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Summary : Leadership Styles l Styles are NOT the same as traits and skills. l Traits : PersonaliCes and/or Characters l Skills: ExperCse l Styles à The combinaCon of behaviors directed and arranged towards the compleCon of tasks in a speciﬁc environment. l Leadership style inﬂuenced the outcome although there is no direct evidence in details to conﬁrm. l In diﬀerent Cme and diﬀerent situaCons, leaders need diﬀerent styles. Leader can have various styles in various situaCons. l It is important for leader to understand styles to use in diﬀerent situaCons. It is good if the leader can uClize their nature of their own style to cope up with diﬀerent situaCons.
Leadership Style : AutocraCc 1. Autocra+c leadership l AutocraCc leadership is an extreme form of transacConal leadership, where leaders have absolute power over their workers or team. Staﬀ and team members have liQle opportunity to make suggesCons, even if these would be in the teams or the organizaCons best interest. l Most people tend to resent being treated like this. Therefore, autocraCc leadership oSen leads to high levels of absenteeism and staﬀ turnover. However, for some rouCne and unskilled jobs, the style can remain eﬀecCve because the advantages of control may outweigh the disadvantages. l Example : Steve Jobs ( I need to further explore on this).
Example of AutocraCc Leadership Style l Adolf Hitler, Joseph Stalin and Fidel Castro are examples of the autocraCc leadership style. l Source : Read more: DeﬁniCon of AutocraCc Leadership Style | eHow.com hQp://www.ehow.com/facts_5003230_deﬁniCon-‐autocraCc-‐leadership-‐ style.html#ixzz1iZQIoYg4
Leadership Style : BureaucraCc l 2. Bureaucra+c leadership l BureaucraCc leaders work "by the book." They follow rules rigorously, and ensure that their staﬀ follows procedures precisely. This is a very appropriate style for work involving serious safety risks (such as working with machinery, with toxic substances, or at dangerous heights) or where large sums of money are involved (such as handling cash). l Example: Thai Government Body’s Leadership Style
Leadership Style : CharismaCc l 3. Charisma+c leadership l A charismaCc leadership style can seem similar to transformaConal leadership, because these leaders inspire lots of enthusiasm in their teams and are very energeCc in driving others forward. However, charismaCc leaders can tend to believe more in themselves than in their teams, and this creates a risk that a project, or even an enCre organizaCon, might collapse if the leader leaves. In the eyes of the followers, success is directly connected to the presence of the charismaCc leader. As such, charismaCc leadership carries great responsibility, and it needs a long-‐term commitment from the leader. l Example: Barack Obama, Winston Churchill, Bill Clinton, Mother Teresa and Adolph Hitler. l ( Adapted from : hQp://www.brighthub.com/oﬃce/home/arCcles/76450.aspx )
Leadership Style: DemocraCc / ParcipaCve l 4. Democra+c leadership or par+cipa+ve leadership l Although democraCc leaders make the ﬁnal decisions, they invite other members of the team to contribute to the decision-‐making process. This not only increases job saCsfacCon by involving team members, but it also helps to develop peoples skills. Team members feel in control of their own desCny, so theyre moCvated to work hard by more than just a ﬁnancial reward. l Because parCcipaCon takes Cme, this approach can take longer, but oSen the end result is beQer. The approach can be most suitable when working as a team is essenCal, and when quality is more important than speed to market, or producCvity. l Dwight D. Eisenhower (a Republican no less!). As a military leader, Eisenhower was faced with the diﬃcult task of geqng the Alliance forces to agree on a common strategy. Eisenhower labored hard to make sure everyone worked together to come to a common understanding. This was one of his greatest achievements. It was here that the democraCc leadership style, and collaboraCve eﬀorts, of Eisenhower shone through. The subsequent victory of the Alliance forces back up the correctness of the approach in that parCcular situaCon. l A famous example of a parCcipaCve leader is Donald Trump.
Leadership Style : :Laissez-‐ Faire Leadership l 5. Laissez-‐faire leadership l This French phrase means "leave it be," and its used to describe leaders who leave their team members to work on their own. It can be eﬀecCve if the leader monitors whats being achieved and communicates this back to the team regularly. Most oSen, laissez-‐faire leadership is eﬀecCve when individual team members are very experienced and skilled self-‐starters. Unfortunately, this type of leadership can also occur when managers dont apply suﬃcient control. and the group oSen lacks direcCon because the leader does not help in making decisions. Working for a laissez faire leader gives the followers many opportuniCes to make decisions. However the lack of direcCon can lead to anarchy if it is allowed to remain in place for an extended period of Cme. The quesCon is whether staﬀs have suﬃcient capabiliCes to work or to decide without control or not.
Leadership Style: People-‐Oriented l 6. People-‐oriented leadership or rela+ons-‐oriented leadership l This is the opposite of task-‐oriented leadership. With people-‐oriented leadership, leaders are totally focused on organizing, supporCng, and developing the people in their teams. Its a parCcipaCve style, and it tends to encourage good teamwork and creaCve collaboraCon. l In pracCce, most leaders use both task-‐oriented and people-‐oriented styles of leadership.
Leadership Style: Servant l 7. Servant leadership l This term, created by Robert Greenleaf in the 1970s, describes a leader who is oSen not formally recognized as such. When someone, at any level within an organizaCon, leads simply by meeCng the needs of the team, he or she is described as a "servant leader." l In many ways, servant leadership is a form of democraCc leadership, because the whole team tends to be involved in decision making. l Supporters of the servant leadership model suggest that its an important way to move ahead in a world where values are increasingly important, and where servant leaders achieve power on the basis of their values and ideals. Others believe that in compeCCve leadership situaCons, people who pracCce servant leadership can ﬁnd themselves leS behind by leaders using other leadership styles. l Example: George Washington, Ghandi
Leadership Style: Task-‐ Oriented l 8. Task-‐Oriented leadership l Highly task-‐oriented leaders focus only on geqng the job done, and they can be quite autocraCc. They acCvely deﬁne the work and the roles required, put structures in place, plan, organize, and monitor. However, because task-‐oriented leaders dont tend to think much about the well-‐ being of their teams, this approach can suﬀer many of the ﬂaws of autocraCc leadership, with diﬃculCes in moCvaCng and retaining staﬀ.
Leadership Style: TransacConal l 9. Transac+onal leadership l This style of leadership starts with the idea that team members agree to obey their leader totally when they accept a job. The "transacCon" is usually the organizaCon paying the team members in return for their eﬀort and compliance. The leader has a right to "punish" team members if their work doesnt meet the pre-‐determined standard. l Team members can do liQle to improve their job saCsfacCon under transacConal leadership. The leader could give team members some control of their income/reward by using incenCves that encourage even higher standards or greater producCvity. AlternaCvely, a transacConal leader could pracCce "management by excepCon" – rather than rewarding beQer work, the leader could take correcCve acCon if the required standards are not met. l TransacConal leadership is really a type of management, not a true leadership style, because the focus is on short-‐term tasks. It has serious limitaCons for knowledge-‐based or creaCve work, however it can be eﬀecCve in other situaCons.
Leadership Style: TransformaConal 10. Transforma+onal leadership l As we discussed earlier, people with this leadership style are true leaders who inspire their teams constantly with a shared vision of the future. While this leaders enthusiasm is oSen passed onto the team, he or she can need to be supported by "detail people." Thats why, in many organizaCons, both transacConal and transformaConal leadership are needed. The transacConal leaders (or managers) ensure that rouCne work is done reliably, while the transformaConal leaders look aSer iniCaCves that add new value.
Gandhi’s Leadership Style : TransformaConal Leadership l hQp://th.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E0%B8%A1%E0%B8%AB %E0%B8%B2%E0%B8%95%E0%B8%A1%E0%B8%B2_ %E0%B8%84%E0%B8%B2%E0%B8%99%E0%B8%98%E0%B8%B5 l Ghandi was able to transform the country by using his peaceful protest * not eaCng food for 3 days.
Leadership Style: Ethical Leadership l Doing the right thing
Daniel Goleman’s Leadership Style l In the book “Primal Leadership,” Daniel Goleman, who popularized the noCon of “EmoConal Intelligence,” describes six diﬀerent styles of leadership.
l Visionary. This style is most appropriate when an organizaCon needs a new direcCon. Its goal is to move people towards a new set of shared dreams. “Visionary leaders arCculate where a group is going, but not how it will get there – seqng people free to innovate, experiment, take calculated risks,” write Mr. Goleman and his coauthors. l Coaching. This one-‐on-‐one style focuses on developing individuals, showing them how to improve their performance, and helping to connect their goals to the goals of the organizaCon. Coaching works best, Mr. Goleman writes, “with employees who show iniCaCve and want more professional development.” But it can backﬁre if it’s perceived as “micromanaging” an employee, and undermines his or her self-‐conﬁdence. l Aﬃlia+ve. This style emphasizes the importance of team work, and creates harmony in a group by connecCng people to each other. Mr. Goleman argues this approach is parCcularly valuable “when trying to heighten team harmony, increase morale, improve communicaCon or repair broken trust in an organizaCon.” But he warns against using it alone, since its emphasis on group praise can allow poor performance to go uncorrected. “Employees may perceive,” he writes, “that mediocrity is tolerated.”
l Democra+c. This style draws on people’s knowledge and skills, and creates a group commitment to the resulCng goals. It works best when the direcCon the organizaCon should take is unclear, and the leader needs to tap the collecCve wisdom of the group. Mr. Goleman warns that this consensus-‐building approach can be disastrous in Cmes of crisis, when urgent events demand quick decisions. l PaceseOng. In this style, the leader sets high standards for performance. He or she is “obsessive about doing things beQer and faster, and asks the same of everyone.” But Mr. Goleman warns this style should be used sparingly, because it can undercut morale and make people feel as if they are failing. “Our data shows that, more oSen than not, paceseqng poisons the climate,” he writes. l Commanding. This is classic model of “military” style leadership – probably the most oSen used, but the least oSen eﬀecCve. Because it rarely involves praise and frequently employs criCcism, it undercuts morale and job saCsfacCon. Mr. Goleman argues it is only eﬀecCve in a crisis, when an urgent turnaround is needed. Even the modern military has come to recognize its limited usefulness.
Visionary Leader l The Visionary Leader l The Visionary Leader moves people towards a shared vision, telling them where to go but not how to get there -‐ thus moCvaCng them to struggle forwards. They openly share informaCon, hence giving knowledge power to others. l They can fail when trying to moCvate more experienced experts or peers. l This style is best when a new direcCon is needed. l Overall, it has a very strong impact on the climate.
Coaching Leader l The Coaching Leader l The Coaching Leader connects wants to organizaConal goals, holding long conversaCons that reach beyond the workplace, helping people ﬁnd strengths and weaknesses and tying these to career aspiraCons and acCons. They are good at delegaCng challenging assignments, demonstraCng faith that demands jusCﬁcaCon and which leads to high levels of loyalty. l Done badly, this style looks like micromanaging. l It is best used when individuals need to build long-‐term capabiliCes. l It has a highly posiCve impact on the climate.
AﬃliaCve Leader l The Aﬃlia+ve Leader l The AﬃliaCve Leader creates people connecCons and thus harmony within the organizaCon. It is a very collaboraCve style which focuses on emoConal needs over work needs. l When done badly, it avoids emoConally distressing situaCons such as negaCve feedback. Done well, it is oSen used alongside visionary leadership. l It is best used for healing riSs and geqng through stressful situaCons. l It has a posiCve impact on climate.
DemocraCc Leader l The Democra+c Leader l The DemocraCc Leader acts to value inputs and commitment via parCcipaCon, listening to both the bad and the good news. l When done badly, it looks like lots of listening but very liQle eﬀecCve acCon. l It is best used to gain buy-‐in or when simple inputs are needed ( when you are uncertain). l It has a posiCve impact on climate.
The Pace-‐seOng Leader l The Pace-‐seqng Leader builds challenge and exciCng goals for people, expecCng excellence and oSen exemplifying it themselves. They idenCfy poor performers and demand more of them. If necessary, they will roll up their sleeves and rescue the situaCon themselves. l They tend to be low on guidance, expecCng people to know what to do. They get short term results but over the long term this style can lead to exhausCon and decline. l Done badly, it lacks EmoConal Intelligence, especially self-‐management. A classic problem happens when the star techie gets promoted. l It is best used for results from a moCvated and competent team. l It oSen has a very negaCve eﬀect on climate (because it is oSen poorly done).
The Commanding Leader The Commanding Leader l The Commanding Leader soothes fears and gives clear direcCons by his or her powerful stance, commanding and expecCng full compliance (agreement is not needed). They need emoConal self-‐control for success and can seem cold and distant. l This approach is best in Cmes of crisis when you need unquesConed rapid acCon and with problem employees who do not respond to other methods.
Key Points l While the transformaConal leadership approach is oSen highly eﬀecCve, theres no one "right" way to lead or manage that ﬁts all situaCons. To choose the most eﬀecCve approach for yourself, consider the following: l The skill levels and experience of your team. l The work involved (rouCne, or new and creaCve). l The organizaConal environment (stable or radically changing, conservaCve or adventurous). l You own preferred or natural style. l Good leaders oSen switch insCncCvely between styles, according to the people they lead and the work that needs to be done. Establish trust – thats key to this process – and remember to balance the needs of the organizaCon against the needs of your team.
Source: l hQp://www.brighthub.com/oﬃce/home/arCcles/76450.aspx l hQp://www.money-‐zine.com/Career-‐Development/Leadership-‐Skill/ DemocraCc-‐Leadership/ l hQp://www.nbc.com/the-‐apprenCce/about/hosts/donald-‐trump/ l hQp://www.mindtools.com/ l hQp://www.mindtools.com/ l Leadership Theory and PracCce Textbook by Northouse