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  • 1. Leiden Institute of Advanced Computer ScienceIntroduction System‘s Development and Project Management Prof. Dr. Thomas Bäck 1
  • 2. Leiden Institute of Advanced Computer ScienceIntroduction !   System‘s Development and Project Management !   Prof. dr. Thomas Bäck, Natural Computing !   Room 169, Tel. 7108, baeck@ liacs.nl !   Also – Company Experience 2
  • 3. Leiden Institute of Advanced Computer Science DatesFeb. 1 14:45 – 17:30 Introduction, Project DescriptionFeb. 2 13:45 – 16:30 STEP WISE Approach to Project PlanningFeb. 9 13:45 – 16:30 Selecting an Appropriate Software Dev. ApproachFeb. 15 14:45 – 17:30 Activity Planning and Resource AllocationFeb. 16 13:45 – 16:30 Software Effort EstimationFeb. 22 14:45 – 17:30 Risk management, project escalationFeb. 23 13:45 – 16:30 Project monitoring and controlMar. 1 14:45 – 17:00 ExamMar. 2 13:45 – 16:30 Software Quality AssuranceMar. 8 14:45 – 17:30 Managing People; Contract ManagementMar. 9 13:45 – 16:30 VariousMar. 15 14:45 – 17:30 Trade Fair 3
  • 4. Leiden Institute of Advanced Computer ScienceICT Project Management „runaways“ … !   Standish „Chaos“ Report !  1994: •  16% successful •  31% cancelled •  53% challenged !  2000: •  34% successful •  15% cancelled •  51% challenged 4
  • 5. Leiden Institute of Advanced Computer ScienceProject Management and Success !   Technical Issues !  Hardware / software / telecommunications systems don‘t work !  Frequent failure / errors in operation !   Economic Issues !  Time or budget overrun !  Low / no ROI („productivity paradox“) !   Organizational (implementation) Issues !  Resulting system fails to achieve desired benefit !  Users reject system 5
  • 6. Leiden Institute of Advanced Computer ScienceCourse Content ! What is project management ?   ! Student project: Save Energy   ! Planning and revising projects   ! Project lifecycles   ! Estimating effort: size and productivity models   ! Risk management and project escalation   ! Controlling projects, including earned value analysis   ! Managing project and process quality   ! Managing people and organizing teams: motivation and   capability !   Contract management 6
  • 7. Leiden Institute of Advanced Computer ScienceCourse Structure !   10 interactive lectures: !  45 min teaching – 15 min break !  45 min teaching – 15 min break !  In-class assignments (20 – 40 min) + student presentations !  Case studies !   Written exam (closed book, Mar. 1) !   Hands-on development project !  Save Energy application ideas !  Project plans, reports !  Final trade fair (Mar 15, 14:45 – 17:30) 7
  • 8. Leiden Institute of Advanced Computer ScienceGrade Composition !   15% project proposal (‚bid‘) [group] !   25% detailed project plan [group] !   5% Deutsche Bank case [group] !   5% reflection paper on group project [individual] management issues !   5% in-class participation [individual] !   25% written exam [individual] !   20% trade-fair – project presentation [group] 8
  • 9. Leiden Institute of Advanced Computer ScienceRequired Literature !   Bob Hughes, Mike Cotterell: Software Project Management, 3e or 4e, McGraw- Hill ISBN 007709834 !   Blackboard: readings and assignments 9
  • 10. Leiden Institute of Advanced Computer ScienceWhat is a Project ? 1.  Temporary 2.  Unique Products, Services, or Results 3.  Progressive Elaboration !   A definition !  „A specific design or plan“ !   Key elements !  Non-routine !  Specific objectives !  Planned !  Predetermined time span !  Constrained resources !  Work carried out for a third party !  Work involves several specializations or phases !  Size and complexity 10
  • 11. Leiden Institute of Advanced Computer ScienceTypical Project Cost and Staffing 11
  • 12. Leiden Institute of Advanced Computer ScienceStakeholder‘s Influence over Time Influence of stakeholders Cost of changes Time 12
  • 13. Leiden Institute of Advanced Computer ScienceICT Project Management !   Part art, part science !   Activities have duration, required resources and sequence (path) !   Critical path: Link of activities where delay causes delay in entire project ! 13
  • 14. Leiden Institute of Advanced Computer ScienceICT Project Management: Two Exercises !   Design a project plan for !  Organizing a party next weekend Small birthday party … Vienna opera ball 14
  • 15. Leiden Institute of Advanced Computer ScienceSoftware Engineering is more Difficult ! !   Due to … !  Complexity !  Conformity (with human requirements) !  Changeability !  Invisibility It therefore needs specialized management techniques to deal with it ! 15
  • 16. Leiden Institute of Advanced Computer ScienceCommon Activities Is it worth doing? How do we do Feasibility Study it ? Planning Do it ! Execute Project !   Feasibility study – decide if project is worth doing !   Plan how you are going to do it, then do it. 16
  • 17. Leiden Institute of Advanced Computer ScienceExecute Project (Hughes-Cotterrell Stages) Requirements Gathering Specification Design Code Testing Implement 17
  • 18. Leiden Institute of Advanced Computer ScienceExecute Project !   Functional Requirements !  What the system is to do !  Systems analysis aims to provide these !   Quality Requirements !  Other attributes of the system, e.g., response time, usability, reliability !   Resource / time Requirements !  Cost !  Time !   Trade-offs between the different factors 18
  • 19. Leiden Institute of Advanced Computer ScienceManagerial Issues !   Management may involve: !  Planning - deciding what is to be done !  Organizing - making arrangements !  Staffing - selecting the right people !  Directing - giving instructions !  Monitoring - checking on progress !  Controlling - taking action to remedy hold-ups !  Innovating - coming up with new solutions !  Representing - liaising with users 19
  • 20. Leiden Institute of Advanced Computer ScienceManagerial Issues !   Internal stakeholders may be: !  In the project team !  Outside the team but in the organization !   External stakeholders may be: !  Customers or users affected by the system !  Contractors !   There will be different types of users with different interests !   Need for good communication ! 20
  • 21. Leiden Institute of Advanced Computer ScienceObjectives !   Different stakeholders will have different objectives !  Need for agreed objectives !   Need for an identifyable project authority !  To set, monitor and modify objectives !  Can contain user, development and management representatives !   Objectives !  Can be informally expressed as: „In order for the project to be a success, the project must …“ 21
  • 22. Leiden Institute of Advanced Computer ScienceObjectives (cont‘d) !   Objectives must be: !  Concrete !  Have measure of success !   Objectives can be: !  Broken down into sub-objectives or goals !  Can be informally expressed as „in order to achieve A, we must achieve B, C, D, etc.“ !  Identifying sub-objectives involves considering the „how“ as well as the „what“ 22
  • 23. Leiden Institute of Advanced Computer ScienceProblems - I !   Project Manager‘s point of view: !  Poor estimates and plans !  Lack of quality standards and measures !  Lack of guidance about making organizational decisions !  Lack of techniques to make progress visible !  Poor role definition – who does what ? !  Incorrect success criteria 23
  • 24. Leiden Institute of Advanced Computer ScienceProblems - II !   Staff‘s point of view: !   Inadequate specification of work !   Management ignorance of IT !   Lack of knowledge and application area !   Lack of standards !   Lack of up-to-date documentation !   Preceding activities not completed on time !   Lack of communication between users and technicians !   Lack of communication leading to duplication of work !   Lack of commitment (especially when tied to one person) !   Narrow scope of technical expertise !   Changing statutory requirements !   Changing software environment !   Deadline pressure !   Lack of quality control !   Remote management !   Lack of training !   ... 24
  • 25. Leiden Institute of Advanced Computer ScienceExamples !   German toll collect system (2 years late, 2 billion €). !   US IRS was to abandon tax system modernization programme after having spend $4 billion. !   State of CA spent $1 billion on non-functional welfare database system. !   500 million € UK air traffic control system 2 years behind schedule. ! … !   All government ? Many industry examples as well. 25
  • 26. Leiden Institute of Advanced Computer ScienceOther Aspects I !   Setting Objectives !  Project authority !  Project board !  Sub-objectives and goals !  Measures of effectiveness •  Predictive measures (while constructing the system) •  Performance measures (operational system) !   Stakeholders !  Internal to project team !  External, but within same organization !  External to project team and organization 26
  • 27. Leiden Institute of Advanced Computer ScienceOther Aspects II !   Business Case !  Justification for project !  E.g., cost-benefit analysis !   Requirement Specification !  Functional: Systems Analysis and Design !  Quality: Response time, reliability, … !  Resources: Time and cost 27
  • 28. Leiden Institute of Advanced Computer ScienceFeasibility Study: Contents !   Introduction: What this document is !   Description of current situation !   Problem description !  Boundaries !  Scope !   Proposed development !  Business and financial aspects !  Technical aspects !  Organizational aspects !   Estimated costs !  Development costs !  Operational costs !   Envisaged benefits !   Recommendation 28
  • 29. Leiden Institute of Advanced Computer ScienceProject Plan: Contents!   Introduction!   Background, incl. Reference to the business case.!   Project objectives!   Constraints!   Project products (deliverable and intermediate)!   Methods!   Activities to be carried out!   Resources to be used!   Risks!   Management, including !  Organizational responsibilities !  Quality management !  Configuration management!   Success factors 29
  • 30. Leiden Institute of Advanced Computer ScienceProject Plan: Structure !   Introduction !   Management Summary !   Goals and objectives !  Business goals !  Benefits !  Objectives !   Scope, Key deliverables, Prioritization !   Organization, responsibilities, resources !   Risks, Risk Containment !   Other Issues 30
  • 31. Leiden Institute of Advanced Computer ScienceThe System‘s Development Life Cycle 6a. Final assembly 5. Test and delivery 4. Implemen- tation 7. Correct, Maintain 3. System Design Functional Release 2. Systems 6b. Final assembly Analysis and delivery 1. Pre-study Correction Release 31
  • 32. Leiden Institute of Advanced Computer ScienceProject Management and Success !   Traditionally: trace production of „milestone“ documents (functional specs = 14%, logical design = 30%, …) !   But: cost will migrate out of any activity that is measured more carefully than its neighboring activities !   Escalating committment to failure % Completion 120 Percentage Completion 100 Law of diminishing 80 60 % Completion returns 40 20 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Time 32
  • 33. Leiden Institute of Advanced Computer Science Law of diminishing (marginal) returns !   When one of the factors of production is held fixed in supply, successive additions of the other factors will lead to an increase in returns up to a point. !   Beyond this point, returns will diminish. !   Example: Agricultural production (seed amount – growth production, no. of workers – total labor and harvesting done). Diminishing returns 140No. Of Total physical Marginal physical Average Physicalworkers product (TPP) product (MPP) Product (APP) 120 1 10 10 10 100 Total physical product 80 (TPP) 2 30 20 15 Marginal physical Tons 3 90 60 30 60 product (MPP) 40 4 120 30 30 Average Physical 20 Product (APP) 5 130 10 26 0 6 120 -10 20 -20 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 No. of Workers 33
  • 34. Leiden Institute of Advanced Computer SciencePrioritizing and Managing Expectations Processing in Development Customer Screening Prioritization Development Request Entry Feedback (product planning) Selection of most relevant Reduction of: needs •  unclear •  doubles 100 dev. •  curr. release requests •  next release - 60% logged in •  out of scope X selected as planning input the system Y denied - 30% Z input for next year planning archived Transfer to next year‘s cycle 34
  • 35. Leiden Institute of Advanced Computer Science Your Project: Save Energy Demonstrator of innovative application that stimulates to save energy
  • 36. Leiden Institute of Advanced Computer ScienceSave Energy !   EU project on user behaviour transformation by empowerment of the users with ICT 5 Pilots: -Lisbon -Leiden -Manchester -Helsinki -Lulea
  • 37. Leiden Institute of Advanced Computer Science Leiden Employee Behaviour !  Electricity, switching on/off: !  PC, monitor !  Lighting !  Miscellaneous equipment !  Heating: ! Setpoint for room temperature !  Turn heater on/off !  Close/open windows
  • 38. Leiden Institute of Advanced Computer ScienceLeiden Pilot
  • 39. Leiden Institute of Advanced Computer ScienceCurrent Initiatives in Leiden Pilot !   Weekly Energy Emails •  Real time energy displays
  • 40. Leiden Institute of Advanced Computer ScienceAssignment !   Develop a demonstrator that runs on a pc, smart phone or presentation screen that displays the current energy consumption of individuals and stimulates users to save energy. !   Present in trade-fair setting
  • 41. Leiden Institute of Advanced Computer ScienceRemarks: !   Keep in mind the audience (Municipality employees) !   Real data is available (SOAP webservice) SOAP, originally defined as Simple Object Access Protocol, is a protocol specification for exchanging structured information in the implementation of web services in computer networks. !   Think of what motivates to save energy!
  • 42. Leiden Institute of Advanced Computer ScienceSave Energy Project !   Meet as Team !  Actually, you will have many meetings … !  Teamwork is of critical importance !   Project proposal (bid) due by !  February 18, midnight February 18, midnight Assignment 1: Project proposal ( bid ) February 25, midnight Assignment 2: Project Plan including functional specification March 1, midnight Assignment 3: Deutsche Bank case, 5 ppt slides March 1 (14:45 – 17:00) Exam March 15 (14:45 – 17:30) Trade fair March 16, midnight Assignment 4: Personal reflection paper on project management 42