Situa&onal Leadership • Situa&onal leadership stresses that leadership is composed of both a direc&ve and a suppor&ve dimension, and that each has to be applied appropriately in a given situa&on. To determine what is needed in a par&cular situa&on, a leader must evaluate her or his employees and assess how competent and commi.ed they are to perform a given task. Based on the assump9on that employees’ skills and mo9va9on vary over 9me, situa9onal leadership suggests that leaders should change the degree to which they are direc9ve or suppor9ve to meet the changing needs of subordinates. In brief, the essence of situa&onal leadership demands that leaders match their style to the competence and commitment of the subordinates. Eﬀec&ve leaders are those who can recognize what employees need and then adapt their own style to meet those needs. (2009-‐10-‐06). • Leadership: Theory and Prac&ce (Kindle Loca&ons 1717-‐1724). Sage Publica&ons -‐ A. Kindle Edi&on.
Deﬁni&on of Leadership Style • Leadership style consists of the behavior paZern of a person who aZempts to inﬂuence others. • Source: Leadership: Theory and Prac&ce (Kindle Loca&ons 1732-‐1733). Sage Publica&ons -‐ A. Kindle Edi&on.
Categories of Behaviors • Direc&ng = Set goals and &melines by one-‐way communica&on ( “ I tell you”) • Suppor&ng = Make team members feel comfortable ( emo&onal and knowledge support) ( “ We both agree”) NOT I tell you what to do. • Diﬀerent situa&ons command diﬀerent behavioral styles. Leaders take diﬀerent behavior style to inﬂuence followers. When mo&ves and incen&ves change and when the dynamics of situa&on change, leaders take on diﬀerent styles.
Factors determining situa&ons • In a given situa&on, the ﬁrst task for a leader is to determine the nature of the situa&on. Ques&ons such as the following must be addressed: What task are subordinates being asked to perform? How complex is the task? Are the subordinates suﬃciently skilled to accomplish the task? Do they have the desire to complete the job once they start it? Answers to these ques&ons will help leaders to iden&fy correctly the speciﬁc developmental level at which their subordinates are func&oning. For example, new employees who are very excited but lack understanding of job requirements would be iden&ﬁed as D1-‐level employees. Conversely, seasoned workers with proven abili&es and great devo&on to a company would be iden&ﬁed as func&oning at the D4 level. • Source: Leadership: Theory and Prac&ce (Kindle Loca&ons 1778-‐1783). Sage Publica&ons -‐ A. Kindle Edi&on.
Summary • In short, con&ngency theory is concerned with styles and situa&ons. It provides the framework for eﬀec&vely matching the leader and the situa&on. (2009-‐10-‐06). Leadership: Theory and Prac&ce (Kindle Loca&ons 2111-‐2113). Sage Publica&ons -‐ A. Kindle Edi&on.
Con&gency Theory Leadership style Con&gency Theory Situa&onal Variables
Leadership Style Related to Con&gency Theory • Task-‐oriented leadership à leaders who focus on the comple&on of tasks/ “ I want this to get done” • Rela&onship-‐oriented leadership à leaders who focus on building good rela&ons/ “ I want rela&onship to be good and focused, and tasks will come later or they will be ﬁnished later which they might not be”. • Thai leaders’ style focus on rela&onship ﬁrst and task will be ﬁnished later.
Situa&onal Variables • Con&ngency theory suggests that situa&ons can be characterized in terms of three factors: leader-‐member rela&ons, task structure, and posi&on power (Figure 6.1). • Source: . Leadership: Theory and Prac&ce (Kindle Loca&ons 2119-‐2120). Sage Publica&ons -‐ A. Kindle Edi&on.
Path Goal Theory : Leaders, Mo&va&ons and Objec&ves • Path Goal theory is about how leaders mo&vate subordinates to accomplish designated goals. • The stated goal of this leadership theory is to enhance employee performance and employee sa&sfac&on by focusing o employee mo&va&on. (2009-‐10-‐06). Leadership: Theory and Prac&ce (Kindle Loca&ons 2342-‐2343). Sage Publica&ons -‐ A. Kindle Edi&on. • Source: Leadership Theory and Prac&ce (Kindle Loca&ons 2339-‐2340). Sage Publica&ons -‐ A. Kindle Edi&on.
Basic Path-‐ Goal Figure • According to House and Mitchell (1974), leadership generates mo&va&on when it increases the number and kinds of payoﬀs that subordinates receive from their work. Leadership also mo&vates when it makes the path to the goal clear and easy to travel through coaching and direc&on, removing obstacles and roadblocks to aZaining the goal, and making the work itself more personally sa&sfying (Figure 7.1). Figure 7.1 The Basic Idea Behind Path-‐Goal Theory (2009-‐10-‐06). Leadership: Theory and Prac&ce (Kindle Loca&ons 2351-‐2355). Sage Publica&ons -‐ A. Kindle Edi&on.
Basic Path-‐ Goal Theory “ You deﬁne goal and path you want to mo&vate employees and their behavior and you provide support along the way
How Does the Path and Goal Work? “ You don’t need to believe this” It is from survey but it is not for every case”
To Apply Path-‐Goal Theory • A leader must carefully assess the subordinates and their tasks, and then choose an appropriate leadership style to match those characteris&cs. If subordinates are feeling insecure about doing a task, the leader needs to adopt a style that builds subordinate conﬁdence. For example, in a university seong where a junior faculty member feels apprehensive about his or her teaching and research, a department chair should give suppor&ve leadership. By giving care and support, the chair helps the junior faculty member gain a sense of conﬁdence about his or her ability to perform the work (Bess & Goldman, 2001). • Source: Leadership: Theory and Prac&ce (Kindle Loca&ons 2513-‐2518). Sage Publica&ons -‐ A. Kindle Edi&on.
Leadership –Member Exchange Theory Ajarn Orapak Suwanapakdee
LMX Theory • Leader-‐member exchange (LMX) theory takes s&ll another approach and conceptualizes leadership as a process that is centered on the interac&ons between leaders and followers. (2009-‐10-‐06). • Before LMX theory, researchers treated leadership as something leaders did toward all of their followers. This assump&ons implied that leaders treated followers in a collec&ve way, as a group, using an average leader-‐ ship style. LMX theory challenged this assump&on and directed researchers’ aZen&on to the diﬀerences that might exist between the leader and each of the leader’s followers. • Leadership: Theory and Prac&ce (Kindle Loca&ons 2724-‐2726). Sage Publica&ons -‐ A. Kindle Edi&on. Leadership: Theory and Prac&ce (Kindle Loca&ons 2721-‐2722). Sage Publica&ons -‐ A. Kindle Edi&on.
Dyadic Rela&onship: “ The rela&onship that is based on two”