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The New American Landscape: A New Urbanist's Perspective

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Daniel Parolek's plenary presentation from the Rocky Mountain Land Use Institute's 19th Annual Land Use Conference in Denver, CO on March 4, 2010. This session discussed using New Urbanist principles …

Daniel Parolek's plenary presentation from the Rocky Mountain Land Use Institute's 19th Annual Land Use Conference in Denver, CO on March 4, 2010. This session discussed using New Urbanist principles as a model for creating the “new American landscape”, focusing specifically on New Urbanism’s ability to address community design and sustainability at a variety of scales. It discussed a variety of tools that can be utilized to create a framework for change, including form based codes, the Congress for New Urbanism sustainability initiatives, and LEED for Neighborhood Design.

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  • Wrong building type No street and block or civic space framework
  • Ây
  • Only at staff presentation
  • Wrong building type No street and block or civic space framework
  • Ask audience: How many of you would choose to live here? Do you realize how these places are designed? Implication of density designation= land area x density. Deve says “Get me that.”
  • Wrong building type No street and block or civic space framework
  • Wrong building type No street and block or civic space framework
  • Wrong building type No street and block or civic space framework
  • This typic is ubiquitous in most historic neighborhoods 4 units for two stories, 6 for 3 story is typical
  • Streets and block Blending of building types: Thouses, mews houses, range of sf, courtyard Pedestrian Mews as exception
  • Building Types Plans (blending) Zoning
  • Wrong building type No street and block or civic space framework
  • One of the things Stapleton does best is integrate medium density building types into nhoods
  • Wrong building type No street and block or civic space framework
  • Wrong building type No street and block or civic space framework
  • This typic is ubiquitous in most historic neighborhoods 4 units for two stories, 6 for 3 story is typical
  • Ây
  • Wrong building type No street and block or civic space framework
  • Wrong building type No street and block or civic space framework
  • And also, the Rural-to-Urban Transect. All of these methods have proven not only viable, but truly successful. Many of the most advanced practitioners are using a combination of the above, as all of these concepts are critical to regulating a good place. But, of course, today’s session is specifically on the Transect. Many to most of the codes we’ve seen use the Transect as either the primary organizing principle, or at least as a base educational concept. Yesterday, in the session on organizing principles, there was discussion of whether the Transect is a “requirement” for Form-Based Coding. The simple answer is no. Geoff Ferrell suggested that the Transect is an educational tool, but not necessarily a regulatory tool. But, the reality is that Form-Based Codes have become successful for quite a number of reasons – they are able to regulate in a prescriptive matter, they regulate critical issues that relate to making a great place, such as building form, etc., – but also because the practitioners that are creating these codes have focused on their usability - making them understandable and easy-to-use. The Transect is a understandable and effective means upon which to organize the regulations and tye them to the Regulating Plan, and, particularly in larger areas - at the citywide and larger scale, for showing how different areas in town relate to one another or don’t. It is a system that people “get” and can be used from the initial public visioning meeting all the way through the final implemented code. Victor, Geoff, and Dan are going to walk about how they have effectively used this tool in a variety of ever-more complicated situations and Form-Based Codes.
  • And also, the Rural-to-Urban Transect. All of these methods have proven not only viable, but truly successful. Many of the most advanced practitioners are using a combination of the above, as all of these concepts are critical to regulating a good place. But, of course, today’s session is specifically on the Transect. Many to most of the codes we’ve seen use the Transect as either the primary organizing principle, or at least as a base educational concept. Yesterday, in the session on organizing principles, there was discussion of whether the Transect is a “requirement” for Form-Based Coding. The simple answer is no. Geoff Ferrell suggested that the Transect is an educational tool, but not necessarily a regulatory tool. But, the reality is that Form-Based Codes have become successful for quite a number of reasons – they are able to regulate in a prescriptive matter, they regulate critical issues that relate to making a great place, such as building form, etc., – but also because the practitioners that are creating these codes have focused on their usability - making them understandable and easy-to-use. The Transect is a understandable and effective means upon which to organize the regulations and tye them to the Regulating Plan, and, particularly in larger areas - at the citywide and larger scale, for showing how different areas in town relate to one another or don’t. It is a system that people “get” and can be used from the initial public visioning meeting all the way through the final implemented code. Victor, Geoff, and Dan are going to walk about how they have effectively used this tool in a variety of ever-more complicated situations and Form-Based Codes.
  • And also, the Rural-to-Urban Transect. All of these methods have proven not only viable, but truly successful. Many of the most advanced practitioners are using a combination of the above, as all of these concepts are critical to regulating a good place. But, of course, today’s session is specifically on the Transect. Many to most of the codes we’ve seen use the Transect as either the primary organizing principle, or at least as a base educational concept. Yesterday, in the session on organizing principles, there was discussion of whether the Transect is a “requirement” for Form-Based Coding. The simple answer is no. Geoff Ferrell suggested that the Transect is an educational tool, but not necessarily a regulatory tool. But, the reality is that Form-Based Codes have become successful for quite a number of reasons – they are able to regulate in a prescriptive matter, they regulate critical issues that relate to making a great place, such as building form, etc., – but also because the practitioners that are creating these codes have focused on their usability - making them understandable and easy-to-use. The Transect is a understandable and effective means upon which to organize the regulations and tye them to the Regulating Plan, and, particularly in larger areas - at the citywide and larger scale, for showing how different areas in town relate to one another or don’t. It is a system that people “get” and can be used from the initial public visioning meeting all the way through the final implemented code. Victor, Geoff, and Dan are going to walk about how they have effectively used this tool in a variety of ever-more complicated situations and Form-Based Codes.
  • Only at staff presentation
  • Ây
  • Would not be nearly as effective is there was 20 acres of this types
  • Building Types Plans (blending) Zoning
  • Would not be nearly as effective is there was 20 acres of this types
  • Would not be nearly as effective is there was 20 acres of this types
  • Ây
  • Building Types Plans (blending) Zoning
  • Ây
  • Ây
  • And also, the Rural-to-Urban Transect. All of these methods have proven not only viable, but truly successful. Many of the most advanced practitioners are using a combination of the above, as all of these concepts are critical to regulating a good place. But, of course, today’s session is specifically on the Transect. Many to most of the codes we’ve seen use the Transect as either the primary organizing principle, or at least as a base educational concept. Yesterday, in the session on organizing principles, there was discussion of whether the Transect is a “requirement” for Form-Based Coding. The simple answer is no. Geoff Ferrell suggested that the Transect is an educational tool, but not necessarily a regulatory tool. But, the reality is that Form-Based Codes have become successful for quite a number of reasons – they are able to regulate in a prescriptive matter, they regulate critical issues that relate to making a great place, such as building form, etc., – but also because the practitioners that are creating these codes have focused on their usability - making them understandable and easy-to-use. The Transect is a understandable and effective means upon which to organize the regulations and tye them to the Regulating Plan, and, particularly in larger areas - at the citywide and larger scale, for showing how different areas in town relate to one another or don’t. It is a system that people “get” and can be used from the initial public visioning meeting all the way through the final implemented code. Victor, Geoff, and Dan are going to walk about how they have effectively used this tool in a variety of ever-more complicated situations and Form-Based Codes.
  • Ây
  • Regulate walkable urban places much different than drivable suburban
  • Regulate walkable urban places much different than drivable suburban
  • Regulate walkable urban places much different than drivable suburban
  • Would not be nearly as effective is there was 20 acres of this types
  • Would not be nearly as effective is there was 20 acres of this types
  • Would not be nearly as effective is there was 20 acres of this types
  • Would not be nearly as effective is there was 20 acres of this types
  • Only at staff presentation
  • Would not be nearly as effective is there was 20 acres of this types
  • Ây
  • Tools to get us there: (have you ever tried to use a hammer to screw a screw? Is this what using your zoning code feels like? Or what working with your City engineers on a SmartGrowth project feels like?
  • Multi Disciplinary Approach is Necessary CNU as a think tank Challenging the status quo/convention
  • ITE Context Sensitive Solutions Manual Joint effort between ITE, CNU, 10 years in the making
  • Regulate walkable urban places much different than drivable suburban
  • Sprawl is the default-should be walkable urbanism and ruralism
  • Regulate walkable urban places much different than drivable suburban
  • Regulate walkable urban places much different than drivable suburban
  • Would not be nearly as effective is there was 20 acres of this types
  • Would not be nearly as effective is there was 20 acres of this types
  • Would not be nearly as effective is there was 20 acres of this types
  • Only at staff presentation
  • Wrong building type No street and block or civic space framework
  • NU has evolved much since Seaside: Now almost 30 years old! Come find out about NU and let’s work together to end the sprawl empire

Transcript

  • 1. The New American Landscape: A New Urbanist’s Perspective Daniel Parolek Principal, Opticos Design, Inc. daniel.parolek@opticosdesign.com Rocky Mountain Land Use Institute " Annual Conference March 4, 2010 Denver, Colorado
  • 2. My Optimistic Mindset: Wishful Thinking? 100% SPRAWL New York Times: Tucker Nichols The New American Landscape" The New Urbanist’s Perspective
  • 3. Presentation Overview 1.  Three Important Aspects of New Urban Landscape 2.  Tools for Getting Us There: Challenging Convention 3.  An invitation for Us to Collaborate In Getting There The New American Landscape" The New Urbanist’s Perspective
  • 4. 1 The New American Landscape Reinforces “Missing Middle” Housing Types
  • 5. A Major Shift in the Way People Live “I think it’s amazing in America when you drive around and look at new homes that are being built, there are three-car garages. I don’t think you’re going to see families with three cars. I think you’re going to see families with one car, possibly two.” The New American Landscape" The New Urbanist’s Perspective
  • 6. Issue: The Way We Regulate and Build Density
  • 7. Contorting the Single Family House The New American Landscape" The New Urbanist’s Perspective
  • 8. Density Without Amenity The New American Landscape" The New Urbanist’s Perspective
  • 9. There is More to Smart Growth and Density Than This The New American Landscape" The New Urbanist’s Perspective
  • 10. What is the “Missing Middle?”
  • 11. The “Missing Middle” Building Types Mansion Apartment: 6-8 units Duplex Fourplex Bungalow Court The New American Landscape" The New Urbanist’s Perspective
  • 12. Small Ecological Footprint 1. Supporting a pattern of walkable neighborhoods 2. Reaching transit-supportive rooftop thresholds 3. Reducing auto trips (VMT) and supporting a local economy by providing enough rooftops to support neighborhood main streets. The New American Landscape" The New Urbanist’s Perspective
  • 13. Duplexes Typical Lot Size Typical Density 60’ x 125’ 12-24 DU/Acre The New American Landscape" The New Urbanist’s Perspective
  • 14. Bungalow Courts Typical Lot Size Typical Density 100 x 125’ 20-35 DU/Acre The New American Landscape" The New Urbanist’s Perspective
  • 15. Mansion Apartment (6-8 Units) Typical Lot Size Typical Density 100’ x 125’ 21-28 DU/Acre The New American Landscape" The New Urbanist’s Perspective
  • 16. Responding to Climate Change “The body of research surveyed here shows that much of the rise in vehicle emissions can be curbed simply by growing in a way that will make it easier for Americans to drive less. In fact, the weight of the evidence shows that, with more compact development, people drive 20 to 40 percent less, at minimal or reduced cost, while reaping other fiscal and health benefits. ..The term “compact development” does not imply high-rise or even uniformly high density, but rather higher average “blended” densities. Compact development also features a mix of land uses, development 
 of strong population and employment centers, interconnection of streets, 
 and the design of structures and spaces at a human scale..” “Growing Cooler” -Ewing The New American Landscape" The New Urbanist’s Perspective
  • 17. Blending of Density Townhouse! 18 du/acre Mews House! 15 du/acre Courtyard 30 du/acre Single Family 9-13 du/acre The New American Landscape" The New Urbanist’s Perspective
  • 18. How are New Urbanists Addressing This Issue?
  • 19. Mansion Apartment: High-Quality Living Typical Lot Size Typical Density 100’ x 125’ 21-28 DU/Acre East Beach: Norfolk, VA. DPZ and UDA The New American Landscape" The New Urbanist’s Perspective
  • 20. Good Example in Your “Back Yard” Typical Lot Size Typical Density 100’ x 65’ 14-21 DU/Acre Stapleton: Denver, Colorado. Calthorpe Associates The New American Landscape" The New Urbanist’s Perspective
  • 21. The New American Landscape" The New Urbanist’s Perspective
  • 22. The New American Landscape" The New Urbanist’s Perspective
  • 23. Live-Work Unit Typical Lot Size Typical Density 25’ x 125’ 14-28 DU/Acre South Main: Buena Vista, CO. Opticos Design-Colorado Built Green Certified The New American Landscape" The New Urbanist’s Perspective
  • 24. Form-Based Code Components 1.  Regulating Plan 2.  Building Form Standards 3.  Public Space Standards (Thoroughfares & Civic Spaces) 4.  Frontage Type Standards 5.  Block and Lot Subdivision Standards 6.  Building Type Standards 7.  Sustainability Standards 8.  Green Building Standards 9.  Architecture & Landscape Architecture Standards The New American Landscape" The New Urbanist’s Perspective
  • 25. Menu of Building Types 1.  Single-Unit House 2.  Single-Unit House, Sideyard 3.  Carriage House 4.  Bungalow Court 5.  Duplex 6.  Townhouse 7.  Triplex & Fourplex 8.  Mansion Apartment 9.  Live-Work 10.  Stacked Units 11.  Courtyard Apartments 12.  Commercial Block 13.  Liner Buildings The New American Landscape" The New Urbanist’s Perspective
  • 26. Building Type Standards: Supplemental The New American Landscape" The New Urbanist’s Perspective
  • 27. Appropriate Scale Infill at 20 du/acre Existing Conditions Typical Lot: 150 deep x 60’ wide = 9,000 sf Existing zoning allows 20 du/acre = 4 units What does 20 du/acre look like? The New American Landscape" The New Urbanist’s Perspective
  • 28. Appropriate Scale Infill at 20 du/acre Inappropriately scaled infill at 20 du/acre The New American Landscape" The New Urbanist’s Perspective
  • 29. Appropriate Scale Infill at 20 du/acre Appropriately scaled infill at 20 du/acre The New American Landscape" The New Urbanist’s Perspective
  • 30. 2 The New American Landscape Reinforces and Integrates Neighborhood Main Streets
  • 31. Why Are Neighborhood Main Streets Important? 1.  Import way to reduce VMT and GHG emissions 2.  Foster sense of community (“Third place”) 3.  Incubate and support small, local businesses Denver, CO The New American Landscape" The New Urbanist’s Perspective
  • 32. Very Similar to Small Town Main Streets Salida, CO The New American Landscape" The New Urbanist’s Perspective
  • 33. Issue: Many Obstacles for Main Streets New & Old
  • 34. Are Your Regulations Killing Your Main Streets? Jocelyn Caste Neighborhood, Omaha, NE The New American Landscape" The New Urbanist’s Perspective
  • 35. Are Your Regulations Killing Your Main Streets? Hurdles to Reuse for Pastry Shop: 1.  Zone: R7-Allows 75’ tall residential, but not commercial 2.  Two-part special use permit ($560) A.  City Planning Board (meets once a month)- will deny application B.  Planning Board of Appeals (meets once a month) $1,000 3.  Nine-Space Parking parking lot required for occupancy permit (det. by # of tables) $20,000 if space 4.  Lost rent: $2,000-$4,000 min. Jocelyn Caste Neighborhood, Omaha, NE The New American Landscape" The New Urbanist’s Perspective
  • 36. Why are They Not Being Built Very Often? 1.  Podded land use mapping does not allow for them 2.  New road networks and design discourage them 3.  ULI’s Neighborhood Center= 20,000 sf grocery store and supporting strip mall 4.  Regulatory barriers: Parking, setbacks, etc. The New American Landscape" The New Urbanist’s Perspective
  • 37. How are New Urbanists Addressing This Issue?
  • 38. Reinforcing Existing Neighborhood Structure Neighborhood, District, and Corridor Documentation: Grass Valley, CA. Opticos Design, Inc. The New American Landscape" The New Urbanist’s Perspective
  • 39. Neighborhood Main Street Documentation Neighborhood Main Street Documentation: Opticos Design, Inc. The New American Landscape" The New Urbanist’s Perspective
  • 40. Form-Based Codes: Providing Predictability The New American Landscape" The New Urbanist’s Perspective
  • 41. Refining Mixed Use Regulations with Form-Based Codes 1.  Encouraging revitalization and preservations 2.  Transforming strip centers into main streets 3.  Removing obstacles for main streets in new neighborhoods The New American Landscape" The New Urbanist’s Perspective
  • 42. From Strip Mall to Main Street Livermore, CA, Development Code Update: Opticos Design, Inc. The New American Landscape" The New Urbanist’s Perspective
  • 43. From Strip Mall to Main Street Livermore, CA, Development Code Update: Opticos Design, Inc. The New American Landscape" The New Urbanist’s Perspective
  • 44. From Strip Mall to Main Street Livermore, CA, Development Code Update: Opticos Design, Inc. The New American Landscape" The New Urbanist’s Perspective
  • 45. Prospect New Town: Incubating Local Businesses Prospect New Town: Longmont, CO. DPZ The New American Landscape" The New Urbanist’s Perspective
  • 46. I’On: Social and Commercial Center I’On Neighborhood: Mount Pleasant, SC. DPZ and Dover Kohl The New American Landscape" The New Urbanist’s Perspective
  • 47. Central Hercules: Several Complete Neighborhoods Hercules Waterfront Plan: Sargent Town Planning, Central Hercules Plan: Dover Kohl The New American Landscape" The New Urbanist’s Perspective
  • 48. East Beach: Social and Commercial Center East Beach Neighborhood: Norfolk, CA. DPZ and UDA The New American Landscape" The New Urbanist’s Perspective
  • 49. 3 The New American Landscape Clearly Defines and Regulates for a True Rural Environment
  • 50. Typical Rural Context Towns Villages and Countryside: Treasure Coast Regional Planning Council w. Dover Kohl. St. Lucie County, FL The New American Landscape" The New Urbanist’s Perspective
  • 51. How to Get to a True Rural Landscape? 1.  Realizing that large lot single family does not equal rural 2.  Understanding rural urbanism: What it is and how to regulate for it 3.  Rural development should not be suburban development 4.  Clustering only works at very large scale The New American Landscape" The New Urbanist’s Perspective
  • 52. 4 The New American Landscape Needs New Tools to Get Use There
  • 53. CNU is a Multi-Disciplinary Think Tank The New American Landscape" The New Urbanist’s Perspective
  • 54. Rethinking the Way We Design and Engineer Streets The New American Landscape" The New Urbanist’s Perspective
  • 55. First Rating System for Green Neighborhoods The New American Landscape" The New Urbanist’s Perspective
  • 56. Making Zoning Default to Walkable Urbanism “Top 20 Ways to Make a Green, Smart City” #2 Replace Your Euclidean Zoning 
 with 
 Form-Based Codes Rob Dixon, Albuquerque developer in his plenary presentation at the New Partners for Smart Growth Conference, January 2009 The New American Landscape" The New Urbanist’s Perspective
  • 57. Form-Based Codes: Regulating Places Not Uses The New American Landscape" The New Urbanist’s Perspective
  • 58. Performance Measures for Places The New American Landscape" The New Urbanist’s Perspective
  • 59. Priorities for a New Generation of New Urbanists
  • 60. Supporting Local Economies and Food Production The New American Landscape" The New Urbanist’s Perspective
  • 61. Triple Bottom Line for Businesses The New American Landscape" The New Urbanist’s Perspective
  • 62. Practicing What We Preach The New American Landscape" The New Urbanist’s Perspective
  • 63. 5 The New American Landscape Is in Progress
  • 64. My Mindset: What I’ll Settle For MEETING THE DEMAND OF 40% OF THE MARKET FOR WALKABLE URBANISM 100% SPRAWL New York Times: Tucker Nichols The New American Landscape" The New Urbanist’s Perspective
  • 65. Seasdie, FL, Private Residence: Opticos Design, Inc. The New American Landscape" The New Urbanist’s Perspective
  • 66. The New American Landscape: A New Urbanist’s Perspective Daniel Parolek Principal, Opticos Design, Inc. daniel.parolek@opticosdesign.com Rocky Mountain Land Use Institute Annual Conference March 4, 2010 Denver, Colorado