The African Copyright & Access to Knowledge  (ACA2K) Project: an overview of national copyright environments and access to...
Overview<br />Access to Information as a human right<br />Background to ACA2K Project<br />Choice of study countries<br />...
Access to Information & Knowledge<br /><ul><li>Access to information – a basic human right - essential for human survival ...
“Freedom, prosperity and the development of society depend on education, as well as on unrestricted access to knowledge, t...
“Knowledge is not a commodity, and can never be one. Knowledge is the distillation of human endeavour, and it is the most ...
“Education is the most powerful weapon which you can use to change the world”.  (Nelson Mandela) </li></li></ul><li>Intern...
Strengthen protection and enforcement
Shrinkthe public domain
Restrictaccess to knowledge
Erodeinformation-users’ rights</li></li></ul><li>Promoting Balance & Access <br />International Copyright Treaties (WIPO a...
Copyright in Africa<br />Copyright vs. collective ownership<br />Rights-holders promote stricter copyright<br />Librarians...
Some Regional A2K Initiatives<br />Access to Learning Materials for Southern Africa Conference, 2005<br />SADC (Gaborone) ...
Background to ACA2K Project<br />Restrictive copyright practices and regulations in developing countries<br />Lack of acce...
ACA2K Project (2007-2010) <br />African Access to Knowledge (AAKA), Wits Link Centre & various tertiary institutions forme...
ACA2K Project Context<br />
ACA2K Study Countries<br />8 Research Nodes: Egypt, Ghana, Kenya, Morocco, Mozambique, Senegal, South Africa and Uganda.<b...
Conceptual Framework<br />
Methodology<br />Doctrinal Research Component:<br />     Analysis of the country’s copyright statutes and regulations (aud...
ACA2K Research Findings<br />Study countries’ copyright laws compliant or exceed requirements of international treaties<br...
ACA2K Research Findings (cont’d)<br />Collective management - potential remedy – but has its own problems (costs; few agen...
Recommendations<br />Disconnect between laws & practice must be narrowed<br />Educational & library sectors must actively ...
Dissemination of ACA2K Research<br />Outcome Mapping<br />International Stakeholders’ Meeting, Geneva 2009<br />National D...
Solution<br />A BalancedInternational Framework<br />that enshrines ALLUsers’ Rights – <br />and<br />Appropriate National...
Thank you<br />Denise Rosemary Nicholson<br />Denise.Nicholson@wits.ac.za<br />Wits Copyright Information<br />http://web....
“Copyright & A2K Issues” free information service<br />Topics covered:  <br />    Copyright; Plagiarism; Open Access; Open...
Other useful A2K resources<br />Access to Knowledge in the age of Intellectual Property - http://www.zonebooks.org/titles/...
http://yaleisp.org/publications/a2kresearch/</li></li></ul><li>Wits Portals<br />Wits Copyright Portal  http://web.wits.ac...
Some Resources on L & Es<br /><ul><li>Guideline Document on Copyright Limitations and Exceptions -  http://www.col.org/res...
Copyright Limitations & Exceptions – Why they are important for access to knowledge -http://www.aca2k.org/index.php?option...
Exceptions and Limitations in copyright vital in South countries - http://www.twnside.org.sg/title2/intellectual_property/...
L & Es - http://www.cptech.org/ip/copyright/le.html
Copyright Limitations and Exceptions for Libraries  - http://www.aallnet.org/aallwash/LCAPosition110308.pdf
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The African Copyright & Access to Knowledge (ACA2K) Project: an overview of national copyright environments and access to learning materials in 8 African countries, by Denise Rosemary Nicholson

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"The African Copyright & Access to Knowledge (ACA2K) Project: an overview of national copyright environments and access to learning materials in 8 African countries", a presentation by Denise Rosemary Nicholson, Copyright Services Librarian, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg and SA Representative - eIFL-IP Project

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The African Copyright & Access to Knowledge (ACA2K) Project: an overview of national copyright environments and access to learning materials in 8 African countries, by Denise Rosemary Nicholson

  1. 1. The African Copyright & Access to Knowledge (ACA2K) Project: an overview of national copyright environments and access to learning materials in 8 African countries<br />Denise Rosemary Nicholson<br />Copyright Services Librarian<br />University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg<br />and SA Representative - eIFL-IP Project<br />Denise.Nicholson@wits.ac.za<br />UNESCO/eIFL Regional Workshop on <br />‘Benefits of Open access for <br />Research Dissemination, Usage, Visibility and Impact’<br />22-23 November 2010 – ASSAf , Pretoria<br />
  2. 2. Overview<br />Access to Information as a human right<br />Background to ACA2K Project<br />Choice of study countries<br />Conceptual framework & methodology<br />Key research findings<br />Recommendations<br />Conclusion<br />
  3. 3. Access to Information & Knowledge<br /><ul><li>Access to information – a basic human right - essential for human survival and development.
  4. 4. “Freedom, prosperity and the development of society depend on education, as well as on unrestricted access to knowledge, thought, culture and information.” (IFLA/FAIFE)
  5. 5. “Knowledge is not a commodity, and can never be one. Knowledge is the distillation of human endeavour, and it is the most profound collective good that there is". (A. Erwin, former Minister of Trade & Industry, South Africa)
  6. 6. “Education is the most powerful weapon which you can use to change the world”. (Nelson Mandela) </li></li></ul><li>International Copyright Trends<br /><ul><li>Createnew rights
  7. 7. Strengthen protection and enforcement
  8. 8. Shrinkthe public domain
  9. 9. Restrictaccess to knowledge
  10. 10. Erodeinformation-users’ rights</li></li></ul><li>Promoting Balance & Access <br />International Copyright Treaties (WIPO and WTO)<br />Adelphi Charter (UK)- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adelphi_Charter<br />Gower’s Report on IP (UK) - www.ipo.gov.uk/policy/policy.../policy-issues-gowers.htm<br />CopySouth Dossier – www.copysouth.org<br />WSIS Declaration of Principles - http://www.itu.int/wsis/docs/geneva/official/dop.html<br />World Blind Union Proposed Treaty (TVI) -http://www.keionline.org/misc-docs/tvi/tvi_en.html<br />UK Commission on IPR - www.iprcommission.org<br />
  11. 11. Copyright in Africa<br />Copyright vs. collective ownership<br />Rights-holders promote stricter copyright<br />Librarians & educators excluded from legislative process<br />Strict copyright laws restrict access & affect cross-border resource-sharing<br />Main beneficiaries are developed countries<br />Copyright laws should be tailored<br />
  12. 12. Some Regional A2K Initiatives<br />Access to Learning Materials for Southern Africa Conference, 2005<br />SADC (Gaborone) and SCECSAL (Kampala) presentations, 2005<br />African Copyright Forum, Kampala, Uganda, Nov. 2005 <br />African Access to Knowledge Alliance, 2005 – <br />Key partner in 2 projects:<br />SARUA Open Access Leadership Summit, Botswana, 2007 - http://www.sarua.org/?q=content/open-access-leadership-summit-gaborone-botswana-20-21-november-2007 - <br />ACA2K Project - www.aca2k.org<br />
  13. 13. Background to ACA2K Project<br />Restrictive copyright practices and regulations in developing countries<br />Lack of access to Internet-based technologies<br />Out-dated paradigms for knowledge collection and dissemination<br />Lack of creative and effective government-supported enabling environments within higher education<br />
  14. 14. ACA2K Project (2007-2010) <br />African Access to Knowledge (AAKA), Wits Link Centre & various tertiary institutions formed research network in 2007<br />Probing relationship between national copyright environments and A2K in African countries. <br />Supported by IDRC (Canada) & Shuttleworth Foundation (SA) - Managed by Wits Link Centre <br />Webpage: www.aca2k.org<br /> <br />
  15. 15. ACA2K Project Context<br />
  16. 16. ACA2K Study Countries<br />8 Research Nodes: Egypt, Ghana, Kenya, Morocco, Mozambique, Senegal, South Africa and Uganda.<br />
  17. 17. Conceptual Framework<br />
  18. 18. Methodology<br />Doctrinal Research Component:<br /> Analysis of the country’s copyright statutes and regulations (audit tool), analysis of judicial and administrative decisions, case law (where applicable) <br />Qualitative Research Component: <br />Secondary literature (scholarly literature, govt. reports, etc) &<br /> Impact assessment interviews - standardised interview tools (intended or actual consequences, perceptions, interpretation, or lack thereof) <br />ACA2K Methodology Guide: <br />http://www.aca2k.org/attachments/083_ACA2K%20Methodology%20Guide-April%202008.pdf<br />Comparative Analysis across the 8 study countries<br />
  19. 19. ACA2K Research Findings<br />Study countries’ copyright laws compliant or exceed requirements of international treaties<br />Lack of copyright awareness and enforcement <br />The stricter the copyright law, the more the non-compliance.<br />
  20. 20. ACA2K Research Findings (cont’d)<br />Collective management - potential remedy – but has its own problems (costs; few agencies; pay for fair use/fair dealing; lack of transparency or accountability, etc.)<br />Infringement is facilitating access to learning materials, not copyright<br />
  21. 21. Recommendations<br />Disconnect between laws & practice must be narrowed<br />Educational & library sectors must actively participate in legislative process <br />More flexibility through appropriate limitations & exceptions will restore balance in copyright laws<br />Parallel importation, compulsory licences & exceptions to TPMs are options <br />Regulation of copyright in digital environment bears a special responsibility, e.g. in ICTs<br />
  22. 22. Dissemination of ACA2K Research<br />Outcome Mapping<br />International Stakeholders’ Meeting, Geneva 2009<br />National Dialogue Workshops for all stakeholders<br />Research reports, academic papers, blogs<br />Final Research Report published in OA book: <br />‘Access to knowledge in Africa: the role of copyright’ - http://www.idrc.ca/openebooks/490-1/<br />
  23. 23. Solution<br />A BalancedInternational Framework<br />that enshrines ALLUsers’ Rights – <br />and<br />Appropriate National Copyright laws<br />
  24. 24. Thank you<br />Denise Rosemary Nicholson<br />Denise.Nicholson@wits.ac.za<br />Wits Copyright Information<br />http://web.wits.ac.za/Library/Services/COPYRIGHT.htm<br />Wits Copyright Portalhttp://web.wits.ac.za/Library/ResearchResources/SubjectPortals/Copyright+and+Related+Issues.htm<br />Wits Plagiarism Portal<br />http://web.wits.ac.za/Library/ResearchResources/SubjectPortals/Plagiarism+Portal.htm<br />Copyright Blogs<br />http://aca2k.org and http://kim.wits.ac.za<br />
  25. 25. “Copyright & A2K Issues” free information service<br />Topics covered: <br /> Copyright; Plagiarism; Open Access; Open Educational Resources; Traditional Knowledge; Digitization and Library issues; Conference alerts; useful websites; issues affecting access to knowledge for the sensory-disabled; SA legislation that affects access to information, etc. <br />Subscribe at: <br />http://lists.wits.ac.za/mailman/listinfo/copyrightanda2kinfo<br />Or email Denise.Nicholson@wits.ac.za to subscribe you.<br />
  26. 26. Other useful A2K resources<br />Access to Knowledge in the age of Intellectual Property - http://www.zonebooks.org/titles/KRIK_ASuch<br /> Other African A2K initiatives – see: <br /><ul><li>http://www.bibalex.org/a2k/attachments/references/reffileu24bkg55ykqwgc55zysxzq45.pdf
  27. 27. http://yaleisp.org/publications/a2kresearch/</li></li></ul><li>Wits Portals<br />Wits Copyright Portal http://web.wits.ac.za/Library/ResearchResources/SubjectPortals/Copyright+and+Related+Issues.htm<br />Wits Plagiarism Portal<br />http://web.wits.ac.za/Library/ResearchResources/SubjectPortals/Plagiarism+Portal.htm<br />Wits Open Access, A2K & Scholarly Communication Portal<br />http://web.wits.ac.za/Library/ResearchResources/SubjectPortals/Open+Access+A2K+and+Scholarly+Communication.htm<br />
  28. 28. Some Resources on L & Es<br /><ul><li>Guideline Document on Copyright Limitations and Exceptions - http://www.col.org/resources/knowServices/copyright/Pages/default.aspx/summary.htm
  29. 29. Copyright Limitations & Exceptions – Why they are important for access to knowledge -http://www.aca2k.org/index.php?option=com_idoblog&task=viewpost&id=79&Itemid=69
  30. 30. Exceptions and Limitations in copyright vital in South countries - http://www.twnside.org.sg/title2/intellectual_property/info.service/2008/twn.ipr.info.081102.htm
  31. 31. L & Es - http://www.cptech.org/ip/copyright/le.html
  32. 32. Copyright Limitations and Exceptions for Libraries - http://www.aallnet.org/aallwash/LCAPosition110308.pdf
  33. 33. Wits Copyright Portal - http://web.wits.ac.za/Library/ResearchResources/SubjectPortals/Copyright+and+Related+Issues.htm</li></li></ul><li>Resources for African countries<br />Do Google search to find these:<br />WIPO Development Agenda and related issues<br />Article 27(1) of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights<br />Article 7 of the TRIPS Agreement on Objectives<br />The Doha Declaration on TRIPS and Public Health (2001)<br />UK Commission on Intellectual Property Rights Report (2002)<br />Geneva Declaration of Principles ( Paragraph 42) (2003)<br />ICTSD/UNCTAD Policy Discussion Paper on IP and Development (2003) and its Resource Book on TRIPS and Development (2005)<br />World Summit on the Information Society (2003 and 2005)<br />Chile’s proposal on Exceptions and Limitations to WIPO’s Standing Committee on Copyright (2004)<br />Commonwealth of Learning – Guidelines on copyright L & Es (2005)<br />IFLA & eIFL position papers and their statements made at WIPO<br />Access to Knowledge (A2K) Movement (Yale University)<br />Gowers’ Review of Intellectual Property (UK) (2006)<br />International Right to Read Campaign (WBU)<br />Proposed WBU Treaty for the Blind at WIPO<br />
  34. 34. Useful Copyright Handbooks<br />eIFL Handbook on Copyright & Related Issues:<br />http://www.eifl.net/cps/sections/docs/ip_docs/draft-law<br />“Introducing Copyright – a plain language guide to copyright” (Commonwealth of Learning): http://www.col.org/resources/publications/monographs/Pages/Copyright.aspx<br />
  35. 35. Tips for developing countries when reviewing copyright laws<br />See: http://www.aca2k.org/index.php?option=com_idoblog&task=viewpost&id=229&Itemid=73&lang=en<br /> or www.aca2k.org (click on Blog)<br />
  36. 36. International A2K initiatives<br />IFLA – (1700 member organizations/150 countries) – www.ifla.org<br />eIFL.net - (member organizations in 50 developing/in-transition countries) - www.eifl.net<br />EBLIDA (150 European library/archive associations, etc.)- www.eblida.org<br />Commonwealth of Learning – (53 Commonwealth countries)- www.col.org<br />Consumers International – www.consumersinternational.org<br />
  37. 37. International A2K initiatives (cont’d)<br />Transatlantic Consumers’ Dialogue (TACD) – www.tacd.org<br />Knowledge Ecology International - www.keionline.org<br />Consumer Project on Technology (CPTech) - www.cptech.org<br />A2K Global Social Movement (Yale University, USA) - http://research.yale.edu/isp/<br />Copy South (Kent Law School, UK – www.copysouth.org<br />
  38. 38. Regional A2K initiatives<br />African Copyright & Access to Knowledge (ACA2K) Project - www.aca2k.org<br />Access to Learning Materials for Southern Africa Project – www.access.og.za (2005) (website now closed)<br />African Access to Knowledge Alliance – Ugandan Chapter, 2005 - Continental Organization, 2007 (currently in partnership with ACA2K) http://www.col.org/SiteCollectionDocuments/Copyright_Alliance_article.pdf<br />Open Society Initiative for Southern Africa (OSISA) – www.osisa.org<br />African Digital Commons - www.commons-sense.org<br />Southern African Regional Universities Association (SARUA) – www.sarua.org<br />Publishing and Alternative Licensing Model of Africa (PALM) - http://www.idrc.ca/ccaa/ev-117012-201-1-DO_TOPIC.html<br />SADC-Centre for Distance Education - www.sardec.org.bw<br />
  39. 39. South African A2K initiatives<br />Creative Commons/iCommons (South Africa) - icommons.org<br />Wits Link Centre - http://link.wits.ac.za/<br />Library Association of SA (LIASA)/FAIFE – www.liasa.org<br />Shuttleworth Foundation – www.shuttleworthfoundation.org<br />African Virtual Open Initiatives and Resources (AVOIR) - http://avoir.uwc.ac.za/<br />Sivulile Open Access Project - http://www.sivulile.org/<br />CSIR research Space - http://researchspace.csir.co.za/dspace/<br />Human Sciences Research Council (South Africa) - http://www.hsrc.ac.za<br />OA institutional repositories in tertiary institutions<br />
  40. 40. SA National A2K initiatives <br />SA Government – adopted Open Source policy - www.info.gov.za/view/DownloadFileAction?id=94490<br />The National Research Foundation (NRF) – advocacy role re: OA National Electronic Theses & Dissertations Repository - www.nrf.ac.za<br />Academy of Science of South Africa - SCIELO-South Africa OA publishing project - www.assaf.co.za<br />
  41. 41. eIFL Model Copyright Law<br />See: <br />http://www.eifl.net/news/eifl-ip-draft-copyright-law-available-online<br />

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