Desertification as a term was first used 1949 by the French geographer Andre Aubreville to describe the change in North and equatorial Africa from productive savanna forest, grasslands, and shrub lands into unproductive desert.
In 1977; desertification concept became a worldwide term through the UNCOD conference held in Nairobi which released the first world desertification map in order to announce for this problem in World wide scale.
-To be secure: is to feel free from threats, anxiety or danger.
-A state of the mind in which an individual feels safe from harm by others.
- To acquire amore and more power to escape the impact of power of other’
Label Reference object Value at risk Sources of threats National security The state Sovereignty Territorial Integrity Other state (sub-state actors) Societal security Nations Social groups National Unity Identity States, nations, migrants, alien culture, Human security Individuals Mankind Survival Quality of life State; nature, globalization Environmental security Ecosystems Sustainability Mankind
Desertification exacerbates poverty and political instability. It contributes significantly to water scarcity, famine, the internal displacement of people, migration, and social breakdown. This is a recipe for political instability, for tensions between neighboring countries, and even for armed conflict.
1- Desertification in the Mediterranean Region. A Security Issue: Proceedings of the NATO Mediterranean Dialogue Workshop, held in Valencia, Spain, 2-5 December ... Science Series C: Environmental Security.
2- National strategy and action plan to combat desertification , The Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan. Ministry of Environment 2006.