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Text2Reader Sample Issue
 

Text2Reader Sample Issue

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a monthly stand-alone resource for grades 6 to 8 English Language Arts (ELA) teachers. Text2Reader offers high-quality reading selections from award-winning books and engaging activities to help your ...

a monthly stand-alone resource for grades 6 to 8 English Language Arts (ELA) teachers. Text2Reader offers high-quality reading selections from award-winning books and engaging activities to help your students make meaning from what they read with relevant passages that connect to their own lives. And for you? We’ve packaged a number of easy-to-use, teacher-created comprehension exercises, reading and writing activities, assessments and opportunities for enrichment—all directly tied to ELA learning outcomes. Visit www.text2reader.

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    Text2Reader Sample Issue Text2Reader Sample Issue Document Transcript

    • Issue 7 / APRIL 2012 In this month’s Digital Nation : “Video Games: Are They Really So Bad for You?” Best of 2011 Professional ResourcesFeatured in this issue —Resource Links Magazine Fiction I.D., by Vicki Grant Nonfiction Nowhere Else on Earth, by Caitlyn Vernon Graphic Novel Dalen & Gole, by Mike Deas
    • TEXT2READERA monthly Language Arts program for middleschools, presented by Orca Book PublishersCONTENTSWelcome to Text2Reader 41. Fiction Excerpt: I.D. 6   (Focus: reading literary texts for meaning) Exercise 1A: As You See It—Who Are You, Anyway? 9   (Focus: responding to literature; making connections; evaluating) Assessment Rubric: Paragraph Writing 10 Exercise 1B: Get That Kid Into Therapy! 11   (Focus: asking questions; speaking and listening; offering feedback; evaluating) Exercise 1C: Write It Down—The Next Chapter 12 (Focus: narrative writing; characterization and plot development) Assessment Rubric: Narrative Writing 13 Exercise 1D: Extending the Learning—The Debate 14 (Focus: researching, developing and refining arguments; speaking and listening)2. Nonfiction Excerpt: Nowhere Else on Earth 15   (Focus: reading nonfiction texts for meaning) Exercise 2A: Looking for Answers 17   (Focus: comprehension) Exercise 2B: When Your Identity Is Taken Away 19   (Focus: making connections; speaking and listening; presenting) Exercise 2C: The Potlach—Understanding a Cultural Icon 20   (Focus: reading and viewing for meaning; connecting with experience) 3. Graphic Novel Excerpt: Dalen & Gole 21 (Focus: reading graphic novels/visual texts for meaning) Exercise 3A: Making Meaning—Deconstructing the Graphic Novel 23   analyzing text features; metacognition) (Focus: Exercise 3B: Making Meaning—Jumping That Language Barrier 24   storytelling; interactive strategies; nonverbal cues) (Focus:
    • 4. Digital Nation: People, Tech, News Article: Videogames: Are They Really So Bad for You? 25 Exercise 4A: Looking for Answers 27 (Focus: comprehension; synthesizing) Exercise 4B: Making Connections—Assuming an Identity 28   connecting to experience) (Focus:5. Readers Theater Assessment Rubric: Readers Theater 29 Exercise 5A: Readers Theater 30 Script: “There’s Something Fishy in Budap”   (Focus: reading with expression; developing fluency) Exercise 5B: Extending the Learning—Script It! 34 Suggested Resources 35Answer Keys 36Prescribed Learning OutcomesLearning outcomes for the April 2012 issue can be found on theText2Reader website under the Resources tab.
    • WELCOME TO TEXT2READER You’re a busy professional, and your prep time is a precious commodity. That’s why Orca Book Publishers brings you Text2Reader, a monthly resource for grades 6 to 8 English Language Arts (ELA) teachers. Text2Reader offers high-quality reading selections from award-winning books and engaging activities to help your students make meaning from what they read. Text2Reader speaks to the real-life issues that concern teens today, and reaches students with passages that connect to their own lives—including Digital Nation, a feature article with accompanying activities based on current issues in the online world. And for you? We’ve bundled a load of easy-to-use, teacher-created comprehension exercises, reading and writing activities, asessments and opportunities for enrichment—all directly tied to ELA learning outcomes. It’s affordable—way more affordable than (yet another) set of textbooks. And every class in your middle school can use Text2Reader, for one low price. TEXT2READER at a glance In each issue of Text2Reader you’ll find: • award-winning fiction, nonfiction and graphic novel selections; • teacher-created reading comprehension exercises that support English Language Arts learning outcomes across North America; • a feature article examining current issues and significant people in the digital world; • literacy-based projects, both independent and guided, that focus on reading, writing, speaking and listening, and that support your students in learning to read instructions and complete tasks on their own; • numerous opportunities for you to integrate concepts from Math, Social Studies, Science and Health; • multimedia and web-based research and exploration; • Readers Theater from a bestselling novel or graphic guide; • profiles of popular authors; • a variety of ready-to-go assessment rubrics, including authentic assessments such as student self- evaluations; and • an engaging layout and conversational tone that appeals to your students. Each month, when a new issue of Text2Reader arrives, you can download a checklist of English Language Arts learning outcomes for your jurisdiction and grade from our website (www.text2reader.com). In that checklist, we break down which outcomes are covered in that month’s issue of Text2Reader. Who knew it could be so easy?4  www.text2reader.com
    • How to use this resourceText2Reader arrives as a ready-to-use package and covers all of your ELA outcomes in a fun and engagingway. You don’t have to consult a hefty resource guide or plan an entire unit around reaching a particular setof outcomes. Text2Reader does it for you. Even better? Most sections of Text2Reader can stand alone, with-out teacher guidance. You can pick and choose parts of the program or photocopy the entire package andassign it to your students. You can use it in the classroom or send parts of it home as independent study. Andit’s the perfect solution for those days when you’re too time-pressed to plan—or when a sub covers your class.Text2Reader is a supplementary resource—one that supports you in your goals of teaching students to lovereading, to understand a variety of texts, to think critically and personally about the texts they encounter,and to make meaning by listening, speaking and writing about what they’re reading. It complements yourongoing Language Arts program.Ok, if it’s really that easy...sign me up!Text2Reader is published eight times a year by Orca Book Publishers. To subscribe, please visitwww.text2reader.com, call 1-800-210-5277 or email text2reader@orcabook.com.Subscribe to Text2Reader at a cost of $175 per year for your entire school. Each issue may be printed andphotocopied and shared with other teachers in your building.Your annual subscription includes eight issues from the time yousubscribe. For example, if you subscribe in September you will We want to hear from you.receive eight issues over the course of the school year. And if you What do you like aboutsubscribe in November, you will receive all remaining issues for that Text2Reader? What worksschool year plus issues into the next school year. In addition to the particularly well in yourupcoming issues, you will receive access to the past issues on the classroom? What wouldText2Reader site and all additional content. you like to see in future issues?An annual subscription also allows school access to the dedicated Email:Text2Reader website at www.Text2Reader.com, which includes addi- text2reader@orcabook.comtional resources, web links, archived content, Readers Theater scriptsand more.Visit www.text2reader.com for more details. If you have any questions, please call 1-800-210-5277.Text2Reader is available as a PDF file. If you require a hard copy, we can do that too! Hard-copy mailout is$225 annually.Text2Reader is the copyright of Orca Book Publishers. Text2Reader April 2012   5
    • 1. FICTION The fiction passage in this issue is adapted from I.D., by Vicki Grant (Orca Book Publishers, 2007). Here’s a summary of the book: Chris thinks his life is worth nothing: his stepfather constantly tells him how useless he is, his teachers think he is a failure, and even his mother yells at him for being inconsiderate. He doesn’t really have any friends, and when he meets a girl he really likes, she refuses to go out with him. So when Chris finds a wallet with $75.00 cash, credit cards and other identification papers, he thinks he has found a way to escape—into someone else’s identity. Nervous and paranoid the first time he uses the ATM and credit cards, Chris finds it becomes easier every time he gets away with it—until the police catch up with him. Now that you know what I.D. is all about, read the following section adapted from Chapters 10 and 11. In this passage, Chris decides to take on Andrew Ashbury’s identity—from dyeing his hair to wearing his suit to using the guy’s bank card. I ate my lunch and thought about Ashbury. This was his neighborhood. I bet he’d been to this park before. He might even have sat under this exact same tree. He might have eaten a hot dog, bought from the exact same guy. He might have looked out at the exact same view. 5 He might have done all the exact same things I was doing right then—but I knew it would have been entirely different for him. He wouldn’t be eating his hot dog wondering where he was going to find enough money for his next meal. He wouldn’t be thinking about where he was going to stay that night. He’d just be enjoying the view, thinking about his girlfriend and what the two of them had 10 planned for the weekend. A guy like that wouldn’t give me a reward. He wouldn’t care about his stupid wallet. I chucked the rest of my hot dog at some ugly pigeon. It took off. Even a stupid pigeon could get away whenever it wanted. I was stuck in my frigging life. I had 15 to just sit there and watch other people make money, get girls, have fun, be some- body. It wasn’t fair. It wasn’t my fault my parents couldn’t get their crappy lives together. It wasn’t my fault my mother had to quit hairdressing school when I was born. It wasn’t my fault my father took off. It wasn’t my fault Ron was a jerk, we 20 lived in a hole, school sucked. I didn’t ask to be born. If I did, I sure wouldn’t have6  www.text2reader.com
    • asked to be born into that screwed-up family. This was their fault—but I was the one who had to live with the consequences. Well, frig that. No more. I’d had enough. I realized what I was going to do. I should have thought of it earlier. I opened25 the wallet. I looked at that picture of Ashbury again. I counted the money I had left. I’d passed a drugstore on the way here. I was going back to find it. *** It’s all about looks. That’s how people decide what they think about you. You look poor, they think you’re stupid. You look rich, you’re the smartest guy around.30 You look like Chris Bent, your life is crap. You look like Andrew Ashbury, who knows? I was ready to find out. I was only going to buy the blond hair dye, a razor and a pair of scissors, but I saw some cheap reading glasses up by the counter. The brown ones were kind of like what Ashbury was wearing on his driver’s license. I bought those too. Glasses35 make you look intelligent. The saleslady told me how to get to the public wash- room. I cut my hair. It was pretty much a hack job. Once I found work, I’d go to a barber and get it done right. I shaved off my beard. The razor was toast by the time I was done.40 It felt weird. I’d had a goatee before, and a mustache, and even just a soul patch for a while, but I hadn’t been clean-shaven since I was a kid. My skin felt really sensitive, as if I’d just taken off a wet shirt on a cold day. I liked it. I’d watched my mother dye her hair for years. It wasn’t that hard. I took off my T-shirt, put on the plastic gloves and squished the stuff all over my head. I rubbed45 some into my eyebrows too. Mine were too dark for someone blond. I didn’t want anyone to see what I was up to. I sat in a cubicle and waited for the dye to work. It was pretty boring. After a while, I took the wallet out again. If I was going to start applying for jobs, I needed to find out everything I could about Andrew Ashbury.50 I already knew his address and his size. I memorized his birthdate and his postal code. I took a pen out of my backpack and practiced his signature, just in case I needed it. Four loops and a line. It was almost too easy. What else did I need to do? I figured I should know something about his family, what he did for a living, stuff like that.55 I looked all through the wallet again. There was nothing about his family. It didn’t matter. If anyone asked, I’d just make something up. Joanna and Blake, those would be his parents. He’d have one brother, Bryce, and a sister, Ann-Marie. No, Marina. Bryce and Marina. When I’m rich, that’s what I’m going to name my kids. Fiction • Text2Reader April 2012  7
    • I thought about giving myself a dog too, but what I really wanted was a Dober- 60 man. Andrew wasn’t the type to have a Doberman, and I didn’t want some wussy little rich-kid dog. His girlfriend, the one in the picture I’d found, she probably had a cat. I could talk about her cat, how it bugs me, sheds on my clothes, hisses when I kiss her. Guys never like their girlfriends’ cats. I needed a hobby too. I thought of sailing, but I didn’t know anything about 65 boats. That was okay. I knew everything about cars, and now I was rich enough to own a couple too. That stopped me. Who was I kidding? I wasn’t rich enough to own anything yet. I had about three bucks in my pocket—but nobody needed to know that. Someday it would be different. I’d laugh about this. 70 I kept looking through the wallet. The business cards, baggage claim, key—they wouldn’t help me. The dry-cleaning receipt, though, was for a suit and a shirt. It was marked “Paid.” I checked the address. The dry cleaners wasn’t far from here. Things were looking up.8  www.text2reader.com
    • Exercise 1A: As You See It—Who Are You, Anyway? Ever wanted to be someone else? Whether you’ve dreamed about being the prime minister, the top NHL goalie or even J.K. Rowling, there’s lots to talk about in this passage.Choose one of the following questions about the passage from I.D. On a separate page, use full paragraphformat to respond. Use the rubric on the following page to guide your writing. Text Tip For a thorough review of how to write a proper paragraph, from the topic sentence to the supporting sentences to the concluding sentence, head to www.text2reader.com and follow the links. 1. What’s so tempting about stealing someone’s identity? 2. Summarize another movie or book you know that’s based on this premise. 3. Write about a time where you felt “stuck” in your life. 4. Would you swap your life for someone else’s if you could? Why or why not? Who would you pick? 5. In this passage, Chris places a lot of blame on his mother and stepfather for his situation. Is blame a useful emotion? Explain. 6. We often make assumptions when we see people wearing certain accessories or certain items of clothing. For the following items: glasses, overalls, suits, baggy jeans and designer bags, discuss how we make assumptions about each. Do our assumptions differ depending on who’s wearing a given item? 7. Think about the following expression: You never get a second chance to make a first impression. What does this mean? Are these important words to live by? 8. Is being rich better? Discuss. Fiction • Text2Reader April 2012  9
    • Assessment Rubric: Paragraph Writing (Six Traits) Not Yet Within Meets Expectations Fully Meets Exceeds Expectations (minimal level) Expectations Expectations IDEA • Lacks central idea; central • Main idea may be cloudy • Evident main idea with • Paragraph centered around a • main theme idea is unclear or cluttered by because supporting detail is support that may be significant idea or topic • supporting irrelevant detail too general or even off-topic general or limited • Exceptionally clear, focused, details • Development is minimal or • Writing is reasonably clear, engaging with relevant, strong nonexistent focused and interesting with supporting detail10  www.text2reader.com • Thesis is not clear adequate detail ORGANIZATION • Lacks coherence; confusing, • Attempts at organization; may • Organization is appropriate • Effectively organized in logical • structure disorganized or otherwise be a “list” of items and structure is sound and creative manner • introduction hard to follow • Beginning and ending unclear • Interesting opening and • Creative and engaging intro • conclusion • No identifiable beginning or or weak satisfactory closure and conclusion ending VOICE • Writing is lifeless or stiff • Voice may be inappropriate or • Appropriate to audience and • Expressive, engaging, sincere • personality • No hint of the writer nonexistent purpose • Strong sense of audience • sense of • Writing may seem mechanical • Writer behind the words • Shows emotion: humor, audience comes through honesty, suspense or life WORD CHOICE • Limited range of words • Words may be correct but • Language is functional, • Precise, carefully chosen • precision • Some vocabulary misused mundane or repeated appropriate and descriptive • Strong, fresh, vivid images • effectiveness • Common words chosen • Word choice contributes to • imagery interest level SENTENCE • Difficult to follow or read • Some awkward constructions • Generally in control with • High degree of craftsmanship FLUENCY aloud or fragments good rhythm • Effective variation in sentence • rhythm, flow • Confusing or rambling • Common simple pattern used • Variety in length and patterns • variety • Frequent run-on sentences • Several sentences begin the structure is evident same way CONVENTIONS • Numerous errors distract the • Limited control of conventions • Control of most writing • Exceptionally strong control of • age-appropriate reader and make the text • Some errors in common conventions standard conventions of for spelling, difficult to read patterns or structures do not • Errors reflect risks with writing caps, • Errors may be made more unduly interfere with unusual or sophisticated • Complex conventions than one way for the same understanding structures attempted punctuation, pattern or structure grammar Adapted from Regina Public Schools
    • Exercise 1B: Get That Kid Into Therapy! Who doesn’t have issues? Christopher is struggling with some pretty big ones. Take a few minutes to change your own identity—to that of Chris’s therapist. How would this person approach Chris’s problems?1. Imagine that you’re a therapist and that Chris is your new patient. And imagine that he’s actually ready—and willing—to talk. What would you ask him?In the boxes below, write three questions you’d ask Chris. (Check www.text2reader.com for links to resourceson asking good questions.) On the lines provided, explain your reasoning for asking Chris each question. Question #1 Rationale Question #2 Rationale Question #3 Rationale2. Feedback time! Grab a partner and take turns going through your questions. Are they all open-ended?Which ones will yield the most informative answers?3. Between the two of you, decide which of all six questions is the most powerful. Write it below. What makesthis such a good question?Best questionWhy it’s so good Fiction • Text2Reader April 2012  11
    • Exercise 1C: Write It Down—The Next Chapter Or maybe you’d prefer to write the preceding chapter. Decide which chapter you’d most like to write: the one that comes before this passage? Or the one that comes after? Portfolio possible! What appeals to you more? Uncovering the events that led up to Chris deciding to take on Andrew Ashbury’s identity? Or bearing witness to where his decision will take him? As you write your chapter, consider the following: 1. Stay in character The story is told in first-person, from Chris’s point of view. How does he see the world? Is he a pleasant, positive kid? Or does he have his fair share of attitude? Stay true to his voice. 2. Develop your character From a wide-angle view, we see Chris as someone who can’t get it together—he’s been dealt a crummy hand in life. Looking at the close-up shot (the details), we know he likes Dobermans and cars; we know he wants to be rich; and we know he’s planning on having kids. In your chapter, add more to our developing picture of Chris’s character. 3. Advance the plot You won’t resolve the entire story in the next chapter. Nor will you be able to explain the entire backstory if you’re writing the previous chapter. But you can still do a lot to build out the story. In the above passage from I.D., we can see Chris realizing that his life sucks, and that he has an escape hatch in the palm of his hand. As you write, consider: What events led him to this decision? Where does he go from here? 4. Think if...then A lot of what Chris is doing is thinking about possibilities. If he does X, then he will get Y. Let this kind of thinking guide you in figuring out what he does next. Use the rubric on the following page to help you create a powerful, engaging additional chapter for I.D. As always, proofread and edit your writing to make it your best work.12  www.text2reader.com
    • Assessment Rubric: Narrative Writing ASPECT Not Yet Within Meets Fully Meets Exceeds Expectations Expectations Expectations Expectations (minimal level) SNAPSHOT The story consists of The story is complete The story is complete The story is loosely connected and has some detail; and has some expressive and has ideas; often very brief quality is often engaging features. emotional impact in or flawed by serious uneven; frequent places. errors. errors. MEANING • often very simple; • predictable; may be • straightforward; • plausible; some • ideas and sometimes illogical closely modelled on some originality, information • few details another work individuality or creativity, sense of • use of detail • little sense of • limited detail originality voice audience • some sense of • supporting details • “shows” through audience and description detail and • sense of audience description • clear awareness of audience STYLE • simple language; may • conversational • language is varied; • language is • clarity, variety be inappropriate in language, with some sensory varied; sensory and impact of places some variety detail, figurative detail and language • simple and • two or three language figurative compound sentences; sentence patterns • variety of language often runs on sentences • flows smoothly; variety of sentences FORM • series of events • beginning, middle • beginning • engaging • beginning, without problem or and end establishes beginning reveals middle, end resolution • series of related problem problem • sequence • often loses focus; events; focus may • events develop • believable events, ends abruptly wander; ending logically to a but often • setting • focuses on action; weak believable ending unpredictable; • characters characters are rarely • characters • characters are ending may have • dialogue described presented through described; often a twist • dialogue is often direct description stereotypic • characters have confusing • dialogue may • appropriate individuality sound unnatural dialogue • effective dialogueCONVENTIONS • frequent errors in • some errors in • may include • may include • complete simple words and spelling, errors in complex occasional sentences structures punctuation, and language, but these errors in complex • spelling • no control of grammar that do do not interfere language, but sentence structure; not interfere with with meaning these do not • punctuation often runs on meaning • most sentences are affect meaning • grammar (e.g., • may be difficult to • may include some correctly • sentences are agreement, read run-on sentences constructed correctly verb tense) • legible • clearly and neatly constructed • word choice presented • shows care, pride Source: BC Quick Scale Fiction • Text2Reader April 2012  13
    • Exercise 1D: Extending the Learning—The Debate Sometimes we debate political, economic or health issues (remember our debate last Septemnber about whether fast-food restaurants should be forced to disclose nutritional information?). Sometimes we debate social issues that pertain to all of us. No matter what topic is up for discussion, however, it’s important to table your arguments in a clear, compact and convincing way. Debate Christopher’s assertion that “it’s all about looks.” Follow the debating links on the T2R website. Here, you’ll find straightforward instructions for how to plan and execute a debate. If you didn’t already do this for the September issue of Text2Reader, develop a debate-scoring rubric together as a class. Plan on using one or two classes to research your arguments, another class to organize them, and a final class to actually hold the debate. Use reliable print and online sources to gather information for your side of the argument. Keep in mind last month’s article in Digital Nation about how to decide whether you can trust the information you find on the web. (You can link back to it for a refresher at the Text2Reader site.) Don’t forget to consider what the other side will argue! Text Tip Debating is an essential life skill. If you think of a debate as a discussion involving parties that hold opposing views, you’ll see that life is absolutely jam-packed with debates, from the schoolyard to the supper table to the boardroom. Debating develops your communication and negotiating skills, amps your assertiveness and helps you develop the ability to make quick decisions—all important work skills for the twenty-first century. It helps you understand the point of view of others while being able to clearly and confi- dently explain yours. And the more able you are to convince others of your argument…well…you can figure out the benefits!14  www.text2reader.com
    • 2. NONFICTION This month’s nonfiction passage is taken from Nowhere Else on Earth: Standing Tall for the Great Bear Rainforest by Caitlyn Vernon (Orca Book Publishers, 2011). In Nowhere Else on Earth, environmental activist Caitlyn Vernon takes you on a journey deep into the Great Bear Rainforest, one of the most ecologically diverse areas on the planet. Vernon mixes facts and scientific research with personal anecdotes, history and stories from the people who love—and live in—this breathtaking, threatened ecosystem.Arrival of the Europeans In 1774, a Spanish ship sailed up the coast of BC. Without even coming ashore, the sailors claimed the region for Spain. A few years later, a British ship got lost in the fog and ended up on Vancouver Island. Someone jumped off the ship, stuck a flag in the ground and declared that the island was now under the control of the British Empire. For over a5 decade Britain and Spain argued about who owned this far-off land. Meanwhile, the First Nations people were already here. Visitors from Russia had been trading with them for decades. And people from Asia, Hawaii and the west coast of North America had been crisscrossing the Pacific Ocean in both directions for hundreds, if not thousands, of years. When the Europeans arrived, the newcomers claimed the land for10 their own without asking permission from the people who lived there. Almost no treaties have been signed in BC, meaning that most of the First Nations never formally agreed to share their land.A Great Injustice To give immigrants somewhere to live, the government of the day had to find a way to move aboriginal peoples off the land. First Nations were informed that they could now15 only live within small Indian reserves that had been mapped out by government officials. The government was then able to sell the rest of the land to immigrants, to live on and build their farms. But the way First Nations tell the story, they saw their land being taken away from them. Nonfiction • Text2Reader April 2012   15
    • Taken From Their With the land went their ability to provide for themselves and to feed Families 20 their children. The reserves they were told to live on were too small to provide food or jobs. In the 1880s, Tsimshian chiefs from theIn the late 1800s and north coast paddled all the way (more than 1,000 kilometers, or 600throughout much of the miles) down to Victoria, the province’s capital, to protest how their1900s, children were land had been taken away. When they weren’t listened to in Victoria,removed from First Nations 25 they traveled even farther, this time to Ottawa, to try and be heard.communities and sent to Some went as far as England to talk directly with the Queen. Butlive at residential schools. it didn’t help. By the year 1900, most of the Indian reserves in BCBy 1896, fifteen hundred had been established, and they were small. In total, all the Indianchildren from all of the First reserves in BC make up less than half of 1 percent of the province.Nations across BC were 30 As the First Nations were moved off their land, saw their childrenliving at these schools, cut taken away and had their cultural and political traditions banned,off from their families and they also witnessed the harvesting and depletion of the plants andtheir culture. At the schools animals they depended on. Settlers assumed that all the fish, fur andthe students were punished timber were theirs for the taking. Trees were logged to clear land forfor singing their family’s 35 agriculture and to have lumber for buildings. Salmon were caught insongs, practicing their own large numbers, packed into tins at canneries up and down the coast,religion and speaking their and shipped to England. The whales were hunted for their oil untilown languages. Many young there were hardly any left. Forced to live on small reserves, often thechildren tried to run away, only way to survive was for the First Nations people to get work in theand not all survived. Those 40 forestry industry, or to go fishing and sell salmon to the canneries.who eventually returned In this way, the First Nations also played a role in the depletion ofhome had a hard time fitting the very things they depended on.in—they had forgotten their Eventually, things started to change. At no point had First Nationslanguage, didn’t know their passively accepted all of the changes that were imposed on them.cultural traditions and hadn’t 45 They spoke up, they protested, they lobbied political representatives.learned to hunt or fish. Nor Some of the settlers were sympathetic, but it took years of organizinghad they learned the skills and court cases before First Nations got some of their rights back. Inneeded to get work among 1960, they were able for the first time to vote in federal elections. Butthe settlers. To this day, the it wasn’t until 2001 that First Nations in the Great Bear Rainforestlegacy of the residential 50 were finally recognized as governments with the authority and theschools affects the lives of right to make decisions about land use.many First Nations people. 16  www.text2reader.com 16 www.text2reader.com
    • Exercise 2A: Looking for Answers Answer the following questions using complete sentences.1. Who were the first Europeans to claim BC’s land as their own?2. In your own words, summarize the way Europeans settled lands that traditionally belonged to First Nations.3. What did the Canadian government do once the First Nations were moved onto reserves?4. List two problems that the First Nations faced on reserves.5. What did some chiefs do to try and make their views heard?6. The First Nations ended up being forced to assist European settlers in destroying the land around them.How did this happen?7. What happened in 2001 for the First Nations in the Great Bear Rainforest?8. Briefly describe how residential schools affected the First Nations’ children. Nonfiction • Text2Reader April 2012   17
    • Exercise 2A: Looking for Answers Choose the best response for each question about the passage. 1. The first non-First Nations people to claim BC as their own territory were the: a. Spanish and Hawaiians b. British and Asians c. Russians and Asians d. Spanish and British 2. The Indian reserves that were established throughout BC: a. were too small to sustain the First Nations and their families b. covered one percent of the province c. clustered close to the Great Bear Rainforest d. were sold to immigrants to build their farms on 3. The First Nations of the Great Bear Rainforest found themselves unwittingly supporting the destruction of the land that was their home because: a. settlers assumed that the fish, fur and timber were theirs b. their traditions had been banned c. the only jobs were in canneries d. they relied on the Europeans’ resource development for their jobs 4. In reaction to being packed away on reserves, the First Nations of BC: a. formed a politcal party b. accepted the changes that were imposed on them c. protested and lobbied political representatives d. burned settlers’ cabins and destroyed their property 5. In 2001, First Nations living in the Great Bear Rainforest: a. formed a federal political party b. were recognized as governments c. voted for the first time in federal elections d. sued the Canadian government to get their rights back e. none of the above 6. First Nations children in residential schools were punished for: a. singing their families’ songs b. practicing their own religion c. speaking their own languages d. all of the above18  www.text2reader.com
    • Exercise 2B: When Your Identity Is Taken Away If it wasn’t already enough for First Nations people to be pulled off their lands and resettled on reserves that were inadequate to provide for their needs, many of their children were taken from home and sent to residential schools, where they were forced to turn their back on their culture. Part A: Learn more aboutwhat kids had to deal deal in the residential school system. Learn more about what kids had to with with in the residential school system.1. Go to the T2R website. Read the CBC story called “A History of Residential Schools in Canada.”2. Imagine that you’ve been scooped up and sent away to school, far from your family. You aren’t allowedto listen to your music. No Internet or chatting with friends on Facebook. You have to wear totally differentclothes. You can’t speak your native language anymore—you have to learn a new one. You’re not allowed towrite to your parents unless it’s in the new language (which they can’t speak). And you have to do everythingyour teachers say, whether you like it or not—or else you’ll be beaten.Now, with a partner or in a small group, discuss the following questions: a. What would be the hardest thing about residential school? b. How would you feel if this was your reality? c. How conflicted would you feel when you returned home for the summer having been brainwashed by your school that your culture and language—even your parents—were stupid and backwards? d. Why was it so hard for these kids to grow up and lead healthy lives? e. Why is our identity so important to us? Part B: Figure our your own identity. (Lucky for you, no one’s going togoing away.) it away.) Figure our your own identity. (Lucky for you, no one’s take it to take1. Make a self-portrait. Do this on the computer, by hand, with clay, in glass mosaic, with Styrofoam andlentils…you get the idea. However you like!2. On your self-portrait, label all the things about yourself that make you unique and that are different fromother people.3. Label things that are important to you and your family, community and friends. Part C: Have someone elsereveal your identity to the class. class. Have someone else reveal your identity to the1. Explain your self-portrait to a partner.2. Now listen as your partner explains her self-portrait to you.3. Each of you will present the other partner’s self-portrait to the class. (This is an exercise in listening carefullyto what other people say!) Nonfiction • Text2Reader April 2012   19
    • Exercise 2C: The Potlach—Understanding a Cultural Icon Since time before memory, the First Nations held potlatches—sacred cultural ceremonies where they sang, gave gifts and danced with ceremonial masks. But soon after European settlers arrived in Canada, the government banned potlatches. Read about it below [excerpted from Nowhere Else on Earth]. Banning the Potlatch In 1884, the potlatch was banned by the government of Canada. A potlatch is a sacred cultural feast that can go on for days. Stories are told, masks are danced and the host family gives gifts to everyone who attends. The wealth and status of the host family is judged not by how much they have but by how much they give away. Potlatches are held to mark major events like births, deaths, the transfer of names and other important community business. These gatherings are so important to First Nations that even after they were banned, people would travel great distances to hold potlatches in secret. Those who got caught were put in jail, and their ceremonial masks were taken away and sold to museums. It wasn’t until 1951 that First Nations were legally able to hold potlatches once again. Doesn’t sound very fair, does it? Learn more about this important First Nations tradition. Visit www.text2reader.com for links to the BC Archives, First Nations band websites and YouTube videos of this important event. Potlatch may not be a tradition in your culture, but chances are you celebrate events that have special significance. On the lines below, describe one such celebration. What would your community’s reaction be if government suddenly banned this celebration—and jailed you if you got caught partying?20  www.text2reader.com
    • 3. graphic novel This graphic novel excerpt is from Dalen & Gole: Scandal in Port Angus by Mike Deas (Orca Book Publishers, 2011). Dalen and Gole are refugees on Earth in a race against time to save their home planet from an evil plot. With seconds to the finish line, Dalen and Gole lead the distant world of Budap’s annual Junior-Jet Race. Suddenly they are overtaken. Left behind in a cloud of mysterious purple exhaust, they realize something doesn’t add up. Looking for clues, the two friends uncover a tunnel that leads them to Earth. They arrive in Port Angus, once a lively west coast fishing community. In this scene, Dalen and Gole meet face-to-face with…an Earthling. 24 Graphic Novel • Text2Reader April 2012   21
    • 2522  www.text2reader.com
    • Exercise 3A: Making Meaning—Deconstructing the Graphic Novel Remember back in October, when we worked on how to decode the pictures and text in a graphic novel? Dust off your observation skills: we’re gonna do it again!With a partner or in a small group, work your way through the following questions. Write your answers inthe spaces below.1. What’s happening in the first panel?2. What do the markings in the girl’s speech bubble mean? How do you know?3. As you see it, why are names the first pieces of information the characters exchange? What’s the significanceof a name, anyway?4. How would you describe Rachel’s emotional state in the ninth panel? What is the reason for her reaction?How can you tell from the picture?5. List three things you know about the guys in suits without even knowing what they’re saying. How canyou tell?6. Do you like reading graphic texts better than other kinds of texts? If you could choose the way you receiveinformation and stories (any way you like), what would be your preferred method? Why? Graphic Novel • Text2Reader April 2012   23
    • Exercise 3B: Making Meaning—Jumping that Language Barrier Ever tried to talk to someone who only speaks a different language? Awkward, isn’t it? People do funny things when they can’t make themselves understood. Sometimes they talk loud; sometimes they smile and laugh; sometimes they’re just too shy or embarrassed, and turn away from a poten- tially interesting encounter. In this activity, you get to exercise your powers of explanation—without a single spoken word. What strategies can you use to convey information to someone who might not understand your words? Write your ideas below. Do this alone or with a partner. 1. Create a story to tell to a younger audience—maybe a younger grade at your school, or a class at your previous school. Your story must be original (i.e., not a recycled fairy tale that the younger kids will recog- nize!). Keep the characters simple, and don’t have too many or it’ll be confusing, because… 2. You’ll be using no language to tell the story. Use only facial expressions, body movement, gesture and props. (Your story must lend itself easily to being told in this way!) Consider each of the above strategies carefully: all of them, from facial expressions to props, are very powerful tools for conveying information. 3. Practice your story with a partner or in front of a mirror. You’ve got to be able to see yourself in order to know whether you’re telling the story clearly. Ask a family member to watch and provide feedback. 4. Tell your story! When you’re finished, talk with your audience to see what their perceptions were. Did they understand the story as you had meant them to? What parts confused them? What would you change if you were to do this activity again? Text Tip Storytelling in front of a group is a great way to practice public speaking and make yourself heard. Which, of course, boosts your confidence. And which, in turn, boosts the chances that people will actually listen to you when you speak. All this…from just a little bit of theater.24  www.text2reader.com
    • 4. DIGITAL NATION PEOPLE, TECH, NEWSExperts can’t agree whether video games are good or bad for developing minds. This month,Digital Nation separates truth…from fantasy. Video Games: Are They Really So Bad for You? Here’s something to tell your dad next time he’s beaking at you that all your gaming’s going to rot your brain. A 2009 report from the European parliament concluded that video games may actually be—gasp—good for you. Mortal Kombat = More Creativity? Evidence from recent studies by psychology and computer gaming experts in France, the Neth- erlands, the United States and Germany shows that gaming can teach young people essential life skills like creativity, strategic and innovative thinking, and cooperation. Even better, the same research suggests that Game Stats (2009) schools should use more games in the classroom! • 97% of teens play video games Research in 2009 found that when girls played Tetris for • boys play more often and for a half an hour a day, their brains showed growth in the areas of longer period language, reasoning and critical thinking. Racing games in • the most popular game type particular help to strengthen math skills. And all that time is racing games, at 74% • 21% play massive multiplayer down in Sim City? It’s helping you develop your planning and online games (MMOGs) strategic thinking skills! But What About Violent Crime? In 1999, high school students Eric Harris and Dylan Klebold went on a shooting rampage in a US high school in Columbine, Colorado. Along with other pastimes, both boys played violent video games. The shootings sparked major public debate about whether the games were partly to blame. But violent crimes like Columbine—while incredibly scary and sad—tend to be very rare, not to mention supersized by endless media coverage. While popular culture tends to point its finger to graphic video games as contributing to violent crime among youth, those find- ings just don’t stand up in the face of the evidence. Video games—even the violent type—don’t necessarily correlate with increased levels of aggression. Despite the occasional headliner, FBI statistics show violent crime has been declining among teenagers over the past decade and a half. Digital Nation • Text2Reader April 2012   25
    • Sitting at Death’s Doorstep?OK, so we know video games aren’t In fact, some researchers think playing violent video games is a good way for over-going to rot your brain. But what stressed teens to blow off steam in a world that’s increasingly intense and turbulent.about your body? What does all Games let kids escape their everyday woes and allow them to imagine that theythat sitting still do to you? actually have some power in this world. Another positive? Any negative effects of Lots, according to experts. And violent video games seem to be wiped away entirely if the game is played coopera-none of it is good. First off, researchshows that people who sit for most of tively, with friends or family members.the day are at a 54 per cent greaterrisk of having a heart attack. Not “Look at World of Warcraft: You’ve got 11-year-olds who are learning tome, you think. I’m just a teenager. delegate responsibility, promote teamwork and steer groups of people Guess what? The findings apply toward a common goal.”to everyone aged 13 and over. —Ian Bogost, associate professor at the Georgia Institute of Technology If having your ticker kick isn’t and founder of software maker Persuasive Games.bad enough, consider that the moresedentary you are, the harder it isto keep your body in shape. And if Remember, This Is Virtual Reality, Peopleyour body isn’t fit, your brain isn’t It’s not all fun in the land of games. Video games do have their drawbacks. One ofbalanced—and your moods will be them is that they consistently portray sexual stereotypes: buff guys with big bicepsall out of whack. (Remember the and large-breasted women wearing hardly any clothing. Even worse, female charac-anxiety and depression we men- ters tend to have little power, relying on male characters to “save” them from harm.tioned a couple paragraphs back?) Not exactly the way things roll in the real world, where more girls graduate with Finally, your friendships (and post-secondary degrees than guys.familyships!) could suffer. Time youspend with the gaming console is Other research has found that, while video games might not lead to violenttime away from face-to-face interac- behavior, they can correlate with depression and anxiety. Kids who game a lot aretion with other people. While games at risk of experiencing less satisfying relationships with their parents—and lowerare evolving to be more social in na- marks at school.ture—you can play with fifteen other And lastly, some people think it’s not so good that video games have built-inpeople online, or with a few friends rewards. There’s always action, and there’s always something to achieve. Whereasin your basement, for example— real life? Well, it’s not always so exciting. Some worry that kids might end up prefer-we’re still naturally wired to spend ring to spend more time in the electronic ether than in the real world.time talking and just hanging out.At the end of the day, positive rela- Coming in next month’s Digital Nation:tionships with others are what keepus happy. If you have to choose, From Roots to Fruit:choose face time over screen time. How Apple Grew Into What It Is Today Words in Text: Glossary delegate: to assign something to another person correlate: a statistical relationship between two sets who has the ability to do it of information where the action of one has an impact on the action of another. For example, sitting in front strategic thinking: thinking about how actions of a fire correlates with having warm feet! now will impact future outcomes turbulent: always changing, never predictable innovative thinking: thinking of new and useful ideas anxiety: an unpleasant feeling of fear or concern 26  www.text2reader.com
    • Exercise 4A: Looking for Answers Answer the following questions using complete sentences.1. What proportion of teens play video games?2. List four benefits of playing video games.3. Explain why some people think video games correlate with more violent behavior among youth.4. How does gaming put your body at risk?5. Explain how video games are not a realistic representation of the real world.6. List four drawbacks of playing video games.7. What’s your knowledge of video games? Do you play? What do you like about them? Digital Nation • Text2Reader April 2012   27
    • Exercise 4B: Making Connections—Assuming an Identity Everybody wants to be somebody else some of the time. Else why would we get so deep into video games? Or buy costumes at Halloween? Or act in movies? Or tell people we can do a 360 pop shuvit when really…we can’t even ollie yet? Think about an identity you’ve assumed that isn’t actually yours. (Don’t think you’ve done it? Don’t be so sure. Wasn’t that you jumping off the sofa in the red cape and blue pajama bottoms about eight years ago?) Maybe you pretended to be a princess when you were little, or maybe you’ve created an avatar that you use every day in World of Warcraft. Whoever you have been, use the lines below to describe the character whose identity you’ve assumed. Remember in Dalen & Gole, when the aliens meet Rachel? The first thing they establish is their names—be- cause names are such an important part of our identity. Think about your name. Like it? Hate it? Have you ever wished you could have a different name than the one you have now? Explain. Write about the advantages of taking on a different identity. When is it a safe thing to do? When does assuming a different identity cross the line and become a bad idea?28  www.text2reader.com
    • 5. readers theater Dalen & Gole: Scandal in Port Angus, by Mike Deas Assessment Rubric: Readers Theater Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 (Approaching) (Meeting) (Exceeding) VOLUME Speaks too softly (or Usually speaks loudly Consistently speaks too loudly) for enough for audience to loudly enough for audience to hear hear audience to hear CLARITY Many words pro- Most words are pro- Words are pronounced nounced incorrectly, nounced correctly and correctly and are easily too fast or slow; are easily understood understood mumbling READS WITH Reads with little or no Usually reads with Consistently reads with EXPRESSION expression appropriate expression appropriate expressionREADS IN TURN Rarely takes turns on a Takes turns accurately Takes turns accurately consistent basis on a somewhat consis- on a consistent basis tent basis COOPERATES Difficulty in working Sometimes works well Consistently works well WITH GROUP with others with others with others Readers Theater • Text2Reader April 2012   29
    • Exercise 5A: Readers Theater “There’s Something Fishy in Budap” The following scene is adapted from Chapter 1 of Dalen & Gole: Scandal in Port Angus, by Mike Deas (Orca Book Publishers, 2011). Cast of Characters (in order of appearance): Narrator Tunax: an alien who wins the annual Junior Jet-Racer Competition through suspicious means Tunax’s father (“Father”): a business guy who uses whatever tactics he must to get ahead Dalen: a young, naive alien who looks up to Tunax as a leader Gole: Dalen’s friend, who is suspicious of Tunax’s sudden racing abilities—and of Tunax’s character in general Scene Summary Dalen and Gole are competing in the annual Junior Jet-Racer Competition. As they near the finish line, they’re literally blown away by Tunax, one of their peers. Tunax may have won the race, but Gole thinks something’s fishy about the purple exhaust that was coming from his tailpipe. None of the other jet-racers have purple exhaust! Dalen agrees to put the winner’s jet-racer away so that Tunax can revel in a finish line photo shoot. Gole goes along so he can have a closer look at the garage where Tunax keeps his stuff. Maybe he’ll find some answers there. Narrator: It’s a beautiful day in Budap—perfect weather for the annual Junior Jet-Racer Competition. Dalen and his best friend, Gole, are stoked and ready to win. In fact, as they close in on the last few meters of the race, it looks like it’s going to be in the bag for both of them. Until… All: [noise of engines; one gradually becomes louder, as though it’s passing the others] Aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa… Dalen: Huh? Gole: What just happened? Narrator: As Dalen and Gole pull up to the finish line, the crowd goes nuts. All for Tunax, one of their so-called friends.30  www.text2reader.com
    • All: [wild cheering]Dalen: What a racer!Gole: He shot right past us. How’d he do that?Dalen: I don’t know, but I’m impressed!Gole: Dalen, that race was totally ours. What’s with that purple smoke that came out of Tunax’s jet-racer?Dalen: I don’t know about that, either. But he won, and we didn’t.Gole: Yeah, but...Dalen: [exasperated] Gole, don’t be a sore loser. Tunax won, fair and square. Now, I’m going to go congratulate him. You coming?Gole: [under his breath] Fair and square my butt. [then louder] You go ahead, Dalen. I’ll catch up with you later.Dalen: Okay, suit yourself.Narrator: Dalen moves off toward the group gathered around Tunax.Dalen: Hey, Tunax!Father: [to Tunax] Wonderful race, son. You make me proud.Tunax: Thanks, Dad.Father: You’re just like me, my boy. A winner at any cost.Gole: [under his breath] You can say that again.Dalen: Hey, Tunax!Tunax: [looking around] Oh, hey, Dalen.Dalen: That was an amazing race. Congratulations!Tunax: Yeah, uh, thanks, Dalen. Uh, can you move back a little bit? You’re kind of in the photo. Readers Theater • Text2Reader April 2012   31
    • Dalen: Oh, sure, sure. Sorry about that. Tunax: Actually, can you do me a favor and put my jet-racer in the garage? Dalen: Of course! No problem! Thanks, Tunax. I’ll do that right now. Father: [laughing] No sense wasting your time on the trivial tasks, my boy. The more you win, the more people you’ll find who are eager to help you. Narrator: Dalen walks away to get Tunax’s jet-racer, trying to decide whether he should be feeling happy…or whether he just got kicked in the stomach. Gole: [catching up to Dalen] Dalen, what are you doing? Dalen: Tunax is letting me put his jet-racer away in the garage. Gole: He’s “letting” you put it away? Dalen, are you on drugs? The guy can put it away himself. Why are you letting him boss you around like this? Dalen: He’s not bossing me around. He’s my friend. And I want to help him. Gole: Um, friends don’t take advantage of each other like that, Dalen. And besides, Tunax is a cheater. Dalen: A cheater? What are you talking about? Narrator: Dalen and Gole enter the garage area and proceed down a long hallway filled with doors. Gole: Come on. How did he pass us right at the end of the race? He must’ve cheated. No regular jet-racer can possibly go that fast. And what’s up with the purple smoke? Narrator: As Gole rants against Tunax, Dalen searches for the door to Tunax’s garage. Gole: I don’t trust him, Dalen. Dalen: [ignoring Gole] Hm. Now which one is Tunax’s garage? Ah, here it is. Narrator: Dalen presses a large green button and the door slides open: sssssshhhhiff. The two stand at the entrance and take it all in. Dalen: Holy fritos, it’s huge in here!32  www.text2reader.com
    • Gole: Yeah. Maybe if we look around we can find a clue about what he’s up to with that purple smoke.Dalen: [heading toward the back, towing the jet-racer behind him] Gole, dude. Give it a rest. Why are you so suspicious?Gole: He must have used something illegal to make his racer go ultrafast. He never races fair. He always has to win…just like his dad.Dalen: What do you have against Tunax’s father?Gole: The guy didn’t get rich being honest, Dalen. His huge factory put my dad’s shop out of business!Narrator: Dalen finds a spot to park the jet-racer and begins tying it up.Gole: Anyway, why are you so intent on defending Tunax?Dalen: I’m not! He’s just a great racer. Let’s just drop it, okay? And get out of here.Gole: [looking toward the back of the garage] Just a sec. I want to look around a bit before we go.Narrator: Gole grabs a toolbox on wheels.Gole: Well, look at that. This toolbox moves!Dalen: Gole, come on. I don’t want to get busted for snooping.Narrator: Gole ignores Dalen. He slides the toolbox to the side and discovers…Gole: A secret door!Dalen: [whispering] What?! What do you mean, a secret door? [peering over his shoulder] I think we should just leave. NOW, Gole.Gole: Whoa. Check it out. You’re not gonna believe this. Readers Theater • Text2Reader April 2012   33
    • Exercise 5B: Extending the Learning—Script It! If you like watching movies, you appreciate the value of a well-written script. How cool would it be to be able to write your own? It’s easier than you think—especially when you use a story that already exists. Here’s a step-by-step guide to creating your own script: 1. Think of a book where the characters talk a lot. Scripting is easier if you use a story that’s already rich in dialogue. Graphic novels are great for this, as the story is pretty much exclusively told through dialogue and images. 2. Choose a section of the story that: • takes about three to five minutes to read out loud; • has three or more people talking (group conversations make for more interesting Readers Theaters than dyads); • involves action, conflict or an interesting issue. Don’t script a boring conversation about what the characters are having for dinner that night! 3. Rewrite the scene(s) using the dialogue that already exists. Add more if you like. You can also add narrative (to be read by a Narrator) if it helps the audience understand where the characters are or what they’re doing. Don’t have enough characters? Characters not saying enough? You can add more lines, or even more characters. In the script from Dalen & Gole, we gave Tunax’s dad more lines than he actually has in the book. 4. Add sound effects and stage instructions where necessary. Sound effects make a story fun to read and listen to, while stage instructions [in square brackets] help the performers know how they’re supposed to read a certain section. 5. Rehearse it. As a group, decide whether you need to add more narrative to explain the scene, or whether you need to tweak any of the characters’ words to make it work. Consider the script a work in progress: in the real world, as movies and TV shows are shot, writers are constantly making adjustments to the script to make a scene work better. 6. Take it to the next level, and film your group’s performance. Up to you whether you post it on YouTube or your class website!34  www.text2reader.com
    • Want to know more about the topics covered in this issue of Text2Reader?Here’s a list of resources related to what we covered in this issue of Text2Reader. Visit the T2R website foreven more web links.FictionBat-Ami, Miriam. Two Suns in the Sky. Puffin, 2001.Crowley, Suzanne. The Stolen One. Greenwillow Books, 2009.Crutcher, Chris. Whale Talk. Laurel Leaf, 2002.Hidier, Tanuja. Born Confused. Scholastic, 2003.O’Donnell, Liam and Mike Deas. Wild Ride. Orca Book Publishers, 2007.Sanchez, Alex. Bait. Simon & Schuster, 2009.Walters, Eric. Special Edward. Orca Book Publishers, 2009.NonfictionGeorge, Chief Earl Maquinna. Living on the Edge: Nuu-Chah-Nulth History from an Ahousaht Chief ’s Perspective. Sono Nis Press, 2003.Hoose, Phillip. It’s Our World, Too! Stories of Young People Who Are Making a Difference. Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2002.McAllister, Ian, and Nicholas Read. The Salmon Bears—Giants of the Great Bear Rainforest. Orca Book Publishers, 2010.Web & VideoFirst NationsFirst Nations in Canada: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/First_NationsCoastal Guardian Watchmen Network: www.coastguardianwatchmen.caFirst Contact—First Nations and European Settlers Meet:www.bcarchives.gov.bc.ca/exhibits/timemach/galler07/frames/contact.htmSelf Esteem and IdentitySelf Esteem: http://kidshealth.org/teen/your_mind/emotions/self_esteem.html Text2Reader April 2012   35
    • Answer Keys for Exercise 2A: Looking for AnswersShort Answer1. The first Europeans to claim BC’s land as their own were the Spanish.2. When the European settlers arrived, they treated the land as if it was their own. They didn’t ask permission from the FirstNations who were living there, and the First Nations never agreed to share their land. First Nations were moved onto smallreserves so that the white settlers could build farms on traditional lands.3. After the Canadian government had moved the First Nations onto their reserves, they sold off the land to the settlers sothey could build their farms there.4. Two problems the First Nations faced on reserves are: A. They could no longer feed their families from the land they lived on B. The reserves were too small to provide work5. Some chiefs tried to resolve the issue by speaking to politicians in Victoria, and then Ottawa. Some even went to speak withthe Queen in England. But it was no use.6. The First Nations people ended up helping settlers decimate their native lands because they had little choice other than towork for the settlers. And since most of the settlers’ work involved exploiting the natural resources (fish, fur and forests), theFirst Nations were forced to take jobs extracting those resources.7. In 2001 the First Nations in the Great Bear Rainforest were recognized as governments with the authority and right tomake decisions about land use.Answer Key for Exercise 2A: Looking for AnswersMultiple Choice 1. d 2. a 3. d 4. c 5. b 6. dAnswer Key for Exercise 4A: Looking for AnswersShort Answer1. 97% of teens play video games.2. Four benefits of playing video games are: A. better innovative thinking B. better cooperation C. better strategic thinking D. they promote creativity3. Playing video games does not lead to increased violence among young people. FBI statistics show the rate of violent crimeis decreasing. Some experts even think playing violent games is a healthy way to blow off steam.4. Gaming is bad for your body because you sit to do it, and too much sitting makes you unhealthy, overweight and possiblydepressed.5. Video games don’t accurately represent male and female bodies (or abilities), and they always give rewards, whereas day-to-day life doesn’t.6. Four drawbacks to playing video games: A. they possibly contribute to depression and anxiety B. they correlate with lower school marks C. they correlate with worse parental relationships D. being sedentary doubles your chance of having a heart attack7. Answers vary.36  www.text2reader.com