The Sea Grant Challenge
Coastal Communities
& Climate Change
Mayor Jeremy Harris
New Orleans
October 19th, 2010
Sea Grant ...
The Sea Grant Challenge
Four decades of exceptional work largely
unrecognized and under-appreciated.
Sea Grant’s full pote...
The Sea Grant Challenge
How does Sea Grant realize its true
potential and play a more significant
role in meeting the seve...
The Sea Grant Challenge
Sea Grant is in a unique position to
play a critical role in our nation’s
confrontation with clima...
Facing Unprecedented Challenges
Coastal Cities
Coastal Population Growth
• US Population Projected to Reach 400 million by 2043
• 53% of Population Now Lives in Coastal ...
Along With That Growth - Environmental Decay
Water Pollution
Each year 450 cubic kilometers of wastewater
are discharged i...
Along With That Growth - Environmental Decay
Increased Pressure on Resources
Source: Peopleandplanet.net
Along With That Growth - Environmental Decay
Habitat Destruction
Source: Peopleandplanet.net
Environmental Decay
Air Pollution – GHG Emissions
Fossil Fuels Used for Primary Energy Production
Environmental Decay
Air Pollution – GHG Emissions
Fossil Fuel Based Transportation
The Greatest Threat
Global Warming
Sea Level Rise
Extreme Climate Events
Intensified Coastal Storms
The Greatest Threat – Global Warming
Sea Level Rise–Displaced Populations
The Greatest Threat – Global Warming
Sea Level Rise-Inundated Infrastructure
Water Resource Impacts
Climate Change – Drought
Water Resource Impacts
Water Stress – Salt Water Intrusion
Source: United Nations
The Greatest Threat – Global Warming
Climate Change – Flooding
The Greatest Threat – Global Warming
Catastrophic Coastal Storms
The Greatest Threat – Global Warming
Urban Economic Catastrophe
20
Potential Sea Level Rise on Oahu
21
Potential Sea Level Rise on Oahu
22
Potential Sea Level Rise on Oahu
23
Potential Sea Level Rise on Oahu
Ewa Beach, HIEwa Beach, HI
Sea level: Google Earth
Ewa Beach, HIEwa Beach, HI
Sea level: Google Earth / US
26
Potential Sea Level Rise on Oahu
27
Isolate Rural Communities
28
Loss of Critical Habitat
29
Potential Sea Level Rise on Oahu
30
Potential Sea Level Rise on Oahu
31
Potential Sea Level Rise on Oahu
32
Potential Sea Level Rise on Oahu
33
Potential Sea Level Rise on Oahu
34
Potential Sea Level Rise on Oahu
35
Potential Sea Level Rise on Oahu
36
Sand Island Sewage Treatment Plant
37
Pump Stations and SCADA Systems
Computerized Wastewater Operations Center
38
Potential Sea Level Rise on Oahu
39
Honolulu Airport Reef Runway
Hickam AFB, HIHickam AFB, HI
Sea level: Google Earth
Hickam AFB, HIHickam AFB, HI
Sea level: Google Earth / US
42
Potential Sea Level Rise on Oahu
43
Honolulu Harbor Commercial Fishing &
Cargo Facilities
44
Potential Sea Level Rise on Oahu
45
Downtown Honolulu, Hawaii
46
Potential Sea Level Rise on Oahu
47
Downtown Central Electrical Substation
48
Potential Sea Level Rise on Oahu
49
Critical East-West Arterials Inundated
50
Potential Sea Level Rise on Oahu
HonoluluHonolulu
Population
Honolulu 1,000,000
Recreational Fishing Facilities, and Commercial Centers
HonoluluHonolulu
Sea level: Google Earth / US
53
Potential Sea Level Rise on Oahu
54
55
56
57
Waikiki – World Famous Beaches
58
59
Waikiki – 32,000 Hotel Rooms Lost
60
61
Resident Population Displacement
62
63
Inundated Infrastructure
Utilities & Water, Drainage & Sewer Systems,
64
Devastating Financial ImpactsDevastating Financial Impacts
RPT RevenuesRPT Revenues
CIP Capital CostsCIP Capital Costs
...
.
The Fundamental Problem
Coastal Cities are not Designed or
Managed to be Sustainable or Resilient
Question-
What has Sea Grant done to meet
the climate change challenge and
what more can it do?
Sea Grant & Climate Change
A Record of Accomplishment
Alaska Sea Grant- Coastal Erosion/Bering Sea
New Jersey SG- Internat...
Answer-
Sea Grant has done a great deal
but it can play a far greater role.
Sea Grant’s Unique Attributes
*University Partnerships
*Diversity of Research Talent
*Trusted/Experienced Coastal
Extensio...
Growing National Consensus
Forextensive and immediate
extension services related to
mediation and adaptation to
climate ch...
Sea Grant Extension
Ideally positioned to take a
leadership role in this multi-
jurisdictional extension effort,
extending...
Sea Grant Climate Extension
The work Sea Grant is doing now
just scratches the surface of
national need. To effectively de...
The Challenge
Redesign Coastal Cities to be More
Sustainable and Resilient in the Face of
Climate Change
•
Utilize NOAA Sea Grant and other NOAA expertise to
facilitate coastal urban planning that integrates land
use, transportat...
Proposal
NOAA Climate Service should
contract with Sea Grant to provide
coastal climate extension services
and carry out t...
The Sea Grant Goal
Every Coastal Local Government to
Develop a Comprehensive Sustainability
Plan to include Climate Change...
What would this Sea Grant
Sustainable Coastal Community
Climate Change Initiative involve?
Sea Grant Coastal Community Sustainability Initiative
Public Education & Capacity Building
Sustainability must be grassroo...
The U.S. – Leader or Obstacle ?
U.S. Senator on TV telling the public that
global warming is a hoax.
Barrier to Action – I...
The disinformation campaign waged by special interests
about global warming is the major stumbling block to
sustainable en...
Sea Grant Coastal Community Sustainability Initiative
Leadership Education and Training
Sea Grant Coastal Community Sustainability Initiative
Creating the Plans
Mitigating & Adapting to Climate Change
What shou...
Land use planningLand use planning
TransportationTransportation
Energy policyEnergy policy
Econ. DevelopmentEcon. Developm...
Climate Change - Building Sustainability & Resiliency
Land Use - Mitigation
Build Cities for People Not Cars
Climate Change - Building Sustainability & Resiliency
Land Use - Mitigation
Utilize “Smart Growth” Design
86
Smart Growth Create Higher Density
Mixed Use Communities
87
Pedestrian Friendly
Smart Growth
88
Good Urban Design
Smart Growth
89
Livable Communities
Smart Growth
90
Mixed Residential,
Retail & Commercial
Smart Growth
91
Sense of Place
Smart Growth
Urban Growth Boundaries &
Coastal Zone Management Changes
Climate Change – Building Sustainability & Resiliency
Land Use - Mitigation
Preserve Habitat & Open Space
Protect Watershe...
Cities – the Sustainable Prescription
Land Use - Mitigation
Sustainable Building Design
New Green Codes
Adapting to Climate Change
Land Use – 1st
Step To Adaptation
Evaluate Potential Impacts
Adapting to Climate Change
Land Use – Adaptation Decisions
Retreat from Potential Inundation Zones or
Attempt to Harden Co...
Adapting to Climate Change
Land Use – Adaptation
Developing New Comprehensive Plans &
Zoning Maps
Adapting to Climate Change
Land Use – Adaptation
Relocate Population Centers
Develop New Public Facilities Plans
Phase & R...
Adapting to Climate Change
Land Use – Adaptation
Developing New Building Codes for Higher
Temperatures & Storm Intensity, ...
Adapting to Climate Change
Land Use – Adaptation Legal Issues
Property Rights - TDR
Climate Change – Building Sustainability & Resiliency
Transportation – Mitigation
Incentives to Shift to Public Transit
Hi...
Climate Change – Building Sustainability & Resiliency
Transportation - Mitigation
Multi-modal Alternatives
Bike Racks on B...
Climate Change – Building Sustainability & Resiliency
Transportation – Mitigation
“Smart” Transportation Systems
Computeri...
Climate Change – Building Sustainability & Resiliency
Transportation – Adaption
Relocate Coastal Arterials
Climate Change – Building Sustainability & Resiliency
Transportation – Adaption
Expand Transit to Replace Coastal Arterials
Climate Change – Building Sustainability & Resiliency
Transportation – Mitigation
Public Transit with Renewable Energy
Hyb...
Climate Change – Building Sustainability & Resiliency
Transportation – Adaption
Raise or Relocate Bridges
Climate Change – Building Sustainability & Resiliency
Transportation – Adaption
Retrofit or Relocate Harbors
Climate Change – Building Sustainability & Resiliency
Energy – Mitigation
Energy Efficiency
Retrofit Public Facilities
Climate Change – Building Sustainability & Resiliency
Energy – Mitigation
Energy Efficiency
Retrofit Utilities – LEDs & CF...
Climate Change – Building Sustainability & Resiliency
Energy – Mitigation
Distributed Energy Systems
SNG-Fuel Cogeneration
Climate Change – Building Sustainability & Resiliency
Energy – Mitigation
Distributed Energy Systems
STP Methane Cogenerat...
Climate Change – Building Sustainability & Resiliency
Energy – Mitigation
Distributed Energy Systems
Landfill Methane Coge...
Climate Change – Building Sustainability & Resiliency
Energy – Mitigation
Distributed Energy Systems
Ocean Cooling/ Distri...
Climate Change – Building Sustainability & Resiliency
Energy – Mitigation
Distributed Energy Systems
OTEC Spinoff Technolo...
Climate Change – Building Sustainability & Resiliency
Energy – Mitigation
Employ New Technologies
OTEC Spinoff Application...
Climate Change – Building Sustainability & Resiliency
Energy – Mitigation
Renewable Energy
Diversified Primary Energy Prod...
Climate Change – Building Sustainability & Resiliency
Energy – Mitigation
Renewable Energy
Diversified Primary Energy Prod...
Climate Change – Building Sustainability & Resiliency
Energy – Mitigation
Renewable Energy
Diversified Primary Energy Prod...
Climate Change – Building Sustainability & Resiliency
Energy – Mitigation
Renewable Energy
Diversified Primary Energy Prod...
Climate Change – Building Sustainability & Resiliency
Energy – Mitigation
Renewable Energy
Diversified Primary Energy Prod...
Climate Change – Building Sustainability & Resiliency
Energy – Mitigation
Renewable Energy
Lighting – Wind & Solar
Climate Change – Building Sustainability & Resiliency
Energy – Mitigation
Renewable Energy
Bio-Diesel Recycled Cooking Oil
Climate Change – Building Sustainability & Resiliency
Energy – Adaptation
Sea Level Rise
Relocate Energy Systems in Inunda...
Climate Change Impacts
Disrupted Water Systems
Drought
Salt Intrusion
•
Source: Peopleandplanet.net
Climate Change – Building Sustainability & Resiliency
Water – Mitigation & Adaptation
Mandate Conservation Measures
Rebate...
Climate Change – Building Sustainability & Resiliency
Water – Mitigation & Adaptation
Improve System Efficiency
GIS/SCADA ...
Climate Change – Building Sustainability & Resiliency
Water – Adaptation
Minimize Saltwater Intrusion
Deploy Gates/Barriers
Climate Change – Building Sustainability & Resiliency
Stormwater–Mitigation & Adaptation
Reduce Urban Runoff
Wastes Water,...
Climate Change – Building Sustainability & Resiliency
Stormwater–Mitigation & Adaptation
Reduce Urban Runoff
Expand Retent...
Climate Change – Building Sustainability & Resiliency
Stormwater–Mitigation & Adaptation
Reduce Urban Runoff
Improve Storm...
Climate Change – Building Sustainability & Resiliency
Stormwater– Adaptation
Redesign Stormwater Systems
Inundation Zones,...
Climate Change – Building Sustainability & Resiliency
Wastewater–Mitigation & Adaptation
Increase Recycling–Agriculture & ...
Climate Change – Building Sustainability & Resiliency
Wastewater–Mitigation & Adaptation
Increase Efficiency
Climate Change – Building Sustainability & Resiliency
Wastewater–Mitigation & Adaptation
Build Distributed Treatment Syste...
Climate Change – Building Sustainability & Resiliency
Resource Recovery–Mitigation
Recycling & Reuse
Metals
Glass……………… to...
Climate Change – Building Sustainability & Resiliency
Resource Recovery–Mitigation
Garbage to Energy – RDF, Plasma Arc
138
Climate Change Emergency Scenario
Resiliency to Climate Change
Acute Impacts - Are Cities Ready?
Anticipate & Reduce V...
139
Climate Change Emergency Scenario
Tropical Hurricane Resiliency Test
• Hurricane heading WNW from eastern Pacific
• 19...
140
Climate Change Emergency Scenario
Activate EOC
141
Climate Change Emergency Scenario
Enterprise Wide GIS
• Full access to visualize all data
142
Integrated Incident Response System
143
Climate Change Emergency Scenario
Pre-position Response Teams
Road Clearing/Emergency Equipment
144
Climate Change Emergency Scenario
Call Up Satellite Imagery
145
Climate Change Emergency Scenario
Call Up Satellite Weather Maps
• Full access to visualize all data
146
Climate Change Emergency Scenario
View Doppler Radar
• Full access to visualize all data
147
Climate Change Emergency Scenario
Review Critical Facilities
• Full access to visualize all data
148
Climate Change Emergency Scenario
Review Critical Facilities
Critical Water Tank
•
149
Climate Change Emergency Scenario
Review Flood Prone Areas
150
Climate Change Emergency Scenario
Review Maintenance of Affected Utilities
•
151
Climate Change Emergency Scenario
Projected Storm Surge Inundation
152
Climate Change Emergency Scenario
Projected Storm Surge Inundation
153
Climate Change Emergency Scenario
Review Flood Evacuation Plans
154Bus routes and stops mapped for assisted evacuation
Climate Change Emergency Scenario
Check Evacuation Routes
155
156
Climate Change Emergency Scenario
View Construction Plans of Evacuation
Receiver Sites
157
Climate Change Emergency Scenario
Identify & Open Shelters
158
Climate Change Emergency Scenario
Order Evacuation
• All media outlets
• Island-wide Civil Defense siren system
159
Climate Change Emergency Scenario
Access Live Video Camera
Network
160
Climate Change Emergency Scenario
Control Traffic Light
Synchronization
161
Climate Change Emergency Scenario
Locate People On Life Support
162
Climate Change Emergency Scenario
CAD Dispatch of Fire/Ambulances
163
Climate Change Emergency Scenario
Road Blocks and Hazardous Materials
164
Climate Change Emergency Scenario
GPS Monitoring Emergency Vehicles
165
Real-time GPS for Oahu Civil Defense
• FireFire
• AmbulanceAmbulance
• ParksParks
166
Real-time GPS for Oahu Civil Defense
• FireFire
• AmbulanceAmbulance
• ParksParks
167
Real-time GPS for Oahu Civil Defense
• FireFire
• AmbulanceAmbulance
• ParksParks
168
Climate Change Emergency Scenario
Utilities Potentially Affected
• Full access to visualize all data
169
Climate Change Emergency Scenario
Identify Vulnerable Transmission Lines
170
Climate Change Emergency Scenario
Utilize Mobile Data Terminals
171
Climate Change Emergency Scenario
The Aftermath
Activate Mobile Command & Control
172
Climate Change Emergency Scenario
The Aftermath
Activate Prepositioned Resources
173
Climate Change Emergency Scenario
The Aftermath
Begin Recovery–Return to New Normal
NOAA Sea Grant
Goals & Strategies - Comments
Sustainable Coastal Development
*Expanded focus on climate change and
sustain...
NOAA Sea Grant
Climate Change Initiative
Capacity Building
Broaden SG Expertise
NOAA Sea Grant
Climate Change Initiative
Tap New University Disciplines
NOAA Sea Grant
Climate Change Initiative
Strengthen NOAA Partner Ties
Implement MOUs,
Inner Agency Agreements
NOAA Sea Grant
Climate Change Initiative
Strengthen CES Partner Ties
NOAA Sea Grant
Climate Change Initiative
Get the Resources!
180
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Mitigating and Adapting to Climate Change
Sea Grant’sSea Grant’s
Opportunity &Opportunity &
ChallengeChallenge
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Climate Change

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Jeremy Harris, former mayor, Honolulu, Hawaii; National Sea Grant Advisory Board. Sea Grant Week 2010

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  • And its coastal cities that face the greatest challenge.*
  • Cities are facing a population explosion.
    Half the world’s population is now urban – adding 60 million a year.
    Like adding a new Canberra every 2.1 days. *
  • With that population explosion has come urban environmental decay….. With water pollution…..*
  • With that population explosion has come urban environmental decay….. With water pollution…..*
  • With that population explosion has come urban environmental decay….. With water pollution…..*
  • Many cities are choked with air pollution from industry and coal fired power plants..*….and
  • Emissions from fossil fuel powered automobiles.*
  • But the greatest existential threat cities face………*
  • Sea level rise has the potential to displace tens and perhaps hundreds of millions of people……*..
  • Inundate infrastructure…………..*
  • create drought………..*
  • And in many cases severe water stress.*
  • And worsen coastal flooding. *
  • And intensity of coastal storms………and *
  • Create economic catastrophe for local governments and their economies. *
  • Let me take a moment to make a virtual fly-thru of my city of Honolulu to look at just a few of the potential impacts of sea level rise. The City of Honolulu is the entire island of Oahu, some 680 sq. miles and a population of about a million.
  • If you watch closely, I’ll show you how our coast will change with 1 meter of sea level rise.
  • Until you look carefully at the areas that will be inundated. *
  • The populations *………..
  • Of coastal towns like this Ewa Beach community*……
  • Will be displaced.*
  • And some of the more remote rural neighborhoods…..*
  • Will have their one road access cutoff and become completely isolated. *
  • Will have their one road access cutoff and become completely isolated. *
  • Lets go back and look closely at how urban Honolulu will fair with 1 meter of sea level rise. As you can see, most of the island’s population is squeezed between the mountains and the ocean. In fact this entire coastal plain is an old coral reef that was formed during an earlier global warming.*
  • Lets zero in to this urban core……. *
  • AND SEE THE EFFECTS OF SEA LEVEL RISE.*
  • AS YOU CAN SEE, THE IMPACT HERE IS QUITE DRAMATIC. *
  • Lets look at satellite imagery of that area…… *
  • And the effects of 1 meter of rise. *
  • Along with……*
  • The City’s main, downtown, 70 million gallon/day, sewage treatment plant is inundated. *
  • critical pump stations and the island’s main computerized wastewater operations center. *
  • The Reef Runway….*
  • a critical portion of the international airport is flooded…… *
  • as well as the adjoining……*
  • Hickam Air Force base. *
  • As an island, almost everything comes in on ship…..*
  • With 1 meter of rise Honolulu’s cargo operations are also inundated. *
  • In fact, large portions of the downtown itself……*
  • will be lost with sea level rise…displacing residents, business centers, commerce, and waterfront shopping complexes. *
  • Energy systems will be affected as well…….*
  • Including the central downtown electrical substation. *
  • Critical transportation links will be cut…*
  • such as key east-west arterials . *
  • Let’s continue the virtual fly-thru of the urban core. The coastal inundation from sea level rise will also impact the city’s light industry, its retail centers and its civic facilities. *
  • As you can see…….*
  • the change in shoreline will be quite extreme. *
  • Probably the largest impact will come in the heart of our tourist center. *
  • This is the Waikiki Peninsula, the core of the State’s tourism industry and the destination of 5 to 6 million visitors each year. *
  • And as you can see, the projected sea level rise completely inundates the entire area. *
  • And as you can see, the projected sea level rise completely inundates the entire area. *
  • The bulk of the State’s hotel rooms will be lost. … *
  • Let me high-light some of the impacts…..*
  • The bulk of the State’s hotel rooms will be lost. … *
  • And the 30,000 local residents who live in Waikiki would be displaced. *
  • And of course, enormous amounts of infrastructure…..sewers, storm water systems, utilities, pump stations….would all be destroyed. *
  • Now all of this is going to have a devastating financial impact on local governments. As coastal areas are inundated the city’s most valuable real estate will become worthless and property tax revenues will plummet. At the same time cities will be facing enormous cost increases as they attempt to rebuild and relocate coastal infrastructure, schools, and other public facilities. This will probably mean dramatic cuts in city services….and many cities will probably go bankrupt.
  • The fundamental problem is that cities aren’t designed or managed to be sustainable or resilient!
  • So what is this new paradigm we need in order to navigate to a sustainable future???
  • Last year I asked Gordon Grau to compile a synopsis of the climate work that Sea Grant was already doing. It was both surprising and impressive. Here are just a few of initiatives….
  • So what is this new paradigm we need in order to navigate to a sustainable future???
  • So what is this new paradigm we need in order to navigate to a sustainable future???
  • So what is this new paradigm we need in order to navigate to a sustainable future???
  • So what is this new paradigm we need in order to navigate to a sustainable future???
  • So what is this new paradigm we need in order to navigate to a sustainable future???
  • Our challenge is to redesign cities to be more sustainable and resilient in the face of climate change.
  • In fact, we would be wise to model cities after natural ecosystems, where all components are interconnected into a stable system . In our urban ecosystems we need to integrate land use, transportation, energy systems, urban infrastructure, resource recovery and the economy with comprehensive planning and management.
  • In fact, we would be wise to model cities after natural ecosystems, where all components are interconnected into a stable system . In our urban ecosystems we need to integrate land use, transportation, energy systems, urban infrastructure, resource recovery and the economy with comprehensive planning and management.
  • Our challenge is to redesign cities to be more sustainable and resilient in the face of climate change.
  • So what is this new paradigm we need in order to navigate to a sustainable future???
  • Perhaps most importantly, to bring about these changes in local governance we need leadership………informed and committed local government leadership.
  • That sustainability plan must include mitigating and adapting to climate change and building resiliency.
  • First of all we need to realize that cities are actually complex interactive systems and they need to be managed as complex systems. We need to understand all the inter-relationships between all the functions in the city and take an enterprise-wide approach to planning and management.
  • We need new green building codes mandating energy efficient design……
  • Any climate change adaptation plan needs to begin by evaluating the potential impacts of climate change on land use.
  • Adapting to climate change gives us the opportunity to re-plan and re-design our cities in a sustainable way.
  • We are going to have to re-do our building codes to take into consideration more severe storms, higher temperatures, more rain, etc.
  • Adaptation brings with it a rats nest of legal problems. (Hotel vested rights issue, apartment owner example)
  • In many cases, to adapt to sea level rise, we may have to relocate coastal arterials.
  • And we need to get away from the inefficient and polluting large coal fired plant and instead focus on distributed energy systems. (Honolulu City Hall – waste syn-gas co-gen plant, cut energy needed from grid by 80%)
  • We need to diversify our primary energy production into a portfolio of renewable technologies.
  • In many communities, climate change is going to severely disrupt local water systems thru drought and saltwater intrusion into freshwater aquifers.
  • A major program is the GIS support for City emergency response operations. Even before 9/11, we have been providing GIS capabilities to the City’s EOC. Now we are integrating GIS data with other products that would be used in the event of hurricanes or other emergency situations.
    We should note that Police, Fire, and EMS all are all using GIS for a variety of public safety and health programs. Supporting these programs has been a priority of the City’s GIS.
  • One of the ways we inspect our sewer lines is by the use of special TV cameras.
    3 crews are out every day to inspect laterals upto the main line
    Big trunk lines inspected by large “dune buggy” camera
    These inspections have helped cut sewer spills by 86 %
  • The Traffic Control Center can monitor roads and freeways with 90 live cameras.
    Within 6 months the number will grow to 140 – throughout the urban core.
    Residents can watch these same cameras on TV or the Internet.
    Some cab drivers in town are doing this from their cars so they can pick the fastest route
  • The Traffic Control Center can monitor roads and freeways with 90 live cameras.
    Within 6 months the number will grow to 140 – throughout the urban core.
    Residents can watch these same cameras on TV or the Internet.
    Some cab drivers in town are doing this from their cars so they can pick the fastest route
  • Global Positioning Satellites are used to travel the locations of all ambulances
    The computer than recommends the closet unit to an emergency and calculates the travel time
    This is also tied into the GIS system and a map of the location is displayed and quickest route to the emergency
    Also displays information like access codes for gated communities and condominiums
    Scripted pre-arrival medical advice shows on a split screen to assist the dispatcher give critical medical to the caller
  • In fact, we would be wise to model cities after natural ecosystems, where all components are interconnected into a stable system . In our urban ecosystems we need to integrate land use, transportation, energy systems, urban infrastructure, resource recovery and the economy with comprehensive planning and management.
  • In fact, we would be wise to model cities after natural ecosystems, where all components are interconnected into a stable system . In our urban ecosystems we need to integrate land use, transportation, energy systems, urban infrastructure, resource recovery and the economy with comprehensive planning and management.
  • In fact, we would be wise to model cities after natural ecosystems, where all components are interconnected into a stable system . In our urban ecosystems we need to integrate land use, transportation, energy systems, urban infrastructure, resource recovery and the economy with comprehensive planning and management.
  • In fact, we would be wise to model cities after natural ecosystems, where all components are interconnected into a stable system . In our urban ecosystems we need to integrate land use, transportation, energy systems, urban infrastructure, resource recovery and the economy with comprehensive planning and management.
  • In fact, we would be wise to model cities after natural ecosystems, where all components are interconnected into a stable system . In our urban ecosystems we need to integrate land use, transportation, energy systems, urban infrastructure, resource recovery and the economy with comprehensive planning and management.
  • In fact, we would be wise to model cities after natural ecosystems, where all components are interconnected into a stable system . In our urban ecosystems we need to integrate land use, transportation, energy systems, urban infrastructure, resource recovery and the economy with comprehensive planning and management.
  • Climate Change

    1. 1. The Sea Grant Challenge Coastal Communities & Climate Change Mayor Jeremy Harris New Orleans October 19th, 2010 Sea Grant Week 2010
    2. 2. The Sea Grant Challenge Four decades of exceptional work largely unrecognized and under-appreciated. Sea Grant’s full potential has never been realized.
    3. 3. The Sea Grant Challenge How does Sea Grant realize its true potential and play a more significant role in meeting the severe challenges facing our nation?
    4. 4. The Sea Grant Challenge Sea Grant is in a unique position to play a critical role in our nation’s confrontation with climate change. This is where the puck is going to be!
    5. 5. Facing Unprecedented Challenges Coastal Cities
    6. 6. Coastal Population Growth • US Population Projected to Reach 400 million by 2043 • 53% of Population Now Lives in Coastal Counties • 27 Million to Move into Coast in the Next 15 YearsSource: Peopleandplanet.net
    7. 7. Along With That Growth - Environmental Decay Water Pollution Each year 450 cubic kilometers of wastewater are discharged into rivers, streams and lakes.Source: Peopleandplanet.net
    8. 8. Along With That Growth - Environmental Decay Increased Pressure on Resources Source: Peopleandplanet.net
    9. 9. Along With That Growth - Environmental Decay Habitat Destruction Source: Peopleandplanet.net
    10. 10. Environmental Decay Air Pollution – GHG Emissions Fossil Fuels Used for Primary Energy Production
    11. 11. Environmental Decay Air Pollution – GHG Emissions Fossil Fuel Based Transportation
    12. 12. The Greatest Threat Global Warming Sea Level Rise Extreme Climate Events Intensified Coastal Storms
    13. 13. The Greatest Threat – Global Warming Sea Level Rise–Displaced Populations
    14. 14. The Greatest Threat – Global Warming Sea Level Rise-Inundated Infrastructure
    15. 15. Water Resource Impacts Climate Change – Drought
    16. 16. Water Resource Impacts Water Stress – Salt Water Intrusion Source: United Nations
    17. 17. The Greatest Threat – Global Warming Climate Change – Flooding
    18. 18. The Greatest Threat – Global Warming Catastrophic Coastal Storms
    19. 19. The Greatest Threat – Global Warming Urban Economic Catastrophe
    20. 20. 20 Potential Sea Level Rise on Oahu
    21. 21. 21 Potential Sea Level Rise on Oahu
    22. 22. 22 Potential Sea Level Rise on Oahu
    23. 23. 23 Potential Sea Level Rise on Oahu
    24. 24. Ewa Beach, HIEwa Beach, HI Sea level: Google Earth
    25. 25. Ewa Beach, HIEwa Beach, HI Sea level: Google Earth / US
    26. 26. 26 Potential Sea Level Rise on Oahu
    27. 27. 27 Isolate Rural Communities
    28. 28. 28 Loss of Critical Habitat
    29. 29. 29 Potential Sea Level Rise on Oahu
    30. 30. 30 Potential Sea Level Rise on Oahu
    31. 31. 31 Potential Sea Level Rise on Oahu
    32. 32. 32 Potential Sea Level Rise on Oahu
    33. 33. 33 Potential Sea Level Rise on Oahu
    34. 34. 34 Potential Sea Level Rise on Oahu
    35. 35. 35 Potential Sea Level Rise on Oahu
    36. 36. 36 Sand Island Sewage Treatment Plant
    37. 37. 37 Pump Stations and SCADA Systems Computerized Wastewater Operations Center
    38. 38. 38 Potential Sea Level Rise on Oahu
    39. 39. 39 Honolulu Airport Reef Runway
    40. 40. Hickam AFB, HIHickam AFB, HI Sea level: Google Earth
    41. 41. Hickam AFB, HIHickam AFB, HI Sea level: Google Earth / US
    42. 42. 42 Potential Sea Level Rise on Oahu
    43. 43. 43 Honolulu Harbor Commercial Fishing & Cargo Facilities
    44. 44. 44 Potential Sea Level Rise on Oahu
    45. 45. 45 Downtown Honolulu, Hawaii
    46. 46. 46 Potential Sea Level Rise on Oahu
    47. 47. 47 Downtown Central Electrical Substation
    48. 48. 48 Potential Sea Level Rise on Oahu
    49. 49. 49 Critical East-West Arterials Inundated
    50. 50. 50 Potential Sea Level Rise on Oahu
    51. 51. HonoluluHonolulu Population Honolulu 1,000,000 Recreational Fishing Facilities, and Commercial Centers
    52. 52. HonoluluHonolulu Sea level: Google Earth / US
    53. 53. 53 Potential Sea Level Rise on Oahu
    54. 54. 54
    55. 55. 55
    56. 56. 56
    57. 57. 57 Waikiki – World Famous Beaches
    58. 58. 58
    59. 59. 59 Waikiki – 32,000 Hotel Rooms Lost
    60. 60. 60
    61. 61. 61 Resident Population Displacement
    62. 62. 62
    63. 63. 63 Inundated Infrastructure Utilities & Water, Drainage & Sewer Systems,
    64. 64. 64 Devastating Financial ImpactsDevastating Financial Impacts RPT RevenuesRPT Revenues CIP Capital CostsCIP Capital Costs Cuts in City ServicesCuts in City Services
    65. 65. . The Fundamental Problem Coastal Cities are not Designed or Managed to be Sustainable or Resilient
    66. 66. Question- What has Sea Grant done to meet the climate change challenge and what more can it do?
    67. 67. Sea Grant & Climate Change A Record of Accomplishment Alaska Sea Grant- Coastal Erosion/Bering Sea New Jersey SG- International Workshop Sea Level Rise Maine SG- Edited “Maine’s Climate Future” Washington SG- Climate Change Adaptation Workshop Oregon/Maine SG- Research & Engagement Coastal CC California SG- Global Warming “trophic equivalency”/forecasting Florida SG- Coastal Primer for Florida Legislature Delaware SG- Predicting Coastal Inundation Mid Atlantic Region Georgia SG- Software/Visualize & Analyze Shoreline Change Mississippi/Alabama SG-Climate/Resiliency Panel New York SG-East Coast Winter Storms Forecasting Website Maryland SG- Visualizing Sea Level Rise Rhode Island SG- Sea Level Rise Policy Puerto Rico SG- Governor’s Climate Commission Hawaii SG- Center of Excellence in Climate Adaptation & Policy
    68. 68. Answer- Sea Grant has done a great deal but it can play a far greater role.
    69. 69. Sea Grant’s Unique Attributes *University Partnerships *Diversity of Research Talent *Trusted/Experienced Coastal Extension Service
    70. 70. Growing National Consensus Forextensive and immediate extension services related to mediation and adaptation to climate change
    71. 71. Sea Grant Extension Ideally positioned to take a leadership role in this multi- jurisdictional extension effort, extending NOAA-wide information and expertise
    72. 72. Sea Grant Climate Extension The work Sea Grant is doing now just scratches the surface of national need. To effectively deal with the climate challenge Sea Grant Extension will need a substantial increase in resources and funding.
    73. 73. The Challenge Redesign Coastal Cities to be More Sustainable and Resilient in the Face of Climate Change •
    74. 74. Utilize NOAA Sea Grant and other NOAA expertise to facilitate coastal urban planning that integrates land use, transportation, energy, natural resource, economic, and climate change mitigation and adaptation components. Proposal - NOAA Sea Grant Sustainable Coastal Community Climate Change Initiative
    75. 75. Proposal NOAA Climate Service should contract with Sea Grant to provide coastal climate extension services and carry out that initiative
    76. 76. The Sea Grant Goal Every Coastal Local Government to Develop a Comprehensive Sustainability Plan to include Climate Change…. Mitigation Plans Adaptation Plans Resiliency Plans
    77. 77. What would this Sea Grant Sustainable Coastal Community Climate Change Initiative involve?
    78. 78. Sea Grant Coastal Community Sustainability Initiative Public Education & Capacity Building Sustainability must be grassroots based. We have failed as educators. Only 40% of US citizens “believe” in global warming.
    79. 79. The U.S. – Leader or Obstacle ? U.S. Senator on TV telling the public that global warming is a hoax. Barrier to Action – Ignorance
    80. 80. The disinformation campaign waged by special interests about global warming is the major stumbling block to sustainable energy policies and program funding. Barrier to Action- Disinformation
    81. 81. Sea Grant Coastal Community Sustainability Initiative Leadership Education and Training
    82. 82. Sea Grant Coastal Community Sustainability Initiative Creating the Plans Mitigating & Adapting to Climate Change What should the planning encompass?
    83. 83. Land use planningLand use planning TransportationTransportation Energy policyEnergy policy Econ. DevelopmentEcon. Development Natural resourceNatural resource managementmanagement Social factorsSocial factors • UnderstandingUnderstanding interrelationshipsinterrelationships • Enterprise-wideEnterprise-wide approachapproach • End stovepipeEnd stovepipe management structuremanagement structure • Lifecycle costing-Lifecycle costing- Internalizing “external” costsInternalizing “external” costs Key Concepts A Systems Approach Waste handlingWaste handling The Sustainable, Resilient, Coastal City Systems – Scientists understand them, politicians do not.
    84. 84. Climate Change - Building Sustainability & Resiliency Land Use - Mitigation Build Cities for People Not Cars
    85. 85. Climate Change - Building Sustainability & Resiliency Land Use - Mitigation Utilize “Smart Growth” Design
    86. 86. 86 Smart Growth Create Higher Density Mixed Use Communities
    87. 87. 87 Pedestrian Friendly Smart Growth
    88. 88. 88 Good Urban Design Smart Growth
    89. 89. 89 Livable Communities Smart Growth
    90. 90. 90 Mixed Residential, Retail & Commercial Smart Growth
    91. 91. 91 Sense of Place Smart Growth
    92. 92. Urban Growth Boundaries & Coastal Zone Management Changes
    93. 93. Climate Change – Building Sustainability & Resiliency Land Use - Mitigation Preserve Habitat & Open Space Protect Watersheds, Habitats & View Planes Reduce GHGs
    94. 94. Cities – the Sustainable Prescription Land Use - Mitigation Sustainable Building Design New Green Codes
    95. 95. Adapting to Climate Change Land Use – 1st Step To Adaptation Evaluate Potential Impacts
    96. 96. Adapting to Climate Change Land Use – Adaptation Decisions Retreat from Potential Inundation Zones or Attempt to Harden Coastal Urban Areas
    97. 97. Adapting to Climate Change Land Use – Adaptation Developing New Comprehensive Plans & Zoning Maps
    98. 98. Adapting to Climate Change Land Use – Adaptation Relocate Population Centers Develop New Public Facilities Plans Phase & Redesign New Urban Infrastructure Re-plan & Redesign City in a Sustainable Way
    99. 99. Adapting to Climate Change Land Use – Adaptation Developing New Building Codes for Higher Temperatures & Storm Intensity, Coastal Setbacks
    100. 100. Adapting to Climate Change Land Use – Adaptation Legal Issues Property Rights - TDR
    101. 101. Climate Change – Building Sustainability & Resiliency Transportation – Mitigation Incentives to Shift to Public Transit Higher Gas Taxes Transit Subsidies – Employer Benefit Plans Improved Service
    102. 102. Climate Change – Building Sustainability & Resiliency Transportation - Mitigation Multi-modal Alternatives Bike Racks on Buses and Sidewalks Modify Roadway Specifications Bikeways Shower & Locker Facilities
    103. 103. Climate Change – Building Sustainability & Resiliency Transportation – Mitigation “Smart” Transportation Systems Computerized Traffic Signals & “Smart” Buses
    104. 104. Climate Change – Building Sustainability & Resiliency Transportation – Adaption Relocate Coastal Arterials
    105. 105. Climate Change – Building Sustainability & Resiliency Transportation – Adaption Expand Transit to Replace Coastal Arterials
    106. 106. Climate Change – Building Sustainability & Resiliency Transportation – Mitigation Public Transit with Renewable Energy Hybrid Electric Buses E Vehicles Fuel Cell Buses BRT Systems
    107. 107. Climate Change – Building Sustainability & Resiliency Transportation – Adaption Raise or Relocate Bridges
    108. 108. Climate Change – Building Sustainability & Resiliency Transportation – Adaption Retrofit or Relocate Harbors
    109. 109. Climate Change – Building Sustainability & Resiliency Energy – Mitigation Energy Efficiency Retrofit Public Facilities
    110. 110. Climate Change – Building Sustainability & Resiliency Energy – Mitigation Energy Efficiency Retrofit Utilities – LEDs & CFLs
    111. 111. Climate Change – Building Sustainability & Resiliency Energy – Mitigation Distributed Energy Systems SNG-Fuel Cogeneration
    112. 112. Climate Change – Building Sustainability & Resiliency Energy – Mitigation Distributed Energy Systems STP Methane Cogeneration
    113. 113. Climate Change – Building Sustainability & Resiliency Energy – Mitigation Distributed Energy Systems Landfill Methane Cogeneration
    114. 114. Climate Change – Building Sustainability & Resiliency Energy – Mitigation Distributed Energy Systems Ocean Cooling/ District Heating
    115. 115. Climate Change – Building Sustainability & Resiliency Energy – Mitigation Distributed Energy Systems OTEC Spinoff Technology
    116. 116. Climate Change – Building Sustainability & Resiliency Energy – Mitigation Employ New Technologies OTEC Spinoff Applications Condensate irrigation, air conditioning, cold water aquaculture
    117. 117. Climate Change – Building Sustainability & Resiliency Energy – Mitigation Renewable Energy Diversified Primary Energy Production Photovoltaic
    118. 118. Climate Change – Building Sustainability & Resiliency Energy – Mitigation Renewable Energy Diversified Primary Energy Production Geothermal
    119. 119. Climate Change – Building Sustainability & Resiliency Energy – Mitigation Renewable Energy Diversified Primary Energy Production Biomass
    120. 120. Climate Change – Building Sustainability & Resiliency Energy – Mitigation Renewable Energy Diversified Primary Energy Production Wind
    121. 121. Climate Change – Building Sustainability & Resiliency Energy – Mitigation Renewable Energy Diversified Primary Energy Production Ocean Wind, Biomass, Wave, OTEC, Tidal, Current
    122. 122. Climate Change – Building Sustainability & Resiliency Energy – Mitigation Renewable Energy Lighting – Wind & Solar
    123. 123. Climate Change – Building Sustainability & Resiliency Energy – Mitigation Renewable Energy Bio-Diesel Recycled Cooking Oil
    124. 124. Climate Change – Building Sustainability & Resiliency Energy – Adaptation Sea Level Rise Relocate Energy Systems in Inundation Zones Convert to Sustainable Technology
    125. 125. Climate Change Impacts Disrupted Water Systems Drought Salt Intrusion • Source: Peopleandplanet.net
    126. 126. Climate Change – Building Sustainability & Resiliency Water – Mitigation & Adaptation Mandate Conservation Measures Rebates for Low-Flow Appliances
    127. 127. Climate Change – Building Sustainability & Resiliency Water – Mitigation & Adaptation Improve System Efficiency GIS/SCADA Monitoring Systems
    128. 128. Climate Change – Building Sustainability & Resiliency Water – Adaptation Minimize Saltwater Intrusion Deploy Gates/Barriers
    129. 129. Climate Change – Building Sustainability & Resiliency Stormwater–Mitigation & Adaptation Reduce Urban Runoff Wastes Water, Flooding, Coastal Pollution
    130. 130. Climate Change – Building Sustainability & Resiliency Stormwater–Mitigation & Adaptation Reduce Urban Runoff Expand Retention & Detention Pond Regs
    131. 131. Climate Change – Building Sustainability & Resiliency Stormwater–Mitigation & Adaptation Reduce Urban Runoff Improve Storm Drain Design & Maintenance
    132. 132. Climate Change – Building Sustainability & Resiliency Stormwater– Adaptation Redesign Stormwater Systems Inundation Zones, Higher Storm Flows
    133. 133. Climate Change – Building Sustainability & Resiliency Wastewater–Mitigation & Adaptation Increase Recycling–Agriculture & Industry
    134. 134. Climate Change – Building Sustainability & Resiliency Wastewater–Mitigation & Adaptation Increase Efficiency
    135. 135. Climate Change – Building Sustainability & Resiliency Wastewater–Mitigation & Adaptation Build Distributed Treatment Systems Membrane Bio-reactor Technology
    136. 136. Climate Change – Building Sustainability & Resiliency Resource Recovery–Mitigation Recycling & Reuse Metals Glass……………… to Glassphalt Plastics Green Waste
    137. 137. Climate Change – Building Sustainability & Resiliency Resource Recovery–Mitigation Garbage to Energy – RDF, Plasma Arc
    138. 138. 138 Climate Change Emergency Scenario Resiliency to Climate Change Acute Impacts - Are Cities Ready? Anticipate & Reduce Vulnerabilities-Codes, Setbacks Respond – During and After Disaster Return to “New Normal”
    139. 139. 139 Climate Change Emergency Scenario Tropical Hurricane Resiliency Test • Hurricane heading WNW from eastern Pacific • 19 inches of rain expected within next 24 hrs • Storm surge, flooding, dangerous high winds expected
    140. 140. 140 Climate Change Emergency Scenario Activate EOC
    141. 141. 141 Climate Change Emergency Scenario Enterprise Wide GIS • Full access to visualize all data
    142. 142. 142 Integrated Incident Response System
    143. 143. 143 Climate Change Emergency Scenario Pre-position Response Teams Road Clearing/Emergency Equipment
    144. 144. 144 Climate Change Emergency Scenario Call Up Satellite Imagery
    145. 145. 145 Climate Change Emergency Scenario Call Up Satellite Weather Maps • Full access to visualize all data
    146. 146. 146 Climate Change Emergency Scenario View Doppler Radar • Full access to visualize all data
    147. 147. 147 Climate Change Emergency Scenario Review Critical Facilities • Full access to visualize all data
    148. 148. 148 Climate Change Emergency Scenario Review Critical Facilities Critical Water Tank •
    149. 149. 149 Climate Change Emergency Scenario Review Flood Prone Areas
    150. 150. 150 Climate Change Emergency Scenario Review Maintenance of Affected Utilities •
    151. 151. 151 Climate Change Emergency Scenario Projected Storm Surge Inundation
    152. 152. 152 Climate Change Emergency Scenario Projected Storm Surge Inundation
    153. 153. 153 Climate Change Emergency Scenario Review Flood Evacuation Plans
    154. 154. 154Bus routes and stops mapped for assisted evacuation Climate Change Emergency Scenario Check Evacuation Routes
    155. 155. 155
    156. 156. 156 Climate Change Emergency Scenario View Construction Plans of Evacuation Receiver Sites
    157. 157. 157 Climate Change Emergency Scenario Identify & Open Shelters
    158. 158. 158 Climate Change Emergency Scenario Order Evacuation • All media outlets • Island-wide Civil Defense siren system
    159. 159. 159 Climate Change Emergency Scenario Access Live Video Camera Network
    160. 160. 160 Climate Change Emergency Scenario Control Traffic Light Synchronization
    161. 161. 161 Climate Change Emergency Scenario Locate People On Life Support
    162. 162. 162 Climate Change Emergency Scenario CAD Dispatch of Fire/Ambulances
    163. 163. 163 Climate Change Emergency Scenario Road Blocks and Hazardous Materials
    164. 164. 164 Climate Change Emergency Scenario GPS Monitoring Emergency Vehicles
    165. 165. 165 Real-time GPS for Oahu Civil Defense • FireFire • AmbulanceAmbulance • ParksParks
    166. 166. 166 Real-time GPS for Oahu Civil Defense • FireFire • AmbulanceAmbulance • ParksParks
    167. 167. 167 Real-time GPS for Oahu Civil Defense • FireFire • AmbulanceAmbulance • ParksParks
    168. 168. 168 Climate Change Emergency Scenario Utilities Potentially Affected • Full access to visualize all data
    169. 169. 169 Climate Change Emergency Scenario Identify Vulnerable Transmission Lines
    170. 170. 170 Climate Change Emergency Scenario Utilize Mobile Data Terminals
    171. 171. 171 Climate Change Emergency Scenario The Aftermath Activate Mobile Command & Control
    172. 172. 172 Climate Change Emergency Scenario The Aftermath Activate Prepositioned Resources
    173. 173. 173 Climate Change Emergency Scenario The Aftermath Begin Recovery–Return to New Normal
    174. 174. NOAA Sea Grant Goals & Strategies - Comments Sustainable Coastal Development *Expanded focus on climate change and sustainable coastal community planning Hazard Resilient Coastal Communities *Incorporate “Climate Change” in focus title to reflect NOAA Strategic Plan
    175. 175. NOAA Sea Grant Climate Change Initiative Capacity Building Broaden SG Expertise
    176. 176. NOAA Sea Grant Climate Change Initiative Tap New University Disciplines
    177. 177. NOAA Sea Grant Climate Change Initiative Strengthen NOAA Partner Ties Implement MOUs, Inner Agency Agreements
    178. 178. NOAA Sea Grant Climate Change Initiative Strengthen CES Partner Ties
    179. 179. NOAA Sea Grant Climate Change Initiative Get the Resources!
    180. 180. 180 X X Mitigating and Adapting to Climate Change Sea Grant’sSea Grant’s Opportunity &Opportunity & ChallengeChallenge
    181. 181. Mahalo
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