Issue 9 / SEPTEMBER 2012                                                  In this month’s                                 ...
TEXT2READERA monthly Language Arts program for middleschools, presented by Orca Book PublishersCONTENTSWelcome to Text2Rea...
3. Graphic Novel	      Exercise 3A: Making Meaning—Reading the Graphic Novel               20	  prereading skills; text fe...
WELCOME TO    TEXT2READER You’re a busy professional, and your prep time is a precious commodity. That’s why Orca Book Pub...
How to use this resourceText2Reader arrives as a ready-to-use package and covers all of your ELA outcomes in a fun and eng...
1. FICTION                 The fiction passage in this issue is taken from All Good Children, by Catherine Austen         ...
“I love driving in this city,” the driver tells me. “Every road is a straight line.”     	 “It’s energy efficient,” I tell...
He sighs. “You like living here?”               	 “Of course. Who wouldn’t? People line up to get in here.”         60    ...
Exercise 1A: As You See It—Reflecting on the Text                    Put your head together with a partner. Talk about the...
Exercise 1B: Write It Down—Sharing and Comparing             Chances are you’ve read a book, watched a movie or played a g...
Exercise 1C: Making Meaning—Examining Tension in Writing                    Imagine finding a slingshot. If you hold it in...
Exercise 1D: Write It Down—Tense Up! Creating Tension in 	                             Your Writing                		 pull...
Assessment Rubric: Writing Personal Views or Responses    ASPECT           NOT YET WITHIN                   MEETS         ...
2. NONFICTION                  Exercise 2A: Before You Read—Harnessing Your Brainpower                  There’s more to be...
This month’s nonfiction passage is adapted from two books. The main article about the rise of the petroleum industry is fr...
An Oil Spill to Remember                                      rescue was permanent. The internal combustion               ...
Exercise 2B: Looking for Answers               Answer the following questions using complete sentences.1. In what year was...
Exercise 2C: Asking Questions—Industrial Environmental Disasters                   In All Good Children, Max likes to watc...
Asking Good QuestionsThink about some of the questions that came up as you read the websites on industrial disasters. But ...
3. graphic novel                     This graphic novel excerpt is from On the Turn by Jay Odjick (Healthy Aboriginal     ...
Graphic Novel • Text2Reader September 2012   21
22  www.text2reader.com
Graphic Novel • Text2Reader September 2012   23
After Reading With a partner or in a small group, work your way through the following questions. Jot your answers in the s...
4. DIGITAL NATION             PEOPLE, TECH, NEWS  If you’ve used Google Docs, uploaded videos to YouTube or signed up for ...
Some cloud providers, like Google Docs, offer        But wait. Is that a thundercloud I see?    their services for free. O...
Exercise 4A: Looking for Answers                Answer the following questions using complete sentences.1. Explain what cl...
Exercise 4A: Looking for Answers                 Choose the best response for each question about the passage. 1. Before c...
Exercise 4B: Words in Text                        In this exercise, you’ve got choice. Select one of the following options...
Frayer Model                          Definition in your own words                  Facts/characteristics30  www.text2read...
5. readers theater                                                        On the Turn,                                    ...
Exercise 5A: Readers Theater                  “On the Turn”                  The following scene is adapted from On the Tu...
Brianna: 	 I’ve heard about enough of this. It’s always the same thing. I’m going to my		room. [laughs bitterly] Sorry. I ...
Kristy, Gwen 	 You don’t have one??       & Megan: 		       Brianna: 	    [defensively] Hey, I don’t have a rich family, o...
Gambler #1:	 Ten of diamonds on the turn.Narrator:	     Kristy introduces Brianna to Reese, one of the guys who runs the p...
Brianna: 	   How much did you lose?       Kristy:		    [shrugging] Only about forty bucks. Stupid Reese. I beat him a few ...
Exercise 5B: Write It Down—Getting into Character                         From reading the script for “On the Turn”, you k...
Scriptwriting Rubric                                  ASPECT                        NOT YET                          MEETS...
Want to know more about the topics               covered in this issue of Text2Reader?Here’s a list of resources related t...
Answer Key for Exercise 1A: As You See It—Reflecting on the Text1. Max means that it’s ironic for his city to boast about ...
Answer Keys for Exercise 4A: Looking for AnswersShort Answer1. Cloud computing uses Web-based programs to manipulate and s...
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Text2Reader Sample Issue Sept 2012

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Text2Reader is a middle-school English Language Arts program designed to directly address specific ELA learning outcomes across North America. It gives teachers peace of mind that, come the end of the school year, they have covered the entire middle-school ELA curriculum in a way that fully engages their students’ interest.

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Text2Reader Sample Issue Sept 2012

  1. 1. Issue 9 / SEPTEMBER 2012 In this month’s Digital Nation “The Cloud, Condensed” Best of 2011 ProfessionalFeatured in this issue Resources —Resource Links Fiction All Good Children, by Catherine Austen Magazine Nonfiction Oil, by James Laxer Nowhere Else on Earth, by Caitlyn Vernon Graphic Novel On the Turn, by Jay Odjick
  2. 2. TEXT2READERA monthly Language Arts program for middleschools, presented by Orca Book PublishersCONTENTSWelcome to Text2Reader 41. Fiction Excerpt: All Good Children 6   (Focus: reading literary texts for meaning) Exercise 1A: As You See It—Reflecting on the Text 9   (Focus: responding to literature; making inferences; analyzing; evaluating) Exercise 1B: Write It Down—Comparing and Sharing 10   (Focus: text-to-text connections; summarizing; evaluating; explaining to a partner) Exercise 1C: Making Meaning—Examining Tension in Writing 11 (Focus: analysis; making connections; evaluation; reading with a purpose) Exercise 1D: Write It Down—Tense Up! Creating Tension in Your 12 Writing (Focus: experimenting with elements of style; making connections) Assessment Rubric: Writing Personal Views or Responses 13 2. Nonfiction Exercise 2A: Before You Read—Harnessing Your Brainpower 14   (Focus: prereading comprehension strategies; metacognition) Excerpts: Oil and Nowhere Else on Earth: Standing Tall for the 15 Great Bear Rainforest   (Focus: reading nonfiction texts for meaning) Exercise 2B: Looking for Answers 17   (Focus: comprehension; synthesis) Exercise 2C: Asking Questions—Industrial Environmental Disasters 18   (Focus: developing powerful questions; analyzing; synthesizing; prioritizing; metacognition)
  3. 3. 3. Graphic Novel Exercise 3A: Making Meaning—Reading the Graphic Novel 20   prereading skills; text features; analyzing; (Focus: metacognition) Excerpt: On the Turn 21 (Focus: reading graphic novels/visual texts for meaning)4. Digital Nation: People, Tech, News Article: “The Cloud, Condensed” 25 Exercise 4A: Looking for Answers 27 (Focus: comprehension; synthesizing; making connections) Exercise 4B: Words in Text 29   Frayer model; dictionary skills; defining words in (Focus: context)5. Readers Theater Assessment Rubric: Readers Theater 31 Exercise 5A: Readers Theater 32 Script: “On the Turn”   (Focus: reading with expression; developing fluency) Exercise 5B: Write It Down—Getting into Character 37 (Focus: writing to inform and entertain; working with a group) Assessment Rubric: Scriptwriting 38Suggested Resources 39Answer Keys 40Prescribed Learning OutcomesLearning outcomes for the September 2012 issue can be found on theText2Reader website under the Resources tab.
  4. 4. WELCOME TO TEXT2READER You’re a busy professional, and your prep time is a precious commodity. That’s why Orca Book Publishers brings you Text2Reader, a monthly resource for grades 6 to 8 English Language Arts (ELA) teachers. Text2Reader offers high-quality reading selections from award-winning books and engaging activities to help your students make meaning from what they read. Text2Reader speaks to the real-life issues that concern teens today, and reaches students with passages that connect to their own lives—including Digital Nation, a feature article with accompanying activities based on current issues in the online world. And for you? We’ve packaged a bundle of easy-to-use, teacher-created comprehension exercises, reading and writing activities, asessments and opportunities for enrichment—all directly tied to ELA learning outcomes. It’s affordable—way more affordable than (yet another) set of textbooks. And every class in your middle school can use Text2Reader, for one low price. TEXT2READER at a glance In each issue of Text2Reader you’ll find: • award-winning fiction, nonfiction and graphic novel selections; • teacher-created reading comprehension exercises that support English Language Arts learning outcomes across North America; • a feature article profiling current issues and significant people in the digital world; • literacy-based projects, both independent and guided, that focus on reading, writing, speaking and listening, and that support your students in learning to read instructions and complete tasks on their own; • numerous opportunities for you to integrate concepts from Math, Social Studies, Science and Health; • multimedia and web-based research and exploration; • Readers Theater from a bestselling novel or graphic guide; • a variety of ready-to-go assessment rubrics, including authentic assessments such as student self- evaluations; and • an engaging layout and conversational tone that appeals to your students. Each month, when a new issue of Text2Reader arrives, you can download a checklist of English Language Arts learning outcomes for your jurisdiction and grade from our website (www.text2reader.com). In that checklist, we break down which outcomes are covered in that month’s issue of Text2Reader. Who knew it could be so easy?4  www.text2reader.com
  5. 5. How to use this resourceText2Reader arrives as a ready-to-use package and covers all of your ELA outcomes in a fun and engagingway. You don’t have to consult a hefty resource guide or plan an entire unit around reaching a particular setof outcomes. Text2Reader does it for you. Even better? Most sections of Text2Reader can stand alone, with-out teacher guidance. You can pick and choose parts of the program or photocopy the entire package andassign it to your students. You can use it in the classroom or send parts of it home as independent study. Andit’s the perfect solution for those days when you’re too time-pressed to plan—or when a sub covers your class.Text2Reader is a supplementary resource—one that supports you in your goals of teaching students to lovereading, to understand a variety of texts, to think critically and personally about the texts they encounter,and to make meaning by listening, speaking and writing about what they’re reading. It complements andenhances your ongoing Language Arts program.Ok, if it’s really that easy...sign me up!Text2Reader is published eight times a year by Orca Book Publishers. To subscribe, please visitwww.text2reader.com, call 1-800-210-5277 or email text2reader@orcabook.com.Subscribe to Text2Reader at a cost of $175 per year for your entire school. Each issue may be printed andphotocopied and shared with other teachers in your building.Schools in British Columbia may subscribe to Text2Reader throughLearnNowBC at a reduced rate. Call 1-800-210-5277 for more details. We want to hear from you. What do you like aboutYour annual subscription includes eight issues from the time you Text2Reader? What workssubscribe. For example, if you subscribe in September you will in your classroom? What would you like to see inreceive eight issues over the course of the school year. And if you future issues?subscribe in November, you will receive all remaining issues for thatschool year plus issues into the next school year. In addition to the Email:upcoming issues, you will receive access to the past issues on the text2reader@orcabook.comText2Reader site and all additional content.An annual subscription also allows school access to the dedicated Text2Reader website at www.Text2Reader.com, which includes additional resources, web links, archived content, Readers Theater scripts and more.Visit www.text2reader.com for more details. If you have any questions, please call 1-800-210-5277.Text2Reader is available as a PDF file. If you require a hard copy, we can do that too! Hard-copy mailout is$225 annually.Text2Reader is the copyright of Orca Book Publishers. Text2Reader September 2012   5
  6. 6. 1. FICTION The fiction passage in this issue is taken from All Good Children, by Catherine Austen (Orca Book Publishers, 2011). Here’s a summary: It’s the middle of the twenty-first century and the elite children of New Middletown are lined up to receive a treatment that turns them into obedient, well-mannered citizens. Maxwell Connors, a fifteen-year-old prankster, misfit and graffiti artist, observes the changes with growing concern, especially when his younger sister, Ally, is targeted. Max and his best friend, Dallas, escape the treatment, but must pretend to be “zombies” while they watch their free- doms and hopes decay. When Max’s family decides to take Dallas with them into the unknown world beyond New Middletown’s borders, Max’s creativity becomes an unexpected bonus rather than a liability. Now that you know what All Good Children is all about, read the following section from Chapter 1. In this passage, Max, his mom and his little sister are returning home after attending an aunt’s funeral in a nearby city. Max is waiting to be given his Realtime Integrated Gateway (RIG) back after his mom confiscated it for a stupid prank earlier in the week. A RIG is a Web-enabled communications device similar to today’s Smartphones, but with greater functionality. It’s a half-hour shuttle from the Bradford Airport across the National Forest to New Middletown, but Mom still won’t give me back my RIG. I’m stuck staring at the beauty of the Pennsylvania Wilds. I kick Ally’s foot just for something to do. “You will never get that RIG back if you don’t stop right now,” Mom says so 5 loudly that other passengers look our way. I stare out the window like I’m not involved. There are no cars for rent at the New Middletown station, so we take a taxi home. The driver’s id reads Abdal-Salam Al-Fulin. I’ve barely buckled up before he asks, “Did you hear about the speed-rail bombings in the southwest? Over 10 three hundred dead. There’s nowhere safe anymore.” We show a guard our ids and drive through the gates of my glorious town. “I feel pretty safe right here,” I say, but I know I’ll feel a lot safer once I get out of this taxi. Ally watches a wildlife show in the backseat beside Mom, who stares out the 15 window. Mom was RIG-addicted before Dad died. She uploaded our lives as they happened. Now she lets the world blur by.6  www.text2reader.com
  7. 7. “I love driving in this city,” the driver tells me. “Every road is a straight line.” “It’s energy efficient,” I tell him. “New Middletown is the most environmentally smart city in the northeast. But they chopped down ten square miles of forest to20 build it. We’re big on irony here.” “I don’t like the forest,” the driver says. I shrug. “It’s beautiful.” I’ve never actually stepped foot in the forest, but I like driving by and seeing all the different shades of green. New Middletown is monotonous. Everything in town is the same age, same style, same color. What we25 lack in personality we compensate for with security. Half the city is bordered by forest and the other half is walled. There are only six roads into town and all of them are guarded. We don’t sprawl. We stand tall and tight. There are no beggars or thieves in New Middletown. If you don’t have a place to live and work here, you don’t get in. This driver probably hates the forest because he has to live there in a tent.30 Over the past twenty years, Chemrose International has built six cities just like this to house the six largest geriatric centers in the world. Everyone who lives or works in New Middletown pays rent to Chemrose. The whole town revolves around New Middletown Manor Heights Geriatric Rest Home and its 32,000 beds. “I never get lost here,” the driver says as he joins a line of cars traveling north35 along the city spine, past hospitals, labs and office towers. “I’m surprised you get much business,” I say. The city spines are entirely pedestrian, and each quadrant is like a self- contained village, with its own schools, clinics, gardens, rec centers, even our own hydroponics and water treatment facilities. We don’t have much call for taxicabs.40 “I don’t get much business,” the driver admits. “Mostly I take people away.” “To where?” He shrugs. “You go to school here?” “Sure. Academic school.” “Lucky boy. What you going to be when you’re grown?”45 “An architect.” I don’t hesitate. We pick our career paths early in academic school. “You going to build things like that?” the driver asks me. He points to the New Middletown City Hall and Security Center, which glimmers in the distance on our left. It stands at the intersection of the city spines, in the exact center of town, rising to a point in twenty-eight staggered stories of colored glass.50 “I hope so,” I say. He snorts. “I don’t like it. It looks like it’s made of ice.” He turns onto the underpass and City Hall disappears from view. “That’s the artistic heart of town,” I say. He snorts again. “I don’t see any art in this city. Never. I don’t hear any music. I55 don’t hear any stories. I don’t see any theater.” “You can see all that from any room in any building,” I tell him. “We have our own communications network.” Fiction • Text2Reader September 2012  7
  8. 8. He sighs. “You like living here?” “Of course. Who wouldn’t? People line up to get in here.” 60 “Like me,” he says. “I line up and wait, I come inside, I drop you off, I leave.” “Times are tough,” I say. “Not for everyone,” he mutters. He drives up to ground level and heads away from the core. Chemrose spent eight years and billions of dollars building this city just before 65 I was born. They laid down the spines and connecting roads like a giant spider building a web. People swarmed here. But they didn’t all get in. Shanties and car- parks spread outside the western wall, full of hopefuls who come inside for a few hours to clean our houses or drive us home. They were hit hard by the Venezuelan flu, which wiped out half the elderly and 10 percent of everyone else in the city, 70 including my father. The epidemic cost Chemrose a fortune in private funding and public spirit. Mom kept her nursing job, so we’re fit. We moved from a four- bedroom house to a two-bedroom apartment that sits on the fringe of our old neighborhood. Ally and I are still in academic schools, so we have hope, which is a rare commodity these dangerous days. Most people are a lot more damaged. 75 “Maybe I will find a bed here when I am old,” the driver says with another snort. “Turn left here,” I say. We cruise through the northeast residential district, past the white estate homes where I used to live, through a maze of tan-on-beige triplexes and brown- 80 on-tan row houses, and into our black-on-brown apartment complex. “Unit six,” I say. The driver circles the complex like a cop, slow and suspicious, passing five identical buildings before he gets to ours, the Spartan—as in the apple, not the Greeks. The apartments are memorials to fallen fruit: Liberty, Gala, Crispin, Fuji, 85 McIntosh. “This is where you live?” the driver asks. He looks up, unimpressed. The apartments reek of economy. No balconies, no roof gardens, no benches. Just right angles and solar panels and recycling bins. I used to mock the people who lived here. Now I withstand the mockery of others. I hold out my hand to Mom. She stares at me curiously. “RIG,” I say. She rolls 90 her eyes but gives me what I want. I power up, empty the trunk, drag two suit- cases to the door. “Thanks for the ride,” I tell Abdal. “Good luck.” “Good luck to you too,” he shouts.8  www.text2reader.com
  9. 9. Exercise 1A: As You See It—Reflecting on the Text Put your head together with a partner. Talk about these questions. Then answer them in complete sentences.1. When Max says they’re big on irony in New Middletown, what does he mean?2. From what you know about the story so far, what do you predict is the significance of the city’s name,New Middletown?3. What’s better: individual freedom and “personality,” or security in an uncertain world?4. Max observes that if you don’t have a place to live and work, you can’t be in New Middletown. Look at thisrule from both sides. What are the advantages of organizing a society in this way? What are the drawbacks?5. What might be the reason(s) that art, music and theater aren’t allowed in New Middletown?6. How does Max’s education differ from yours? Fiction • Text2Reader September 2012  9
  10. 10. Exercise 1B: Write It Down—Sharing and Comparing Chances are you’ve read a book, watched a movie or played a game that introduces a different world than the one we live in. Maybe it’s a dystopian world (a society in a repressive or controlled state), like The Giver or The Hunger Games. Maybe it’s futuristic, like The City of Ember. Or maybe it’s purely science fiction, like Gool or Animorphs. Your job? To explain this world to us…and to tell a friend. In the box below, write about a fictional world that you have read about (or watched). What elements does it share in common with New Middletown? What does it share in common with our world as it is today? How is it different? Use complete sentences, point form, sketches…however you want to convey the information! In your summary, be sure to include details about: • the world’s physical appearance • the way it differs from our own world • the people/organisms/droids/little green guys who populate it • its reason for existing • what you find most interesting, terrifying or disturbing about it One fictional world I’ve encountered is... Take ten minutes with a partner to share your worlds.10  www.text2reader.com
  11. 11. Exercise 1C: Making Meaning—Examining Tension in Writing Imagine finding a slingshot. If you hold it in one hand, it’s not much fun, right? But pull back the elastic and suddenly that slingshot becomes a lot more interesting. It’s the tension that gets your…attention.In writing, as in life, tension occurs when a character wants something different than what he or she is get-ting. It occurs when there’s impending danger, when a character is running out of time, or when s/he facesembarrassment. Pretty much any situation that isn’t comfortable or where the outcome is unknown will causetension for a character.We’ve bolded a few points of tension from All Good Children—and all this is just in the first four paragraphs!Do you think we missed any? It’s a half-hour shuttle from the Bradford Airport across the National Forest to New Middletown, but Mom still won’t give me back my RIG. I’m stuck staring at the beauty of the Pennsylvania Wilds. I kick Ally’s foot just for something to do. “You will never get that RIG back if you don’t stop right now,” Mom says so loudly that other passengers look our way. I stare out the window like I’m not involved. There are no cars for rent at the New Middletown station, so we take a taxi home. The driver’s id reads Abdal-Salam Al-Fulin. I’ve barely buckled up before he asks, “Did you hear about the speed-rail bombings in the southwest? Over three hundred dead. There’s nowhere safe anymore.” We show a guard our ids and drive through the gates of my glorious town. “I feel pretty safe right here,” I say, but I know I’ll feel a lot safer once I get out of this taxi.Now go back to the excerpt on pages 6–8. Look for other instances of tension. Underline or highlight them.Circle words that are particularly powerful for creating tension.Choose one instance in the passage where you think the tension is significant. What makes this part sointeresting? Text Tip: Think about some of your favorite stories—from Hansel and Gretel to The Hobbit. How do the authors create tension? (Throwing obstacles in the way of their characters.) How do the characters handle that tension? (Freaking out, making mistakes, doubting themselves… and eventually overcoming those obstacles.) Fiction • Text2Reader September 2012  11
  12. 12. Exercise 1D: Write It Down—Tense Up! Creating Tension in Your Writing pull that elastic back. Waaaaay back. In this exercise, you get to write Time to a personal recollection about a tense experience. Write a personal narrative using one of the following prompts. Your recollection will read much like a short story, with a beginning, middle and end. You’ll develop your problem as the narrative unfolds, and show how you solved the problem in the end. Your most important task is to amp up your writing by adding tension. This makes it interesting! 1. In the passage, we see that Max is nervous and feels unsafe when he’s traveling with a stranger in a taxi outside his familiar neighborhood. Write about a time when you found yourself in a situation where you felt unsafe. Include details about where you were and what you perceived to be the risks of being there at that time. How did you overcome that situation and get to a place where you felt safe again? 2. In All Good Children, Max begs his mother to smuggle their family into Canada, where the government isn’t bent on controlling people’s minds. But doing so means he has to break rules along the way. Write about a time when you intentionally broke the rules for a “higher purpose.” Explain the situation or problem you were facing and why it presented an ethical dilemma. How and why did you make your decision? What was the outcome? Text Tip: Check the list below for a few ways to strengthen your writing with tension. • Write short sentences with active verbs. • Put obstacles in the way of your characters. Make them struggle to reach their goals! • Have your characters tease each other, play head games or create problems for each other. • Create the feeling that something bad or dangerous is about to happen. • Show your characters’ fear or other negative emotions when they face a problem or situation. Check the links on the T2R website for more ideas on how to spring-load your writing with tension. Remember to look online when you see this icon. Before you begin, read through the rubric on the following page to make sure your recollection meets the criteria of a powerful, meaningful personal text.12  www.text2reader.com
  13. 13. Assessment Rubric: Writing Personal Views or Responses ASPECT NOT YET WITHIN MEETS FULLY MEETS EXCEEDS EXPECTATIONS EXPECTATIONS EXPECTATIONS EXPECTATIONS (MINIMAL LEVEL) SNAPSHOT The writing addresses The writing presents The writing is clear, The writing is clear, the topic but is seriously revelant ideas about logical, with some analytic and shows flawed by problems in the topic but does not analysis and some insight. It features logic, style and develop the topic to any development of a some engaging ideas or mechanics. May be very extent. Often vague; central idea. Provides language. short. parts may be flawed by sufficient material to errors. meet requirements. MEANING • presents some ideas; • presents a series of • sense of purpose; • purposeful, with • ideas and may be illogical or related ideas tries to deal with some individuality, information inappropriate • generally accurate complexities insight; deals with • use of detail • inaccurate, illogical details, examples and • relevant and accurate complexities • general- or insufficient details explanations; may not details, examples • some engaging izations or conclusions • connections may be link to central idea and explanations; details, examples omitted or confusing • some difficulty includes some and explanations; making connections analysis includes analysis, beyond the • makes connections reflection, speculation immediate and or generalizations • puts topic in a broader concrete beyond the context; logical immediate topic generalizations, connections STYLE • no sense of fluency or • some sentence variety; • uses a variety of • flows smoothly; uses a • clarity, flow; sentences are uses complex sentence types and variety of sentence variety and often short and sentences lengths types and lengths impact of choppy or long and • conversational • language is clear, effectively language awkward language; generally appropriate and • varied and effective • limited, simple appropriate varied language language FORM • often begins with • beginning introduces • introduces topics and • establishes purpose • beginning, introduction, the topic purpose and context in clear middle, end assuming that the • ending is often weak, • explicit conclusion and often interesting • organization reader knows the formulaic (often formulaic) introduction and sequence topic and context • related ideas are • logical sequence; • logical conclusion • transitions • ending is ineffective together; may be related ideas are • smooth and logical • lapses in sequence listed rather than together sequence; explicit • may shift abruptly developed • transitions connect paragraphing from one idea to • simple transitions; ideas clearly • variety of natural and another sometimes ineffective smooth transitionsCONVENTIONS • frequent errors in • errors in basic words • errors in more • may include • complete simple words and and structures are complex language occasional errors sentences structures often noticeable but do not are sometimes where the writer is • spelling interfere with meaning obscure meaning noticeable, but taking risks with • punctuation meaning is clear complex language; • grammar these do not interfere with meaningSource: BC Performance Standards Quick-Scale Fiction • Text2Reader September 2012  13
  14. 14. 2. NONFICTION Exercise 2A: Before You Read—Harnessing Your Brainpower There’s more to being a good reader than just being able to decode the words on the page. Reading nonfiction is a bit different than reading fiction. And because of that, the reading strategies you use will differ slightly too. A. Read the following list of strategies for understanding what you read. Most of them will probably be familiar to you. Which do you use most often? (Wait a second. You say you don’t use them? Well, now’s the time to start! The more strategies you have at your fingertips for understanding nonfiction, the easier it’ll be to figure out the tough stuff as you advance in school.) 1. Make a list of key words you think are important. Add to the list as you read the passage. 2. In each paragraph, underline the phrase or words that you think capture the main idea. 3. Circle ideas and facts that are new to you. 4. At the end of every section, stop and ask yourself: Can I put what I just read into my own words? Could I explain it to someone else? 5. Ask yourself whether you can detect any author bias in the passage. How would you say this author feels about the subject matter? How does the author’s perspective compare to your own? 6. Pay attention to text features like bolded terms and section headings. (Often headings will give you a hint to the main idea.) B. Choose two of these strategies. Use them as you read through this month’s nonfiction passage. C. What surprises you in this passage? Why?14  www.text2reader.com
  15. 15. This month’s nonfiction passage is adapted from two books. The main article about the rise of the petroleum industry is from Oil by James Laxer (Groundwood Books, 2008); the sidebar comes from Nowhere Else on Earth: Standing Tall for the Great Bear Rainforest by Caitlyn Vernon (Orca Book Publishers, 2011). Oil explores humans’ dependence on fossil fuels and looks at how we might success- fully navigate the decline in petroleum stocks worldwide. In Nowhere Else on Earth, environmental activist Caitlyn Vernon assesses some of the threats to the Great Bear Rainforest, one of the most ecologically diverse areas on the planet.The Rise of Oil Considering how dependent the world now is on petroleum consumption, it may come as a surprise tolearn that in historical terms the large-scale use of oil is a recent phenomenon. The modern oil industry hadits origins in Canada and the United States on the eve of the American Civil War. In 1858, the first oil wellin North America was drilled in Petrolia, Ontario, and the following year, an oil well drilled in Titusville,Pennsylvania, ushered in the petroleum age in the US. A decade prior to the drilling of these pioneer wells, 5Canadian geologist Dr. Abraham Gesner discovered the technique for refining kerosene from coal. A fewyears later a Pole, Ignacy Lukasiewicz, figured out how to distill kerosene from oil. That discovery quicklycreated a huge international market for kerosene. Up until that time, the illuminant of choice had been whale oil. Before kerosene became readily available,a gigantic whaling industry operated in various parts of the world, including New England. The whaling 10industry’s principal goal was to hunt the huge seagoing mammals who served as a source of oil to light lampsand to provide lighting on the streets of American towns and cities. By the 1850s, the price of whale oil hadreached an all-time high, selling in 1856 for $1.77 a gallon, a price which if translated into today’s dollarswould be twenty or thirty times the contemporary price of gasoline. Within a few years, as kerosene replacedit, the price of whale oil plunged (to forty cents a gallon by 1895), and the whaling industry fell on hard times. 15Most whaling operations on the east coast of the US went out of business. The relentless law of supply anddemand was at work. When a cheaper, superior product came on the market—the price of refined oil wasunder seven cents a gallon in 1895—the older, more expensive product was driven out of the marketplace.(One effect of the rise of the petroleum industry is that it almost certainly saved many species of whales fromextinction.) 20 Oil did not have a smooth start as an industry. In 1878, Henry Woodward, a Canadian, invented the electriclightbulb and sold the patent to Thomas Edison. As this new invention spread, the demand for kerosene driedup and the oil industry fell into a recession. In the mid-1880s, the industry was rescued, and this time the Nonfiction • Text2Reader September 2012   15
  16. 16. An Oil Spill to Remember rescue was permanent. The internal combustion engine, which employed gasoline to power auto- 25People are concerned that oil tankers might mobiles, was pioneered in Europe by Karl Benz andone day travel the narrow channels off BC’s Wilhelm Daimler. In the first years of the twentiethcoast. What’s the big deal? Well, let’s look back century, the mass age of the automobile was ush-to a particularly devastating tanker crash for a ered in, with the incorporation by Henry Ford ofreminder of why oil and water really don’t mix. the Ford Motor Company in 1903. In 1908, Ford 30 One night in March 1989, the Exxon Valdez launched the Model T Ford, which sold initially foroil tanker ran aground on a rocky reef in Alaska. $980. Automobiles revolutionized American citiesIt was carrying oil from Alaska to feed the cars and the American way of life, ensuring an ever-and industries of the United States. Sharp rocks rising demand for oil, the black gold that becameripped the side of the tanker open; the oil that the indispensable fuel on which the modern world 35spilled out would have filled 125 Olympic-size ran.swimming pools! It was an environmental disaster. Birds coated inoil were no longer able to keep themselves warm, and they couldn’t fly. Sea otters depend on their furto stay warm, so when they were covered in oil, they literally froze to death. The otters and birds alsoswallowed the oil when trying to clean themselves, and they died when the oil poisoned them. The oilaffected the plankton, which are food for the salmon and the herring. The whales and animals andbirds that eat herring and salmon also became contaminated with oil, and many died. The oil spill was also a disaster for the people who made their living from the sea. Therewere fewer fish to catch, and no one wanted to buy or eat seafood contaminated with oil. Theprocessing plants and canneries closed, and many people lost their jobs. The First Nations were nolonger able to eat the fish, shellfish, waterfowl and wild animals they depended on for food. Even after a massive clean-up effort, oil from the spill that happened over twenty years ago stillwashes up on shores 700 kilometers (435 miles) away and could take centuries to disappear. Thecommunities and coastal ecosystems have not recovered. The Exxon Valdez disaster taught us that an oil spill can cause severe and lasting damage to therainforest and coastal ecosystems. In 2010, the blowout of the BP Deepwater Horizon oil well inthe Gulf of Mexico was a reminder that accidents are bound to happen (even with the best moderntechnology), that cleanup is next to impossible, and that coastal communities suffer as jobs in fishingand tourism are lost. Words in Text: Glossaryilluminant: a substance used to generate visible light internal combustion engine: an engine where a fossil fuel is burned inside the engine in a combustion chamberpatent: a grant made by a government that gives thecreator of an invention the right to make, use or sell that contaminated: made impure by the addition of a pollutinginvention for a certain period of time substancerecession: a period of temporary economic decline processing: the act of taking a raw material and transforming it into a packaged, consumable product16  www.text2reader.com
  17. 17. Exercise 2B: Looking for Answers Answer the following questions using complete sentences.1. In what year was the first North American oil well drilled?2. In your own words, describe how the whaling industry declined during the nineteenth century.3. What event revived the petroleum industry in the late nineteenth century?4. What are some of the concerns about oil tankers traveling the BC coast?5. Describe what happened when the Exxon Valdez ran aground on a rocky Alaskan reef.6. How did the oil tanker’s accident affect the humans who lived in the area?7. What products can you think of that are made from oil? Nonfiction • Text2Reader September 2012   17
  18. 18. Exercise 2C: Asking Questions—Industrial Environmental Disasters In All Good Children, Max likes to watch a reality show called Freakshow, where disfigured contestants square off in an MMA-style smackdown. He’s got his money on Zipperhead, a 22-year-old with scars from a long-ago surgery that separated him from a conjoined twin. Here’s a little clip from the book: Two of this season’s contestants are from New Mexico. That’s a rarity. Usually everyone is from Freaktown. I can’t remember the real name of the place— it’s been called Freaktown all my life. It was christened twenty-five years ago when two transport tankers spilled untested agricultural chemicals on the banks of the Saint Lawrence River. No one cared much until the birth defects showed up: conjoined twins, spinal abnormalities, missing limbs, extra limbs, enlarged brains, external intestines, missing genitals, extra organs. When the same defects appeared in the babies of agricultural workers all over the country, the poisons were taken off the market and the shoreline was cleaned up. It came too late. Even today, one in three babies born in Freaktown has deformities. Nobody visits the city anymore. Strangely enough, nobody ever leaves the place either. Freaktown’s a fictional place, of course. But similar tragedies have occurred on smaller scales in our real-life world. You’ve read about the Exxon Valdez and the explosion of BP’s oil well in the Gulf of Mexico. What other environmental catastrophes have you heard about? Jot a list on the lines below. Head to www.text2reader.com for links to a few more human-caused environmental disasters throughout history. Read these in preparation for the next section. Join up with a partner or small group. Use Asking Good Questions on the next page to help you develop a list of questions about industrial environmental disasters and their consequences for humans, animals and the environment. Use these questions as a springboard to a deeper discussion with your whole class. Text Tip: Asking questions helps you learn better. Health care research shows that teaching people to develop good questions helps them take better care of their bodies by getting them involved in the way health care is provided to them. Similarly, good questioning helps to develop students’ ability to brainstorm, prioritize and reflect. In other words, asking questions makes you smarter!18  www.text2reader.com
  19. 19. Asking Good QuestionsThink about some of the questions that came up as you read the websites on industrial disasters. But beforeyou grab your laptop and partner…did you know there are actually techniques for developing goodquestions?1. Your first step is to engage in a question free-for-all, similar to a brainstorming session. The rules are asfollows: • Ask as many questions as you can. • Do not stop to discuss, judge or answer any of the questions. • Write down every question exactly as it was stated. • Change any statements into questions.2. Now, to get at the really interesting conversations, you want to be asking open-ended questions. Workwith your group to improve your questions. Toss out the closed-ended questions and keep the ones that willdeepen the discussion. Text Tip: An open-ended question can’t be answered with a yes or no, or with a short, tidy answer. Things like “Do industrial disasters have a negative impact on the surrounding environment?” are called closed-ended questions. Broaden it out a bit.3. Choose the three questions you most want to explore further. Write them in the spaces below.4. Reflect on this task. How is asking questions about a topic different than doing research on that topic? Whatdo you like about it? (With thanks to the Department of Education at Harvard) Nonfiction • Text2Reader September 2012   19
  20. 20. 3. graphic novel This graphic novel excerpt is from On the Turn by Jay Odjick (Healthy Aboriginal Network, 2007). In On the Turn, Brianna finds herself falling in with a crowd of gamblers at her new school. Before long, she’s winning—and losing—big. She’s hooked. And she’s having trouble finding enough cash to feed her gambling habit. When Brianna gets caught stealing from her little sister, she is forced to face her problem. In this segment, Brianna’s family has moved to a new community—which means the kids have to start all over again at new schools. Exercise 3A: Making Meaning—Reading the Graphic Novel Before You Read Graphic novels use words and pictures to tell a story, right? But there’s so much more to it than that. Here are some tips to get the most out of your graphic novel experience: 1. The pages of a graphic novel are broken up into panels. Each panel provides pictures, and often words, that move the story along. 2. The panels are read in sequence, from left to right—just like you read a regular book. (Got manga? Then read from the back of the book to the front—and from right to left!) 3. Graphic novels aren’t just comics. They tell a full story, with a setting, plot and characters that develop as you go along. 4. Pictures in graphic novels often tell us more about the story than a regular film can. Sometimes they even unmask the meaning of the words. The expressions on the characters’ faces, their body positions and the sound effects all add to the words to make the story richer. (BAM! Did that get your attention? Since graphic novels are a silent medium, all noise has to be created visually.) 5. Much of the story is told in dialogue through speech and thought bubbles. Each bubble has a tail, to show you who’s talking. To figure out the order of who’s saying what, read the speech bubbles from the top of the panel toward the bottom. 6. When the author needs to add a character’s inner speech, or extra information to help the story, he or she uses a caption. Captions are in boxes, and they can be inside or outside the panel. 7. Sometimes words are bigger or darker or different in the captions or speech bubbles. This shows how they should be read (i.e., with an icy tone, in a frightened tone, etc.)20  www.text2reader.com
  21. 21. Graphic Novel • Text2Reader September 2012   21
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  23. 23. Graphic Novel • Text2Reader September 2012   23
  24. 24. After Reading With a partner or in a small group, work your way through the following questions. Jot your answers in the space below the questions, and share them with the class afterward. 1. The story leads off with two captions. How do these captions help us as readers? 2. Explain how the author/illustrator creates sound effects in the fourth panel. 3. Look at Brianna in the fifth panel. How would you describe her emotions? How do you know? 4. How can we tell how Brianna is feeling in the seventh panel? Explain. 5. In the panel where Brianna and her sister are in bed, what can you tell about the way Kerri speaks her first word? What technique did the author/illustrator use? 6. How does the way you read the graphic novel excerpt differ from how you read the fiction and nonfiction passages? Which type of text took longer to read? Why do you think that is? Which seemed to be the easiest? Do you change your reading speed according to how complex the information is?24  www.text2reader.com
  25. 25. 4. DIGITAL NATION PEOPLE, TECH, NEWS If you’ve used Google Docs, uploaded videos to YouTube or signed up for a Hotmail account, congratulations: your head is firmly in the cloud. This month, Digital Nation takes a good, long gander at cloud computing: what it is, who’s using it…and where does all that information go? The Cloud, CondensedIt used to be that you stored your songs on a CD or drive or other storage device in your home—like,an mp3 player. Now you can access your playlists say, a USB stick or an external hard drive—youwith your SmartPhone. You used to have to print off save it to a remote database. These storage systemsphotos or attach them to emails to share them with are called servers and are maintained by thirdother people. Now you can upload them to Face- parties. When you’re ready to retrieve your infor-book or Picasa. Back in the day, if you were work- mation, the server sends it back to you (or lets youing on a group project, everyone would make their change files on the server itself) through a Web-changes to the hard copy, which required a lot of based interface.passing paper back and forth and merging multiple No matter what kind of data it stores, everychanges to the same document. Not anymore: we’ve cloud provider needs to house all of its equipmentgot Google Docs. somewhere. Some storage systems are small and Nowadays our information exchanges are don’t take up a lot of space. Others are huge andinstantaneous, thanks to the cloud. can fill warehouses. These data centers are scat- tered all over the world, from Boston to BombayWhat is the cloud, anyway? and beyond. The cloud is the Internet itself. And while cloud It would be pretty crazy to store all of yourcomputing isn’t exactly new (Flickr and Yahoo Mail important information on just one server, though,have been around for years), we’re hearing a lot right? For this reason, cloud providers make suremore about it now, in part because of the popularity your information is recorded onto many comput-of websites like Facebook, YouTube and Twitter. ers. This is called building in redundancy. Most In cloud computing, you send your files through providers will also have servers connected tothe Internet to a storage system outside your com- different power supplies. So if Toronto suffers aputer—often even outside your country. So instead blackout, Berlin’s servers will likely still be work-of storing information to your computer’s hard ing, meaning your information won’t be lost. Digital Nation • Text2Reader September 2012   25
  26. 26. Some cloud providers, like Google Docs, offer But wait. Is that a thundercloud I see? their services for free. Others, like Dropbox, let Nothing’s perfect, and cloud computing is no you have a certain amount of storage space for free, exception. Some people worry that with all the and then if you fill that up you can buy more. redundancy and access to information in the cloud, we might lose privacy. For example, what happens when Company X stores its data in the cloud…and Ireland: Not just then goes out of business? Who owns that data? potatoes anymore Can the cloud provider delete the business’s files Ireland has popped up as from its servers to free up space? a really good place to stick Concerns about privacy might not be a big deal data centers. It’s ideally for regular people whose biggest secrets are who located between Europe they’re crushing on and how much they dislike it and North America, and when their BFF talks with her mouth full, but what its naturally cool climate about governments and health care providers? offers a more sensible way How do police departments work together to catch to cool hot equipment than criminals if the criminals can track their manhunts using air-conditioning. in the cloud? Other risks posed by cloud computing: hackers can pull information off of data center servers, or worse yet, break in and take the servers themselves.The Only Cloud People Actually Love It’s also possible that a cloud company could go out of business and leave millions of people with-Cloud services tend to be subscription-based, out access to their information. And some peoplewhere you pay for what you use, or you buy worry that because not every country has the samea certain amount of time to access the pro- kinds of privacy and security laws, the security ofgram. Either way, it’s cheaper than buying your data could be compromised.expensive software to run the programs youwant. Businesses love cloud computing because The Silver Lining For the most part, doing business in the cloudthey no longer need a big IT department to is pretty safe. First of all, users of any program arefix software bugs, maintain programs or keep supposed to read the End User Licensing Agree-track of software licenses; that’s all done by ment (EULA) before they click “accept”. (You dothe people who operate the cloud service. do that, don’t you?) Cloud storage companies areAnother reason people love the cloud is be- careful to protect your data through encryption.cause it offers limitless storage. You don’t Requiring users to log in using a password andhave to worry about losing your CDs or data user ID also increases security, and ensures no oneports. Backups and saving are frequent. else can access your files. You can access your information from any- Reliable, convenient, cheap and accessible fromwhere in the world, on any computer, just by anywhere in the world, the cloud makes informa-logging into the program you’re using. And tion storage and exchange easier than ever before.with cloud computing, multiple users can ac-cess the same documents, meaning you cancollaborate efficiently with WAY less paper. 26  www.text2reader.com
  27. 27. Exercise 4A: Looking for Answers Answer the following questions using complete sentences.1. Explain what cloud computing is in your own words.2. Where do cloud providers keep the equipment required to provide their services?3. Explain the measures cloud providers have taken to keep users’ information safe.4. What are the advantages of cloud computing?5. Explain some of the possible downsides of cloud computing.6. As you see it, how has cloud computing changed the world for the better?7. How have you used cloud computing in your own life? Digital Nation • Text2Reader September 2012   27
  28. 28. Exercise 4A: Looking for Answers Choose the best response for each question about the passage. 1. Before cloud computing, information was: a. shared instantaneously and efficiently b. saved onto hard drives and external storage devices c. the IT department’s problem d. at risk of being lost e. b and d 2. In cloud computing, files are sent through: a. servers b. data centers c. cloud providers d. the Internet e. third parties 3. Data centers are: a. where a provider’s physical equipment is located b. where cloud companies work c. located around the world d. a, b and c e. a and c only 4. Cloud providers back up users’ data in a process called: a. data centers b. redundancy c. an interface d. subscription 5. Among the advantages of cloud computing are that: a. it’s cheaper than buying software b. maintenance and repairs are done by the cloud provider c. storage is unlimited d. all of the above e. a and c only 6. Some people worry that: a. every country has the same kinds of privacy and security laws b. hackers will encrypt users’ data c. cloud computing puts our privacy at risk d. power outages will jeopardize data28  www.text2reader.com
  29. 29. Exercise 4B: Words in Text In this exercise, you’ve got choice. Select one of the following options to help you explore some of the new terminology from this month’s Digital Nation article.Option A: Explore a single term using the Frayer Model1. Working with a partner, choose one of the following terms from “The Cloud, Condensed”: interface redundancy collaborate compromise2. Use the Frayer model on the next page to organize information about this term. Write your chosen termin the center of the Frayer model. In the appropriate spaces, record: • a definition of the term (use a dictionary or a website like VisuWords.com if you like) • facts about the term (from the article and from what you already know) • examples of where or how this term would be used • non-examples (you can use antonyms if you like)Option B: Create a glossary of terms1. Select six of the bolded terms from “The Cloud, Condensed”.2. Using a print or digital dictionary, locate the definition for three of these words.3. Write the definition for each word.4. Use each word in a sentence of your own creation.5. For the remaining three terms, define each of them in context. (That means using the words, sentencesand other information that surround a given word to figure out what it means.)6. Use each term in a sentence of your own creation. Digital Nation • Text2Reader September 2012   29
  30. 30. Frayer Model Definition in your own words Facts/characteristics30  www.text2reader.com Term Examples Non-examples
  31. 31. 5. readers theater On the Turn, by Jay OdjickOn the following pages you’ll find the Readers Theater script for this issue. Want more? Go towww.text2reader.com for additional Readers Theater scripts.When you’re doing Readers Theater, it’s important to remember that it’s a reading exercise. You’re notexpected to memorize your lines! Take plenty of time to rehearse. Use vivid intonation andgestures to liven up your part. Props? Costumes? Up to you.Read through the scoring rubric below. This will help you figure out how you’ll be marked. Buteven more importantly, it’ll give you tips on how to create the most powerful Readers Theaterperformance you can. Assessment Rubric: Readers Theater Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 (Approaching) (Meeting) (Exceeding) VOLUME Speaks too softly (or Usually speaks loudly Consistently speaks too loudly) for enough for audience to loudly enough for audience to hear hear audience to hear CLARITY Many words pro- Most words are pro- Words are pronounced nounced incorrectly, nounced correctly and correctly and are easily too fast or slow; are easily understood understood mumbling READS WITH Reads with little or no Usually reads with Consistently reads with EXPRESSION expression appropriate expression appropriate expression READS IN TURN Rarely takes turns on a Takes turns accurately Takes turns accurately consistent basis on a somewhat consis- on a consistent basis tent basis COOPERATES Difficulty in working Sometimes works well Consistently works well WITH GROUP with others with others with others Readers Theater • Text2Reader September 2012   31
  32. 32. Exercise 5A: Readers Theater “On the Turn” The following scene is adapted from On the Turn by Jay Odjick (Healthy Aboriginal Network, 2007). Cast of Characters (in order of appearance): Narrator Mom: Brianna’s mom Brianna: an aboriginal teen who’s irritated about having to move to a new community; she falls in with a group of kids at school who like to gamble Kristy: an Ojibway girl who befriends Brianna Gwen: a friend of Kristy Megan: a friend of Kristy Gamblers #1, 2 and 3: students Reese: a guy at school who runs poker games Scene Summary Brianna’s family has just moved. She and her little sister are both starting at new schools this year. Brianna feels anxious about starting over with in an entirely new group of people. When Brianna bumps into Kristy, she meets her first friend at school. Unfortunately, Kristy and her pals get their kicks from gambling—and before long, Brianna finds she wants in on the action. Mom: So? You guys excited to start at your new schools on Monday? Brianna: [sarcastically] Yeah. Stoked. Mom: What’s the problem, Brianna? Brianna: Are you kidding me? Where do I start? How about us moving to a dump where I don’t know anybody? Or having to share a room with my little sister? Mom: We’ve been over this already. It’s not just YOU. We all have to do our part.32  www.text2reader.com
  33. 33. Brianna: I’ve heard about enough of this. It’s always the same thing. I’m going to my room. [laughs bitterly] Sorry. I meant OUR room.Narrator: Brianna loved her little sister, but she felt frustrated at having to uproot her life and leave her old community. For little Kerri, it was an adventure. But for Brianna, it meant having to start all over again. She’d find out soon enough how easy it was to settle in: she was about to start at her new school the next day.Brianna: [bumping into Kristy] Oof.Kristy: Hey! Watch it!Brianna: S-s-sorry. I wasn’t watching where I was going.Kristy: It’s okay. Hey, you aboriginal?Brianna: Yeah, Algonquin.Kristy: Cool! Me too! Ojibway. I’m Kristy. This is Gwen, and this is Megan.Gwen Hey.& Megan:Brianna: Hey. Name’s Brianna.Kristy: Sucks being the new kid, huh?Brianna: [looking around] Totally.Kristy: You a senior?Brianna: Yeah. One more year, thank god. [nodding at Kristy’s iPod] Hey, cool iPod. What size is it?Kristy: Four gig.Brianna: Nice!Kristy: What size is yours?Brianna: I, uh, I don’t have one. Readers Theater • Text2Reader September 2012   33
  34. 34. Kristy, Gwen You don’t have one?? & Megan: Brianna: [defensively] Hey, I don’t have a rich family, okay? Gwen: Well, neither do any of us. Brianna: Well, I just assumed, judging from your nice clothes and stuff. Kristy: Nah. I bought this myself. Brianna: How can you afford stuff like that? Kristy: I won a big pot. Brianna: A big pot? Kristy: Yeah. A big pot. Let’s hook up at lunch time. We’ll show you. Narrator: At lunch time, Kristy, Megan and Gwen caught up with Brianna at her locker. Kristy, Gwen Hey, Brianna! & Megan: Kristy: You got any money? Brianna: A little. It’s for my lunch. Kristy: Oh. Well…come on, the game will be starting soon. Narrator: The girls walk outside. Groups of people crowd around a couple of picnic tables where a game of cards is being played. Brianna: What’s going on? Kristy: They’re playing hold ’em. Brianna: Hold ’em? Kristy: Texas hold ’em. Poker! C’mon! I want to get in on one. Narrator: As the girls approach the tables, they can hear the players talking to one another.34  www.text2reader.com
  35. 35. Gambler #1: Ten of diamonds on the turn.Narrator: Kristy introduces Brianna to Reese, one of the guys who runs the poker games.Reese: Well, well. Here to lose a little cash, Kristy?Kristy: Not today, Reese. I’m feelin’ it.Reese: Deal you in on the next round.Kristy: Cool.Reese: Who’s your girl?Kristy: This is Brianna. She’s cool.Reese: [to Brianna] ’Sup?Brianna: Hi. [turning and whispering to Kristy] How much money is that on the table?Kristy: About seventy-five bucks.Gambler #1: Raise it five.Brianna: Seventy-five dollars?!Kristy: That’s nothing. I’ve seen some pots at two fifty, even three hundred.Reese: I see your five and raise you twenty.Gambler #1: [sighing] I fold.Gambler #2: [irritated] I fold.Gambler #3: [throwing cards down] Damn. I’m out.Reese: [laughing and collecting the cash] Now that’s what I’m talkin ’bout, son!Kristy: OK, now deal me in.Narrator: After the game, Kristy and Brianna walk back to class. Readers Theater • Text2Reader September 2012   35
  36. 36. Brianna: How much did you lose? Kristy: [shrugging] Only about forty bucks. Stupid Reese. I beat him a few times, but he rarely loses. Brianna: Do you always lose so much? Kristy: Sometimes more, but it all evens out in the end anyway. You gonna try it? Brianna: I don’t know how to play. Kristy: [giving Bri a playful push] I can show you at my place. It’s easy.36  www.text2reader.com
  37. 37. Exercise 5B: Write It Down—Getting into Character From reading the script for “On the Turn”, you know that gambling is only one possible problem that can undermine the integrity of young people at school. In this exercise, you’re going to think critically about some of the other “pitfalls” of sharing the high school experience with a group of same-aged peers.1. With a partner or in a small group, brainstorm a few issues that face teens at school today. Examples wouldbe falling into a group that’s stealing or doing drugs. But as you well know, there are plenty more!2. Choose one of these issues.3. Engage in a quick role play where you and your partner(s) assume different characters. At least one of thecharacters is facing a problem related to your chosen issue (for example, your main character is at a partyand is being pressured into joining a drinking game). Flip the script and do another role play where yourcharacter behaves differently. Do it again. This helps you to get a feel for the issue and for the different ways aperson might react when faced with a problem.4. Write a script around one character that shows how this issue affects him or her. Make it real, like whatwould happen in your world.As you write your script, keep in mind the following: • it should have three or four parts so there can be engaging dialogue between the characters that shows how the problem develops • your main character’s problem should be apparent to the audience so they’re not left guessing what the issue is • every line of dialogue should push the plot of the story further ahead, build suspense, or develop your characters’ personalities • your main character should be presented with the problem and try to find a solution. You don’t necessarily have to solve the problem by the time the script ends (for example, you may choose a cliffhanger ending instead that leaves the audience wondering what s/he’ll do) • your script should be at least two pages in length • use staging instructions so readers know what kinds of voices and expressions to use • consult the rubric on the following page to guide you Readers Theater • Text2Reader September 2012   37
  38. 38. Scriptwriting Rubric ASPECT NOT YET MEETS FULLY MEETS EXCEEDS APPROACHING EXPECTATIONS EXPECTATIONS EXPECTATIONS EXPECTATIONS (MINIMAL LEVEL) STORY • problem is simple or • problem is realistic • problem is evident and • problem is well developed38  www.text2reader.com DEVELOMENT unrealistic • storyline is predictable well developed and thoroughly explored by • development of the • series of events without • series of related events; • storyline is engaging and characters problem problem or resolution focus may wander; ending somewhat unpredictable • believable events, but often • general flow of the story • often loses focus; ends weak • events develop logically unpredictable; ending may abruptly to a believable ending have a twist or cliffhanger CHARACTER SPEECH • simple language; may be • conversational language, • language is varied; clear • language is varied; the • clarity, variety and inappropriate or confusing with some variety; may feeling that these words are sense of true conversation is impact of language in places seem stiff or inauthentic at being spoken evident • clear sense of the • character dialogue is non- times • dialogue creates forward • dialogue drives the story spoken word sensical or fails to drive • character dialogue is momentum, with each part forward, engaging readers story forward evident and conveys the adding information or with revelations that help story emotion to the scene to build out the scene and problem FORM & STYLE • little sense of audience • some sense of audience • sense of audience • clear awareness of • sense of audience • script is too short or long • script is too short or long • script is two to three pages audience • length of script • staging instructions are • staging instructions are in length • script is two to four pages in • staging instructions absent simplistic and do not add • staging instructions are length to the scene appropriate and add • staging instructions develop texture to the scene and enhance the scene and the characters’ interactions
  39. 39. Want to know more about the topics covered in this issue of Text2Reader?Here’s a list of resources related to what we covered in this issue of Text2Reader. Visit the T2R website foreven more Web links.FictionBobet, Leah. Above. Arthur A. Levine, 2012.Collins, Suzanne. The Hunger Games. Scholastic, 2008.Gee, Maurice. Salt. Orca Book Publishers, 2009.Lowry, Lois. The Giver. Bantam Books, 1993.NonfictionBurns, Loree Griffin. Tracking Trash: Flotsam, Jetsam & The Science of Ocean Motion. Thomas Allen, 2010.Gore, Al. An Inconvenient Truth. Rodale Books, 2006.Hirshfield, Lynn. Girls Gone Green. Puffin, 2010.Sivertsen, Linda. Generation Green: The Ultimate Teen Guide to Living an Eco-Friendly Life. Simon Pulse, 2008.Suzuki, David and Kathy Vanderlinden. Eco-Fun: Great Experiments, Projects and Games for a Greener Earth. Greystone Books, 2001.FilmInvasion of the Body SnatchersThe Stepford WivesFuel (environmental documentary)WebGambling Addictionshttp://kidshealth.org/teen/your_mind/problems/gambling.htmlTeen Ink Environmental Resourceswww.teenink.com/Resources/EnvironR.php Text2Reader September 2012   39
  40. 40. Answer Key for Exercise 1A: As You See It—Reflecting on the Text1. Max means that it’s ironic for his city to boast about being environmentally sound when the city planners chopped downthe forest in order to build it. His comment hints that this way of thinking isn’t uncommon in New Middletown.2. Look for answers that include some relation to the word “middle”—that it’s mediocre, average, middle-of-the-road—andthe word “new,” meaning it’s a fresh start or way of paving over the mistakes of the past.3. Answers will vary according to student opinion. Look for solid reasoning behind either stance. Individual freedom isimportant for self-expression and exercising our human rights; security is valuable in an uncertain world, to protect usagainst forces of evil, disaster or economic hardship.4. The rule that people must have a home and a job to live in New Middletown helps to keep the city orderly. There wouldbe no homeless people and no unemployment. The streets would likely be somewhat safer and cleaner. The citizens wouldn’thave to deal with guilt as they go about their business with hungry people on the streets. There are really no drawbacks tothis kind of rule for the residents themselves, although it would likely intensify competition both inside and outside the city.For the people who are shut out of the city, their opportunities are limited drastically by being denied convenient access topotential job markets. Gaining a footing is even harder, as any job an outsider acquired would require a longer commute untils/he was able to find a home inside the city.5. Access to the arts implies support for free thinking. The arts help us develop our creativity, exercise our freedom of self-expression and often cause us to challenge the status quo. The administration of the city would likely feel that allowing itsresidents to enjoy music, theater and art would jeopardize its control of citizens’ behavior.6. Max attends an “academic” school where he is being specifically trained for one job upon graduation. In contrast, whilemany of our current schools are academic in nature, others are vocational. More commonly, both are integrated within thesame school facility. No one is required to choose their course of study in elementary school, and we graduate with a wealthof choice and options ahead of us. We are not locked into any one career.Answer Key for Exercise 2B: Looking for Answers1. The first North American oil well was drilled in 1858.2. The whaling industry declined as the price of petroleum-based oil became cheaper. Supply and demand was at work: askerosene became more prevalent and cheaper, the demand for whale oil fell and the whaling fleets were forced to pull upanchor.3. In the mid-1880s, Karl Benz and Wilhelm Daimler invented the internal combustion engine, which breathed new life intothe fossil fuel business.4. BC’s coastal waterways are narrow, and oil tankers are not immune to crashes. Fragile ecosystems are at risk in the eventof an oil spill.5. When the Exxon Valdez ran aground, it gushed out enough oil to fill 125 Olympic-sized swimming pools. Thousands ofanimals suffered and died as a result.6. The oil contaminated the fish and shellfish that were harvested in the area. People didn’t want to buy contaminated sea-food, so the canneries and processing plants shut down and people lost their jobs. The First Nations couldn’t eat the fish andanimals they depended on for food, either.7. Answers vary (there are dozens, and students can find them using the link provided), but can include: plastics, furnishings,clothing, shoes, jewelry, pens, computers, backpacks, yarn, baby lotion, etc.40  www.text2reader.com
  41. 41. Answer Keys for Exercise 4A: Looking for AnswersShort Answer1. Cloud computing uses Web-based programs to manipulate and store data. Information is sent through the Internet to aremote storage location provided by a cloud company, and can be accessed and changed at the user’s convenience.2. Data centers. These are located in different areas all around the world. Data centers can be quite small or very large.3. Cloud providers back up data on many servers (redundancy), and they make sure their servers aren’t all running on thesame electrical grid. Data is encrypted to discourage hackers. Users must log in with a username and password—and they’resupposed to read the End User Licensing Agreement so they know what they’re signing up for.4. Cloud computing is cheaper than buying software; it makes data transfer instantaneous; many people can collaborate onone document at the same time; storage is limitless; and cloud providers do all the maintenance and repairs for the programs.5. Cloud computing could put our privacy at risk; there are concerns about what happens to information when no one on“the outside” seems to want to take responsibility for it; servers can be hacked or stolen.6. Answers will vary.7. Answers will vary.Multiple Choice 1. e 2. d 3. e 4. b 5. d 6. c Text2Reader September 2012   41

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