.
  10. 10. VOWEL HARMONYExample :Masa Masa - dırlast vowel is ‘ a ‘ which is a back vowel. Sothe vowel of the suffix also be a back vowel ‘dır ‘. Root Suffix After e or i --dir is used. After a or ı --dır is used. After ö or ü --dür is used. After o or u --dur is used.
  11. 11. VOWEL HARMONYIn the examples below, because the rootwords have front vowels ( as the lastvowels ), sufixes also have front vowels. Ev e i = dir Bu bir evdir. Öğrenci i i = dir O biröğrencidir. Göz ö ü = dür Bu bir gözdür. Gül ü ü = dür Şu bir güldür.
  12. 12. VOWEL HARMONYIn the examples below, because the rootwords have back vowels ( as the last vowels), sufixes also use back vowels. Masa a ı = dır Bu bir masadır. Kapı ı ı = dır O bir kapıdır. Salon o u = dur Şu bir salondur. Okul u u = dur Bu bir okuldur.
  13. 13. SENTENCE STRUCTUREHaving looked at Vowel Harmony, Let’s seebasic sentence structure. Bu bir evdir. This is a house. Bu This bir a ev house -dir isAs shown above English and Turkish havedifferent sentence structures.
  14. 14. VOWEL HARMONY Using ‘ t ‘ instead of ‘ d ‘ in suffixes.f – h – k – p – s – şWhen the root ends in ‘ ç –or t ‘ and the first suffixes begins with ‘ d ‘ , this ‘d’is changed into ‘t’. For example the root word ‘kitap’ ends with ‘p’ so the –dır suffix becomes –tır. Kitap Bu bir kitap-tır. Çocuk O bir çocuk-tur. Sepet O bir sepet-tir. Sözlük Şu bir sözlük-tür.
  15. 15. SENTENCE STRUCTURELet’s study the similarities and thedifferences in sentence patterns betweenTurkish and English Languages.
  16. 16. SENTENCE STRUCTURE1.In both languages the subject comes at the beginning of the sentence. Bir ( a , one ) may come before the noun and after the subject. In English, however, ‘is’ comes before the object, whereas in Turkish the verb ( in this example –dir, the be suffix ) comes after. Bu bir …. This … a … This is a …. Bu bir ev… This is a house.
  17. 17. SENTENCE VOWEL HARMONY STRUCTURE -dir, -dur, -2. Turkish sentences take -dır, dür according to vowel harmony. Bu bir evdir This is a house. Bu bir öğrencidir. This is a student. Bu bir gözdür. This is an eye. Bu bir güldür. This a rose. Bu bir masadır. This is a table.
  18. 18. SENTENCE STRUCTUREBu bir salondur. This is a hall.Bu bir okuldur. This is aschool.Bu bir kitaptır. This is abook.Bu bir sepettir. This is abasket.Bu bir cocuktur. This is a
  19. 19. SENTENCE BU – ŞU - O STRUCTURE In Turkish to talk about nearby things, bu (this) is used, and for far away things şu or o (that) are used.Bu bir defterdir. This is anotebook.Şu ( O ) bir kedidir. That is a cat.O ( Şu ) bir kalemdir. That is apencil.Bu bir öğrencidir. This is astudent.Şu ( O ) bir sepettir. That is a basket.