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  • 1. High Voltage System Over Voltage By Oladokun Sulaiman
  • 2. Slide navigation• Overview and Source of overvolatge• Nature of danger• Lightening overvolatge• Switching overvolatge
  • 3. Overview and source of overvolatge• When the voltage in a circuit or part of it is raised above its upper design limit, this is known as over voltage.• The conditions may be hazardous. Depending on its duration, the over voltage event can be permanent or transient, the latter case also being known as a voltage spike.• Electronic and electrical devices are designed to operate at a certain maximum supply voltage, and Considerable damage can be caused by voltage that is higher than that for which the devices are rated.• For example an electric light bulb has a wire in it that at the given rated voltage will carry a current just large enough for the wire to get very hot (giving off light and heat), but not hot enough for it to melt.• The amount of current in a circuit depends on the voltage supplied: if the voltage is too high, then the wire may melt and the light bulb has "burned out".• Similarly other electrical devices may stop working, or even maybe burst into flames if an over voltage is supplied to the circuit of which these devices are part.
  • 4. Overview and source of overvolatge• Natural -A typical natural source of transient over voltage events is lightning.• Man-made- sources are spikes usually caused by electromagnetic induction when switching on or off inductive loads (such as electric motors or electromagnets), or by switching heavy resistive AC loads when zero- crossing circuitry is not used - anywhere where a large change of current takes place.• An important potential source of dangerous over voltages is electronic warfare. There is intensive military research in this field, whose goal is to produce various transient electromagnetic devices designed to generate electromagnetic pulses that will disable an enemys electronic equipment.• A recent military development is that of the exploding capacitor designed to radiate a high voltage electromagnetic pulse. Another intense source of an electromagnetic pulse is a nuclear explosion.
  • 5. Overview and source of overvolatge• One of the purposes of electromagnetic compatibility compliance is to eliminate such sources.• Conduction path- The transient pulses can get into the equipment either by power or data lines, or over the air from a strong electromagnetic field change - an electromagnetic pulse (EMP).• Filters are used to prevent spikes entering or leaving the equipment through wires, and the electromagnetically coupled ones are attenuated by shielding.
  • 6. Overview and source of overvolatgePower systems are always subjected to over voltages that have their origin in :• Atmospheric discharges in which case they are called external or lightning over voltages, or - The latter type are called internal over voltages - This classes may be further subdivided into(i) Temporary over voltages, if they are oscillatory of power frequency or harmonics Temporary over voltages occur almost without exception under no load or very light load conditions.whereas that of internal or switching overvoltages increases with increasing the operating voltage of the system.(ii) Switching over voltages, if they are heavily damped and of short duration they are generated internally by connecting or disconnecting the system, or due to the systems fault initiation or extinction.
  • 7. Overview and source of overvolatge• The magnitude of the external or lightning over voltages remains essentially independent of the system’s design, Hence, with increasing the system’s operating voltage a point is reached when the switching over voltages become the dominant factor in designing the system’s insulation• Because of their common origin the temporary and switching over voltages occur together and their combined effect has to be taken into account in the design of h.v. systems insulation.• Up to approximately 300 kV, the system’s insulation has to be designed to withstand primarily lightning surges.• Above that voltage, both lightning and switching surges have to be considered.• For ultra. systems, 765 kV and above switching over voltages in combination with insulator contamination become the predominating factor in the insulation design.
  • 8. Nature of danger• The degree of hazard depends on circumstances.• To minimize the chances of being struck by lightning during thunderstorm, one should be sufficiently far away from tall objects likely to be struck, remain inside buildings or be well insulated.• A direct hit on a human or animal is rare;• they are more at risk from indirect striking, usually:• (a) when the subject is close to a parallel hit or other tall object,• (b) due to an intense electric field from a stroke can induce sufficient current to cause death, and
  • 9. Nature of danger• (c) when lightning terminating on earth sets up high potential gradients over the ground surface in an outwards direction from the point or object struck.• The potential difference between the person’s feet will be largest if his feet are separated along a radial line from the source of voltage and• will be negligible if he moves at a right angle to such a radial line.• In the latter case the person would be safe due to element of chance.
  • 10. Nature of dangerqualitatively the current distribution in the ground and thevoltage distribution along the ground extending outwards fromthe edge of a building struck by lightning.
  • 11. Traveling Wave on Transmission Line Any disturbance on a transmission line or system such as a sudden opening or closing of line, a short circuit or a fault results in the development of overvoltage or overcurrent at that point. This disturbance propagates as a traveling wave to the ends of the line or to a termination, such as, a sub-station. Usually these traveling waves are high frequency disturbances and travel as waves. They may be reflected, transmitted, attenuated or distorted during propagation until the energy is absorbed. Long transmission lines are to be considered as electrical networks with distributed electrical elements.
  • 12. Attenuation and Distortion of Traveling Waves• As a traveling wave moves along a line, it suffers both attenuation and distortion. The decrease in the magnitude of the wave as it propagates along the line is called attenuation• The elongation or change of wave shape that occurs is called distortion. Sometimes, the steepness of the wave is reduced by distortion. Also, the current and voltage wave shape become dissimilar even though they maybe the same initially.• Attenuation is caused due to the energy loss in the line and distortion is caused due to the inductance and capacitance of the line.
  • 13. Reflection and Transmission of Waves at Transition Points• Whenever there is an abrupt change in parameters of a transmission line, such as an open circuit or a termination, the traveling wave undergoes a transition, part of the wave is reflected or sent back and only a portion is transmitted forward.• At the transition point, the voltage or current wave may attain a value which can vary from zero to two times its initial value.• The incoming wave is called the incident wave and the other wave are called the reflected and transmitted waves at the transition point.
  • 14. Lightening• Physical manifestations of lightning have been noted in ancient times, but the understanding of lightning is relatively recent.• The real incentive to study lightning came when electric transmission lines had to be protected against lightning.The methods include measurements of: (i) lightning currents,(ii) magnetic and electromagnetic radiated fields,(iii) voltages,(iv) use of high-speed photography and radar.
  • 15. lightening• Fundamentally, lightning is a manifestation of a very large electric discharge and spark.• In an active thunder cloud the larger particles usually possess negative charge and the smaller carriers are positive.• Thus the base of a thunder cloud generally carries a negative charge and the upper part is positive, with the whole being electrically neutral.• There may be several charge centers within a single cloud. Typically the negative charge centre may be located anywhere between 500m and 10 000m above ground.• Lightning discharge to earth is usually initiated at the fringe of a negative charge centre together with the current to ground.
  • 16. lightening• The stroke is initiated in the region of the negative charge centre where the local field intensity approaches ionization field intensity (セD30 kV/cm in atmospheric air, or セ10 kV/cm in the presence of water droplets).• To the eye a lightning discharge appears as a single luminous discharge - although at times branches of variable intensity may be observed which terminate in mid-air - while the luminous main channel continues in a zig-zag path to earth.• High-speed photographic technique studies reveal that most lightning strokes are followed by repeat or multiple strokes which travel along the path established by the first stroke.• The latter ones are not usually branched and their path is brightly illuminated.
  • 17. Lightening processDiagrammatic representation of lightning mechanism andground current
  • 18. Lightening process• The current in the return stroke is in the order of a few kA to 250 kA and the temperatures within the channel are 15 000ーC to20 000ーC and are responsible for the destructive effects of lightning giving high luminosity and causing explosive air expansion.• The return stroke causes the destructive effects generally associated with lightning• The return stroke is followed by several strokes at 10- to 300- m/sec intervals. The leader of the second and subsequent strokes is known as the ‘dart leader’ because of its dart-like appearance.• The dart leader follows the path of the first stepped leader with a velocity about 10 times faster than the stepped leader. The path is usually not branched and is brightly illuminated.
  • 19. Representation of various stages of lightning stroke between cloud and ground• A diagrammatic representation of the various stages of the lightning stroke development from cloud to ground in Figs 8.2(a) to (f) gives a clearer appreciation of the process involved.• In a cloud several charge centres of high concentration may exist. In the present case only two negative charge centres are shown.• In (a) the stepped leader has been initiated and the pilot streamer and stepped leader propagate to ground, lowering the negative charges in the cloud. At this instance the striking point still has not been decided;• in (b) the pilot streamer is about to make contact with the upwards positive streamer from earth;• in (c) the stroke is completed, a heavy return stroke returns to cloud and the negative charge of cloud begins to discharge;• in (d) the first centre is completely discharged and streamers begin developing in the second charge centre;• in (e) the second charge centre is discharging to ground via the first charge centre and dart leader, distributing negative charge along the channel. Positive streamers are rising up from ground to meet the dart leader;• (f) contact is made with streamers from earth, heavy return stroke proceeds upwards and begins to is charge negatively charged space beneath the cloud and the second charge centre in the cloud.
  • 20. Representation of various stages of lightning stroke between cloud and ground
  • 21. Representation of various stages of lightning stroke between cloud and ground
  • 22. Representation of various stages of lightning stroke between cloud and ground
  • 23. Distribution of times to crest of lightning stroke currents The data on lightning strokes and voltages has formed the basis for establishing the standard impulse or lightning surge for testing equipment in laboratories.
  • 24. Energy in lightning •Based on many investigations the AIEE Committee8 has produced the frequency distribution of current magnitudes, this is often used for performance calculations.Cumulative distributions of lightning stroke currentmagnitudes: After AIEE Committee.
  • 25. Energy in lightning• To estimate the amount of energy in a typical lightning discharge let us assume a value of potential difference of 107 V for a breakdown between a cloud and ground and a total charge of 20 coulombs.• Then the energy released about 55 kWh in one or more strokes that make the discharge.• The energy of the discharge dissipated in the air channel is expended in several processes.• Small amounts of this energy are used in ionization of molecules, excitations, radiation, etc. Most of the energy is consumed in the sudden expansion of the air channel.• Some fraction of the total causes heating the struck earthed objects. In general, lightning processes return to the global system the energy that was used originally to create the charged cloud.
  • 26. Over voltage Due to Switching Surges, System Faults and Other Abnormal Condition• Unlike the lightning voltages, the switching and other type of overvoltages depend on the normal voltage of the system and hence increase with increased system voltage.• In insulation coordination, where the protective level of any particular kind of surge diverter is proportional to the maximum voltage, the insulation level and the cost of the equipment depends on the magnitudes of these overvoltages.• In the EHV range, it is the switching surge and other types of overvoltages that determine the insulation level of the lines and other equipment and consequently, they also determine their and costs.
  • 27. Origin of Switching Surge• The making and breaking of electric circuits with switch gear may results in abnormal overvoltage in power systems having large inductance and capacitances.• The overvoltages may go as high as 6 times the normal power frequency voltage.• In circuit breaking operation, switching surges with a high rate of rise of voltage may cause repeated restricting of the arc between the contacts of a circuit breaker, thereby causing destruction of the circuit breaker contacts.
  • 28. Control of Over voltages Due to Switching• Insertion of Resistors• Phase Controlled Switching• Drainage of Trapped Charge• Shunt Reactor