A human centred approach to mobile payments
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A human centred approach to mobile payments

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A look at the challenges mobile wallets pose for users and where the opportunities exist to add value and increase user adoption by Kelly Ann McKercher.

A look at the challenges mobile wallets pose for users and where the opportunities exist to add value and increase user adoption by Kelly Ann McKercher.

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  • As a user experience designer, I’m most interested in what problems a product can solve, for a user. For this reason, I think purely focusing on usability is the wrong question. Instead I think designing mobile wallets that people can’t wait to use, is about picking the right problems to solve, and executing it well. For users to engage with a product, it has to tell a compelling story about why they need it in their lives. Technologies tend to catch on fast only when they solve a pressing problem. <br /> &lt;number&gt; <br />
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  • What is the first thing you think of when you picture security, in context to your money and personal information? <br /> &lt;number&gt; <br />
  • I’m guessing it’s something concrete - a safe, a bank, the government or perhaps the place within your mattress you store your hard-earned cash. Chances are, you didn’t immediately think of these companies… <br /> &lt;number&gt; <br />
  • These are just some of the parties in the mobile wallet game, or that are vying for a place in it. So what are some of the user challenges? <br /> &lt;number&gt; <br />
  • From a users perspective - Google, Facebook, even our Telco’s are not in the business of looking after our money. We’ve been socialized for a long time to relate financial security to the entity of a bank. Even then, some of us barely trust our banks, let alone a company who shared our private party pictures with the world. <br /> &lt;number&gt; <br />
  • The creators of Zapp, a mobile payment service that works with the users bank, understood this problem. They didn’t just guess they needed to align with financial institutes, they started with research. Surveying 15,000 consumer across 15 markets – they asked “who would you trust most to handle mobile payments?” Not surprisingly, most said banks and financial companies. We know that users are much more likely to experiment with a mobile provided by an institution they trust. This is not to say joint ventures will turn users off, as long as they know their money will be safe as their bank is keeping an eye on it. <br /> &lt;number&gt; <br />
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  • I think this lack of trust, in part is a lack of understanding from users – something that isn’t helped by the flurry of negative media (true or false) around contactless payments (like Visa PayWave) as well as the general lack of information offered by many mobile wallet providers. <br /> &lt;number&gt; <br />
  • General lack of information? Take this example from Westpac, describing their ‘mobile wallet’ trial. What do you think is missing? <br /> &lt;number&gt; <br />
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  • Users have many anxieties. Like, that their money might simply disappear from their mobile wallet when they go near a contactless payment terminal. Whether it’s true or not, this is the challenge you’re up against. You are going to have users who are comfortable and will jump right in – your early adopters, they will not be the ones worried about security. It’s those that are that you should be figuring out how to best design your communications for, how to shift these statistics – like this user. <br /> &lt;number&gt; <br />
  • Chances are that person isn’t you, you are not your user. <br /> &lt;number&gt; <br />
  • It’s Wayne you are focusing on not ‘nigelm’ the likely early adopter. <br /> &lt;number&gt; <br />
  • There’s videos on Youtube about the features of NFC and other contactless payment methods – but I’d like to see that content on mobile wallet providers websites presented in a clear and engaging way for the Wayne’s of the world. You might be sitting there thinking there’s not a lot of them, but being in the business of user testing I could tell you otherwise. <br /> &lt;number&gt; <br />
  • Video can be fantastic medium to educate and answer questions users have. A real missed opportunity here – 1:42 is spent showcasing a user walking around Auckland swiping the smartphone with some funky disco music in the background. This is about experience, not technology. After reading and watching all of the information available to me on this page, none of my ‘what if’s’ have been answered – like the ones we saw on the previous page. Given users are inherently worried about their security, the way we engage and communicate with them in this new space is of fundamental importance. If you don’t work hard to address users concerns through your communications they just aren’t likely to engage with your product. <br /> &lt;number&gt; <br />
  • There is no upfront information on security presented on the page, instead there is a tiny link down the bottom. <br /> &lt;number&gt; <br />
  • Or Square, the last bullet ‘peace of mind’ teases at security information but doesn’t offer users the option to learn more. <br /> &lt;number&gt; <br />
  • Give users sufficient information up front and offer the option to learn more. For those that want allllllllll the information, it’s there. Like this example from Google Wallet – more information is just a click away. They could have improved this even more by bringing the information further up the page where it is more accessible to the user, it’s currently the 5th point on the page. You simply cannot expect users to download something that don’t understand, and are very reasonably anxious about and give it a go. <br /> &lt;number&gt; <br />
  • &lt;number&gt; <br /> Communication with your users should be answering the questions and queries they have about your product. You might know it inside and out, but they don’t. Like this sign, instructing people how to use a light bulb, obvious now, but once upon a time, not so. Don’t become trapped into designing for your early-adopters and neglecting educating the rest of your market. As humans, developing a new habit takes a long time and requires small steps. Be patient with you users, they’ll get it if you help them out. <br />
  • Users will judge it’s security on how it looks – superficial I know. When security is on the line, users hunt for reassurance the thing is secure, often looking for security themed imagery of some type – like padlock or a security companies logo they have seen before on their travels through the web. <br /> &lt;number&gt; <br />
  • People also take the overall experience of using an application, how usable it is, it’s reliability and performance to judge it’s secureness. If the application buggy and glitchy chances are they’ll delete it like a hot potato. When it comes to our money, we don’t want to take risks. <br /> &lt;number&gt; <br />
  • &lt;number&gt; <br /> Part of the challenge is persuading users why the mobile wallet is better than their existing wallet – to alleviate their concerns around security, it has to be safer than cash and plastic. Like being able to lock your wallet for the first time ever! <br />
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  • Marketing messages should not be about blowing your own horn, but educating users. <br /> &lt;number&gt; <br />
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  • For now, work hard to educate users to make sure you don’t simply leave them behind by moving too fast or assuming they know what you know. Remember it’s not the early-adopters you should be designing for and chances are it’s not yourself either. <br /> &lt;number&gt; <br />
  • Approx. a year ago OP-Pohjola (OP POY-OLLA) – the biggest Finnish bank started their efforts to build a mobile wallet. Instead of just building a mobile wallet, they started with qualitative interviews with their customers to find more about what they wanted – 1000 interviews in total. What they found, was not that their customers wanted mobile payments. They liked their plastic [pause] simple, fast and secure in contrast to the prospect of a mobile payment solution. <br /> &lt;number&gt; <br />
  • Understanding these user needs helped them to prioritize their product development to make something meaningful for their customers - instead of just making a mobile wallet for the sake of it. <br /> &lt;number&gt; <br />
  • We have some tools to help us set budgets, liked Sorted. They can be useful, but they are distanced from the context of our everyday spending. A tool like Sorted is great when we sit down and use it, not so great when we are out in the world – spending up large while our budget is tucked away at home. <br /> &lt;number&gt; <br />
  • If you encourage someone abandon cash all together, you also risk taking away the tool many people have to visualize their spending. Cash gives us instant feedback, when it’s gone, it’s gone. I’d argue we are better money managers when we deal with cash. Much harder to do with credit cards and mobile wallets, it’s easy to spend, harder to keep track of our spending. Further still, when you provide an app that doesn’t allow users to see their real-time account balances, you risk distancing them even further from being in control of their spending. When replacing cash, what if instead of taking away peoples ability to visualize spending, we could give them an ever better way to do so? <br /> &lt;number&gt; <br />
  • The real opportunity is convincing people why the digital wallet is better than their existing wallet, it’s improving on cash. Just having a bank account balance, or the users receipts available does not translate into useful insight your user can act on, and change their spending behaviour. <br /> &lt;number&gt; <br />
  • Imagine every morning you head to Mojo, or whatever you prefer, and buy your usual coffee (or tea) – If I asked you how much it cost, you might tell me $4 or $5. A month? Maybe $40-$50 dollars. Let’s now imagine that every time you visited a merchant you could see your spend to date, so that when you come to buy your next cup of coffee you see that you have spent $800 dollars already, this year at that retailer. Would you still be reaching for your latte? <br /> &lt;number&gt; <br />
  • We so often spend without thinking. As Brett King, Moven’s CEO and founder describes “Moven steps between us and our unconscious habits and forces us to think. Instead of being there when we look at our receipts in the middle, or end of the month Moven is there with us in the world and we attempt to spend up large”. Instead of being the ambulance at the bottom of the cliff, Moven has chosen to be the fence on the top. That is putting user needs first. <br /> &lt;number&gt; <br />
  • This is one of Moven’s aspirations taken from their blog. That is putting your users needs first and delivering real value. <br /> &lt;number&gt; <br />
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  • What is the moral of the story so far? Creating kick-ass solutions requires first having a detailed understanding of the problem, not just doing something because it would be cool – or is technically feasible. <br /> &lt;number&gt; <br />
  • If you focus on solutions instead of problems you risk producing something that looks a lot like a solution looking for a problem. That users don’t see value in, because it doesn’t solve a problem they have. Both examples, people already have solutions for. A story about picking the right problems to solve... <br /> &lt;number&gt; <br />
  • In the 80s Procter and Gamble decided they need a new floor cleaner. They put their team to work to design the next big floor cleaner. Turns out they couldn’t do it without creating a detergent so strong it would eat the surface off peoples floors – the chemists had exhausted all the chemical possibilities, no product. Instead of giving up, they engaged a design firm. Instead of thinking about soup and playing scientist, the designers played anthropologist and visited peoples homes to watch them engage in the tedious ritual of cleaning the floor. They took hundreds of hours of people mopping floors. After several months and watching endless people struggle to rinse their mop heads, they found people spent more time cleaning their mop heads then cleaning the floors. An unnecessary difficultly. Out of the insight of discovering a problem people have, was born a design response - the disposable cleaning surface – something that generated $500 million dollars in sales in the first year. They didn’t just guess people would like it, they prototyped it and showed it to people to validate their users saw value in the product. This is known as user-centered design. Engaging in a process of user centered design requires you ditching any assumptions about what you think you’re going to create and instead being open to the insights you learn about your users need. <br /> &lt;number&gt; <br />
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  • Another thing OP-Pohjola (POY-OLLA) found when interviewing their customers, is that people were overwhelmed by the volume of loyalty cards. It’s not that loyalty programs are bad, it is that they often aren&apos;t valuable enough, or used enough to warrant the physical space the card takes up in our wallets. The behavioral of missing out on savings is that we start to turn down loyalty programs as their value is diminished when we can’t experience sufficient points of contact. We are weary to pick another one up and add more clutter to our wallet that we probably won’t use. <br /> &lt;number&gt; <br />
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  • Don’t be fooled into thinking solving the users problem is as simple as just dumping all their loyalty cards into a mobile wallet. The greater challenge here, and the opportunity to really delight users lies in making the collection, and redemption of rewards invisible. This doesn’t mean you can’t remind your users of how much they’ve saved because of your loyalty program – of course that’s important for you as a business to increase loyalty, just ensure you do so in a friendly and non-intrusive way, alternatively - have the cashier remind the user of the savings they’ve made.Take the effort away from the user – don’t make them consciously find a card in their mobile wallet – that’s not solving the problem. <br /> &lt;number&gt; <br />
  • I use my Google wallet to pay, and I get the points. At least that’s what you’d expect given the loyalty cards and my credit cards live in the same place within the mobile wallet, right? <br /> &lt;number&gt; <br />
  • Wrong. Instead, I still have to show the cashier my account information before I tap and pay. Not solving the problem. <br /> &lt;number&gt; <br />
  • Some users may be weary to engage with your mobile wallet due to the fear of being openly bombarded by marketing messages when they go near your stores. Draw a clear line between helpful and intrusive. Talk to your customers to help you draw that line, show them what you are thinking and see how they respond. Most importantly, give people control over what they want to see, when they want to see it. Testing a mobile wallet with them once is not going to cut it, this is something people have to frequently throughout the day, every day. Only when you test with users over time can you pull out some of pain points that come with ongoing usage. <br /> &lt;number&gt; <br />
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  • Know customers probably won’t remember to use your gift card, whether it is in their physical or digital wallet chances are they have tonne. Make collecting and redeeming rewards seamless and invisible for them. <br /> &lt;number&gt; <br />
  • Use situational empathy - don’t interrupt, intrude on, or annoy users, or you can bet if you do they won’t be sticking around for long. Even worse, an experience with obnoxious marketing could turn them off the mobile wallet proposition entirely. <br /> &lt;number&gt; <br />
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  • Imagine you walk into your local electronics store. You’re after an audio cable. You walk in, spend some time locating the product, maybe a friendly sales clerk can direct you straight to it - you go up to the counter, hand over your payment method and walk out of the store. Done. Let’s now imagine instead that instead you chose to do this on your Smartphone, from the comfort of your couch. Easier right? No. <br /> &lt;number&gt; <br />
  • As a retailer, this is the experience you’re providing. We may be moving into a digital space, but much of the mobile web is poorly designed and plain frustrating. In contrast to visiting a store, with the mobile experience you face your users encountering a number of small, but overall significant issues that put them off from completing a transaction. If you’re lucky, your customer-to-be might go to their computer instead…but chances are they give up all together. <br /> &lt;number&gt; <br />
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  • Google understood that m-commerce was a sore point for their users. With Google wallet the user simply clicks ‘buy with Google’… <br /> &lt;number&gt; <br />
  • Information is retrieved directly from the user’s wallet &gt; the user reviews their details and confirms their purchase. Done. In a matter of simple clicks, done. <br /> &lt;number&gt; <br />
  • I wonder…are we focusing on the wrong type of checkout? <br /> &lt;number&gt; <br />
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  • It’s not just automatically making the payment, it’s ditching the creation of multiple accounts with password users can never remember. <br /> &lt;number&gt; <br />
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  • Solve problems for merchants and those who supply payment systems to merchants. <br /> &lt;number&gt; <br />
  • For any new mobile technology to take off and thrive, convenience and value must be abundantly clear to users. I think that users haven’t been quick to adopt solutions so far, because many of the current incarnations just don’t solve a pressing problem that users have. <br /> &lt;number&gt; <br />
  • For a time, due to users concerns about where mobile payments will be accepted and how secure the experience is, users are likely to carry two wallets. Their physical, and digital. Know that when they do this they will constantly be comparing and contrasting the two experiences – one having been around for centuries, that’s use is widely understood and is accepted nearly everywhere. For the mobile wallet to take off, it has to always win in terms of experience. It has to offer more than cash and plastic. <br /> &lt;number&gt; <br />
  • That is why our opening question is so important: what problems can mobile wallets solve for customers? Perhaps as we talked about today it’s helping people shop smarter, safer, or maybe spend more through easier online checkouts. You cannot find a solution until you define the problem. The primary goal of innovation is to solve problems. Innovating lies in creating something unique and different that people see real value in. If you’re not solving somebody’s problem, what&apos;s the point? <br /> &lt;number&gt; <br />
  • You’ll get your insights into peoples problems by getting the wild. It’s watching and talking to people in their natural habit and understanding what is difficult or challenging for them, like Procter and Gamble did with home cleaning – discovering the places you might be able to delight them through meeting their needs in the context of mobile payments. Creating mobile wallets that people want to use is about picking the right problems to solve, and doing it really well - through balancing usability, security and human nature. <br /> &lt;number&gt; <br />
  • The challenge is not technology, it’s experience. <br /> &lt;number&gt; <br />
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  • 1. A human centered approach to mobile payments Optimal Experience Kelly Ann McKercher
  • 2. Allows consumers to store and manage their credit, debit, prepaid, gift, identification and loyalty cards on their smartphone using a single payment application. Mobile wallet
  • 3. What problems can mobile wallets solve for customers?
  • 4. Security Financial wellness Less stuff Simpler checkout
  • 5. Security Financial wellness Less stuff Simpler checkout
  • 6. “Who do I trust with my money?”
  • 7. • The less sharing, the better • Less effort, funds don’t have to be transferred • I can see real-time balances
  • 8. “Can I trust contactless payments?”
  • 9. “Can I trust help me understand contactless payments”
  • 10. “Our exciting new initiative…”
  • 11. “Our exciting new initiative…” “What about my fears?”
  • 12. “What if my battery dies?” “What if I’m on the phone?” “Where can I use it?” “Do I need to be on the internet?”
  • 13. Align with what users trust
  • 14. Understand users fears
  • 15. Communicate the benefits
  • 16. Make it look legit
  • 17. Security Financial wellness Less stuff Simpler checkoutOP-Pohjola
  • 18. “Do I have enough money to pay for this?” “With my rate of spending, will I have enough money for the whole month?”
  • 19. “Budgeting is hard, and boring”
  • 20. “I can’t keep track of what I spend”
  • 21. Add value with personalised insights
  • 22. Put awareness back into spending
  • 23. Make the technology do the work
  • 24. Make it engaging
  • 25. Security Financial wellness Less stuff Simpler checkout
  • 26. “I forget to use loyalty cards and miss out on savings”
  • 27. Invisibility
  • 28. Don’t make users think
  • 29. Give people control
  • 30. Test early and often
  • 31. Security Financial wellness Less stuff Simpler checkout
  • 32. “Buying things on my smartphone is time consuming and fiddly”
  • 33. “I don’t want to sign up for everything!”
  • 34. Streamline purchase flows
  • 35. Ditch creating multiple accounts
  • 36. Allow users to easily edit their info
  • 37. Tell users how easy it is
  • 38. Make it ubiquitous
  • 40. What problems can mobile wallets solve for customers?
  • 41. Thanks.