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Situational leadership, contigency Theory, Path and Goal Theory

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  • 1. Situa&onal  Leadership  Con&gency  Theory  Path  Goal  Theory  Leader  –  Member  Exchange  Theory     By   Ajarn  Orapak  Suwanapakdee    
  • 2. Situa&onal  Leadership    Ajarn  Orapak  Suwanapakdee    
  • 3. Situa&onal  Leadership    •  Situa&onal  leadership  stresses  that  leadership  is  composed  of  both   a  direc&ve  and  a  suppor&ve  dimension,  and  that  each  has  to  be   applied  appropriately  in  a  given  situa&on.  To  determine  what  is   needed  in  a  par&cular  situa&on,  a  leader  must  evaluate  her  or  his   employees  and  assess  how  competent  and  commi.ed  they  are  to   perform  a  given  task.  Based  on  the  assump9on  that  employees’   skills  and  mo9va9on  vary  over  9me,  situa9onal  leadership   suggests  that  leaders  should  change  the  degree  to  which  they  are   direc9ve  or  suppor9ve  to  meet  the  changing  needs  of   subordinates.      In  brief,  the  essence  of  situa&onal  leadership   demands  that  leaders  match  their  style  to  the  competence  and   commitment  of  the  subordinates.  Effec&ve  leaders  are  those  who   can  recognize  what  employees  need  and  then  adapt  their  own  style   to  meet  those  needs.    (2009-­‐10-­‐06).  •   Leadership:  Theory  and  Prac&ce  (Kindle  Loca&ons  1717-­‐1724).   Sage  Publica&ons  -­‐  A.  Kindle  Edi&on.    
  • 4. Situa&onal  Leadership  Model    
  • 5. Defini&on  of  Leadership  Style  •  Leadership  style  consists  of  the  behavior   paZern  of  a  person  who  aZempts  to  influence   others.      •  Source:  Leadership:  Theory  and  Prac&ce   (Kindle  Loca&ons  1732-­‐1733).  Sage   Publica&ons  -­‐  A.  Kindle  Edi&on.    
  • 6. Categories  of  Behaviors  •  Direc&ng  =  Set  goals  and  &melines  by  one-­‐way   communica&on  (  “  I  tell  you”)  •  Suppor&ng  =    Make  team  members  feel   comfortable  (  emo&onal  and  knowledge  support)   (  “  We  both  agree”)  NOT  I  tell  you  what  to  do.    •  Different  situa&ons  command  different   behavioral  styles.  Leaders  take  different  behavior   style  to  influence  followers.  When  mo&ves  and   incen&ves  change  and  when  the  dynamics  of   situa&on  change,  leaders  take  on  different  styles.    
  • 7. Factors  determining  situa&ons    •  In  a  given  situa&on,  the  first  task  for  a  leader  is  to  determine  the   nature  of  the  situa&on.  Ques&ons  such  as  the  following  must  be   addressed:  What  task  are  subordinates  being  asked  to  perform?   How  complex  is  the  task?  Are  the  subordinates  sufficiently  skilled  to   accomplish  the  task?  Do  they  have  the  desire  to  complete  the  job   once  they  start  it?  Answers  to  these  ques&ons  will  help  leaders  to   iden&fy  correctly  the  specific  developmental  level  at  which  their   subordinates  are  func&oning.  For  example,  new  employees  who   are  very  excited  but  lack  understanding  of  job  requirements  would   be  iden&fied  as  D1-­‐level  employees.  Conversely,  seasoned  workers   with  proven  abili&es  and  great  devo&on  to  a  company  would  be   iden&fied  as  func&oning  at  the  D4  level.  •  Source:  Leadership:  Theory  and  Prac&ce  (Kindle  Loca&ons   1778-­‐1783).  Sage  Publica&ons  -­‐  A.  Kindle  Edi&on.    
  • 8. Con&gency  Theory    Ajarn  Orapak  Suwanapakdee    
  • 9. Summary    •  In  short,  con&ngency  theory  is  concerned  with   styles  and  situa&ons.  It  provides  the   framework  for  effec&vely  matching  the  leader   and  the  situa&on.    (2009-­‐10-­‐06).  Leadership:   Theory  and  Prac&ce  (Kindle  Loca&ons   2111-­‐2113).  Sage  Publica&ons  -­‐  A.  Kindle   Edi&on.    
  • 10. Con&gency  Theory    Leadership   style     Con&gency   Theory    Situa&onal   Variables  
  • 11. Leadership  Style  Related  to  Con&gency   Theory  •  Task-­‐oriented  leadership  à  leaders  who  focus  on   the  comple&on  of  tasks/  “  I  want  this  to  get   done”    •  Rela&onship-­‐oriented  leadership  à  leaders  who   focus  on  building  good  rela&ons/  “  I  want   rela&onship  to  be  good  and  focused,  and  tasks   will  come  later  or  they  will  be  finished  later  which   they  might  not  be”.    •  Thai  leaders’  style  focus  on  rela&onship  first  and   task  will  be  finished  later.      
  • 12. Situa&onal  Variables    •  Con&ngency  theory  suggests  that  situa&ons   can  be  characterized  in  terms  of  three  factors:   leader-­‐member  rela&ons,  task  structure,  and   posi&on  power  (Figure  6.1).      •  Source:  .  Leadership:  Theory  and  Prac&ce   (Kindle  Loca&ons  2119-­‐2120).  Sage   Publica&ons  -­‐  A.  Kindle  Edi&on.    
  • 13. LPC  Score    
  • 14. Path  Goal  Theory  Ajarn  Orapak  Suwanapakdee    
  • 15. Path-­‐  Goal  Theory    Path     Goal    
  • 16. Path  Goal  Theory  :   Leaders,  Mo&va&ons  and  Objec&ves  •  Path  Goal  theory  is  about  how  leaders  mo&vate   subordinates  to  accomplish  designated  goals.      •  The  stated  goal  of  this  leadership  theory  is  to  enhance   employee  performance  and  employee  sa&sfac&on  by   focusing  o  employee  mo&va&on.    (2009-­‐10-­‐06).   Leadership:  Theory  and  Prac&ce  (Kindle  Loca&ons   2342-­‐2343).  Sage  Publica&ons  -­‐  A.  Kindle  Edi&on.    •  Source:  Leadership  Theory  and  Prac&ce  (Kindle   Loca&ons  2339-­‐2340).  Sage  Publica&ons  -­‐  A.  Kindle   Edi&on.    
  • 17. Basic  Path-­‐  Goal  Figure    •  According  to  House  and  Mitchell  (1974),  leadership   generates  mo&va&on  when  it  increases  the  number   and  kinds  of  payoffs  that  subordinates  receive  from   their  work.  Leadership  also  mo&vates  when  it  makes   the  path  to  the  goal  clear  and  easy  to  travel  through   coaching  and  direc&on,  removing  obstacles  and   roadblocks  to  aZaining  the  goal,  and  making  the  work   itself  more  personally  sa&sfying  (Figure  7.1).      Figure   7.1  The  Basic  Idea  Behind  Path-­‐Goal  Theory     (2009-­‐10-­‐06).  Leadership:  Theory  and  Prac&ce  (Kindle   Loca&ons  2351-­‐2355).  Sage  Publica&ons  -­‐  A.  Kindle   Edi&on.    
  • 18. Basic  Path-­‐  Goal  Theory  “  You  define  goal  and  path  you  want   to  mo&vate  employees  and  their   behavior  and  you  provide  support   along  the  way      
  • 19. Major  Components    of  Path  Goal  Theory    
  • 20. How  Does  the  Path  and  Goal  Work?   “  You  don’t  need  to  believe  this”    It  is  from  survey  but  it  is  not  for  every   case”    
  • 21. To  Apply  Path-­‐Goal  Theory    •  A  leader  must  carefully  assess  the  subordinates  and  their   tasks,  and  then  choose  an  appropriate  leadership  style  to   match  those  characteris&cs.  If  subordinates  are  feeling   insecure  about  doing  a  task,  the  leader  needs  to  adopt  a   style  that  builds  subordinate  confidence.  For  example,  in  a   university  seong  where  a  junior  faculty  member  feels   apprehensive  about  his  or  her  teaching  and  research,  a   department  chair  should  give  suppor&ve  leadership.  By   giving  care  and  support,  the  chair  helps  the  junior  faculty   member  gain  a  sense  of  confidence  about  his  or  her  ability   to  perform  the  work  (Bess  &  Goldman,  2001).    •  Source:    Leadership:  Theory  and  Prac&ce  (Kindle  Loca&ons   2513-­‐2518).  Sage  Publica&ons  -­‐  A.  Kindle  Edi&on.    
  • 22. Leadership  –Member  Exchange   Theory     Ajarn  Orapak  Suwanapakdee    
  • 23. LMX  Theory    •  Leader-­‐member  exchange  (LMX)  theory  takes  s&ll  another  approach  and   conceptualizes  leadership  as  a  process  that  is  centered  on  the  interac&ons   between  leaders  and  followers.    (2009-­‐10-­‐06).    •  Before  LMX  theory,  researchers  treated  leadership  as  something  leaders   did  toward  all  of  their  followers.  This  assump&ons  implied  that  leaders   treated  followers  in  a  collec&ve  way,  as  a  group,  using  an  average  leader-­‐ ship  style.  LMX  theory  challenged  this  assump&on  and  directed   researchers’  aZen&on  to  the  differences  that  might  exist  between  the   leader  and  each  of  the  leader’s  followers.    •   Leadership:  Theory  and  Prac&ce  (Kindle  Loca&ons  2724-­‐2726).  Sage   Publica&ons  -­‐  A.  Kindle  Edi&on.  Leadership:  Theory  and  Prac&ce  (Kindle   Loca&ons  2721-­‐2722).  Sage  Publica&ons  -­‐  A.  Kindle  Edi&on.    
  • 24. Dyadic  Rela&onship:    “  The  rela&onship  that  is  based  on   two”    
  • 25. To  be  con&nued  next  &me    
  • 26. References  •  Source  :  Leadership  Theory  and  Prac&ce        by  Peter  Northouse